DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL, AND ADULT EDUCATION
CARL W. PROEHL, DIRECTOR
TECHNICAL and HEALTH
THOMAS W. STRICKLAND, ADMINISTRATOR
37: q~~02V? -~j
This publication has been produced by the Technical and Health Occupations
Section of the Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education,
Florida Department of Education with the assistance of the following members
of the Ad Hoc Committee for Health Occupation Education in Secondary Schools:
Mr. Harry R. Holmbraker, Jr., Director
Sarasota Vocational-Technical School
Mrs. Martha Wingate, Coordinator
Health Occupations Division
Sarasota Vocational-Technical School
Mrs. Ruby Owens, Instructor
Health Service Aide Program
Gainesville High School
Mrs. Joyce Arthur, Instructor
\ Cooperative Health Occupations Program
Miami Coral Park Senior High School
Miss Louise C. Egan, Educational Consultant
) Nursing Related Education Program
Technical and Health Occupation Section
Educational programs for the future workers of health care service are not
vastly different from other vocational programs that have been offered in
a secondary education setting throughout the years.
For many years, Diversified Cooperative Training programs have placed stu-
dents on-the-job and, along with offering the appropriate related studies,
have prepared health service workers to find entry level employment. These
programs and others like them have served the students and community well.
We are finding now, however, that greater numbers of students are seeking
occupation orientation and indicating a need for an introductory type of
educational program in the health service field.
Some students, through various channels, have reached a decision to enter
the health field by the time they enter the Junior or Senior year (11th or
12th grade) of High School. They are seeking a means of learning more about
the career goal they have tentatively chosen, or they are seeking a means to
broaden their knowledge so that they will meet with greater success when
they enter a program in preparation for a specific health occupation. Some
students are unaware of career choices available to them and enter a partic-
ular health occupations education program because it sounds "glamourous" or
serves a "needy cause." Some are seeking employment of any kind to help
them complete high school.
Whatever the reason for enrollment in a health occupations education program,
there is an obligation to the student to provide the kind of vocational pro-
gram that will be most beneficial to him as a student and as a graduate. At
the same time, these efforts help meet community needs for trained workers
to care for the health needs of its people.
TYPES OF PROGRAMS THAT MAY BE OFFERED IN THE HIGH SCHOOL
Guides are available for the individual programs.
ESTABLISHING A HEALTH OCCUPATIONS PROGRAM
Certain steps must be followed before the establishment of any vocational
education program and programs in the the health occupations are no exception.
In fact, such preparation may include considerable detail. The following
suggestions are made to assist the teacher and school administrator in the
early stages of program development.
DETERMINE NEED OF COMMUNITY FOR PROGRAM:
Secure valid information relative to the present and near future needs
of the community for health workers. Identify, if possible, the number
and types of specific job opportunities and other related information
such as salaries, working conditions, educational qualifications, learn-
ing opportunities, etc. Hospitals and other health agencies, including
doctor's offices, should be contacted.
DETERMINE INTEREST OF POTENTIAL STUDENTS:
Conduct a student survey to obtain data related to interest of students
in the program to be offered. Prepare some type of printed materials
to hand to students about possible offerings. If interest is not present
at the time of survey, printed material may be helpful in creating inter-
est now or at a later time. Statements in printed materials should be
broad in nature; details can be obtained by the student later from the
school counselor, but remember to tell HOW and WHERE to get the details.
Keep in mind that declared interest does not necessarily indicate that
all students will, or should, enroll in the coursess. A survey is only
an indication of potential student resources.
HEALTH SERVICE AIDE is a course designed to present the student with some of
the basic concepts and general skills common to the health field. An intro-
duction to the field of health care services is provided through classroom
activities and selected non-reimbursable laboratory learning experiences.
The course is structured to provide the student with a broad introduction to
the health field. Laboratory learning experiences will be assigned accord-
ing to the student's abilities, progress and interests, and according to the
availability of facilities.
NURSE AIDE is a course offered to prepare the individual to assume the role
of assistant to the nurse in hospitals, nursing homes and other health service
agencies in the care of patients. Classroom activities and selected work
experience are organized in a manner to promote skill development appropriate
to this task oriented occupation.
CENTRAL SERVICE AIDE is a course designed to prepare the individual to per-
form as a supportive worker in a Central Service department of a health
service agency performing selected tasks in the care and sterilization of
medical equipment and supplies. The program of instruction is intended to
provide basic pre-service preparation in those skills assigned to the Central
MODIFICATION OF COURSE PRESENTATION
These courses may be modified to use the cooperative approach to teaching the
occupation if desired, or they may be offered as regular vocational programs
with clinical laboratory practice and observation.
Obtain information about the course you'propose to offer from:
Educational Consultant, Nursing Related Programs
Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
Technical and Health Occupations Education Section
Florida State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Determine classroom and/or laboratory facilities needed:
In some types of programs, a general classroom may be the only facility
required; in others, both classroom and laboratory setting are required. In
all programs in health occupations education the classroom facility must pro-
vide a sink with hot and cold running water, chalk board, bulletin board and
a storage space that can be locked. How large the facility must be is deter-
mined by the amount and kind of equipment needed and the number of students
that will be enrolled in each class.
At this time, it would be to the advantage of the school to determine how the
classroom facility might be used for multiple purposes. For example, the pro-
gram may be offered to two sections of Health Occupations students for a
total of four hours, then a section of Home Economics students might use the
laboratory (bed and other equipment) for a Home Nursing course for the other
class periods each day. First Aide classes could also use the facility when
See Appendix A Suggested Floor Plan Classroom.
DETERMINE AVAILABILITY OF CLINICAL FACILITIES
Since some programs will require learning experiences in the actual patient
setting, (i.e. hospitals, health departments and/or nursing homes), it is
important to determine if qualified institutions will make the necessary
learning facilities available. When soliciting cooperation from such insti-
tutions, they should be visited to determine their adequacy for providing
learning experiences for students.
Some considerations might be:
The numbers and kinds of patients served by the clinical agency.
The number of students that may be placed in the facility and/or its
divisions at any one time. (This can affect total enrollment in class.)
The number of supervisory personnel in the areas where students will be
placed for experience.
The kinds of duties that the clinical agency may expect from students
while in the clinical areas.
The number and variety of actual facilities available.
The hospitals that provide learning experiences for students should:
1. Be licensed by the Florida State Board of Health
2. Preferably be accredited by the Joint Commission of Hospital Accredi-
3. Provide necessary and adequate experiences to meet the objectives
of the course for the number of students involved.
The success in the initiation and operation of most health occupations educa-
tion programs is dependent upon the cooperative efforts of local hospitals,
health agencies, nursing organizations, medical groups and community organiza-
tions in conjunction with the school.
Responsible officers in these organizations and agencies should be invited to
cooperate in the development of the program. Many will be willing to serve on
advisory committees and will be aware of current trends in the occupations to
State personnel in the Technical and Health Occupations Education Section of
the Florida State Department of Education will offer direction and suggestions
in the organization of the program when called upon to do so.
ADVISORY COMMITTEE ORGANIZATION
It is suggested that a local advisory committee be established for the Health
Occupations program if a sub-committee or members of an existing committee can-
not act in an advisory capacity for the program. The purpose of the committee
shall be to advise school personnel in appropriate phases relating to the pro-
motion, establishment, and maintenance of the program, but at no time is it
to act in an administrative or policy-making capacity. It is suggested that
the committee be composed of representatives from various health related groups,
lay groups, and general education (counselor, principal, or teacher) as well as
representatives of the sponsoring educational institution. The instructor of
the program shall serve as an ex-officio member of the committee.
The effectiveness of this committee rests with the agency it serves. Meetings
should be guided by an agenda of program problems and factors pertinent to
the resources of its members and within the scope of committee responsibilities.
PREPARE A BUDGET
The main items to be considered for the budget are:
Permanent equipment and supplies
Library reference books
Faculty salaries and travel
Records and reports
Transportation of students if necessary
OBTAIN CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENT WITH CLINICAL AGENCY (when needed for clinical
It is recommended that a written agreement between the clinical agencies and
the school be developed and reviewed annually by the concerned parties and if
changes are of a minor nature, an addendum be attached to the original con-
tract. Should major changes be considered, it is suggested that a new contract
Reaching an agreement on a contract may be time consuming, therefore, it is
suggested that this procedure be started as early as possible in the develop-
ment of the program. If the teacher has been employed, she should take an
active part in the formation of the contract and in its interpretation to
all concerned. Such interpretation is essential and helpful to an effective
See Appendix B Contractual Agreement
EMPLOYING THE TEACHER
Employ the teacher well in advance of the course opening date so she will have
ample time to be involved in program planning. When clinical facilities are
utilized as part of the educational program, the teacher shall be responsible
for the overall supervision of students while they are in the clinical area.
Her employment should be acceptable to the agency providing the clinical experi-
ences. Personnel of the hospital, clinic, etc. and the teacher must be able
to work cooperatively in patient areas and within the policies of the health
A. Faculty Qualifications
The instructor of a health occupations education program in a high school
shall be a registered nurse currently licensed in Florida with experience
as a general practitioner of nursing, preferably in a variety of positions.
Preparation and experience as a teacher are desirable. She shall be eligi-
ble to meet the requirements of certification of the State Department of
Education. Because of the nature of the program, it is suggested that one
full-time teacher be assigned to no more than eighteen (18) students in
any one class. Fifteen (15) students per teacher is suggested.
B. Faculty Responsbility
A prepared job description for teachers might include:
1. Responsibilities to administration (records and reports, lines of
2. Responsibilities to students (class preparation, audio visual
materials, advisory duties, career counselling)
3. Responsibilities to cooperating health agency (student assignments,
student supervision, lines of authority, reports)
4. Responsibility to grow as a teacher (professional development)
Course content will be primarily determined by the overall objectives of the
program; however, in most high school health occupations programs the student's
interest in the various ways they perform selected tasks and the functions of
the other workers in the health care occupations may determine daily objectives.
It will therefore be necessary to build a considerable amount of flexibility
into the program even though a major pattern of course procedure has been de-
veloped. The teacher and administration must realize that every lesson plan
will not be followed to the letter, and may become more and more an exploratory,
"student involved approach. Students will be learning a new language and
entering a new world that few of them have ever entered before. Unless they
have been a patient in a hospital, and even then the roles will not be the
same, they have little knowledge of the health field.
Course content shall be selected, organized and presented so that the student
will be provided with:
1. Useful learning experiences in the field of health services in prep-
aration for entry level employment.
2. An introduction to the basic theory and skill development upon
which to build in additional health occupations educational programs.
3. An overview of the health services field that will assist him in
making a more realistic career choice.
Major areas of course content that may be included are suggested as a guide
to the teacher as she develops the curriculum:
1. Community Health Services: Related work opportunities
2. Common Health Problems: Identify problems, agencies involved, possible
solutions to health problems.
3. Common Basic Learning for Health Service Aide
health service terminology
manipulative skills related to health services)
communications and personal relationships
4. Seminar: A type of course which allows the student to explore and react
to his involvement in the laboratory learning experience. A problem
searched out and reported to classmates. An opportunity to related class-
room instruction to work experience.
5. Basic knowledge of the human body and how it functions.
6. Introduction to the legal aspects of health care including licensure and/or
registration of health workers. This may be threaded throughout the entire
LIMITATIONS OF CURRICULUM
The purpose of the program is to stimulate the student to investigate, study,
evaluate career choices by becoming involved in the health field either through
a specific course of occupational preparation or a survey of many occupations
within the field. Therefore, to offer subject materials of great depth or
scope at this period of instruction may destroy the student's enthusiasm and
interest in the health field. The majority of students may go well beyond the
objectives set by the teacher and establish their own rate of learning if the
climate is right.
The program should be a foundation on which the student can build further infor-
mation and skill through additional formal education or in the work situation.
SELECTION OF STUDENTS
In the high school setting it would be difficult to limit health occupations
education courses to only those students who take and pass the same kinds of
pre-admission examinations offered in the post-secondary programs. It should
be remembered, however, that students should be able to find employment in
the position for which they have trained if they are to be considered success-
ful in the program, and that some type of screening of students should be done
prior to their enrollment in the course. Personal interviews and review of
past school records might be of assistance in screening students. Students
with lower scholastic achievement should not be discouraged if their interest
is high and they have the ability to achieve a satisfactory level of work.
It would appear that since the ability to read is a vital part of providing
health services (a patient's and student's life may depend upon it:) that
some type of reading and reading comprehension test be administered prior to
admission. It is difficult to prepare a health care worker at the aide level
if they read at the second or third grade level. A minimum of eighth grade
reading skill is required by most employers of aide level health workers.
To limit the admission of students to only those students who have selected
a career goal in a specific health occupation would be to exclude those stu-
dents who are seeking assistance in surveying an area for occupational infor-
mation while at the same time obtaining a means of entering the first level
of an occupation.
Selection, therefore, may include students of all strata of interest in the
course as well as all levels of capability to gain from the program. Since
classes must necessarily be small in number, the teacher has opportunity to
provide assistance to each individual member.
Teachers will find in this course, as they do in others, that some students
should have opportunity to try another field. It may be apparent they are
not suited for health care occupations or are not satisfied that they would
be happy or successful in such an occupation. Hopefully, because of the vari-
ety of course content and the flexibility of the presentation of the course
materials, the student will not find his time and energies wasted by remaining
with the class. Only if the teacher has an opportunity to become involved
with the early selection of students and has access to student records and
other information that will assist her in guiding the student, will she be
able to help the student select a more realistic career goal.
EVALUATION OF A HIGH SCHOOL HEALTH OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION PROGRAM
Methods of evaluation of the educational program, teacher and students should
be included in the development of the curriculum. As each program objective
is written, one must ask, "How will I test this?" As student performance
objectives are written, tools of performance evaluation must be developed.
Student follow-up surveys to determine occupational status and success afer
completing an educational program is one way of evaluating program effective-
ness. If the majority of graduates are employed in the occupation for which
they received training or have entered a health occupation education program,
it would appear that the program has accomplished its main goal.
This cannot be the total evaluation of the program, however, since many gradu-
ates go on to other occupations not directly related to the educational
program but from which one may identify a thread of the educational program
as one of its components. Mere employment in the occupation for which indivi-
duals are trained is not necessarily a positive indicator. Determining the
degree of employment effectiveness is perhaps of more value when evaluating
tne benefits of an education program.
SUGGESTED FLOOR PLAN
HEALTH SERVICE AIDE PROGRAM
SUGGESTED FLOOR PLAN
Skeleton & Closet
Chairs or 4 Tables With Chairs
Chalk Board With Wallscreen
Wall Charts for Anatomy
NOT TO SCALE
HEALTH SERVICE AIDE EDUCATION EXPERIENCES
The Board of Public Instruction of Florida
is conducting a Health Service Aide education program weeks in
length through the (school) for the citizens of
The cooperating agency, agrees to permit the use of
their facilities for trainee experiences under the supervision of a registered
nurse instructor employed to teach the course.
The experience in the health agency shall be approximately
hours scheduled during the course by the instructor and in cooperation with
the administrative agent of the health facility. The instructor shall
select assignments in accordance with the functions taught in the course.
The maximum number of trainees in a single class will be The
number of classes trained will be determined by the local need and the
number of training facilities available. The maximum number of students
assigned to this facility will be The undersigned approves the
cooperative plan of education as outlined herein for Health Service Aides
between the Board of Public Instruction and the
Administrator of Health Agency
Director of Vocational Education
Note: Amount of supervision of students to be conducted by the clinical
agency should be determined and become a part of this agreement.