A GUIDE FOR PLANNING
SPECIAL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS
FOR THE DISADVANTAGED
Ltional, Technical, and Adult Education
E DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
as D. Bailey, Superintendent
Tallahassee, Florida A
SPECIAL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS
FOR THE DISADVANTAGED
A GUIDE FOR PLANNING
SPECIAL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS
FOR THE DISADVANTAGED
Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director
G. W. Neubauer, Assistant Director
Special Vocational Programs
C. L. Lowman, Consultant for Special Vocational Programs
Who Are the Disadvantaged? . ........ .. ..... 1
Characteristics of the Disadvantaged . . . . . . 2
Elements of Strength of the Disadvantaged . . 3
Vocational Education's Responsibility to the Disadvantaged . . 3
Types of Programs Possible . .... . .... . 4
Maximum Class Size . . . . ... . . . . 5
Home Visitations . . . ......... . . 5
Steps in Filing A Project Proposal and rant Request . . .. 6
Necessary Information to be Included in the Attachments . . 6
Nature of Project and People Served . . . . . 6
Need for Project . . . . . . . . . . 6
Description of Project . . . . . . . . 7
Cost Factors . . . . . . . . 8
VTAD-2 Form ..... . *......... . 9
Selected Bibliography . . . . . . . . . 12
SPECIAL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED
The Vocational Education Act of 1963 offers vocational educators along with
all educators, the greatest challenge and opportunity yet bestowed on edu-
cation. On them has been placed the responsibility of providing for the
occupational training needs of all people of all ages who want and need edu-
cation and training for occupations that match their interests and abilities.
Section 4, part (a), item (4) of the Vocational Education Act of 1963 states
funds are to be used for vocational education for persons who have academic,
socio-economic, or other handicaps that prevent them from succeeding in the
regular vocational education program. Also included in Section 4, part (a),
item (6) are ancillary funds which include among other items, funds for special
demonstration and experimental programs. Included in Section 13 of the Act
are funds to support a program of work-study for youngsters in need of such
support to continue or begin their vocational training.
Within the Act lies the possibility of providing for the occupational train-
ing needs of special groups that have not had adequate vocational education
opportunity in the past. Previously, the employment needs of these special
groups were met to some degree by the possibility of low-skill level jobs
or possible induction into a branch of the Armed Forces. Today automation
has done away with most of the entry or low-level types of jobs and higher
requirements by the Armed Forces have tended to eliminate the possibility
of induction for individuals with little education or skill training,
Who Are the Disadvantaged?
The word disadvantaged is an all inclusive word which encompasses many dif-
ferent handicaps possessed by individuals. When we use the word in this
context, we are referring to those individuals who have not been able to
tune their ways of living to the spirit and practice of modern life. This
condition or situation may have been caused by their cultural environment,
race, physical condition, mental ability, emotional stability, or any com-
bination of two or more of these factors.
The following list includes some of the groups that are generally considered
to fall into the disadvantaged classification.
The Puerto Rican
The sick and/or disabled
Those living in extreme rural areas
Those unable emotionally to meet the strain of our complex industrial
Th,:'e living in e.:.:.nAmi-:..iy depressed areas such as certain coal
mining areas or where human and natural resources are no longer
required by industry
Characteristics of the Dia'i-antaged
Disadvantaged Amer!i -ans are characterized by being on the outside of the
mainstream of American life and limited as to their opportunities to develop
their potentialities to the fullest. Theae limitations are the result of
family income and educational and occupational background, and in many cases,
local or national origin. These factors set irntc motion a cycle of cultural,
educational, and economic deprivation.
There is strong evidence that the individuals classified as disadvantaged
have a tendency to perpetuate their conditionn from one generation to the
next. ThcS~ born -nt such a situation may ne-rer find their way out unless
.society breaks the cycle by providing educational and employment possibilities
and adopting a more enlightened attitude in human relationships.
The individuals classified as disadvantaged are often thought of as being
part of "the o-ther America", an America that few of our citizens are famil-
iar with. Most citizens have few dealings across ethnic or racial lines or
few reasons for relationships with members of "the other America". Their
personal experiences would lend little to establish a basis for understand-
ing of their fellow citizens and in many cases they have little concern for
the welfare of others, et all that'many of the disadvantaged need to enter
the mainstream of American~ life is a measure of encouragement and support in
The following are some of the characteristics that the disadvantaged display:
Low-level reading ability
timlt.~i formal vocabulary
F-:c'r speech and dictij-n
A neget ive intellectual attitude
Sl:.w in :.ntelle~uaal performance
Ieluctance to accept responsibility
Apathy and- 1 k of self-c-:-r.nfide.nce
Limited social and cultural experience
These negative c, ar .e eristc combine int o a situation of limited'academ.c
talent possessed by the disadvantaged person. These persons in the past
were enr.-uraged to leave school at asge sixteen or before, and in most cases
found employment in some type of unskilled work. Tc lay business and industry
does not want this type of person and because of lack of employment oppor-
tunity the yc-urg,- er is f.r:el to stby in school. The resulting situation
in school is that of di.adlt~aged youngsters expected to take a watered-
down version of the ..c,.l .ge- Trep.rat:.ry curr.i.:ulum., sometimes failedd "general
education,". This curri.-ulua is not :cmpa+iybl with their interests and'needs
and the result is an unsatisfactory program plus a faculty that is frequently
unsympathetic and sometimes hostile.
Elements of Strength of the Disadvantaged
Most of the programs devised for training and education of the disadvantaged
tend to attack the weaknesses or deficits while very few attempt to build on
the strengths or positive features of these special groups. The fact that
an individual is slow in school does not necessarily indicate that he is dull,
but may indicate that he is extremely careful, cautious, or meticulous. Much
emphasis has been given to speed in our culture and in many cases has caused
many persons to be left behind in their education.
The fact that the disadvantaged are not as verbal as other students lends us
to believe that they are non-verbal. Yet in many cases they are highly ver-
bal in out-of-school situations. It would seem that advantage could be taken
of this kind of verbal ability.
Research has indicated that the disadvantaged have a positive attitude to-
wards education but a negative attitude towards school. They realize that
they are second class citizens in the school and react accordingly. It
would seem that their positive attitude towards education could be use to
Many of the problems of understanding the disadvantaged person stem from the
fact that he is not oriented to our middle-class or above type of culture
and we in turn are not oriented to his cultural level. Much attention needs
to be given to understanding the disadvantaged person before we can actually
understand what his problems are and in turn plan programs to assist him in
gaining entrance to the mainstream of American life.
Vocational Education's Responsibility to the Disadvantaged
Federal aid to vocational education prior to 1963 was directed to meeting
specific occupational needs in specific occupational categories. 'This pre-
vented vocational education from making an optimism contribution to the
economic growth of the country by causing vocational education to set such
standards and qualifications as to disqualify many potential students. In
most cases the disadvantaged p'erzcn was eliminated.
The passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963, with its modification
and expansion of previous vocational education legislation, has offered the
opportunity for many persons to now have the possibility of occupational
training to meet their specific needs that were not met before. Those
having special needs such as the handicapped, are specifically identified as
one of the groups to be served. This has real meaning in planning different
types of training programs geared to the special needs of the socio-economi-
cally handicapped, the educationally handicapped, the physically handicapped,
the mentally handicapped, or other identifiable handicaps.
The planning of new types of programs to meet the occupational training needs
of special groups has real implication for close working relationships with
other existing educational agencies having concern for the special needs of
individuals. These other agencies may include Special Education, Guidance,
Vocational Rehabilitation, Research, General Education, and others having a
concern for the special needs of people.
Program planning to meet the special needs of the disadvantaged should in-
clude concern for the total educational experience of the youngster including
both general education and vocational education. In many cases, basic edu-
cation will be necessary in order to prepare individuals to take advantage of
occupational training. The basic education may be in the form of remedial
class work or special class work preparatory for special types of occupa-
Planning for the occupational training needs of special groups should not
be limited to the more conventional types of vocational offerings, but should
include programs that are geared to meet the special needs of individuals.
These may include completely new types of training programs, offered in com-
pletely new administrative patterns, with joint responsibility with other
existing agencies having concern for the educational needs of individuals.
In most cases programs will be experimental in nature and therefore should
offer the possibility of trying new approaches and new techniques.
Types of Programs Possible
In spite of the fact that there are many negatives involved in the characteris-
tics of the disadvantaged, there are nevertheless many positive factors in
their favor and they can be motivated and can become proficient in situations
that interest them. They are willing to do the accepted thing and be re-
warded for their efforts. Most important to the disadvantaged person is
that someone really cares.
It is felt that programs may be started in the junior high school with young-
sters of 14 years of age or older. These programs should emphasize remedial
basis education where needed that closely relates to vocational training of
a general nature, rather than a specific type of vocational training. It
is important to treat each student as an individual case in order that more
specific job training can be offered as soon as the student can take ad-
vantage of it.
Programs developed for persons having handicaps of a specific nature, such
as a physical handicap or for persons with limited mental ability, can be
planned with a specific, repetitive type function in mind. Since they are
limited as to the function they can best perform, programs can emphasize
specific job training. It is still most important that the general education
received should relate as closely as possible to the vocational training re-
Programs planned for older youngsters can be more specific in nature depending
on the ability of the youngsters to take advantage of the training and also
in terms of employment possibilities in the placement area. Consideration
should be given to the overall educational, and training experience of the
youngster while he is in school. Therefore, planning should include a pro-
gressive program including a number of steps that progressively advance a
person to full-time employment. An application for funds may include a plan
for offering only one of the steps or may include an overall plan of job
training for disadvantaged persons.
Funds for program operation for the training of adults classified as dis-
advantaged may also be obtained. The procedure for a grant request would
follow the same pattern as for in-school or out-of-school youth.
Program planning should not be limited to the possibility of conforming to
conventional vocational training, but should be in terms of meeting the oc-
cupational training needs of individuals. As long as the plan is educationally
sound and contributes to the occupational training of individuals, there is
a good chance for funding.
Maximum Class Size
Persons having special needs demand more individual attention than the average,
therefore it is strongly recommended that classes contain no more than 15
students. This will allow the instructor to get to know the individual student
better and therefore plan to better meet his individual needs. The individ-
ual needs of a class will vary considerably necessitating instructors to plan
on an individual basis in most cases. This would necessitate considerable
time in gathering materials, in developing materials, and in planning at a
level that the student can best begin and progress in his work.
Classes involving students for physical education or other activities of a
large group nature could exceed the recommended 15 maximum. In many cases
it would be well to have the students mix with the rest of the school students
as much as possible in order to assist them in feeling that they are a part
of the total school student body and not an unusual group.
Home visitations would greatly assist instructors in gaining valuable infor-
mation about the student's home environment and in turn assist in the individ-
ual planning for the student. The home visitation will also give the instruc-
tors the opportunity to meet parents and/or guardians and acquaint them with
program intent. Group guidance or counseling sessions with parents may very
well develop as a result of home visitations. These sessions would not only
acquaint parents with the program but could also assist parents in improving
their home environment which would make conditions more inducive to learning
for the student. The involvement of parents with students in special pro-
jects may greatly enhance the educational process.
Steps in Filing a Project Proposal and Grant Request
Following the identification of a group of individuals having the need of
special vocational training and visualizing a possible plan for providing the
needed training, a request for funds to operate the proposed program may be
made on form VTAD-2 "Project Proposal and Grant Request". This form in-
cludes directions for the completion of the form and the inclusion of attach-
ments covering the nature of the project and people to be served, need for the
project, description of the project, and cost factors. Form VTAD-2 is sub-
mitted to the State Director of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
in triplicate along with triplicate copies of all attachments. The grant
request is reviewed by the Project Coordinating Committee in terms of the
value of the project's contribution to the education and occupational train-
ing of the special group. Depending on the judgement of the Project Co-
ordinating Committee and the availability of funds, a grant may be made to
the county to assist in support of the project. Notification of the Project
Coordinating Committee's action will be made on one copy of the Grant Request
and returned to the county. Funding will be for one fiscal year beginning
on July 1st and ending June 30th. The project may be renewed subject to the
Project Coordinating Committee's action based on further review, the success
of the project, and the availability of funds.
When completing a request for funds to operate a special vocational program,
it is strongly suggested that all details of the project are covered com-
pletely in order to give the Project Coordinating Committee a complete pic-
ture of the proposed action. The reverse side of the VTAD-2 form contains
directions for the completion of all necessary attachments. When the
writing of a project is completed, it may be read by a county staff person
not familiar with the idea of the project. If that person does not under-
stand a part of the project proposal, that is an indication that sufficient
detail has not been included and that portion of the project should be re-
Necessary Information to be Included in the Attachments
I. Nature of Project and People Served
This portion of the project should include a detailed description
of the group to be served including their characteristics and the
basis for grouping them for this project. A general overview of
the project should be included indicating the courses to be offer-
ed in both vocational and general education. The bases for selec-
tion of the vocational courses should be given, indicating whether
done as a result of research studies, interest inventory, employer
survey of job opportunities, etc. The general education courses
to be included should also be described with the bases for their
II. Need for Project
Background information should be given pertaining to the county
school program in general and more specifically, what is or is not
being offered for persons of the type described to be served in
this project. Information pertaining to studies made identifying
persons with special needs should be included as well as informa-
tion concerning other agencies involved in providing for special
needs such as Special Education and Vocational Rehabilitation.
Any surveys done in the community indicating placement possibilities
or employment needs should be described. Attitudes of county
staff and teaching personnel as to acceptance of the need for this
project should be indicated. Any and all information indicating
the need for this project however minute, should be included.
III. Description of Project
The information included in the attachments pertaining to the des-
cription of the project should be in detail and describe the or-
ganization of the project as to classes in vocational education as
well as classes in general education. Information should include
how, when, and where the courses are to be offered and how the gen-
eral education courses support or relate to the vocational training.
The details as to how the students will be scheduled should be in-
cluded. Descriptive information should be included that describes
how the students will be selected for certain types of vocational
training and how that training will progress to eventual employment.
Course outlines should be included for each occupation for which
training will be offered.
Qualifications of the personnel to be used in the project should
be included. This information should include the basic certifica-
tion requirement of a valid Rank III, Florida Certificate, plus
any special competencies that an individual should have in order
to instruct the class or training program. Personnel to be used in
counseling, testing, supervision, or any supportive role should be
included and information as to their expected qualifications should
be included. Positions should be described as opposed to describ-
ing certain individuals in mind because positions remain constant
while personnel change.
Supportive educational competencies needed for each type of occupa-
tional training should be outlined. The basic academic skills with
their application should be described. The plan for orientation to
the world of work should be outlined as well as outlining the
simple work-related skills necessary for all employees. Necessary
social skills to be developed in each occupation for which train-
ing is to be received should be outlined in terms of those necessary
for job entry.
Included in the attachment pertaining to evaluation should be
copies of the instruments to be used in gathering individual in-
formation. Any special techniques such as case studies, interviews,
or observations should be described. The total evaluation function
should be outlined from the beginning evaluation used to select
students for the project, the in-program evaluation, to the evalua-
tion to be completed at the end of the training period. Any
followup evaluation to be done should also be described.
IV. Cost Factors
The attachment including the budget should include a detailed
listing of items of equipment and/or supplies requested. The
listing should be done by type of occupational training program.
If you are to include three different types of occupational train-
ing programs in the project, three separate equipment lists should
be included. Duplication of items for two or more training programs
should be avoided.
Also included in the budget, should be salary and travel items as
well as custodial, secretarial, utility, and miscellaneous items.
All expenses that are to be paid by the county pertaining to the
project should be itemized in detail. Pro-rated portions of
supervisors and/or teachers salaries should be included as well
as any other pro-rated expenses. Careful consideration should be
given to the budget and its items and counties should avoid in-
cluding items of equipment and/or supplies of less than $10 per
item as they will not be approved.
PROJECT PROPOSAL AND GRANT REQUEST
Three (3) copies needed: Copies of the VTAD-2 are to be completed in detail
as indicated with all necessary attachments. There should be three (3)
copies of all attachments included. Signatures of the County Superintendent
and County Board Chairman must be included on all copies of the VTAD-2. One
copy of the VTAD-2 will be returned to the County indicating action taken by
the Project Coordinating Committee.
To be submitted in triplicate to the State Director, Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
VTAD-2 Tallahassee, Florida Project
(Rev. 7-65) Number (State Office Use)
Project Proposal and Grant Request
Fiscal Period July 1, through June 30,
Name of School County
School Address City
PROJECT NUMBERS OF GRANTS PREVIOUSLY APPROVED FOR THIS PROGRAM___-.
Name and position of person immediately responsible for supervision of project
Provide the following information according to directions on the reverse of this form by use of this sheet and attachments:
I. NATURE OF PROJECT AND PEOPLE TO BE SERVED
1. Occupation(s) in which training is to be given:
2. Kind of training Kind of Students and estimated enrollment
a. ( ) Pre-employment or a. Secondary--- Pre-employment S
preparatory b. Post-secondary ......
c. Adult (Ungraded)
b. ( ) Supplemental to d. Disadvantaged ......
employment e. School Dropouts ....
II. NEED FOR PROJECT
3. Evidence supporting immediate and projected need for training: (Attachment A)
III. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECTS
4. Briefly describe how the occupational goals identified in No. 1 above are to be met for the students identified
in No. 2 in terms of the following:
a. Project organization (Attachment B)
b. Qualifications of professional personnel (Attachment C)
5. Facility available for project (Attachment D)
6. Major units of occupational instruction (Attachment E)
7. Supportive educational competencies needed by students for training and employment (Attachment F)
8. Evaluation. Describe the specific procedures and devices to be used in determining the project's effectiveness
9. Approximate starting date for project:
IV. COST FACTORS
10. Expected Sources of Funds
STATE AND LOCAL FEDERAL TOTALS
Travel ---....-..---...... .------------...... ......
Equipment .-...-............-----------...-. ----
Instructional Supplies ......--------......
Other ...------ ---.... --..................-----.-
11. Tentative budget explanation (Attachment H)
12. Amount of federal funds requested $..... -------------.... .-------- .......
It is understood that instruction will be conducted in facilities meeting the minimum standards established by the State
Board for Vocational Education and described in Accreditation Standards for Florida Schools where applicable.
County Board Chairman
-- ----------------------"---- -----'---- - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -
(State Office Use Only)
DESCRIPTION BY PROJECT COORDINATING COMMITTEE:
( ) Approved ( ) Disapproved ( ) Further Information Requested
Date Reimbursement not to exceed $
Chairman, Coordinating Committee
10 State Director, Vocational, Technical, and
Adult Education for State Superintendent
and Executive Officer
The following directions are keyed to the number of items on Form VTAD-2.
I. NATURE OF PROJECT AND PEOPLE TO BE SERVED
1. Specify occupational cluster, occupation, or specific job for which training is to be provided (e.g., salesman,
retail store salesman, or appliance salesman; electronics technician, radio and television serviceman, or circuit
tester; general farmer, vegetable farmer, or tractor mechanic; secretary, stenographer, or file clerk; visiting
homemaker, homemaker's assistant, or caterer; etc.)
2. Check the kinds of training to be provided.
Check the kinds of students to be served and indicate the present or anticipated enrollment for the types
II. NEED FOR PROJECT
3. For each occupation listed in No, 1, provide statistical and other supporting evidence showing the extent of
immediate and projected need for the training in the community or geographical area to be served. Include
recommendation of advisory committee or endorsement of a representative number of employers who might
employ project's graduates, verification by Florida State Employment Service, and results of any recent occu-
III. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
4. Meeting Occupational Goals
a. For each occupation listed in No. 1, state the occupational entry level requirements which students will ac-
quire during participation in this project.
b. Describe the organization of the instructional program, including the number of class meetings, length of
class periods, student-teacher load, class structure (e.g., classroom instruction, supervised shop or laboratory
practice, cooperative plan, school-clinic program, in-plant or on-the-farm training, etc.) and any other
pertinent information relating to project organization.
c. Describe the professional and experience qualifications of each instructional, supervisory, research, and other
professional position which will be reimbursed by this grant.
5. Describe the facility to be used in carrying on project. Give type and permanency of structure, square footage,
number of work stations, per pupil work space, major capital outlay equipment available, etc. Include a sketch
or drawing of the floor plan.
6. List the major units of instruction to be included in the project. A course outline may be attached, if desired.
7. Describe the supportive education competencies required or desired in reading and writing, spelling and vo-
cabulary, arithmetic, science, etc., for (a) students to participate in the project and (b) persons entering employ-
ment in the occupation, (e.g., grade level reading comprehension, mathematical fundamentals needed, specific
scientific knowledge desired, etc.) Explain opportunities for students to acquire these competencies.
8. Describe in detail the specific procedures and devices to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of project and
explain how they will be used. (e.g., effectiveness of course objectives, course content, instruction, etc., as they
relate to employment requirements and job placement.)
9. Indicate the approximate date on which the project will begin. If an existing or on-going program insert
IV. COST FACTORS
10. Show expected or anticipated sources of funds which will be available to carry on this project. Include those
federal funds requested in this proposal.
11. Breakdown how the funds listed in No. 10 are to be spent. Under salary and travel list the individual positions
and amounts to be reimbursed, showing (a) name of person, (b) positoin, (c) amount of salary and/or (d) amount
of travel. For equipment and instructional supplies attach an itemized list, showing (a) item number, (b)
quantity, (c) description of item, (d) unit cost and (e) total cost.
12. Indicate the amount of federal funds requested for this project. This figure should be the total under "FED-
ERAL" in No. 10.
Culturally Deprived Child (The), Riessman, Frank, (Harper-New York, 1962),
Education in Depressed Areas, Passon, A. Harry, editor, (Columbia Univ. Press-
New York, 1963), p. 359.
Growing Up in River City, Havighurst, Robert H. & others, (Wiley-New York,
1962), p. 189.
Negro in the United States (The), Frazier, E. Franklin, (Macmillan-New York,
revised 1957), p. 769.
Other America (The), Harrington, Michael, (Macmillan-New York, 1962), p. 191.
Slums and Suburbs, Conant, James B., (McGraw-New York, 1961), p. 147
Work Study Programs for Alienated Youth, Burchill, George W., editor, (Science
Research Associates, Inc.-Chicago, 1962), p. 265.
PERIODICALS, ARTICLES, PAMPHLETS, AND REPORTS
Baltimore Bulletin of Education, Vol. XLI, No. 2, 1963-64, Baltimore, Md.
Curriculum Resource Materials for Meeting School Retention and Pre-Employment
Needs, Youth Achievement Program, Board of Education of the city of New York,
Curriculum Bulletin, 1960-61, Series No. 8.
Education and the Disadvantaged American, Educational Policies Commission,
National Education Association, Washington, D.C., 1962.
Guidance for Socially and Culturally Disadvantaged Children and Youth,
Graduate School, Yeshiva Univ., New York, 1963.
"Individual, Family, and Community", Duhi, Leonard J., and Chayes, Antonia
Hendler, Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 56, No. 8, October, 1964, pp. 579-
"Neglected Youth in Our High Schools", Wenrich, Ralph C., The Univ. of Mich.,
School of Education Bulletin, Vol. 35, February, 1964, No. 5.
"Issues in Educating the Culturally Disadvantaged", Kaplin, Bernard A,, Phi
Delta Kappan, November, 1963, pp. 70-76.
Programs for the Educationally Disadvantaged, U.S. Department of Health, Edu-
cation, and.Welfare (Office of Education), U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C., 1963.
School Programs for the Disadvantaged, Educational Research Service, National
Education Association, Washington, D.C., 1963.
"Socially Underprivileged Youth and the Schools", Bowman, Paul H. & Pellman,
Marine, The High School Journal, May, 1958, pp. 331-335.
"Wasted Talent", Bond, Horace M., The Nation's Children (Volume 2), Ginzberg,
Eli, New York, Columbia Univ. Press, 1960.
Youth in Conflict, Washington, Bennetta Bullock, Science Research Associates,
Inc., No. 5-48, 1963.
Youth We Haven't Served (The): A Challenge to Vocational Education, Kemp,
Barbara H., U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (Office of
Education), Washington, D.C., January, 1965.