• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Suggested basic equipment, tools,...
 Construction activities related...
 Construction activities related...
 Construction activities related...
 Construction activities related...
 General handcrafts
 Information teacher ask for and...
 Low cost construction materials...
 Bibliography of Florida native...
 Proffesional aids
 Books: Textbook resources for further...
 Suggested list of tools














Group Title: Bulletin State Dept. of Education
Title: Industrial arts education
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080761/00001
 Material Information
Title: Industrial arts education instructional units for elementary grades
Series Title: Bulletin State Dept. of Education
Alternate Title: Instructional units for elementary grades
Physical Description: 51 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Vocational and Adult Education
Publisher: The Division,
The Division
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1958
Copyright Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Industrial arts -- Study and teaching (Elementary)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Division of Vocational and Adult Education, Industrial Arts Education, Educational Materials Laboratory.
General Note: "December, 1958."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080761
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHQ6116
oclc - 22350865
alephbibnum - 001631320

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Suggested basic equipment, tools, and instructions
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 11a
    Construction activities related to science
        Page 11b
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22a
    Construction activities related to social studies
        Page 22b
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Construction activities related to arithmetic
        Page 32a
        Page 32b
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Construction activities related to music
        Page 34a
        Page 34b
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    General handcrafts
        Page 38a
        Page 38b
        Page 39
    Information teacher ask for and can use
        Page 40
    Low cost construction materials for 1001 uses
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Bibliography of Florida native materials
        Page 47
    Proffesional aids
        Page 48
    Books: Textbook resources for further ideas
        Page 49
    Suggested list of tools
        Page 50
        Page 51
Full Text


































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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES













INDUSTRIAL ARTS EDUCATION


Bulletin 76F-1


December, 1958


INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR ELEMENTARY GRADES


Division of Vocational and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director


Industrial Arts Education
Edwin L. Kurth, Consultant

Educational Materials Laboratory
Byron J. Nelms, Specialist


'7Flo i' $0 .







FOREWORD


The materials presented in this publication supplement and extend the des-
cription of industrial arts in the elementary grades as given in Bulletin 47,
"A Guide to Teaching in Florida Elementary Schools, Bulletin 12, "A
Guide to the New Technology in Industrial Arts, a pamphlet on "Industrial
Arts in the Elementary Grades, and "Standards for Accreditation of Florida
Schools. This material is also intended to give some specific suggestions
to elementary grade teachers for use of basic tools and materials to relate
industrial arts to science, social studies, and arithmetic as well as other
elementary school subjects. Included are a few materials adapted from those
published by the Los Angeles City School Districts, Los Angeles, California,
with their permission.

The purpose of industrial arts in elementary grades is to deepen and enrich
as well as to extend the learning of children. Industrial arts has always in-
cluded an emphasis on how people live and make a living. Continuing develop-
ments in science and technology require an increasing knowledge of relation-,
ships of planning, design, and production. To apply the principles of science
requires a knowledge and first hand experience with the tools, the methods,
and the materials used in much construction. Solving problems of construc-
tion to meet personal or group needs with the tools and materials available
develops creativity and critical thinking. There is a close relationship between
culture of any people and the level of their craftsmanship. To be literate in
our present day, industrialized culture demands a knowledge as well as an
understanding of drafting, power, and many principles of mechanics.

A planned program of industrial arts experiences in the elementary grade's
will stimulate and motivate a child's learning in any subject which has related
manipulative activities. In such a planned program, the teacher is able to
observe and evaluate the interests and abilities of children as they express
themselves and develop some manipulative proficiencies. The ability to ukse
materials well and appropriately, to create with their hands satisfactorily,
to solve construction problems of concern to them as individuals or members
of a group, will give children a satisfaction and a practice of work habits and
standards not always possible in other subjects.

Through this type of program a child's abilities should be developed in: (1)
thinking, (2) expression, (3) planning, (4) problem solving, (5) coordinated
muscular development of the hands, (6) safe and proper use of common tools,
(7) efficient and appropriate use of materials, and (8) an appreciation of work
skills in doing a job well.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Section Page

I. Suggested Basic Equipment, Tools, and Instructions 1

Units 1 through 11

1 A Sawhorse Workbench 1
2 Hammers and Nails 2
3 Construction Aids (Wedgeboard) 3
4 Marking, Holding, and Sawing Wood 4
5 Tools for Boring and Cutting Holes 5
6 Use of Tools for Cutting Holes 6
7 Planing, Filing, Sanding 7
8 Finishes 8
9 Solvents for Finishes 9
10 Finishes (lacquer) 10
11 Finishes (general) 11

II. Construction Activities Related to Science 12

Units 12 through 22

12 Blueprints 12
13 Brown Prints or White or Black 13
14 Humidity Indicators 14
15 Weather Vane 15
16 Kites 16
17 Telegraph Set 17
18 Telephone 18
19 Compass 19
.20 Electro-magnet 20
21 Chimes 21
22 Sun Dial 22

III. Construction Activities Related to Social Studies 23

Units 23 through 32

23 Dioramas and Figurines 23
24 The Calendar 24
25 A Travel Game 25
26 Water Transportation 26
27 Land Transportation 27
28 Air Transportation 28
29 Wheels 29
30 Character Figures 30
31 Rubber Molds 31
32 Casting 32









Section Page

IV. Construction Activities Related to Arithmetic 33

Units 33 through 34

33 Measuring Sticks (rulers) 33
34 Dominoes 34
V. Construction Activities Related to Music 35

Units 35 through 38

35 The Xylophone 35
36 Tambourines 36
37 Drums 37
38 Cymbals, Castanets, Jingle Sticks 38
VI. General Handcrafts 39

Unit 39

39 Wood and Wire Gift Suggestions 39
Appendix

Information Teachers Ask for and Can Use 40
Low Cost Construction Materials (101 materials for 1001 uses) 41
Bibliography of Florida Native Materials 47
Professional Aids (Magazines) 48
Books; Textbook Resources for Further Ideas 49
Suggested List of Tools 50





























SECTION I

Suggested Basic Equipment, Tools, and Instruction

Units 1 through 11






INDUSTRIAL ARTS rUnt ] RELATIONSHIP TO!
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Arithmetic: Bill of material,
Instructional Activities board feet
Construction of a Sawhorse to Use
for Work Surfaces and Holding Materials

SAWHORSE WORKBENCH
A sawhorse is very useful piece of equipment in a classroom work area.
It serves as an excellent surface for holding, nailing, and boring wood and
other materials. The 17 inch heighth is convenient for the intermediate grade
pupils. Upper grades may need a taller size. They may be used for extra
benches or tables. They store in a small space when stacked and by using
them for work surfaces for nailing and boring they prevent damage to other
table and desk surfaces.
Note: They may be made without the side rake (slant) to the legs as
shown in Figure 2.

WHAT YOU NEED: (for each)

1 Saw, hammer, 4d, 6d, and 8d common
nails, square, yardstick and glue,
hand drill and 1/8" bit
2. 36" plank called a'two by six". This
will be 1 5/8" thick and 5 5/8" wide.
3. 18" board 1" x 6". This will be 7/8" x
5 5/8" wide. This is to reinforce the
ends of the plank. Fig. 1
4. 8 foot board 1" x 5". This will be
7/8" x 4 5/8" for the four legs and
the end braces on the legs.

HOW TO DO IT:

1. Cut the 1" x 6" boards for the top
support to 9" length, and nail to ends
of plank with 4d nails after gluing.
2, With the yardstick and try-square or a --
steel carpenters square lay out the legs
with the top and bottom angle cuts, Fig. 2 &3
3. Cut the 4 legs. The cut for the top of one
makes the cut for the bottom of the next one.
4. Bail into place 4" from the end of plank _
temporarily with one or two 4d nails. -ae
5. Set upright and adjust legs for correct
width at floor, to"n Ne.
6. Take remaining piece of 1" x 6" board left from
stock used for legs and mark and saw the end braces
for the legs.
7. Nail the end braces with 6d nails.
8. Drill holes in tops'of legs with 1/8" drill *3
bit for the 8d nails so nails will not split
legs.
9. Nail legs on solid with four or five 8d nails.







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 2
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Correct use of Basic Tools


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Social Studies: Names and
weights of nails
Arithmetic: Weights and numbers


HAMMERS ANH NAILS

Hammers come in various sizes as other tools do. For elementary grades
a 7 oz. claw hammer is a good size although a 10 oz. may be needed at times.
The weight is determined by the weight of the head.


To nail wood hold the hammer firmly near
the end of the handle.
Allow the wrist to bend slightly. Keep
your eye on the nail. Hammers make dents in
the wood if you miss the nail.
Hit the nail straight and it will pot bend.
Always measure the nail for correct length.
The chart will be a guide.

Table of Sizes and Lengths of Nails


.e" C/aw


Size (Penny)
2d
3d
4d
5d
6d
8d
10d
12d
16d
20d


Length in Inches
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/4
3 1/2
4


The letter'd' is said to be a carry-over
from the English system of pennyweight labels
on nails from colonial times when square hand- /F5
made nails were used. Today they still give
an approximate indication of weight and numbers.
A thousand 2d or 2 penny nails will weigh about
2 pounds, a thousand 8d or 8 penny nails will
weigh about 8 pounds.

Common nails are thicker in diameter than
box nails. Box nails have larger head in pro- -.
portion to the shank. Finishing and casing nails
are to be set below the surface of the wood so
have small slanted heads. Finishing nails are
thinner than casing nails. Small finishing
nails are called brads. Small nails with tro
large heads are called tacks. . Boy

To pull nails without bending them ~ Fns /7A
or denting and splitting the boards pull 4B 8"'
only part way as in Figure 2. Then put 4. Tacnc/
a block under the hammer head an in
Figure 3.


/ 3


F.?









INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 3
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Construction of a Holding Device
to Assist Craftsmen in More
Effective Use of Tools


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Science: Principles of the
wedge
Social Studies: Basic tools
and aids to
workers
Arithmetic: Careful measurement


WEDGE BOARD

The wedge is one of the earliest devices used by man for advantage in
holding, moving or applying force greater than he could exert with his hands.
The wedge is truly a machine that has value in the classroom construction
area, the school shop or the home work shop.


The wedge board in use is held on a table
The board to be held by the wedge is placed
in the gap next to the guide strip. The
moving wedge is forced against the board
by tapp1ig the dowel pin lightly at the
large end of the wedge with a hammer. To
release the board tap the dowel pin in the
small end of the wedge.

WHAT YOU REED:

1. A board 3/4" x 5 5/8" x 16" (base)
2. A board 1 3/8" x 3 5/8" x 12"
(fixed and moving wedge)
3. A board 1 3/8" x 1 5/8" x 12"
(wedge guide)
4. Maple dowel 1/2" x 3" (knock pins)
5. Handsaw, 1/2" bit and brace,
plane, glue and nails


or board with two "C" clamps.


HOW TO DO IT:


1. Cut the board for the base from *% -
a standard 6" piece of pine. '
This will be 5 5/8" wide.
2. Cut the board for the fixed Fo'.-oa>cJ -fr firec
and moving wedge from a 4" piece I,
of pine. This will be 3 5/8" wide "d nov? n Wow8
3. Lay out the line as shown in Fig. 2
and saw.
4. Smooth edges with block plane.
5. Drill 1/2" hole 1" deep in center of each end of one wedge shaped
piece.
6. Cut 1/2" dowel 1 1/2" long and place one piece in each hole.
7. Glue and nail guide strip to baseboard 2" from each end. (Fig. 1)
8. Glue and nail fixed wedge to other side.

Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.










INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unlit t RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Arithmetic: Measuring with and
Instructional Activities reading a rule
Correct Use of Basic Tools in Social Studies: Tools
Solving a Construction Problem

MARKINm, HOLDIl AND SAWING WOOD

The tools involved in these three basic construction operations are the
try square, the "C" clamp, the cross-cut saw, the safety block and the sawhorse.

Marking (Figure 1)

1. Measure the length of the piece of
wood you need. A.
2. Hold the handle of the try square
tightly against the edge of the wood
to be used.
3. Draw the line straight along the
edge of the try-square blade.

Holding (Figure 2)

1. Use the "C" clamp for holding the wood
firmly on the sawhorse. Fig. 2-a
2. Place the clamp on the side of the
sawhorse where you stand. Fig. 2
3. Place the clamp handle under the saw-
horse and tighten.

Saving (Figure 3)

1. Stand with feet apart, right foot
back.
2. Keep head straight and directly in -
back of saw.
3. With left hand move safety block to
the line.
4. Draw the saw back about three times
to start the cut using the safety
block as a guide.
5. Saw with long easy strokes, a
slowly and evenly.
6. When finishing the cut,
slow down, shorten the
cutting stroke and saw
lightly. Reach over
with the left hand and
hold the piece that is
being sawed off to prevent /
splintering the corner.








INDUSTRIAL ART!; Unit 5
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Basic Tools for Solving
Construction Problems


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Social Studies: Use of boring
tools

Arithmetic: Fractional size bits
and drills


TOOLS FOR BORING AND CUTTING HOLES


There are a number of different kinds of bits used to make holes in wood.
The most common are the auger bits used in a hand brace and drill bits used
in hand drills. Auger bits range in size from 1/4" up to and including 1".
Holes larger than one inch are cut with expansion
bits, hole saws, keyhole saws, or compass saws. lsl*
Auger bit sizes are graduated by one-sixteenth of $s14/
an inch. A No. 4 bit will usually have a "4" / wi.
stamped on the square tang and will be 4/16" in S L f-ua
size; a number 5, 5/16" up to a 16 which is a full U .
inch. Auger bits are for use on wood only.
3IT fv wood
Twist drills are used for either wood or metal 0/u
and range in size from 1/16" to 1/2". They have
round shanks with no square tmi,... and are used in
hand drills or power drills and drill presses. The
sizes vary by 64ths of an inch although sets may
be obtained that vary by 3'nd.. A 1/4" drill will
be stamped 8/32 or 1.6/64, or in the fractional size. 6Xi

The auger bits used most in the elementary aou J ,h F
grades are the No. 4, 1/4"; the No. 6, 3/8"; the U
No. 8, 1/2"; and the No. 12, 3/4". ThI u, are also 7TwIs Jill/ or
the sizes of the wood downal rrontL coirmonly used. yf/l bi*t


The drill bits best sulted for elementary trade e
use are 1/16", 1/8", 3/16" rnd 1/4".

The compass saw has pointed bl-i'en for starting
saw cuts in auger bit holes to make larger openings
such as doors and windows in playbouleri- and barno.
Compass saws are larger and more .nturdy than key-
hole saws.

Coping saws may also be used to enlnrge holes
in wood or to saw irregular shape. When used on
wood material held on a sawhornLe uwlthl a "0" clamp
the blade should be put in the saw ao the teeth
point away from the handle. TILhe cutting strokeke
is then the puoh stroke. T'i~ blade must be under
tension when outtin:,; or it will ".nr ,i'rooi:.1 'in,1
buckle and break,


CompAas Saw

/a dea








INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 6 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Arithmetic: Measurement and use,
Instructional Activities of sizes of drills
Correct and Safe Use of Basic
Tools for Solving Construction Problems
USE OF TOOLS FOR CUTTING HOLES

For boring holes with a brace and bit. Fig. 1.
I* Carefully measure and mark where the hole is
to be bored.
2. Always clamp the wood to a sawhorse.
3. If the hole is for a dowel or not to 4o
all the way through the board mark the
correct depth on the bit with scotch, tape.
4. To bore hold the knob in your left hand
and the handle in your right.
5 Check to see that the brace and bit aze
straight up and down. Tuan brace in a
clockwise direction with right hand.
6. If the hole is to g6 all the way through
bore until the spur comes through and then I
reverse the board and complete the hole. '
This will prevent splitting.

For drilling holes with a hand drill. Fig. 2.
1. Carefully measure and mark where the hole is
to be drilled.
2. Clamp the wood to a sawhorse.
3. Hold the handle in your left hand.
4. Hold the knob of the drill wheel handle
in the right hand and turn in a clockwise
direction.
S. If the hole is not to go all the way through
mark the drill with scotch tape at the correct
depth.
6. Nails of various sizes can be used for bits for
soft wood drilling if the heads are clipped F ,.
off.

Using a Compass Saw.
1. Draw the lines where the cuts are to be made.
2. Clamp the board to the sawhorse. If it is a
part of a box and a window or door is cut
into the box it need not be clamped.
3. Bore 1" holes in two opposite corners
(Fig. 3).
4 Place the compass saw in the holes and
cut along the lines.






INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 7
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Tools for Smoothing Operations on
Wood Surfaces


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Social Studies: Tools,
abrasives,
uses and
sources


PLANING, FILING, SANDING


These three operations involve three kinds of tools also basic to
many construction problems necessary to give a finished and workmanlike
appearance to an article.


Planes: In the elementary grades the
block plane or smooth plane are the
two sizes usually used. The block
plane is shortest, can be used with
one hand on edge grain or end grain
to remove saw marks. (Fig. 1) The
smooth plane requires two hands and
can be used on larger surfaces. The
wood can be held in the wedge board,
Fig. 1, or with a "C" clamp on the
sawhorse. The blade should be set
to take a fine cut.

Files: Wood rasps and files come in
various shapes and sizes. The most
used is the half round file. To use
a wood file: (1) be sure it has a
handle, (2) always clamp the wood
to a sawhorse (Fig. 2), (3) use both
hands. The file cuts on the push
stroke. A file card (wire brush)
will clean the wood particles out of
the file.


Wood
rae/s


Sandpaper: Sandpaper is a tool also and
is an abrasive used to wear away softer
surfaces or materials. The three types
used on wood are garnet, aluminum oxide,
and flint. The size of the grit most a-J
used varies from No. 3 very coarse to /17f
4/0 fine. The No. 0 is the most used. P
Flint paper is the cheapest and wears h lor
out the fastest. For flat surfaces
use a block (Fig. 3). For curved in-
side surfaces wrap the paper around
a dowel stick or other piece of broomstick.


Suggestions for Sanding:
1. Do not sand until all cutting with edge tools, (saws and planes) is
completed.
2. Do not try to sand off pencil marks; scrape or plane them off.
3. Select proper grade or grit. No. 0 or finer is most used.
4. On flat surfaces sand with the grain. A sanding block helps keep
corners square.


Fig A





INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 8 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Art: Surface decoration
Instructional Activities Color choice
Decorate, Preserve and Protect Science: Solvents for
Surfaces finishes


FINISHES (1)

Children are always; interested in adding color and decoration to any
object they have made. The following suggestions are for finishing objects
of plaster of paris, Keene Cement, sawdust and lacquer, other molded materials,
wood, and metal. All of these can be done by children and these finishes
dry rapidly.

Type I, TEMPERA: Use tempera paint on the object. Some users prefer
to paint the piece with a thin coating of clear lacquer or shellac first to
delay absorption, then paint with tempera. Finally, coat with a layer of
clear lacquer to brighten the colors and add' a protective layer.

Type II, MIX4 If you mix powder paint with the dry plaster before it
is cast, the entire object will have a tone of color. After the object has
dried, use a hard furniture wax to give a gloss.

Type III, LACQUER: Lacquer can be purchased at local paint and
hardware stores. Pressurized spray cans are available. Lacquer is thinned
with special lacquer thinner.

Type IV, FLOCKING: Flocking is a special 'Tuzzy" finish which can be
applied on most surfaces. It is often used on the bases of objects to keep
them from scratching. Small hand operated flock guns, adhesives and material
can be obtained from craft or school supply firms.

Type V, SHELLAC: A quick drying transparent protective finish. It is
easy to apply, dries rapidly, smoothes easily with sandpaper or steel wool
and makes a fairly hard surface. It can be purchased in small quantities
at local variety and hardware stores. The solvent or thinner is alcohol.
Brushes used can be cleaned with alcohol also. It can be used on wood, metal,
or molded objects.

Type VI, PAINT: Quick drying enamel in small cans or pressurized
spray cans is a good finish for Wood and metal. If brushes are used turpentine
or Iineral spirits are needed for thinning or cleaning brushes.





INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 9 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Solvents (chemicals)
Instructional Activities Social Studies:, Consumer goods
Solvents used in Finishes

SOLVENTS FOR FINISHES (2)

A substance used to dissolve another substance is known as a solvent.
The solvent is usually a necessary part of every finishing procedure, and
should be on hand before starting to work. A solvent is ordinarily used
to make the finish easier to apply, to clean brushes, and to remove any
spots.

There is no such thing as a "universal solvent", but even if there
were, -what would we store it in?

Here is a list of the common solvents used in our shops and art room.
Each is of equal importance because it is good only for the materials
mentioned:

1. Water: direct from the tap. Use with water paints, water
colors, water stains, pastes, glues, and soap.

2. Denatured Alcohol: -thinner for shellac and for cleaning shellac
brushes. Do not use near open flame, as vapor burns with no color.

3. Mineral Spirits: -is a distillate of petroleum, used for thinning
of paints, enamels and varnishes. It is cheaper than most thinners.

4. Turpentine: -which is used for the same purposes, but leaves a
residue of the pitch of the pine tree sap from which it is dis-
tilled. A helpful hint; -when you have used apy paint (oil),
enamel or varnish, pour a thin layer of either mineral spirits
or turpentine into the can before covering. The hard layer of
oxidized linseed oil will not form, and the paint will be good
as new next time you need it.

5. Lacquer Thinner: -is used for thinning lacquers, but not Duco
clear lacquer. This is also nail polish remover.

6. Acetone: dissolves celluloid and becomes a clear cement similar
to Duco cement. This mixture is sold under the trade name of
Ambroid Cement.

7. Methylene Dichloride: -is a solvent for Plexiglas and Lucite.







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 10 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Solvents (chemicals)
Instructional Activities Social Studies: Consumer goods
Industrial Type Finishes
FINISHES: LACQUERS(3)

Lacquer is a quick-drying finish which is especially practical when used
by children, and is the one most used in industrial finishing today. Varnishes
and paints lack many of the needed qualities for modern finishing. Spots on
clothing and hands are easily removed by using the proper solvent, -lacquer
thinner.

Varieties:

There are many varieties of lacquer, each suited to a particular
use, Among these are: -

1. Gloss is used for a hard glossy finish. Except for children's
work, it is not ordinarily left with the gloss, but is rubbed
down to a satin finish using a felt pad and a special rubbing
compound.

2. Semi-Gloss is designed for use when a satin finish is required
and time is at a premium. It dries to what is known as an "egg-
shell" gloss. It is not hand-rubbed.

3* Flat Finish is available in some colors, but is not practical.
for others. It is often used as a base coat when spraying.

4. Crystalline is a fast drying lacquer which contains a material
that forms a pattern of crystals as it dries. The size of
crystal can be regulated by the thickness of the coat. A heavy
coating produces large crystals, -a thin layer small ones.
Should not be used over other lacquers, or on materials except
those that are hard, such as glass, metals, plastics, or enamels.

In any of the above, except (4), one may order them either as "brush-
ing" or "standard" lacquer. The brushing lacquer contains a retardant to
slow the drying action. Standard lacquer has a rapid drying action, and
is used for spraying.

Hints on use:

1. When brushing, thin the lacquer with an equal part of lacquer
thinner. Lay on heavily, brush evenly, and do not brush over
the wet lacquer even if it appears uneven.

2. Don't use lacquer over any material except lacquer undercoater
or other lacquer. It won't work:

3. Be sure to have enough of the proper lacquer thinner on hand.

4. Lacquer comes in all colors, black, white, and clear. Be sure
to mix enough of the color you need.






INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 11 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Solvents (chemicals)
Instructional Activities Social Studies: Consumer goods
Finishes used in Homes

FINISHES GENERAL (4)

Of the many finishes that are used for our present day needs, a few
have been selected for use by children in the shop and classroom. Many of
these finishes have quick-drying qualities which are important because of the
time element. Application is easy and should not require too much fuss by
children. The finishes were also selected for ease in cleaning brushes and
our work areas. Few people enjoy the chore of cleaning up after painting or
finishing a project.

Shellac a quick-drying, clear finish. It is affected by alcohol, as
it is a solvent of shellac. Shellac should be thinned to a desired
consistency before using. When purchasing shellac, it is obtained as
a "4-pound cut" or "5-pound cut". This means that 4 pounds of the dry
shellac is dissolved in 1 gallon of denatured alcohol. A 5-pound cut
is thicker in consistency than a 4-pound cut. A shellac should be
thinned with alcohol to a 2 pound consistency for use as a shellac.

Tempera Paints water soluble tempera paints may be used for finishing.
For a lasting and finer looking finish, the tempera colors should be
covered by a protective finish. A wax paste may be applied over the
tempera to give it luster. A more protective coating can be had by
using either a coat of shellac or a clear plastic spray lacquer.
(Krylon)

Rubber Base Paints These paints are usually quick drying and leave
little odor. It is easy to clean the brushes as the paint is water
soluble before it dries. Rubber base paints can be bought in any
color with a gloss, semi-gloss, or flat finish. Familiar brands are
Kemtone and Beauty-by-the Brushful.

Crayons Some prefer wax crayons as a coloring medium. As in the case
of tempera colors, crayons may be covered by a coat of shellac for a
protective coat.

Plastic Sprays belong in the lacquer class. These sprays are
obtainable in all colors and clear, and are quick drying. They are
highly inflammable, and should be used with ample ventilation to
avoid breathing fumes.

Before applying any finish to a project, it should be clean and well
sanded. Saw marks and blemishes cannot be hidden by a finish and they de-
tract from the beauty of any finished project.


-11-






























SECTION II

Construction Activities Related to Science

Units 12 through 22









INDIq3TIHjAL ART,; Unit 12 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Light, Photosynthesis#
Instructional Activitico Chemical Action
An Industrial Proccur and Material Social Studies:
Housing and Homes,
BLUEPRINTS Drafting and.Planning

Architects and engineers use blueprints to preserve copies of plans they
Wish to use gain. Once the master plan or object is developed or prepared
any number of identical plans can be prepar-
ed from it just as many pictures can be Sketch
printed from a single negative. Children Glass -
can bring in objects which will make inter- maskibg tape
testing designs or they can draw or cut their on edges
own designs. Leaves, plants, shells, sil- (t
houettes and other flat objects make inter- /' "
testing designs.

THINGS YOU NEED: Blueprint
paper -
Sunny day blue side
Vellum paper to demonstrate a single to object
drawn design or plan {--- Leaf o:
Blueprint paper other,
Print frame, or two pieces of window ob
glass with all edges taped
Potassium Dichromate (Bichromate), -
1 tsp. to 1 qt. water
Running water
Flat enameled pan larger than print
Two,hundred watt light bulbs in dou-
ble socket if day is cloudy. (protect with
(protect with
HOW TO DO IT: masking tape)

1. Place piece of glass, clean, on table
2. Place leaf, object or drawing on center of glass
3. Place blueprint paper on the leaf with blue side toward the leaf
4. Place other piece of glass on top to hold leaf and paper in place
5. Hold glass together with masking tape so leaf will not shift on paper
6. Turn over and expose leaf side to strong sunlight until blue paper
turns sea green, (about 2 minutes in winter and 20 seconds in summer
or 6 minutes to light bulbs)
7. Return to sinK, remove blueprint paper, and immerse under running
water until exposed area turns medium blue. Drop in pan solution of
potassium dichromate until medium blue turns intense blue.
Rewash under running water, and plaster on blackboard or window to dry.
Rub with clean hand to remove any air bubbles. It will be almost dry when it
falls from board. Lay on newspaper to finish drying, then trim. CAUTION:
Keep blueprint paper away from strong light; keep covered when not in use.

Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.


-12-









INDUSTRIAL ART!.; Unit i' :T,,ATTON:;HTP TO;
Suggestions for Elemintary Gra]de cicncc.:: ,.l.igh, chcmliTal action
Instructional. Activities c Gocial ttudieo: Draf't.npr, and
Industrial Processes planning

WHITE, BROWN OR BLACK PRINTS
Dry Developing Process)

The blueprint process described on page twelve is one of the oldest in-
dustrial processes used for duplicating plans and engineering drawings.
Another method being used more and more by industry involves a different
type of paper, a basic chemical and no water or special equipment. Most
drafting supply houses carry the dry print paper in either blue, brown or
black. The cost is usually about a cent a sheet.

WHAT YOU NEED:

1. Sunny day
2. Dry developing paper blue, brown, or black
3. The plan, pattern, silhouette, or object to
be printed
I4. Two Fines of gln;.';
5. Two hundred watt bulbsh If cloudy
6. A cardboard mal.Utwi tube
7. A smill jug (1/2 gallon) of Aqua Ammonia.

HOW TO DO IT:

1. Place piece of clean glass on table.
2. Place plan or silhouette on center of glass
3. Place dry print paper with treated side toward
plan
4. Place other piece of glass over paper and object
to hold in place
5. Expose to direct sunlight 20 seconds, to light Ma;1aN
bulbs 8 to 10 minutes (experimentation may be fuIA
necessary to determine correct time.)
6. Place print in cardboard tube
7. Remove cap from ammonia jug
8. Place tube with both ends open over jug top for
35 to 50 seconds.
9. Remove print "A
10. Close up ammonia jug 1,
11. Be sure dry print paper is returned to a closed
package.

Dry process paper is not as sensitive to light as blueprint paper.
Consequently, it is easier to store. It should however, not be stored in
the same cupboard with the ammonia.


-13-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 14 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Chemicals and effects
Instructional Activities of moisture
Construction of Apparatus Health: Humidity

HUMIDITY INDICATORS
In summer, we often say "It isn't the heat; it's the humidity." In winter
we are very often bothered by the lack of proper moisture content in the air.
Here are two humidity indicators that children can make for classroom or home
use.

TYPE I: COBALT CHLORIDE Cl/ous5 77 from

THUIS YOU NEED:

White manila paper, 18" x 24" <)
Cobalt Chloride in solution
Some blotters (White)
Paints, Paintbrush, Rubber Cement

HOW TO MAKE IT:

1. Have a child paint a land or sea-scape, with large area of blue
sky. Let dry.
2. Cut out large, fluffy-looking clouds from the blotters.
3. Pour cobalt chloride solution on blotters. Allow to dry.
4. Use rubber cement to apply clouds on picture. Post on bulletin
board.

CLOUDS WILL BE PINK IF AIR IS HUMID: PALE BLUE-PINK IF PROPER HUMIDITY,
AND DEEP BLUE IF AIR IS TOO DRY. MOISTURE SHOULD BE ADDED TO AIR IF CLOUDS
REMAIN BLUE FOR TOO LONG A PERIOD IN THE DAY.

TYPE II: HAIR HYGROMETER
TRHIMS YOU NEED:

Aluminum scrap, screw eye
Wood pieces for frame, as shown
Cardboard for scale\ k
Blonde hair, at least 20" long Her -
Denatured alcohol k IS*it

HOW TO MAKE IT: \ )

1. Build stand as shown. Make all parts.
2. Secure several long hairs.
3. Attach hair to pointer and mount "
with brad. Attach hair to screw-eye
using Duco cement. Have pointer in 4;/ 1
middle of scale to start. Wipe hair with alcohol to clean.
4. Find 100% humidity in humid shower room, or with steam from tea-
kettle, Mark.

Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.





INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 15 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Weather, Air
Instructional Activities Movement, Compass
An Operating Mechanism Directions
A WEATHER VANE

Weather is a study which is discussed daily. What makes the clouds
move? Where does the wind go? These are questions often asked by children.
Wind direction and change of the sea-
sons becomes more meaningful to chil-
dren during each school year. Al-
though the wind usually goes around
in a huge circle, we feel it coming
from only one direction. The simple
wind or weather vane shown here is
easily made with a few materials and
will work well. Compass directions,
wind and weather changes will be more
easily understood after its construc-
tion and observation of its operation. Pattern
It should be placed in a large o-\ \ / / fAf
open space away from trees and build-
ings.

THINGS YOU NEED:

Duco Cement or quick drying
waterproof glue
1 stick about 8" long
1 block of wood for base
3/4" x 3" x 5", (Apprcx.)
6 finishing nails, 2 1/2" long
Oaktag or plywood
Scotch or masking tape..
Carbon paper.

HOW TO MAKE IT:

1. Trace the letters shown here /
on oaktag, and cut out./ 4

2. Build stand according to dia-
gram. Drive in four nails for
direction letters and cement
letters to ends, (in proper
order, of course).

3. Drill hole slightly larger than
finishing nail, 1" deep in center of top. Cement arrow to nail as
shown. (Arrow points to the direction from which the wind comes).

4. Have children design a "rider" for top of arrow, if desired. Whales,
birds, etc., look well. (optional)

5. Lacquer letters, arrow and figures, including struts, with flat black;-
use flat black or color lacquer for remainder.
Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.
-15-








IrtLi Tl';.L ARTS Unit Lo .,f LT[I., .'HiIP TO:
S''u .-tions for Elementary Grades Science: Air pressure
Instructional Activiti c:; Fj 1 .t
Construction Using Simple Materials

KITES

In spring, a young child's fancy lightly /01" o -'
turns to thoughts of kites, and so they are an''
excellent class project. They may be painted FA. i F
a variety of colorful designs, and knowledge of
kite flying helps in learning fundamental prin- C //
ciples of wind and air pressure. roamw

WHAT YOU NEED: (for each child) 3A c

Large sheets of tracing paper or tissue
String, strong yet light Fo l
Strips of wood, 3/8" x 1/4" 28" and 20"
Rubber cement, Scissors, Saw
Long straight edge, such as steel ruler F,

HOW TO MAKE A KITE:

1. Tie the short piece of wood to long
piece, as shown in diagram. (Fig. 1)
2. Notch the ends of both pieces.
3. Center the frame on the paper. Mark A._.
ends of sticks, then connect these r ad "> evk /'i
points with a pencil line, using
straight edge. From these lines, draw another set 1 1/2" away from
the other lines, parallel, and toward the outside. Cut out the kite
shape on outside lines. (Fig. 2) Notch the pattern as shown.
4. Paint designs on paper, if desired. Let dry.
5. On reverse side, apply a strip of rubber cement 3" wide around per-
imeter. When dry, lay string in straight line notch to notch, fold
paper over and seal. Leave a short loop, then continue to next flap,
then fold over string. Insert frame in loops, pull string taut, then
tie over final notch so that paper of kite is taut. (Fig. 3)
6. Cut a string the same length as cross-member, plus 2". Tie over
notch at one end. Make tight loop in other, and bow cross-member.
About 3 1/2" should be proper space from string to cross-member.
Tighten or loosen as necessary. (Fig. 3a)(Most kites fly without this
bow).
7. Three inches above and below cross-member, punch a hole in center of
tissue paper. Reinforce with paper rings. Cut an 8" length of string,
place each end through holes and tie to long stick. Kite control
string is tied, with a loop, so that it slides on this string. (Fig. 4).
8. Test the kite. It may need a tail on a windy day, or if it dips
vigorously from side to side rather than fly smoothly. See Fig. 5
for tail illustration.

*Adapted from Association for Childhood Education International,
Children Can Make It.


-16-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 17
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Construction of Electrical Apparatus


RELATIONSHIP TO:
-Scienca: Elcctricity
Social Studios: Communication


THE TELEGRAPH SET

A telegraph set is exciting to children because it represents a "secret"
way of sending messages. Two telegraph sets can be connected from one end
of the classroom to another. ElemLntary wiring and circuit understanding are
easily taught through construction of this device.

THINGS YOU NEED:

Wood base, 7" x 4" x 3/4"
Two 10d nails
Scrap iron strips, with no
protective finish (from
tin cans will do).
Insulated copper wire D
Screws C ORY
Two dry cells C
Two Fahnestock clips, if
available. _'


HOW TO MAKE IT:

1. Drive
wood,
apart.
points
bottom


two 1Od nails in
parallel, and 1i"
Drive in so
just show on
Sof block.


r


2. Leaving a 6" end, wind
60 turns of the wire a-
round the nail, then carry the wi:
and wind 60 turns toward the top.


K fY X Bend on dotted
lines


So6UvNo R Sta X 774


re to the other nail, to the bottom,
Leave 6" more then cut the wire.


3. Cut key and sounder pieces, as shown. Drill holes, and screw into
block. Bend as shown.

4. Place Fahnestock clips (or screws) at end of board. Connect one end
of wire on coil to clip #1 (solder). Other coil wire is connected
to screwed end of key. Connect wire from other clip to screw driven
under key with head exposed. Solder all connections, after cleaning
wire ends.

5. Connect two dry cells, in series, to clips by inserting wires. If
all is well, depressing key will make contact and magnets will pull
sounder down with a click.


*Used in Oceanway Elementary School, Duval County


"Ii







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 18 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Sound transmission
Instructional Activities vibrations
Construction of Mechanical and Social Studies: Communication
Scientific Devices

TELEPHONE

In the upper elementary grades children are interested in making and
using things which are related to their group activities and which
are new and stimulating. A telephone which children can
build to connect one part of the classroom to another or
one room to another at home or in a play area is often
an excellent incentive to extended reading, more correct
speaking and worthwhile activity.

When a pupil talks into the can, the vibrations from
his vocal cords make the bottom of the can vibrate. These
vibrations are carried along the waxed string. When they
reach the other can, the bottom vibrates.causing the ad-
jacent air to vibrate. When the vibrations reach the
pupil's ear drum at the other end of the string they re- sy
produce the sound of the voice.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Two empty #2 size tin cans
String tightly woven or hard twist if available
Wax (not necessary but desirable if string is soft)
Two buttons about 1/2" in diameter.

HOW TO DO IT:
can
Have one end of a clean can open with sharp edges
bent down.
Punch hole in bottom of each can in the center.
Cut string the desired length and wax it.
PUt waxed string through holes in the cans.
Tie button on each end of the string to hold it firmly against the
bottom of the can. Hold string so it is stretched tight'between cans.
Have one pupil talk into one can and another listen.








INDUSTRIAL ARTS -.Unit 19. RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Magnetism and
Construction of Basic Apparatus Electricity
Social Studies: Aids to
explorers,
guides, navigator

THE COMPASS

Whether children are studying about early explorers or navigators or
magnetism in science, they will be interested in making a compass. The
principles involved were the same for the compasses used by Columbus,
Admiral Byrd, Lindberg--and the navigators on modern airplanes. Children
may or may not be familiar with a compass unless they have one in the car,
on a boat, or if their attention is directed to what a compass is for and
how it operates. Everyone will have use for a compass some time.

THINGS YOU NEED:

1. A permanent magnet, 'either a horseshoe or bar shaped.
2. Paper clips,'tacks, brads or other small objects.
3. A needle,'cork, and a dish or pan of water.
4. A square sheet of paper two or three inches larger than the dish.

HOW TO MAKE IT:

1. Rub the needle lightly along the magnet
until the needle b-coimes magnetized.
Check this by trying it on the paper
clips or tacks.
2. With a sharp knife trim a slice from
a bottle cork and float it in the
dish of water. <
3. Place the ieedle'on the cork.
4. Mark the four corners of the
paper for the four directions,
North, South, East and West.
5. Set the dish onthe paper and allow
the needle to come to rest. Lift
the: saucer without disturbing the
needle and move the paper around
until the North is in line with the
point of the needle.

If there are other conventional compasses in the room check
the needle compass.


-19-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 20 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Magnetic power
Instructional Activities
Industrial Uses, Construction
of Functional Equipment

ELECTROMAGNET

Electromagnets have many uses in modern industry. Highway departments
use them to pick up nails and metal from highways. Steel mills and metal
companies use them for loading and unloading scrap metal and steel. They
are also used in large motors, control devices, and instruments. Around
the home their most common use is for door chimes and door bells.

This simple electro-magnet demonstrates how electricity can be used
to make magnets and how the strength and usefulness of magnets can some-
times be increased by increasing the current with a number of batteries,
or by increasing the windings (ampere turns). This can be done if metal
objects of various weight are available. The strength of the magnet can
be tested with a few turns of wire and one battery and then doubling the
number of turns of wire and then the number of batteries.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Two six volt dry cell batteries.
An iron bolt or rod two or three inches long.
18 feet of #24 insulated copper wire.
Pieces of metal, nails and bolts.
Knife for removing insulation from
wire. d F'o

HOW TO DO IT: a I

1. Show that the metal is not magnetized c i e < ,/
by testing it on the small pieces of
metal.
2. Cut off a twelve inch length of wire.
3. Remove the insulation from both ends
of both pieces of the wire.
4. Connect one battery as shown in Fig. 1.
5. Wind about ten turns of wire around
the bolt or metal used as a core. CI I u
6. Check the strength of the electro- D t=
magnet on the pieces of metal.
7. Double the number of windings on
the bolt or metal and check for increased strength.
8. Take the 12 inch piece of wire and connect the center post of one
battery to the outside post of the second and reconnect the wire
from the electromagnet to the center post of the second battery.
9. Check for the increase in magnetism.

Used in Oceanway Elementary School, Jacksonville


-20-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Ulni.t 21 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Making magnetism
Instructional Activities work
Construction of a Working Social Studies: Home environment
Mechanism

A CHIME

Construction of a simple chime similar to doorchimes is further use
of the same scientific principles of electricity and construction dem-
onstrated with the electromagnet. This chime can be used in the classroom
to signal a change in activities or to call the class to attention.

WHAT YOU NEED:

1. #24 insulated copper wire
2. Small hollcr tube of cardboard or glass 3" long
3. Finishing nail #8D, 2 1/2" long
4. Four finishing nails #12D, 3 1/4" long
5. Dry cell battery
6. Simple switch or bell button
7. Board 3/4" x 3 1/2" x 5"
8. Rubber bands and piece of glass 1/8" x 2" x 6"

HOW TO DO IT:

i. Remove the insulation from the ends / /
of the wire.
2. Wind two layers of wire around two < las.
inches of the hollow tube of card- a;
board or glass. Leave one inch for
fastening to board. This can be held
in place by scotch tape or glue. This
forms a solenoid coil. Leave the
ends of the wire long enough to 0o o
connect to battery and button. as
3. Drill a hole in the center of the b
board to hold the tube. Glue in Cel; e
place. (See diagram) bu4o' a5.s oY
4. Drive the four 3 1/4" nails into the pav-t
board near the four corners of the wufI I fv;/i
board and stretch the rubber bands
across them.
5. Place the 2 1/2" finishing nail inside the tube. It should be free
to move up and down easily.
6. Connect one end of the wire from around the tube to the bell button.
Connect the other end to the center terminal on the battery.
7. Connect the short wire to the other terminal on the bell button and
the battery.
8. Place the glass across the rubber bands so it is about 1/2" above
the head of the nail.
9. Push the button. The circuit will be completed and cause the nail
to be pulled upward by magnetic force striking the glass. When the
button is released the circuit is broken and the nail will drop back.


-21-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 22 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grades Science: Time
Instructional Activities Angle of sun's rays,
Following Detailed Directions Seasons

A SUN DIAL

A sun dial is one of the original
ways of telling time. Making one in-
volves learning about the sun, rotation
of the earth, and compass directions.
This plan is for a simple sun dial that 8
children can make for home or outdoor
use, particularly on camping or outdoor --
education trips. Fi

WHAT IS NEEDED:

Piece of cardboard or plywood
6" x 6"
Protractor
Masking tape
Compass
Piece of cardboard, as shown in Fig. 1.

HOW TO MAKE A SUN DIAL:

1. Cut cardboard angle to match
latitude. (For Jacksonville
it is approximately 300 north,
Miami 260 north). Fig. 1 F'. 3
2. Draw a center line through
the 6" x 6" cardboard. With
protractor, mark each 150 (degrees)
on front semi-circle. Clockwise, mark these points 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (Fig. 2)
3. Tape upright with pieces of masking tape on each side. Front of
upright should be 1" forward Of center line (horizontal). Fig. 3.
4. Use compass to determine magnetic north. In the case of Florida
areas, magnetic north and time north do not vary greatly. Set "x"
center line on north-south compass line, with 12 o'clock to the
north. Be sure it is a sunny day: -- (and that sun dial is in sun-
light).
5. In summer months, add one hour for daylight saving' (Turn compass
to left 15 degrees, or at 12 o'clock turn so that it reads 1 o'clock).


Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.


-22-






























SECTION III

Construction Activities Related to Social Studies

Units 23 through 32







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 23 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grades Social Studies: Dioramas
Instructional Activities Figurines
Use of New Materials

ANIMAL CHARACTERS

There are many ways of making animals
for dioramas, farm scenes and other rep-
resentations. Clay, when fired and glazed,
and sprayed with plastic spray, is another
method. Papiermache is another way of ex-
ercising the creativity of the child.

One of the simplest types is the kleenex ap
method described below:

WHAT IS NEEDED:

Wire or pipe cleaners F ,. /
Masking tape, wallpaper glue'
Water
Tempera
Plastic spray or lacquer

HOW TO MAKE AN ANIMAL:

1. Bend wires into general shape of
animal, tying them together with F;a.L
tape, (Fig. 1).

2. Begin wrapping strips of kleenex o
around the body and legs to the
desired thickness. A.glue or paste
mixture is used with the kleenex.

3. Glue ends of strips to hold them
down, (Fig. 2).

4. Let dry '3

5. Paint with tempera and spray with
plastic spray, or brush with clear lacquer, (Fig. 3).


-23-








INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 24 RELATIONSHIP TO,
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Time
Instructional Activities Arithmetic: Numbers
Construction According to Plan Social Studies: Days, weeks
months
THE CALENDAR
The calendar serves a very useful purpose in the lower grades in making
early number work have meaning and as an introduction to science in the world
around us (change of seasons, day and night etc.).


THI1S YOU NEED:

plywood (38 pieces
4 1/2" and 6 pieces 2
1/2" plywood (4' x 2'
51 small 1" brass "L"
wood for base
shellac or lacquer


3 3/4" x
1/2 x 10)
8")
hooks


HCW TO MAKE IT:-
1. Cut 1/2" plywood to 4' x 2' 8"-
sand
2. Cut 38 pieces 3 3/4" x 4 1/2"
from 1/4" plywood, (gum ply-
wood if possible) also cut 6
pieces 2 1/2" x 10" and sand.
3* Divide 1/2" plywood sheet as / ,
shown in Fig. 1.
Hammer 4d nail about 1/4" deep
on all measurement points. Re-
move nail from each point before
hammering the next point.
5. Screw in 1" brass screw hooks.
6. Print months (one on each side) F
on 2 1/2" x 10" pieces of plywood.
7. Print from 1 to 31 in one color ,
on pieces of plywood. Do same JU NE
number on back with different .
color, (for holidays). *' -- 8 ---
8. Print days of week on seven ,
pieces, with capital letter of
each on back.
9. Drill 1/8" corresponding holes on all pieces, (Fig. 2 & 3).
10. Make simple base that acts as a standard and a box to hold the un-
used days and months.
11. Shellac or lacquer.


Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.


-24-








INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 25 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grades Social Studies: Geographical
Instructional Activities locations, map
Industry Locations directions
Resource and Manufacturing Materials Arithmetic: Travel totals

A TRAVEL GAME
A travel game is a worthwhile addition to a
classroom, particularly when maps and map study
are being introduced. The game can continue with
the class. An ingenuous teacher can devise varia-
tions of the playing instructions to suit the needs
of the group. Sources of materials or manufactured
products can be included or be one variation of the
direction card. ..


WHAT IS NEEDED:


A projected map at least 18" x 24", on 1/8"
untempered masonite
1/4" plywood, or sheet metal
Pieces of wood: 5" x 5" x 1/2"; 3" x 3/4" x
4 pieces 5 1/2" x 3/4" x 1/2"
Small metal washer
4 buttons, different colors, used for
players. (If metal is used for map backing
then magnet can be used for players and map
hung vertically).
Stiff cardboard, 5" x 5", white surface.
Lacquer or tempera paints

HCW TO MAKE THE GAME:


1. Project the map onto background. S,;4 y 2
Paint in areas, including major cities, 'JL* 3r
rivers, countrieB, states, etc.
2. Decide what directions will be best
suited to the game. Divide the in- W 4.r rI
struction card into 8, 12, or 16 equal 3 .h
parts as shown. Write one direction ('orectic Fram
in each block. Cards can be changed Ca.vd &Ail/ a t.se.
for other games of similar type.
3. Drill hole from center of bottom, the size of a #18 nail. Insert
nail, put on card, then drop spinner over a small washer. Spinner
should move freely.
4. Players take turns, all starting from a certain city or place.
Each moves as directed. The first player to reach a predetermined
city or place wins the game.
5. Numbers on inside can be used as mileages (by establishment of a
scale), or use word instructions. Other cards with other in-
structions can be made to replace the one suggested.


Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.


-25-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 26
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Construction of Functional
Apparatus for Water Transportation,
How People Make a Living


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Science: Machines
Social Studies: Transportation
Arithmetic: Measuring


WATER TRANSPORTATION


The study of how people transport themselves and their goods is al-
ways of interest to children. It is an incentive to read about land, air,
and water machines for moving people and things from one place to another
and to construct replicas of basic equipment
used. Water transportation devices are es-
pecially easy to construct and relate to several
basic subjects. PADDLE


WHAT YOU NEED:

Scrap lumber such as cedar shingles, apple
box or orange crate materials.
Strong rubber bands or bands cut from inner
tubes.
Saw, hammer, 1 1/4" to 1 1/2" nails, dowels
or round sticks, cardboard tubing,string,
small wire hooks and screw eyes, button molds
or bottle caps.

HOW TO DO IT:

The grade level may determine the type of
boats the pupils may wish to construct to
supplement their study of water trans-
portation. They may vary from a simple
boat with a paddle to freighters with
hoists and some detailed construction.
The illustrations are complete enough
to give general ideas about construction,


BoAT

bawd ! '_


ocEAN LINER
Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.
-26-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 27
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Construction of Objects With Wheels
Related to Occupations for Earning a
Living


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Social Studies: Transportation
of freight
goods
Arithmetic: Measurement scale
models, and weight'


LAND TRANSPORTATION


Railroad locomotives, freight cars,
within the experience of most pupils.
Construction of replicas of such ve-
hicles relates realistically to arith-
metic through careful measurement, for
routes of trucks and trains and types
of cargo. The industrial arts consent
is in the relationship of people in
the community and school to these oc-
cupations and the experience with tools
and materials to build the models. In
the lower grades these can be very
simple with more complex models in the
intermediate grades.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Pine boards from boxes and crates,
square blocks or sticks, dowels,
button molds or other devices for
wheels, small tin cans, hammers,
saws, nails, wire, screw eyes and
paint.

HOW TO DO IT:

1. Review the safety precautions
the pupils will observe in re-
gard to their persons, the tools
and the materials.
2. Plan the.sizes according to the
materials at hand and the maturi
of the pupils.
3. Plan the sequence of constructic
materials needed and standards
expected.





Los Angeles, California EC-15u
Industrial Arts for Elementary
Schools.


tank cars, trucks and trailers are

TAPUCK


Wh ,,/s of e o/)/ c6 s
Ss/ sK v, co/,om t at
d /i//4e / I4,o +w /k -ed.

LOCOMOTIVE


Wh els of V.Z-"
bhofft f)o/d .
bo,;/, of / J"dowe


CAf


WAl h. I s oa s/oof -e4 Js or
koutto- ro/Js. Car doJly
of 6ox 6orcLYs.


-27-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 28
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Planning and Construction of
Single and Multi-engine and
Helicopter Aircraft


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Uci. rce: I Control Surfaces of
Aircraft
Social Studies: Air Transportation


AIR TRANSPORTATION
Whether or not children have had an opportunity to ride in an airplane
they are always interested in planes, airports, and the places people fly to
on planes. These simple designs of aircraft can be constructed by children
in the lower grades before they are ready to work with the more complex scale
models.

WHAT YOU NEED:

1. Hammer, saw, plane, 1" nails, screw eyes,
spools or button molds or other
"wheel" materials, 1/4" crating RuJi JAdl
wood and 3/4" and 1 1/2" pine.

HOW TO DO IT:

This can be an excellent planning pro-
cedure in having all the parts cut to an 6$/I#OLF )A' i MfPIANA
agreed size, labeled and ready to assemble
before any nailing begins.

HELICOPTIfR


Twy/.l/s e.4. Gear


Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.
.28-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 29
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Constructional Activities
Construction of Wheels


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Science: Wheels for apparatus
Social Science; The wheels in
transportation


WHEELS


One of the construction problems which both
in illustrating their class activities or dem-
onstrating a science princin.e is that of making
wheels. Wheels can be made 'from wood cut round
with a coping saw. Primary grade pupils may have
difficulty in cutting round wheels but can often
find materials in their home or community.

In furniture stores the rolls of linoleum
have round wooden disks at the ends. From hard-
ware and electrical stores the spools on which
wire is rolled can be used. Even lids from
pails of various sizes can be used. Typewriter
ribbon spools, wooden spools, or bottle caps
make usable and authentic looking wheels.

The illustrations show some of the ways
wheels can be made.


teachers and pupils have


Use. /Aol-. Spool o0
8,w t% L s ofr







Bofti/ ca.,s-7a'ireJ

flatt^^6rf6^3

7ho/,
Wo craen
kution
7no N


aw*o
Co.,er
CoVer'5


/owe / rods

s54cKs
srCIc~Ks


Jar
CoeVrs


-29-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 30 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Reading: Story characters
Instructional Activities Social Studies: Historical
Manipulative and Creative Activities characters

CHARACTER FIGURE

In the primary grades children enjoy dramatizing or playing the stories
they have heard or read. They like to make miniatures of the people and animal
characters they read and hear about as well as playing the parts themselves.
Having simple, readily available materials which are easy to make into recog-
nizable figures encourages children to further reading, telling, imagining,
and construction.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Empty wooden spools of various sizes.
1/8", 3/16", 1 1/4" dowel rods or round sticks,
wooden beads.
Pipe cleaners, either in color or white.
Penny match boxes, pliers to cut pipe cleaners.
Crayons and paper (construction and crepe).

HOW TO DO IT:
Spoo I
For spool figures put four pipe cleaners
through the spool used for the body and the
small spool or bead used for the head. The
ends of the pipe cleaners on top can become
part of the hat. Twist two of the pipe cleaners
below the body spool together for each leg.
Double back the ends of the legs to form feet. Y >4t4 Xo-
Trim the end of the pipe cleaners to an even
length with the pliers.

To make arms place a pipe cleaner across the
back and the front of the figure below the top
rim and twist them together. Hands can be formed
the same as the feet. A tack will help hold the C/~~? ei
arms in place. Features can be drawn in with
pencil or crayon. Costumes can be made with crepe
or construction paper.

For animal figures slide out the match box and
run two pipe cleaners inside the bottom of the
cover. Bend the ends down for legs. Run another
pipe cleaner through at the top of the cover for
a head and tail. Hold the pipe cleaners in place
and punch the match box inside the cover. Head,
feet, and tail can now be bent in shapes to suit fipc/ears
the animal. Used upright this may be used for
human figures. Clothespins, potatoes, or just
pipe cleaners twisted together can also be used.


polketo


-30-





INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 31 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Air Drying
Instructional Activities Casting, Chemical Action
An Industrial Process and Material
Social Studies: Rubber Latex.
Vulcanizing, Reproduction
of objects.

RUBBER MOLDS

The reproduction of small objects is an interesting experience for chil-
dren. It is also a process by which many objects used in the home are pro-
duced. In use, these molds are most suited to plaster casting, but mixtures of
sawdust and clear or colored lac-
quer, Keene Cement, and clay slip
Will also work. The mold is made
of liquid latex (milk rubber).

THfIlS YOU NEED:

Object of interest
Container of liquid latex
Scrim, cheesecloth or cloth
scraps
Small brush, catrll's hair
preferred GLASS
Soap and water
Piece of glass or other
smooth surface
Talcum powder

HOW TO DO IT:

1. Select your object. This may be any shape or size, but try some-
thing small, like a figurine, for your first step.

2. Place it on the glass. Then take brush, wet it, and scrub on the
soap bar to build up a film. Remove outside suds, but do not
squeeze out the soap.

3. Brush on a full-bodied layer of latex, but be sure to also brush
out air bubbles. Apply the first coat so that it flows out about
one inch around the base and onto the glass. Let dry.

4. Add a second coat. Let dry. Add a third coat, and in this one
set in some small pieces of the cloth to give firmness to the
mold, although this is not essential on small molds, say no
larger than 6" all around. Cover this with more latex, and dry.

S. Add one more layer. When dry, dust with talcum powder. Then,
pull mold away from object. Dust the inside immediately. It
is then ready for casting. Then, don't forget to wash out the
brush in running water!

Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.


-31-






INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 32 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Science: Chemical Action
Instructional Activities Social Studies: How identical
An Industrial Process objects are reproduced

CASTING (Plaster of Paris)

Plaster of paris, Keene Cement, and other suitable materials can be
cast in various types of molds in addition to rubber molds. Plaster of paris
is a white powder which mixes with water into a heavy paste and gives excep-
tional detail to cast molds. It is available at drug stores and hardware
stores. It hardens in about 30 minutes due to chemical action, rather than
by evaporation of water. Keene cement is also a white powder, costs less,
is available at building supply firms, but takes 24 hours to harden by evap-
oration. Lacquer and sawdust mixture and clay slip also harden by evaporation
and absorption.

THINGS YOU NEEDi

Tin can to mix plaster
Plaster of paris
Water
Mold

DHW TO DO IT:

1. Experience is the best teacher
in mixing plaster. For a small TAP GENTLY
mold, try four to five times
the amount of water needed to
fill the mold. Dampen the mold.

2. To the water, (now in the can, we hope!), stir in the plaster of
paris until you have a thin creamy mixture, (like a waffle batter).

3. Fill the mold. Tap the mold gently at various places to permit
air bubbles to rise to the surface. Let the plaster harden.

4. Pull off the rubber mold, and sandpaper or scrape the base
lightly.

5. Congratulate yourself if it worked the first time! If it didn't,
try again, --maybe your plaster was too thin; maybe it was too
thick. If it was right, then finish by painting with water
paint, with colors you wish, then finish with two thin coats
of clear lacquer.

6. -------AND, ---YOU WILL BE DEEPLY APPRECIATED IF YOU WILL
PLEASE REMEMBER TO THROW THE CAN OF REMAINING PLASTER AWAY;
DON'T DUMP IT DOWN THE DRAIN!



Los Angeles, California EC-150 Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.


-32-































SECTION IV

Construction Activities Related to Arithmetic

Units 33 and 34







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 33 RELATIONSHIP TO: :
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Arithmetic Measurements
Instructional Activities 0
Need for Accuracy
MEASURING STICKS (Rulers)

Children take pride in using the things they make. Making individual
rulers is helpful in teaching them to measure, learn about the sitc of things
and give them an early application of number work.

THINGS YOU NEED:

1/4" gum plywood or 1/2" Plywood
base shoe molding
Sandpaper
Ruler and pencil
Shellac or clear lacquer

HOW TO MAKE IT:

1. If an industrial arts or cabinet shop
is available arrange for the clans to
go see the ruler blanks cut. These
will be 1" x 12" of plywood or 3/4" x Base thoe
12" of base shoe moldin.r

2. Sand the two faces smooth with the fine
sandpq-per. Do not .an.d tri .,es so
that they become round. n;moothing
is all that is desired.

3. Have each child writc hi.; n'mi. on ti.e 1 'r:'ice n k n.,
back of the ruler. u. i' n
,;e' b:.!.ow -
4. Mark 1/2" in from one side at each end
of front, and connect these points with
a line.

5. Have each child mark off the inch divisions on this line using a
standard ruler. Shop rulers will be more accurate than classroom
rulers. Teacher should check the work of each child.

6. Write the proper number opposite each line, as shown.

7. When teacher has approved ths work, the pupil should use clear
lacquer or shellac to obtain a nice finish. Dry for at least 30
minutes before use.




12345678 90 =NUMB:






INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 34
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Mass Production, Organization
and Techniques.
DOMINOES
(Double Six)


Dominoes can be used as a simple game; to
show certain number combinations, or as flash
cards. Learning becomes fun when dominoes are
used.

THINGS YOU NEED:

28 pieces common pine, 8" x 4" x 3/4"
Cross cut saw
Crayons and pencil, (or tempera & wax)
.Try-square
Ruler
Sandpaper


HOW 1


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Arithemtic: Counting, number
groups, addition,
subtraction,
multiplication.


Shellac or clear lacquer
Wax
6 pieces, 4" x 4" x 1/8" masonite
Brace and 3/4" bit (#12) ?f Qo Joitfa4tenCh
o/e../ 5 /? 6i;t
O MAKE IT: 0 oo
0 0 o0 0 0
1. Divide class into six equal committees.
2. Committee #i; Using ruler and try-square, mark 4" width boards into
28 pieces, 8" long. Between each 8" length, mark double lines 1/8"
apart, in which to saw.
3. Committee #2: Saw the 28 pieces. Sand all faces and edges, using
sandpaper on a block.
4. Committee #3; Find center of each block. Use try-square and draw
line through this, dividing block into two halves. Lacquer or
shellac to give first finish.
5. Committee #4: Using 4" x 4" squares of masonite, make a drilled
pattern for each face of I through 6, (see sketch).
6. Committee #5: Line up the complete set of 7-6's, 6-5's, 5-4's,
etc. Using crayon or tempera, hold the proper pattern over the
square and fill hole with the color. Remove and dry, (tempera).
Trim any ragged edges by scraping with knife.
7. Committee #6: Wax all sides of dominoes with hard furniture wax,
(simonize), and buff with cloth.


-34-































SECTION V

Construction Activities Related to Music

Units 35 through 38








INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 35
Sumgestions for Elementary Grades
Instructional Activities
New use of Materials
Precise Instructions and Measurements


XYLOPHONE

Making a xylophone is a challenging ex-
perience to children as it is one of the most
exacting but complete musical instruments the
can make. Drums, tambourines, castanets and
one string instruments are excellent intro-
ductions to the construction of rhythm de-
vices and instruments. The xylophone re-
quires patience to make each key 'true" and
in harmony with the others. This is also an
excellent group experience.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Base: 2 3/4" x 2" x 8"
2 3/4" x 1" x 24"
Keys: 8 5/8" or 1/2" x 1 or 1 1/4"
pieces of wood from 9" to
6 1/2" long
Felt or cotton rope for keys to rest on,
1 1/4", #4d nails. Sandpaper back-
saw, plane, and hammer


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Music: Matching tones
Arithmetic: Computinrg len;:ths
in fractions
Science: Musical scales and
pitches


Sottn rVpe


TO MAKE IT:


Sdowe (l


For the keys select strips of wood uni-
form in width and thickness and free of knotz. F;. 3
Redwood, poplar, basswood, or cedar are -ood.
The first bar should be 9" long. Match the tone
at the piano and name it "do" or 1 of the scale. Each bar for keys /#2, 3,
5, 6, 7, being whole tones will be 3/8" to 1/2" shorter than the previous1,
perfected bar. Keys 4 and 8, being half tones will be 1/4" to 3/16" shorter
than 3 and 7. The pitch of each key's tone is raised by shortening the bar,
is lowered by makin:- it thinner. Any shortening or thinning should be done
carefully with frequent testing for pitch. Get each key "true" and in latr-
mony with the preceding one before starting the next one.

To locate holes for nails in the tuned bars, find the quiet or nodall"
points. Sprinkle sawdust on top of bar; tap it rapidly until much of saw-
dust collects in two little piles. Mark center of each. Here wood vibrates
least and holes may be located. Do this for longest and shortest bars. Ar-
range keys in sequence on base strips 1/2" to 3/4" apart on base pieces.
Holes in keys must be larger than nails. Drive nails through center of hole
into cushion and wood base. Trim off surplus wood of base pieces.

*Used in Lake Como Elementary School, Orlando, Florida


-35-







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 36
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Construction Techniques and Materials;
Assembly Line and Mass Production Teamwork


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Music: Rhythm Instruments
Social Studies; Instruments
used in folk
dances


TAMBOURINES

Tambourines are another basic instrument used in the singing and dancing
of many people with their native songs and folk dances. They are also used
to accompany group singing and records. For many musical activities, games
and rhythms it is nice for each child to have his own tambourine. To make
some of those illustrated, assembly line and mass production techniques can
be profitably and interestingly employed.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Frame Tambourines 1/2" x 1" bass wood strips, 1 1/4" #16 brads, 1 1/4"
#14 common nails, thumb tacks or carpet tacks; chamois skin, parchment
plastic cloth, or muslin, shellac, bottle
caps.
Disc tambourines 5" circles of 1/2" ply-
wood, pie plates or paper plates, 1 1/2" fr
#14 box nails, 1" metal discs of aluminum, Me
copper or brass, or flattened bottle caps, fra
ends of juice cans, roofing caps; materials C cr
for smooth taut coverings. '\s


HOW TO DO IT: "Class activity"

Select the type of tambourine.
List the operations involved about 12.
Class may apply for the job (operation) they
are best qualified for. Arrange pupil groups
and secure materials. Two foremen can help
inspect for good work and supervise quantity,
keep supplies available. Groups may change
as work progresses. -
1. For 30 frame tambourines, measure and Ta
cut off about 250 pieces of 1/2" x 1" at
basswood, 8" long.
2. Nail pieces of wood to form a square.
3. Wet materials for covering as skin or
cloth, wring out water, and smooth over
frame.
4. Use tacks to hold covering taut and let dry.
5. Punch holes in discs or bottle caps with
nails larger than the 1 1/4" #14 common
nails with which bottle caps will be
attached.
6. Shellac covering and frame.
7. Nail on bottle caps as shown.
8. Check construction and "rattle" of tambourines.


^^-^>-<.>



- . ..


dic.e s


For wood disc and pie tin tambourines follow illustrations.


-36-


4ao fV
C"iPtS


Pie A;h
Ca4ps fie
d)- IYld fk







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 37 RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade Music: Rhythm Instruments
Instructional Activities Social Studies: Basic instru-
Basic Mechanical Methods of Fastening and ments for many
Tightening Materials countries

DRUMS

Drums are rhythm instruments that are basic to the music of almost all
people. They are used by children and adults for expressions of tempo and
rhythm and to accompany recordings, group singing and original songs. Musical
activities in the elementary grades are always enhanced if children make and
use their own rhythm instruments. In making them children
will find they need the help of others to make good drums.

WHAT YOU NEED: .

For the drum frame: large coffee cans, wooden kegs, /
discarded metal waste baskets, ice cream or cheese
cartons.
For the drum heads: chamois skin, inner tubes,
muslin, canvas, discarded shower curtains.
For fastening: cord, 1/2" rubber bands, thong lacing, Cob
wooden beads, leather squares, wood squares. *
For drumsticks: use fingers, wrap twine on a stick, al
or use wooden bead on a small dowel rod.

HOW TO DO IT:

Select the drum frame, drumhead material, and
cord for temporary fastening. Soak the chamois skin ,
or cloth and squeeze all water out and carefully 'O
mold and gently stretch it over the drum opening i
Hold in place by wrapping many times with cord and
tying. Neither the skin nor the cloth is to be
tapped before it is thoroughly dry. When dry coat
it with shellac or lacquer. Rubber from inner tubes, ed
plastic shower curtains and canvas also make good 7i'i7h
taut drumheads.

To hold drumheads in place permanently use tacks
in wood, thumb tacks in cartons (cover with masking
tape) tightly wrapped cord, wide rubber bands or cord /1*
or thong lacing with or without tension devices. Ww





*Used in East Side Elementary School, Haines City, A bed
Florida

dh-um 614tk


-37-






INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 38
SLggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Using Tools and Materials to
Make Useful Articles


RELATIONSHIP TO:
Music: Variety of materials
used for rhythm
instruments


CYMBALS, CASTANETS, JINGLE STICKS


All children love to use any kind of rhythm instruments to accompany
their own original songs or favorite records. Since many such instruments
can be made out of scrap materials they can be constructed in almost any
classroom situation.

WHAT YOU NEED:

Sand blocks 3/4" x 2" x 3" soft wood blocks
#O or #1 sandpaper. (See illustration)
Cymbals Kettle lids, pie plates, spools, hand drill and 5/16" bit,
1 1/2" stove bolt. ( See illustration)
Castanets 100 or 150 watt light bulbs
Old newspaper for paper mache
Jingle Stick 1/2" or 3/4" x 1" strips of
wood, roofing caps, flattened bottle caps,
bells, and shingle nails or 1 /4" //#l common
nails.


HOW TO MAKE THEM:

Sand blocks glue or tack sandpaper on blocks
Cymbals lid or pie plates, bore holes in bottom
attach spool with bolt or thon rbr handles.
Castanets make paper mache mixture cover
light bulbs with several layers, let dry.
When dry rap sharply on hard surface to break
glass inside. To decorate paint or color,
coat with shellac.
Jingle Stick punch holes in roofing caps,
bottle caps or juice cans tops and nail to
8" or 10" sticks. Tie bells on sticks.


cyansiba/i




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6'"-;c ,





























SECTION VI

General Handcrafts

Unit 39







INDUSTRIAL ARTS Unit 39
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities
Jigs and Forming Devices;
Methods of Cutting, Forming and
Finishing Materials


RE IATIONSIIP TO:
Social Studies: iF-)c Lun.J.
Items for Home
Use


WOOD AND WIRE GIFT SUGGESTIONS


Holidays, birthdays, and traditional seasonal activities always bring an
interest and a desire on the part of children to make gifts for members of
the family and friends. Some gifts which are both contemporary in design and /
functional in use can be made with wood and wire.

WHAT YOU NEED:


Black wire coat hangers
Pine or other soft wood
A bending jig (Fig. 5) and pliers
Saw, sandpaper, hand drill, files
Shellac, shellac thinner, brushes.


HOW TO DO IT:

Black coat hangers are a good wire material. It
is strong enough to hold its shape and with careful
handling does not require painting. It is best to
use the straight part of the coat hanger except where
the curved parts can be used without straightening as
in the napkin holder. (Fig. 2) To cut the wire file
about half way through with an edge or corner of a
metal file. A few bends back and forth will snap the
wire. A short 2" length of wire in a hand drill makes
an excellent drill for soft wood for a snug press fit.

After the wood is sanded to a smooth finish and
the wire parts bent to the proper shape the project is
ready to be assembled. After assembly two or three
coats of well thinned white shellac sanded between
coats with the last coat steel-woolcd and wjxed, will
result in an excellent finish. The shellac will also
help set the wire in place in the holes.


fapKin //er
Fi.


bail$ b *



i3ts/ij J^y 0o 0y 6s Fig l F,. 3
F, Fe;. 3
*Adapted from SCHOOL SHOP fTl n-tinc-, January 1955
-39-








INDUSTRIAL ARTS RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grade
Instructional Activities All Areas
Basic Materials and Devices

INFORMATION TEACHERS ASK FOR AND CAN USE

1., Fixative for soft or colored chalk: Treated chalk is semipermanent on
paper, blackboards or the floor. It will not erase but will wash off.

Prepare a saturated solution of sugar water. Add one part solution to
three parts of water. Soak sticks of chalk until it no longer bubbles,
remove and drain. When dry keep chalk in covered jar when not using.

2. Soft Carving Stone: For carving animal or human figures. Use one part
cement, two parts vermiculite or zonolite (small granulated insulation).
Mix with water and pour into mold (milk carton or cheese carton). Leave
for 24 hours and tear off paper. Usually suitable for carving then but
may need to dry more. It gets harder as it dries. White cement makes
lighter colored stone.

3. Sawdust Modeling: For plastic modeling of figures or shapes. Mix wheat
paste to consistency of heavy cream. Shellac may also be used. It makes
stiffer mixture faster. Lacquer dries even more quickly. Sift pine saw-
dust into paste or shellac, stirring constantly. When mixture is "sticky
thick" enough to hold its shape it is ready for modeling.

4. Finger Paint: You need 1 1/2 cups of laundry starch; 1 1/2 cups of soap
flakes; 1 quart of boiling water; 1/2 tablespoon of poster paint for each
color desired. Mix starch with enough cold water to make a paste. Add
boiling water and cook until mixture is clear or glossy looking. Stir
constantly to prevent lumps. As mixture cools, add soap flakes and stir
until evenly distributed and smooth. Mix in poster paint and pour into
8 half-pint jars with lids.

5. Oil Paint: Mix two tablespoons of powdered tempera into turpentine to
make a thick paste; add 3 tablespoons of varnish and stir until smooth.

6. Wood stain that is waterproof: Mix a tablespoon of powdered tempera into
1/2 cup linseed oil or turpentine. Add more to increase intensity of
colors or use less for lighter shades.

7. Papier mache pulp: Three large sheets of newspaper will make about one
cup of pulp. For pulp tear into dime size pieces; drop into warm or hot
water. When thoroughly soaked (overnight) pour off excess water. Use
two broom sticks to stir, pound and grind paper into pulp so no bits of
newspaper can be seen. Place in cheesecloth, stocking, or strainer and\
press out all water. Store in covered non-rusting container until needed.
If pulp is dry it will keep indefinitely. Measure as much pulp as needed
for day's project. Add one part thick creamy paste (wheat, wallpaper) to
two parts pulp and mix well. (Put in plastic bag; knead to eliminate mess).
Test by making a ball. If cracks show add paste; if too sticky add pulp.










INDUSTRIAL ARTS RELATIONSHIP TO:
Suggestions for Elementary Grades
Instructional Activities All areas where learning is
Native Materials, Manufactured Items, made real by doing
Construction Through Use of Tools and
Materials

101 LOW COST OR NO COST CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR 1001 USES


1. Acorns Lapel pins, bean bag filler, ornaments, etc.

2. Bamboo Flower containers, lamps, shepherd pipes, and novelties.

3. Beads To be combined with other materials and made into new strands
of beads (china berries, macaroni, paper beads).

4. Belts, screws & nuts Gadget board, peg board.

5. Berry boxes Pocket books, storage boxes, May baskets.

6. Boards and scrap wood from lumber yards Carving, construction work,
blocks.

7. Bottle caps (metal) Wheels for toys, whistles, letter and number
checkers.

8. Bottles (all sizes and kinds) Vases, musical instruments, decorate
with shell flowers for perfume bottles.

9. Boxes and fruit baskets (all sizes) Box animals, box furniture,
construction materials for plant containers, doll carts,
and plant holders.

10. Bricks Covered with oilcloth, cloth, or plastic materials they make
attractive and useful book ends.

11. Broom handles Movie box rollers, hobby horses, handles for various
toys, etc.

12. Burlap bags Hooked rug base, costumes, scenery, pocket books, laundry
bags, shoe bags, etc.

13. Buttons Make button flowers, jewelry, matching colors, earrings, and
decorations.

14. Catalogues Cut out work, work and object charts, color charts.

15. Cattail straw, Coconut fibers, Raffia Weaving.


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16. China berries Beads (boil ripe berries ... when they turn yellow on
tree ... boil until husks fall off ... cool and rinse ...
remove all husks ... dye with tintex, rit, putndm dye or
vegetable coloring ... combine with old beads) and make
bracelets and necklaces.

17. Christmas cards Book marks, Xmas tree decorations, patterns for
Xmas drawings.

18. Clean rags For making rugs, for dressing dolls, puppets, etc., for
weaving, tie and die craft, kite tails, etc.

19. Clinkers or stones Magic garden.

20. Clothespins Clip drawings together, fasten drawings to easel,
clothespin dolls.

21. Coconuts Novelties, flower pots.

22. Cork (from bottle caps) Jewelry, purses, cork flowers for decoration.

23. Corn shucks Weaving; corn shuck dolls.

24. Coat hangers Base for paper mache, puppets, animals, birds, etc.

25. Dish cloths (loosely woven) Purses, handbags, etc.

26. Egg shells Egg shell garden.

27. Feathers Indian head bands, bird pictures, small animals of acorns,
peanuts, pecans.

28. Gourds Musical instruments, bird houses, bowls, vases, ornaments, etc.

29. Grits, rice & popcorn Novelty jars, boxes, enameled or covered with
glue and sprinkled with either of the mediums.

30. Hemp twine (heavy) Weaving, wrap around jars or bottles and either
shallac, or enamel, for ash trays, etc.

31. Horseshoes Horseshoe game ... cymbal for rhythm band.

32. Ice Cream Spoons Mixing paste, paint, etc., paste spreaders, book
marks (see instruction in art section).

33. Jars (all kinds) Vases, (paint scenes on with enamel) for storage
jars, brush jars, candy jars, paint jars, storage jars for
clay.

34. Keene cement Plaques, castings, carving.

35. Large bottles Filled with sand or pebbles and dressed as dolls ... used
as door stops.







36. Laundry starch Paste and finger paint recire.

37. Lichens, mosses, grasses, leaves, bark, pine r needles Pictures
(articles are used to make design).

38. I.i'rht bulbs (flash bulbs & regular size) Christmas tree ornaments,
(Balls, Santa Claus faces, clowns, dolls, castanets),

39. Linoleum scraps Block printing, mats for tables, decorative tiles.

40. Magazine covers (Life, Saturday Eve. Post, etc.) Substitute for
finger painting paper.

41. Magazines Cut out pictures for stories, number work, picture dictionary,
phonics, cut paper decoration, beads, etc.

42. Moss (Spanish) As a substitute for cotton as stuffing for toys, etc.

43. Nail kegs Making furniture (chairs, stools, drums).

44. Native clay Bowls, vegetables, fruit, animals, etc.

45. Newspaper To paint on (want ad section) floor and. table mats for
protection, paper mache, pattern making.

46. Odds and ends of construction ilir, wall paper, colored pages from
magazines, etc. Scrap paper, scrap .''p r craft, for covering +.rash-
baskets, lamp shades,, screens.

47. Oil cans (large size) Floats for swimming, trashbaskets, stools.

48. Oilcloth Place mats, applique, cloth sculpture, dolls, animals, belts,
flowers, purses.

49. Oil paint, from tempera, turpentine and varnish.

50. Old candles Batik work, decorative candles, to be melted and made
into new candles.

51. Old crayons Ornaments, decoration, painting, coloring for candles.

52. Old flat irons Gaily painted and decorated they make attractive book
ends.

53. Old hats (felt & straw) Earrings, lapel pins, flowers, weaving, etc.

54. Old inner tubes Toys ... laced with shoe strings and stuffed with cotton,
moss, sawdust, etc. Block painting and printing; ammunition for
rubber guns.

55. Old lamp shades Cover with pictures, or patches or remove coverrin, and
wrap with yarn.








56. Old leather purses Cut belt loops, small purses, leather work.

57. Old tires Swings, basketball and football passing, targets.

58. Orange sticks, sucker sticks, modeling tools, pegs for peg board,
stick figures for arithmetic games, color sticks and
use for color games.

59. Palm fronds, Palmetto fronds Weaving.

60. Paper cups To mix paint in, for flower pots (filled with sand. .
layer of paraffin over it. Flowers made of bright colored
cloth or oilcloth . stems of pipe cleaners.

61. Paper plates Containers for pot holders, recipes, etc.

62. Paper towels Use for last layer of paper mache, place mats, de-
corated with cut paper, crayons, etc.

63. Peanuts, pecans, walnuts Novelty pins, ornaments, animals, buttons.

64. Pine cones Making pine cone baskets, boxes, etc., making animals.

65. Pine straw Weaving.

66. Pipe cleaners Making dolls, animals, and used with other media such
as peanuts, pecans, feathers, etc.

67. Plaster of Paris Placques, plaster carving.

68. Plastic (scraps) Plezxigl'; froi '. arity, hct and clothing or sign
shops for buttons, rings, ornaments.

69. Plastic foam Table decorations, figures.

70. Posters (advertising) Use backs for story, experience charts and for
mounting pictures, etc.

71. Potatoes Block printing, puppets.

72. Razor blades Carving activities.

73. Roofing caps Christmas decorations, coins, rattles.

744 Sand Sand painting, (put in bottles ... colored sand ... for paper
weights).

75. Sawdust Modeling, grass for sand table, stuffing for toys, bean bags,
etc.

76. Scraps of copper, aluminum, brass Jewelry.

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77. Seed pods Christmas tree ornaments, pLns, buttons, etc.
78. Shelf paper (glazed) Finger paint paper, borders, murals, posters,
book covers (finger painted) and trashbasket decoration.

79. Shells (sea shells) Shell craft earrings, pins, bracelets, perfume
bottles, jewelry boxes).
80. Small brushes or tooth brushes For spatter painting .,, Scrape stick
or tongue depresser over bristles.
81. Soap New bars used for carving ... scraps used for finger paint recipe.

82. Soda straws Weaving belts,

83. Sponges (rubber or natural) Texture effects, background painting?
trees, shrubs, for posters, sand tables, playhouses etc,
84. Shoe boxes Hollow blocks for building.

85. Shoe strings 9ther cord for braiding, wrapping, tying.

86. Spools Printing, making furniture, pegs for peg board, arithmetic
games.
87. Spray guns Spatter paint.

88. String, yarn, etc. Weaving, shag rugs, toys and holding purposes.

89. Tin cans Flower pots, metal work, Christmas decoration, candle
holders, ash trays, candy dishes, etc.
90. Tin foil Decorations, plaques, designs.

91. Tongue depressers Mixing paint, paste, shuttles for looms, etc.

92. Tubing (Mailing, travel tubes, ribbon bolts) For flutes, posts, silos,
napkin rings, pillars and games.
93. Umbrellas (ribs) Tools for carving, block printing and clay work.

94. Wall paper Pictures for framing, cut outs for posters, place mats,
Trashbasket covers, papering doll house, paper sculpture.
95. Watermelon and cantaloupe seeds Pumpkin seeds may be used. Decorate
boxes, pictures, beads in combination with other materials.
96. White shoe polish Tint with vegetable or tempera colors, use for
paint ... brush, or spatter,

97. Window panes For glass pictures, for making frames, etc,


-45-








98. Window shades Murals, panels, friezes, large experience charts, pads
for rest period, bulletin board and for mounting pictures.

99. Wire Stovepipe, aluminum, copper (insulated) general construction,
'telephones, and electrical apparatus.

100. Wooden boxes and crates Storage space, construction work, bookcases,
filing cases.

101. Wrapping paper- (brown) Friezes, murals, panels, etc., experience charts
posters, paper mache.


-46-









BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
FLORIDA NATIVE MATERIALS



Aldrich, Bertha, and Snyder, Ethel, Florida Sea Shells. Massachusetts:
Houghton Mifflin Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1936.

Cook, Viva and Samply, Julia. Palmetto Braiding and Weaving. Peoria,
Illinois: The Manual Arts Press, 1947.

Dade County Home Demonstration Office Literature on Florida plants and
craft activities.

Eaton, Allen E. Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands. New York: Russel
Sage, Foundation, 1931.

Mirer, Roy Waldo. Field Book of Seashore Life. New York: Van Rees Press,
1950.

Pace, James V. Shellcraft, booklet. Bradenton, Florida: Copyright by
Pace's Shell Findings, 1952.

Shanklin, Margaret Eberhardt. Use of Native Craft Materials. Peoria,
Illinois: The Manual Arts Press, 1947.

Tappan, Gladys. Louisiana Basketry, Extension Circular 136. Circular from
Agriculture Extension Director, University Station, Baton Rouge 3,
Louisiana, March, 1953.

Verril, A.-Hyatt. Shell Collector's Handbook. New York: G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 1950.

Vilas, C. N. and Vilas, N. R. Florida Marine Shells. Illinois: Aberdeen
Press, Inc., 1945.


-47-






PROFESSIONAL AIDS


Magazines;

California Journal of Elementary Education (Industrial Arts Issue),
February, 1958, Bureau of Textbooks and Publications, Sacramento, Cali-
fornia.

Culpepper, Fred W. Jr., "The Elementary Industrial Arts Experiment at Suffolk,
Va." Industrial Arts and Vocational EducWtion, 41:88:90, March, 1952.

Dick, Arthur A., "Our Greatest Need: Up-to-Date Teaching." School Shop,
10:9-21, February, 1951.

Earl, A. W., "Industrial Arts for Every Child in the Elementary School."
Nation's Schools, 47:65-66, May, 1951.

Leavitt, J. E., "Fine and Industrial Arts in the Elementary School."
(Bibliography) Education, 75:355-416, February, 1955.
Nihart, Claude E., "Industrial Arts in Elementary Schools." American School
Board Journal, 125:34-36, September, 1952.

Power, A. T., "Industrial Arts ii the Secondary Schools," National Associa-
tion of Secondary School Principals, Bulletin 35:123-133, November,
1951.
Rowand, L., "Mobile Tool Unit Brings Industrial Arts to Elementary Schools,"
Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 42:369, September, 1953.
Ruley, M. J., "Elementary Industrial Arts in Public Schools of Tulsa, Okla.,"
Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 40:277.278, September, 1951.

Scobey, M. M., "Industrial Arts in the Elementary School," National Educa-
tion Association Journal, 42:372, September, 1953.

Scobey, M. M., "Role of Industrial Arts in the Elementary School Prpgrams in
Social Studies." Elementary School Journal, 55:288-293, January, 1955.

Scobey, M. M., "Trends in Industrial Arts," National Education Association
Journal, 44:14-15, January, 1955.
Smith, H. J., "Selected References on Elementary School Instruction in In-
dustrial Arts." Elementary School Journal, 51:166-168, November, 1950S
52:172-173, November, 1951;53:171-173, November, 1952, etc. each Novem-
ber issue.








Books:

Association for Childhood Education International, Uses for Waste Materials,
Bulletin No. 41, Washington,5, D. C.

A. C. E. I. Make It For the Children, by Page Kirk, 1948.

A. C. E. I. Recommended Equipment and Supplies, Bulletin No. 39, 1949.

A. C. E. I. Children Can Make It, Bulletin No. 28, 1954 (Very good).

Baillie, E. Kenneth, Homespun Crafts, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Publishing Co.,
1952. $3.25.

Boehmer, S., and Groneman, C. H., Making Things is Fun, Book I. (Lower Ele-
mentary Grades) Austin, Tex., Steck Publishing Co., 1945, 520.

Making Things is Fun, Book II. (Upper Elementary Grades) 1945. 604.

Bonser, Frederick G., and Mossman, Lois Coffey, Industrial Arts for Elemen-
tary Schools, New York, The Macmillan Co., 1923. (Old but has applica-
tions).

Champion, Paul V., Games You Can Make and Play, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Pub-
lishing Co., 1950.

Champion, Paul V., Creative Crate Craft, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Publishing
Company, 1951. $2.00.

Moore, F. C., Hamburger, C. H., and Kingzett, Anna L., Handcrafts for Ele-
mentary Schools, Boston, Mass., D. C,. Heath Co., 1953.

Newkirk, Louis V., Integrated Handwork for Elementary Schools, San Francisco,
Silver Burdett Co., 1940.

Newkirk, Louis V., and Zutter, LaVada, Crafts' for Everyone, New York, D. Van
Nostrand Co., .,.. ,197.

Schneider, Herman, Everyday Machines and How They Work, New York, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., 1950.

Shanklin, Margaret, Use of Native Craft Materials, Peoria, Ill., The Charles
A. Bennett Co., )1947.

Showalter, Hazel F., Small Creations for Your Tools, Milwaukee, Wis., The
Bruce Publishing Co., 1947.


-49-







SUGGESTED LIST OF TOOLS


Number Description

2 Awl, brad 1 1/4" blade, 3/32" width tip, Stanley "Harwood"
#17
1 Set Bits, auger #4 or 1/4" to #16 or I", Irwin or Stanley

1 Set Bits, twist 1 set 3/32" to 7"

2 Pkg. Blades, Coping Saw 6" overall x 1/16" (loop ends).

2 Pkg. Blades, Coping Saw 6" overall x 3/32" (pin ends).

1 Brace, plain 10" swing, Miller Falls #1710, or Stanley
#966
6 Clamps, "C", cabinet type, 3" opening with oscillAtinf ball
and socket tips. Hargrove or Jorgenson
2 Clamps, "Handserew" wood jaws 6" jaw. No. 3/0

2 Clamps, "Handscrew" wood jaws &" jaw grip. No. 0

1 Eyelet Punch, Stanley No. 386 or equal
2 10" Mill files
2 10" Wood rasps

2 10" Half round wood files

2 10" Round wood files

1 Hand Drill, Stanley #64 or equal

3 Hammers, Claw 7 ounce, Stanley NO, 53 or equal
1 Mallet, Rawhide, Stanley #4 or equal

2 Mallets, Hickoryhead, Diameter 2" x 5"

1 Oilstone, Stanley #136 or equal

2 Planes Junior Jack plane, Stanley #5-1/2 orequal

2 Planes Block Stanley (boyproof) #118 or equal


-50-








2 Pliers, slipjoint combination, crescent 6"

2 Pliers, side cutting 6 1/2", Kraeuter #1830

2 Saws, Back, 12", Stanley No. 4

1 Saw, Rip 20" 5 1/2 point, Disston or Atkins

2 Saws, Crosscut 20" 10 point Disston or Atkins

6 Coping Saw frames, Trojan or equal

1 Compas Saw, 8", 10 point Atkins #5 or equal

2 Screw Drivers, 4", Stanley #20 or equal

1 Shears, Trimming 8" Stanley #164 or equal

2 Sloyl Knives, 1 7/8" blades, Stanley #10 or equal

2 Squares, Tryiron handle, 8", Disston #5-1/2 Stanley #72

1 Tin Snips 11-1/2", Stanley #10 or equal

1 Vise, Metal, Brodhead Garrett No. 1209

2 Vises, Clamp base, continuous screw, Stanley #700




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