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BETE GU DANC
BULEI 62 REISED
BULLETIN 62, REVISED
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
Table of Contents
Foreword ........................................ iv
Acknowledgments .................................... vi
1. Organization and Administration of Guidance Services 1
2. Individual Appraisal .................. .............. 18
3. Informational Services ............................... 37
4. Counseling ........................................ 47
5. Group Procedures in Guidance ....................... 53
6. Placement and Follow-up ............................ 61
7. Evaluation and Research ............................ 68
1. Information Sources .............................. 73
2. Specialization Requirements for Certification in Guia-
ance (Grades 1-12) ............................... 76
3. Sample of Test Interpretation ...................... 77
4. Selected Readings ............................... 81
T HE SIGNIFICANT increase in the number of Florida schools
instituting programs of guidance services in the past ten
years is a gratifying development. This growth can be attributed
directly to the satisfaction of administrators with the superior
job being accomplished by guidance workers in the schools. Not
only have educators themselves noted with pride the substantial
educational contributions of guidance personnel, but members of
lay committees evaluating Florida schools have also recognized
the progress being made in this area. An outstanding example of
this recognition is contained in the report and recommendations
of the Governor's Committee on Quality Education, which
Our society is committed to the premise that the individual is
of first importance. Each child should be permitted to progress
in a school program as far and as fast as his abilities and in-
terests will permit. If Florida is to obtain quality education, it
must give its children optimum chance to achieve successfully.
Guidance is a process of helping students understand them-
selves in the light of their abilities, aptitudes, and interests
and in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. In almost
every school visited, the Committee found counseling services
and a genuine appreciation of their importance. Where guid-
ance and counseling were an integral part of the school pro-
gram, the holding power of the school was greater.
In line with the stepped-up effort to increase and improve the
guidance services in our schools, this new state-level guide, a re-
vision of Bulletin 62, Better Guidance, Better Schools, offers as-
sistance and encouragement to the administrators, supervisors,
teachers, and guidance personnel who are responsible for devel-
oping and administering guidance programs in Florida schools.
Some of the information presented in the first bulletin remains
unchanged, but new information has been added which reflects
the progress that has been made in guidance and in Florida
during the past five years.
At the time the earlier guide was published, relatively little
had been written about guidance in the elementary school and
the junior high school. Although in this document full treatment
still has not been given to all phases of guidance at all school
levels, the guide does recognize that for increased effectiveness
differing emphases should be placed at the elementary-school,
junior-high, senior-high, and junior-college levels.
The committee responsible for developing this bulletin was
instructed to present for teacher use suggested procedures and
pertinent related information which would help educational per-
sonnel with the task of guiding school youth. Particular empha-
sis has been placed on implementation of these procedures in
Florida settings. There has been no attempt to deal with the sub-
ject of guidance as thoroughly or as comprehensively as might be
done in a textbook. Instead, this revision is limited to bringing
the material and information in the existing guide up-to-date
and to showing the changes that have taken place in viewpoint
and emphasis in the five years which have passed since publica-
tion of the original volume.
It is my sincere belief that this bulletin will serve well all the
counselors, teachers, supervisors, and administrators who are
responsible for providing a planned program of guidance services
for Florida youth.
THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
BETTER GUIDANCE, BETTER SCHOOLS was originally
developed in a workshop at the University of Florida in the
summer of 1959. This publication was received with such en-
thusiasm by teachers, administrators, and guidance personnel
that the supply was soon exhausted and a reprinting became
necessary. Because of the advances that had been made in Flor-
ida in education in general and in guidance in particular during
the years which had intervened, it was necessary to review and
revise the material before reprinting.
A committee of public-school guidance personnel and college
professors was named to work with the State Department of
Education to review and update the material in the bulletin. To
this committee goes a major portion of the credit for the revised
version of this guide.
Grateful acknowledgment is extended to all those who had
a part in the development and subsequent revision of this guide,
but especial appreciation must go to Dr. Harold Cottingham,
Professor and Head, Department of Guidance and Counseling,
Florida State University; Dr. William E. Hopke, Associate Pro-
fessor of Education, Florida State University; Dr. David Lane,
Associate Professor of Education, University of Florida; Dr.
Blanche Hardy, Area Coordinator of Guidance Services, North
Florida Junior College; Miss Dixie Allen, Counselor, Leesburg
High School; and Mr. J. Garland Wynn, Area Coordinator of
Guidance Services, Central Florida Junior College, who are pri-
marily responsible for the present revision.
State Department of Education personnel who worked closely
with the committee and provided leadership and strong profes-
sional support for the project include Dr. Victor B. Johnson, As-
sistant Division Director, Guidance and Testing, and Dr. Orville
Schmieding and Dr. Beverley Swan, Consultants, Guidance and
Testing, Division of Instructional Services.
Acknowledgment is also due Dr. Fred W. Turner, Director,
Division of Instructional Services, for his encouragement and
support of the project and Dr. Joseph W. Crenshaw, Assistant
Director, General Education and Curriculum, Division of In-
structional Services, who reviewed the material, made helpful
editorial contributions, and assumed major responsibility for
publication of the guide.
We are further indebted to Mr. J. K. Chapman and Mr.
Howard Jay Friedman for professional and technical advice and
assistance with lay-out, printing, and distribution.
The Organization and Administration of
YOUNG PEOPLE continually face problems in understand-
ing themselves and in making wise decisions. On every
side they are met with increasingly complex social and economic
patterns and widening occupational opportunities. With these
changes have come greater emphasis on individual differences
and the development of programs which seek to give systematic
aid to all students. School guidance programs are developed to
provide specific kinds of services for all children, not just for
those with serious difficulties. This development parallels that of
public education generally, since our public-school system
evolved as a way of meeting the demand for providing specific
kinds of instruction for all children.
The Organization of Guidance Services
Basic to the development of a good guidance program is the
identification of appropriate starting points. This identifying
process is most likely to be fruitful when insights are gained as
a result of a careful and critical analysis of what is already being
done and what else needs to be done. A desirable form of organi-
zation provides a framework within which guidance services can
be distinguished from those of the instructional program, even
though it is recognized that guidance and instruction are closely
related and have common goals. Guidance services, in some de-
gree, already exist as a part of the activities of almost every
school, ready to be discovered and utilized as integral compo-
nents of a planned guidance program. The objectives of a guid-
ance program are in harmony with the objectives of the total
school program. However, it cannot be assumed that a guidance
program can substitute for inadequate total school organization.
The guidance program is a group of services the purpose of
which is not to absorb the activities of other departments but to
Role of the Administration and Faculty
Effective organization demands that every staff member
have an understanding and appreciation of the objectives and
functions of the guidance program. While guidance services are a
direct responsibility of the administration, the involvement of
staff members and cooperation between administrators and the
staff are essential elements in a sound program. The administra-
tor sets up guide lines for cooperation as he delegates powers and
duties. Strong leadership ability in providing these guide lines
is increasingly required as schools grow in size and complexity.
As the attention of school personnel is expanded to integrate
student needs and the curriculum, acceptance of the vital role of
the guidance service will follow. Guidance programs operate
within the limits set up by the administration. The actual guid-
ance procedures will develop as the staff members grow in
competence to apply them.
Cost of the Guidance Program
The development of an adequate program will entail addi-
tional expense to the school. Therefore, it is essential to future
growth that consideration be given in the budget to providing for
adequate space, equipment, supplies, personnel, and time. Ample
time for competent individual counseling is accepted as a funda-
mental component of any program. Success is dependent upon
support of administrators, competence of guidance workers, con-
tributions of teachers, and utilization of community resources;
but the intangible factor of prime importance in this combination
is the effectiveness of the human relationships.
Nationwide research tends to indicate that the funds allotted
to the guidance program in the schools are presently between
five and eight percent of most school budgets. Included in the
expenditures for the guidance program should be:
1. Salaries for counselors
2. Salaries for secretarial assistance to the guidance program
3. Allocation for guidance materials, including certain stand-
ardized test materials
4. Allowance for special guidance services, such as test-scoring
5. Provision for office supplies and equipment and for postage
and miscellaneous expenses.
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 provided funds
for the implementation of guidance services in local schools. Un-
der the Florida State Plan, which was approved by the United
States Office of Education, county school systems submit re-
quests for such guidance provisions as salary support for guid-
ance personnel, secretarial assistance for guidance programs,
guidance materials including certain standardized aptitude and
achievement tests, and equipment for new guidance facilities.
Each county is entitled to a basic allocation, plus additional funds
on a per capital basis for each student enrolled in grades seven
Initiating and Developing a Guidance Program
Sound programs of guidance services do not mushroom over-
night. They are initiated as a result of careful planning on the
part of principals and faculty members. Everyone concerned
must understand what guidance services are and how they can
help facilitate the achievement of the educational objectives of
the school. Each faculty member must understand how he can
contribute to the guidance program and how it, in turn, can help
him do a better job.
First in order is a look at the ongoing school program. This
review should be conducted as objectively as possible, with the
primary consideration being to assess strengths and weaknesses
of the present program. Consideration should be given to self-
study, external evaluative criteria, and recommendations of
visiting review committees.
Next there should be a careful examination of the sugges-
tions of faculty members for improving the program of the
school. In what ways can certain goals be reached? Since there
is not an institution in our society which cannot be improved,
there should be no stigma attached to re-establishing goals.
Then, there should be an inquiry into the ways in which
guidance services can help the school implement or enrich its
program. One way in which this goal may be reached is for the
counselor to be alert to ways in which the curriculum may be
modified to meet student needs more effectively.
Guidance services in a school may serve as one way to meas-
ure the extent of the school's concern for the individual welfare
of its students. The philosophical assumptions underlying the
guidance program should be compatible with those of the school
as a whole. Ideally, everyone concerned with students should
have a guidance point of view. Although teachers see their stu-
dents in groups, they think of them as individuals. Teachers
generally consider their role as one which helps students under-
stand not only the subject matter but also the individual's own
involvement in it. The student who cannot involve himself in
subject matter or in the toal program of the school is the one
who causes the teacher the greatest amount of concern. One of
the ways in which the counselor and the teacher may comple-
ment each other is to try to find the channels through which
students can be helped to gain maximum benefits from an ap-
propriate school program. A common goal of all school workers
is to help students understand better themselves as well as the
world around them. There is, however, a difference in emphasis.
The counselor helps with personal concerns which may interfere
with learning experiences, while the teacher is primarily engaged
in transmitting information.
Only if teachers and counselors see themselves working
toward the same goals from slightly different angles can guidance
services be effective.
The school which has not been providing formal guidance
services and is now to undertake such a program will do well to
follow a series of well-defined steps in order to assure that a firm
foundation has been established:
1. The principal should appoint a guidance committee com-
posed of representative faculty members who will meet to
decide upon fundamental principles and necessary condi-
tions. This committee will make specific recommendations
to the principal, which will include suggestions for
a. tentative plans of organization, including long- and short-
b. the handling of such guidance materials as vocational
information, college catalogs, and test materials
c. in-service education in guidance concepts for teachers
d. the use and location of student records
e. the content and administration of a standardized test
f. the planning of facilities to house the guidance program.
2. When a counselor has been appointed, the members of the
guidance committee should help him get acquainted with
the school program and with student needs. The committee
and the counselor may wish to select from several services
those which should be initiated first. For instance, consid-
eration might be given first to any of these projects
a. an effective orientation for new students
b. a basic testing program
c. improvement of students' cumulative records
d. provision of counseling services which stress
(1) educational planning
(2) vocational planning
(3) personal-social development
(4) test interpretation
(6) planning for educational needs beyond high school
e. parent-counselor conferences
f. provision of more materials, such as
(1) occupational information
(2) college and university catalogs
(3) other post-high school educational information
(4) information on personal-social adjustment (groom-
ing, dating, etiquette)
g. working with the faculty.
The 1963 Accreditation Standards for Florida Public Schools
makes specific statements about the amount of time to be pro-
vided for guidance services. The standards are based upon the
assumption that each school provides an academic five-period
day, though this is not necessarily the case in all situations.
Standards are stated in three levels. Level three, which provides
that there shall be one counselor for every 375 students or one
counseling hour for every seventy-five students, is maximal.
Level two, which specifies one counselor for every five hundred
students or one counseling hour for every one hundred students,
is better than minimal. Level one, which is the minimal accredi-
tation level, requires one counselor for every 625 students or one
counseling hour for every 125 students enrolled. Until 1966, to
allow some schools to acquire counseling personnel, minimum
accreditation may be achieved by providing one counselor for
every one thousand students enrolled in the secondary school.
Space for Guidance Programs
A well-functioning guidance program requires adequate
space. As a first consideration, the counselor should have a pri-
vate office. This office must have a door which can be closed.
Another primary consideration is an outer office or waiting
room for students. It is unthinkable for students to wait in the
halls to see the counselor. An attractively furnished waiting room
should have bookshelves containing guidance materials which
students may read while waiting to see the counselor. There
should be several chairs (armchairs, if possible) and reading
lamps. A desk and a comfortable chair should be provided for a
The guidance suite should also have a conference room and a
room for individual testing. Individual tests are usually given
to students who transfer into the school from another commu-
nity. Since the new student's records usually do not arrive until
after he has been in school for a while, special tests may be nec-
essary to place the student appropriately at the outset rather
than to place him tentatively and have to make adjustments later.
In schools where many new students arrive during the year, an
individual testing room is a necessity.
The conference room should be used when the space in the
counselor's office is not adequate for the size of the group. It
should be available for case conferences with other members of
the "helping professions" (medical personnel, psychologists, and
social workers), for meetings with teachers, and for group meet-
ings with students. It may also be used for group guidance
sessions (see Chapter 5).
The planning of the guidance office is important. It should not
be so close to the administrative suite that those who are going
back and forth to the principal's office may observe who is wait-
ing to see the counselor. On the other hand, it should be close
enough to the main offices to make it easy for administrative per-
sonnel to reach the guidance office. The office should be accessible
not only to students and teachers but also to parents who may not
be familiar with the school. If possible, the office should be
located apart from the health clinic, since the counselor should
not be called upon to supervise the clinic nor to meet physical
health emergencies. It should be impossible for private counsel-
ing interviews to be overheard by students who are in the health
clinic or any adjacent area.
Storage space is important in a guidance suite. Since many of
the materials used for guidance purposes cannot be stored neatly,
space for out-of-sight storage should be provided for them. Ade-
quate closets and cabinets are essential. Some of these should be
equipped with locks.
The furnishings of the guidance suite should be appropriate
and reflect good taste. The counselor's office should contain at
least a desk, a chair for the counselor, and two additional chairs
for conferees or counselees. If possible, there should be draperies
at the window to provide an atmosphere as homelike as can be
achieved in an office. The counselor should always have a private
Although many guidance materials may be found in the
school library, the counselor's outer office should contain books
and materials which relate to the guidance program. These
should be arranged on bookshelves in such a way that students
may find them easily. One section should be set aside for recent
college catalogs. Another section should contain announcements
from post-high school vocational technical institutions. There
should be a plainly marked place for materials which relate to
Vocational materials may be located in several places. A sec-
tion on the counselor's bookshelves for books and pamphlets
about vocations, a cabinet in the counselor's office for materials
which do not come in standard sizes, and a vertical file of voca-
tional materials in the school library are examples of possible lo-
cations. The library materials may or may not duplicate the ma-
terials found in the counselor's office. There should also be some
occupational information available in classrooms, particularly in
social studies classrooms where a unit on vocations is appropriate
and often taught.
The guidance office should also have a supply of films, film-
strips, posters, and charts which may be used for specific guid-
ance purposes with faculty, students, or parents. These should be
kept up-to-date and in good repair.
The counselor should also have a supply of professional books
in his office which he may consult for specific information when
needed or may lend to members of the faculty and staff for in-
formal in-service training purposes. The counselor's professional
library may be composed of books which he owns and books
which are purchased for the professional guidance library by the
The Administration of a Guidance Program
Administering a guidance program in a public school neces-
sarily involves taking into consideration many factors. Probably
the most important of these is the over-all administrative pat-
tern in the state and locality. Other significant factors are facili-
ties for in-service training of teachers, the relationship between
the school and the community, and the types of curriculum pro-
grams available in the school.
Florida's School Organization
The administrative organization of the schools in Florida is
unique in this country. The State Board of Education sets the
general policies and requirements, the county boards have re-
sponsibility for all the schools within the county, and in the in-
dividual schools the principals are in charge of operations. This
form of organization emerged as a result of the work of a citizens'
committee and the passage of the Minimum Foundation Law in
There are no independent school districts in Florida, since the
county constitutes the school district in each case. There are
sixty-seven counties in the state and sixty-seven coinciding
school districts. Under the Minimum Foundation Plan, it is pos-
sible to offer all children of each county at least minimal services
and facilities. This plan is an attempt to equalize educational
opportunities for children whether they attend school in a
wealthy county or a county with more restricted resources.
This plan of county districts as whole units makes each
county school board responsible for setting broad policies for
the administration of all schools in the county under the general
policies of the State Board of Education. The principal of each
school, therefore, is responsible for carrying out the policies of the
county school board as they pertain to his school.
The superintendent and the county school board make policies
regarding the organization of guidance in the county schools and
also provide for financing the program. It is the principal of each
local school, however, who is responsible for the organization and
administration of the guidance services within his school. The
kind of program a school has will depend upon the principal, the
faculty, and the students who derive the benefits from a good
The structure of Florida's state school system makes for rela-
tively easy organization and administration of guidance programs
at all levels. The State Department of Education provides a pro-
fessional staff of consultants who are available to help with the
development of guidance programs at the local-school level.
Part of the responsibility of all guidance personnel is to in-
terpret to colleagues the philosophy and functions of guidance
services. Despite the fact that guidance services have been pro-
vided in Florida schools for the better part of the past decade,
there is still some confusion about the appropriate role for guid-
ance to play in the school. One of the duties of the counseling
staff is to provide both formally and informally in-service infor-
mation to fellow faculty members and to the administrative staff
of the school. In-service guidance education may include:
1. Discussing the contribution of guidance services at regularly
scheduled faculty meetings
2. Providing consultants or speakers in guidance areas at pre-
school planning meetings
3. Furnishing professional guidance books and other materials
to faculty members
4. Cooperating with special committees on guidance-related
functions (for example, career days, test planning commit-
tees, and orientation committees)
5. Informing new teachers about guidance services of the
Resource personnel from outside the school who can assist
with the guidance program include:
1. County-level staff members
2. Faculty members from colleges and universities
3. State Department of Education consultants
4. Other special professional guidance consultants.
Leadership Functions in Guidance
Guidance leadership is a leadership of ideas. It is finding ways
in which to help others in a more effective manner. It is some-
times overt, sometimes covert. It is sometimes stated, sometimes
Where there is a large guidance staff, there is a need for coor-
dination. Sometimes the principal is the leader who coordinates
the work of the various staff members; more typically, he dele-
gates this duty to one of the guidance staff members. Though
the staff member may carry some such title as Guidance Director,
his service is less a directing one than an organizing one. The
term Guidance Coordinator may be more appropriate.
One of the innovations of the state-wide guidance program in
Florida has been the employment of county-level guidance su-
pervisory personnel throughout the State. The person who holds
the position usually carries the title of County (or Area) Coor-
dinator of Guidance Services. His is a leadership job, and he is
charged with the responsibility for developing guidance programs
in the schools of the county or area in which he works. He may be
employed in only one county, or in rural areas he may serve
several counties which have agreed to cooperate in order to pro-
vide a higher type of guidance leadership than any one of them
would be able to provide alone.
The County (or Area) Coordinator of Guidance Services may
be responsible for the following aspects of the guidance program:
1. Counseling Personnel
a. Employment, retention, transfer, or release of counseling
b. Supervision, with the principal, of guidance personnel in
c. Coordination of regularly scheduled meetings of all coun-
selors in the county or area
d. Provision of in-service education opportunities for the
e. Consultation with teachers or other persons who are in-
terested in achieving guidance certification.
a. Articulation between schools, particularly between feeder
and parent schools
b. Coordination of the college day and career day programs
c. Development of research programs
d. Planning, with county staff, for the over-all educational
program in the county, including both long-range and
a. Planning, with school staffs, for appropriate standardized
b. Assistance with selection and provision of test materials
c. Assistance (where needed) with test administration
d. Provision of scoring services for tests and for returning
of test results to each school counselor.
4. Professional Relationships
a. Establishment of a good working relationship with all re-
ferral resources in the community
b. Provision of regularly scheduled conferences with other
school personnel who are members of the "helping pro-
c. Provision of in-service training opportunities in guidance
for all teachers
d. Liaison activities with the community junior colleges
e. Interpretation of guidance philosophy to school adminis-
f. Maintenance of a close relationship with personnel in the
State Department of Education in order to facilitate com-
munication between county and state guidance programs.
5. Budgets and Materials
a. Provision of materials for all guidance programs
b. Recommendation concerning budgets for guidance pur-
poses, both at the county and the individual school levels
c. Submission of requests for National Defense Education
A sound basis for a good relationship between the guidance
program and the community is a job well done. It is essential that
organizations and individuals be made aware of the activities and
results of the guidance program. This communication will depend
in a large measure on the students, since it is they for whom the
program functions and since they have the most contact with
parents and with many others of the general public. A program
that stimulates the interest and participation of students will be
more readily understood and accepted by the community.
The following suggestions are a few of many methods which
may be effectively used to enlighten the public about guidance
1. A mimeographed bulletin may be sent to parents outlining
the purposes of the guidance program.
2. A booklet prepared by the State Department of Education
may be distributed to the parents of all new secondary-
3. Parent-teacher organizations or other interested groups may
be encouraged to form an advisory committee, composed of
a cross-section of adult and student citizens of the commu-
nity. Such a group can provide specific community contacts
and can enrich the guidance program in a variety of other
4. Specialists in various fields of child development may be
asked to speak at meetings to which the general public is
5. The school principal and other members of the staff may
wish to take advantage of opportunities to discuss a growing
guidance program as a part of talks they are asked to make
before various community groups.
6. Articles on significant and timely aspects of the guidance
program may be submitted for publication to local and re-
gional newspapers and periodicals.
Guidance and the Curriculum
The relationship between guidance and the curriculum is a
close one. Many of the considerations which contribute to a good
curriculum also apply to an effective guidance program. The term
curriculum as it is used here includes all learning experiences
planned by the school, whether they be classroom activities or
others that are sometimes labeled extracurricular.
It is not possible to compartmentalize aspects of the school
program and separate one from another, since they are mutually
interdependent. What the students are able to do in the classroom
is determined by many factors, not all of them discretely acad-
emic or intellectual. The appropriateness of the course content to
the needs of the individual student determines in large measure
his responses to it. In turn, the student's interest level in the
material which the teacher is presenting often determines the
teacher's technique of instruction, the depth and scope of his
presentation, and the teacher's own challenge in the classroom.
All teachers agree that it is more stimulating to teach an inter-
ested, eager group of young people than it is to teach apathetic
and bored ones.
Guidance is concerned with the content of the curriculum. The
counselor, in recommending curriculum modifications, draws
upon many resources. He talks to parents and to students about
appropriateness and effectiveness of courses. He conducts fol-
low-up surveys of those who have graduated or left school and
determines course value as viewed by these young persons in
retrospect. He talks to the principal about current and recollected
The counselor also evaluates the results of the standardized
testing program. Most test batteries measure both the sample of
behavior from which we draw inferences about ability and that
from which we draw inferences about achievement. For example,
a large discrepancy which exists between two scores merits in-
The counselor must be alert to the needs of all students, not
just to those who are active and articulate. All students must be
involved in the process of education in order to contribute to the
process and to receive from it a full measure of value. Many stu-
dents would slip through school unnoticed except for the efforts
of the counselor. These efforts are worth making, for the school
suffers if all students do not feel themselves to be a part of it.
The counseling program in the local school does not stand
alone. It is part of a large professional association which is sup-
ported by sound educational objectives. The staff member of the
individual school may seek the assistance of any of several sources
First, he may always turn to the members of his own faculty
and to the administrator of his school for help in the implement-
ing of his program. They stand ready to support his program in
both tangible and intangible ways. For example, almost all teach-
ers will be glad to help the counselor work up materials which
will aid students in occupational choices. The teacher in any sub-
ject-matter field is well versed in the many careers to which
study of his subject can lead. Intangible support is given when
the teachers present to the students positive attitudes about the
worth of the guidance program in the school.
The relationships which the counselor establishes with county-
level personnel, particularly with those who are in the "helping
professions," may serve to determine in part the quality of the
services which he is able to provide for the students in his school.
The school psychologist and the school social worker (visiting
teacher) are eager to be of help and should be consulted fre-
quently. The working relationship among counselors, school psy-
chologists, school social workers, and health officers should be a
close and confident one. Case conferences should be held on a reg-
ularly scheduled basis with these persons. The principal of the
school should be included in such conferences whenever possible,
as should faculty members who have information to contribute
about the problems of the students who are being discussed. Non-
school personnel who may often be invited to participate in case
conferences may include counselors from the juvenile court, em-
ployment service counselors, and various welfare workers who
may have a special interest in or knowledge about the students
The guidance staff of the State Department of Education is
available to work with both individual-school personnel and
county-level personnel. State Department of Education personnel
work as consultants, not supervisors, and their purpose is to help
those in guidance find ways in which to improve their own pro-
grams. Arbitrary standard-setting is not the objective of the state-
level guidance service.
The United States Office of Education has a branch which is
devoted to guidance services. Its consultants are concerned with
such special aspects of the guidance field as program development;
the production of guidance materials; and research, experimenta-
tion, and investigation. Personnel in the United States Office of
Education work closely with the guidance staffs in the fifty state
departments of education to provide support and leadership in
the development of state programs. The focus of all agencies con-
cerned with guidance is the best interest of the individual student
in the local school.
The counselor also establishes and maintains mutually helpful
relationships with members of his own administrative staff. He
and the principal have a joint obligation to provide the best pos-
sible guidance program for the students in the school. The princi-
pal relies on the counselor to contribute the skills and techniques
which will make this possible. However, he works out guidance
objectives not only with the counselor himself but also with mem-
bers of his faculty. He recognizes the fact that choices must be
made in implementing the guidance program, for there are time
and space limitations which seldom make it possible to provide
all services which may be considered desirable. Unless teachers
and counselors have compatible aims for students and school,
there is a chance for misunderstanding. Teachers should compre-
hend the ways in which counseling enables them to reach instruc-
tional goals more quickly and more effectively. Neither the
teacher nor the counselor can plan alone. They must recognize
their mutual dependence in working toward the improvement of
the total school program. If misunderstandings arise, it is probably
better for the counselor to make the first attempt to resolve
them, rather than to wait for others to move toward him.
Parents need to feel that the counselor is a special resource
person on whom they can call in the school. The relationship of
counselors to parents should be one of mutual and deep-rooted
interest in the student himself. If concern about the individual
student is uppermost in both of their minds, the association be-
tween counselors and parents will be productive.
The counselor is in a position to build a stronger school or-
ganization, if he makes full use of his many opportunities. His po-
sition makes it possible for him to develop effective relationships
with many individuals. Because of his unique place in the school,
he is able to interpret practices and philosophies to others in a
way which may enable them to achieve new points of view about
many different educational problems and procedures.
This chapter has attempted to deal with the components in the
organization of guidance services within the school. It has called
attention to the factors which underlie initiating an effective guid-
ance program. Such things as administrative understanding and
support, cooperative planning for the introduction of counseling
services, and the provision of adequate facilities and supplies must
be achieved before satisfactory services can be established.
When a guidance program is in operation, it will reflect the
individual needs of the school. Schools differ in the extent to
which some services are required, but all guidance programs
may be identified by the activities which are designed to imple-
ment or enhance total school program. Counselors will hold con-
ferences with students, parents, teachers, and administrators;
they will work with county and state educational personnel; in
cooperation with other staff members, they may plan and carry
out such programs as orientation, testing, and college and career
days. The purpose of all the counselor's endeavors is to help
provide a more effective school program for each individual stu-
ONE OF THE objectives of any educational program is to
provide beneficial experiences for each student. Intelligent
provision for individual differences can be made only on the basis
of accurate and reliable information.
One goal of a well-organized guidance program is the pro-
vision of accurate and reliable information about the ways in
which individual students differ. This aspect of guidance is called
Data obtained by appraisal are needed in order to help stu-
dents increase self-understanding, select desirable educational
experiences, make wise educational and vocational choices, and
solve a variety of other problems. Teachers use these data to help
plan instructional activities which increase student self-under-
standing, individualize instruction, and assist them when con-
ferring directly with students. Appraisal services provide the
school administrator with a means of assessing the effectiveness
of the instructional program and with pertinent information for
making decisions regarding the curricular offerings of the school.
Counselors use the appraisal services to meet the guidance needs
Information about students must be handled in a strictly con-
fidential manner. Care should be taken that information which
is available to the non-professional members of the school staff
is sufficiently innocuous that no student is hurt by the revealing
of the facts. In this connection it must also be remembered that
staff members of the several agencies which work with the school
may want to look at cumulative records and other evidences of
pupil performance and courts may subpoena records in certain
cases. In these instances, one cannot always count on privileged
communication. It is hardly necessary to point out that all pro-
fessional members of the staff who use cumulative records should
invariably use them with discretion.
Techniques and Records
Some of the techniques and records used for obtaining, main-
taining, and transmitting information about students include:
1. Cumulative Record
3. Personal Data Blank
4. Anecdotal Record
5. Health History
7. Ranking Scales
8. Sociometric Devices
9. Parent-Teacher Contacts
10. Standardized Tests
11. Data Systems
The cumulative record is designed to give a longitudinal pic-
ture of student growth and development. This source of informa-
tion provides a basis for attempting to understand causes of
The record should include name, present home address, date
of birth, place of birth, authority for birthday, sex, names of
parents, parent's occupation, marital status of parents, and ad-
dresses of both parents, if different. The number and ages of
brothers and sisters will help give a more complete picture of
family life. Additional useful information includes statements
concerning parents' economic status, student's relationships with
members of his family, his cultural environment, languages
spoken in the home, and the type of community in which the
home is located. A record of former consecutive addresses may
be of help to the counselor since it will indicate the mobility of
the family. Academic grades and records of performance on
standardized tests should also be included.
One of the most effective methods of gathering data is the
interview. Interviews may be conducted to obtain information
from students, parents, other relatives, and friends of the student.
As is true of most guidance techniques, however, the inter-
view has limitations and possible pitfalls as well as advantages.
Interviewers must constantly guard against distorting or misin-
terpreting information because of their own preconceived ideas.
For example, temporary uneasiness on the part of a student in
the unfamiliar interview situation does not necessarily mean
that he is a chronically "nervous child." The social, economic, or
ethnic group from which he comes does not necessarily justify
generalizations about him. All people have biases. Teachers and
guidance workers have a responsibility to try to recognize their
own biases and to prevent them from interfering with a clear
understanding of people.
In preparing for an interview it is usually desirable to obtain
as much information as possible about the student. In some cases,
the teacher or counselor may wish to use the first interview as
a starting point. Not all interviews are necessarily planned con-
Since information from an interview should become a part of
the data in the cumulative folder, records should be made im-
mediately and placed in the student's folder. Such records may
1. Statements of the content of the interview
2. Notes on follow-up steps taken and results
3. Observations concerning poise, manner, appearance, and
mood of the student during the interview.
It should be understood that interviewing and counseling are
not synonymous terms. An interview is conducted to gain or to
give specific bits of information. Counseling, on the other hand,
involves assisting the student to increase his level of self-un-
derstanding and his understanding of his environmental oppor-
tunities. In counseling, the student comes to understand that the
choices and decisions made are his own and not those of the
counselor. (For more specific information about the counseling
method see Chapter 4.)
Interviews with students may be held at any time. No one
time during the school year is more appropriate for interviewing
than another. However, some counselors try to establish the
custom of interviewing
1. when a new student transfers into school
2. before the student goes on to the next academic level
3. every semester, in order to discuss educational plans and
An interview session may be allowed to develop into coun-
seling if the student so desires. The interview may sometimes
serve as an initiator for a counseling session.
Personal Data Blanks
The personal data blank provides background information
which is essential to the understanding of the individual. Data
blanks consist of questions to be answered and phrases to be
completed under the following categories: home background,
family, academic experiences, interests, out-of-school activities,
health, work experience, peer relationships, and aspirations. The
personal data blank provides much of the basic information in-
cluded in the cumulative record, hence it can be used for peri-
odic updating of the student's folder. It usually is completed by
entering students, by parents for students, or by students who
The anecdotal record consists of a narrative report of signifi-
cant observations made of the student in his daily activities. An
adequate sampling of typical behavior involves the recording of
observations taken from a variety of situations. Records from
several teachers will give a more accurate picture than will those
from one teacher alone. Reports should include only enough ma-
trial to illustrate an individual's characteristic pattern of be-
havior, to show his progress toward accomplishing particular
developmental tasks, to reveal the adjustment problems which
he faces, or to portray his reactions to crises or other events of
special significance to him.
The number of anecdotal comments to be recorded may vary
among schools or even within one school. School policy will de-
termine the extent to which detailed records are needed. In any
case, it seems obvious that if an adjustment problem is evident
it will be necessary to record observations more frequently than
at other times.
A good anecdotal record has three qualities: it is concise, ob-
jective, and impartial. To increase the validity of the observa-
tion, it is important that it be recorded as soon as possible after
the behavior has been observed.
Autobiographies are a self-report appraisal tool which con-
tain potentially valuable information to counselors. They are
particularly helpful when an educator is attempting to assess
student self-concepts, aspirations, values, and attitudes. Students
should be requested to write autobiographies in such a way that
they move from specific facts about life experiences to the
potentially more revealing areas of values, style of life, feelings
about self, and ambitions.
Not everyone is qualified to read and interpret autobiogra-
phies. Their use as an assessment device should be limited to
those who have had experience enough to understand which in-
ferences may validly be drawn from reading them. Some stu-
dents enjoy writing about themselves and will do so freely.
Others find an autobiography a difficult assignment. They find it
hard to think of anything to say and to express their ideas
clearly. It is probably better that the student be given some gen-
eral idea of what is expected of him-whether he is to recount
experiences in his life or to tell what he believes about certain
ideals or issues.
The mental and physical health conditions of the student are
of importance to the guidance worker. They may provide valu-
able and important clues to student problems. The health rec-
ord is the recommended place to begin when the counselor aids a
student with a problem. All health facts which pertain to vision,
hearing, speech, and other physical conditions should be recorded
on a cumulative health record form for use by both counselors
A student's detailed health history may be kept on a separate
insert sheet in his cumulative record folder. Instructions for ac-
quiring and recording these data may be found in Health Pro-
grams in Florida Schools, Bulletin 4D, Revised, Florida State
Department of Education.
Ranking scales can be helpful appraisal tools if the character-
istics to be rated are clearly defined and the rater is in a position
to observe the specified traits. They are used to obtain teacher
judgments of student characteristics which may be difficult to
measure objectively. Teachers are asked to rank students in or-
der. Their opinions are predicated upon their impression of the
degree to which a student possesses a given quality. Such scales
are preferred by some teachers to rating scales which may be
subject to logical errors, halo effects, and central tendencies.
The skillful use of sociometric devices can do much to enhance
conditions for student learning. The teacher's knowledge of the
sub-group structure of the classroom may be an important factor
when he is to make decisions about class activities. For instance,
activities which seem to appeal to the leaders of the class gen-
erally may be appealing to the followers.
Sociograms may be considered a source of temporary informa-
tion which can be helpful to teachers as they attempt to under-
stand their students. Elementary teachers, who are with a group
of children for a considerable period of time, will want access to
information about the interpersonal relationships of individuals
in their classes.
Each aspect of behavior may be studied through the use of a
separate sociogram. For example, one may wish to examine the
choices that students make when they are asked to select persons
with whom they would like to work. Their choices here are
focused upon the work aspect of group behavior. Another pat-
tern may be manifested if students are asked which members of
the group they want to sit with at an entertainment or party.
The two sociograms, when compared, may be quite different.
In developing a sociogram, the teacher usually asks each child
to choose in each instance three members of the class. The
teacher then tabulates and charts the results thereby creating a
visual aid by which he can assess the degree to which each child
is sought after, ignored, or rejected by the group. It is important
to recognize the fact that choices may change rapidly, especially
among very young children.
When the teacher or counselor visits the student's home or
invites a parent to the school for a conference, he obtains impor-
tant information which can be obtained in no other way. A home
visit is far more valuable as an appraisal technique than a tele-
phone conversation or a note from home. It may be advisable to
schedule the home visit when both parents can be present. It is
usually wise to make an appointment to call upon the parents,
rather than to make an unexpected visit.
Information such as parent attitudes toward school or toward
the child may prove of great value when the counselor attempts
to understand the student and to help provide meaningful experi-
ences for him. Many students appreciate the effort which the
counselor has made to come to know him and his parents better.
Objections to home visitation are often raised by school people,
some of whom maintain that it is impossible to find time enough
to visit a sufficient number of homes to make the effort worth-
while. The experiences of many Florida teachers and counselors
tend to refute this argument. There are counties which have
planned programs of home visitation in which ninety-nine per
cent of the homes have been reached successfully. It is important
to recognize that even the most workable plans will take time to
develop successfully; early disappointments should not cause
abandonment of a basically sound program.
With the ever expanding school population and the demand
for speed in transmitting information about individuals, new
methods of handling data are needed. Recent technological ad-
vancement has made possible the collection, organization, dis-
semination, and storage of vast quantities of information about
With electronic data processing, school systems are able to
collect, organize, store, retrieve, and communicate meaningful
and comprehensive information about students. By use of com-
puters, much larger quantities of information can now be han-
dled than could have been handled before. Guidance services to
individual students can be greatly expanded. It should now be
possible to provide information so extensive that curricula and
methods of instruction may be adapted to the needs of the in-
dividual student. Unlimited research possibilities present them-
selves when computer service is available.
The Testing Program
A standardized test is an objective measure of a sample of be-
havior. Test results form only a small part of the information
known about a student. Standardized tests do not take the place
of locally made tests but do supplement them with results that
can be compared statistically with those of other groups.
For convenience, tests may be grouped according to the kinds
of behavior which they sample. Standardized tests may be clas-
1. Achievement Tests
The current trend in testing is to consider the achievement
test as a measurement of understanding of concepts in a
broad area of knowledge. This concept is a departure from
the traditional view that achievement tests should measure
specific information acquired in subject-matter fields. These
achievement tests which combine these purposes are de-
signed to obtain a measure of the student's acquired knowl-
edge and of his ability to apply that knowledge in practical
2. Intelligence and Scholastic Aptitude Tests
Intelligence may be considered an individual's capacity to
learn. It is becoming increasingly clear that there is no one
general intelligence, but that there are several intelligence,
each relating to a different kind of learning skill. Thus,
scholastic aptitude is in reality a particular kind of intelli-
gence which deals with the ability to learn typical academic
materials and concepts.
3. Special-Aptitude Tests
In keeping with the concept of the existence of different
kinds of intelligence, it is recognized that there are special
aptitudes which are not measured by the traditional intelli-
gence tests. Tests have been designed to measure specialized
aptitudes in areas such as art, music, mechanical skills, and
4. Interest Inventories
Although interest inventories are properly included in test-
ing programs, it is important to recognize that, technically,
they do not qualify as tests. They do not measure ability nor
skill, nor will the questions yield answers that are right or
wrong. Interest inventories, as their name implies, inven-
tory the conscious interests of a person at a given time. They
are helpful in guiding students when used together with
tests and other guidance techniques.
5. Personality Questionnaires
Personality questionnaires, like interest inventories, are not
tests. They are, rather, a student's view of his personal ad-
justment, which may sometimes contribute to the student's
understanding of himself. They are often designed to deal
with problems of social acceptance, finance, religion, family,
and sex. As is the case of the interest inventory, it is impor-
tant to recognize that these instruments reflect current atti-
tudes, not necessarily permanent ones, and that this fact
places a limitation on their usefulness.
The first consideration that those responsible for developing a
testing program will want to take into account is the status of
existing programs, such as the state-wide testing at the ninth-
and twelfth-grade levels and the minimum county testing pro-
gram. At the senior-high-school level, test selection decisions will
be somewhat affected by tests administered by other agencies,
such as the General Aptitude Test Battery given by the Florida
State Employment Service, the National Merit Scholarship Ex-
amination, the National Educational Development Test, the Col-
lege Entrance Examination Board Tests, the American College
Testing Program, and the state scholarship examinations for
teachers and nurses. Only after thorough consideration of the
total program can decisions be reached as to selection of tests,
dates for testing, and other questions related to planning and
When the potentialities and accomplishments of pupils are
known, the school and pupils are in a better position to plan
toward achieving educational goals. The goals most directly re-
lated to testing procedures include:
1. educational and vocational counseling
2. curriculum revision
3. individual analysis
4. identification of exceptional children
5. evaluation of teaching
There is a need for accurate and reliable information about
student abilities, achievement, interests, and other individual
characteristics. This information plays an important part in plan-
ning for college and for vocational objectives, working out in-
dividual schedules, and promoting successful academic progress.
Testing can be of considerable aid to the counselor as he works
with students in these areas. For instance, the state-wide Ninth-
Grade Testing Program in Florida provides information about
potential college success in time to help pupils prepare for col-
lege by selecting an appropriate high-school program of studies.
Prior to the inauguration of the ninth-grade program, compara-
tive state-wide information was not available until late in the
twelfth grade, often too late to be of any practical help in indi-
Curriculum Revision. When used in a judicious manner, stan-
dardized tests can make a significant contribution to curriculum
revision. Tests may be particularly helpful to the faculty revising
its courses of study. Individual teachers may use test results for
the improvement of their own instruction. Since curriculum is
usually defined as all the experiences children have in school, it
is important to recognize that there is a difference between cur-
riculum and course of study. Regardless of the frame of reference
used, tests can play a helpful part.
It is obvious that testing can be misused in curriculum revision
as easily as in other areas. For instance, one would not want to
judge a curriculum on the basis of achievement tests alone. Only
by measuring achievement in relation to the ability of the achiev-
ers can the school hope to get a realistic appraisal of how suit-
able the present program is for meeting the needs of students.
Individual Analysis. No matter what position one takes on the
question of grouping children for instruction, it is unavoidable
that some grouping decisions must be made. As school personnel
make these decisions, it is wise to get help from test results.
Measures of readiness, academic ability, and achievement will
aid the teacher and administrator in assigning children to ap-
As schools attempt to place children in the most appropriate
situations for learning, each child must be evaluated for place-
ment. A group test will provide information that will facilitate
placement for a majority of the children. However, there will be
some, particularly those of high and low ability, who will require
individual testing for complete assessment of their actual poten-
tialities. If the current interest in the education of gifted children
is to lead to constructive planning, it is vital that the schools
recognize that the first step in identifying the gifted is an ade-
quate over-all testing program.
Administration of the Testing Program. The administration of
the testing program involves general and long-range planning by
county and school committees as well as specific planning by the
persons responsible for the actual administration and scoring of
The State-Wide Program. Florida has two state-wide testing
programs. The Florida Twelfth-Grade Testing Program was ini-
tiated first. The tests in this battery are used as a basis for deter-
mining eligibility to attend the several state universities of Flor-
ida. There are five tests in this battery, including a scholastic
aptitude test and achievement tests in English, social studies,
natural science, and mathematics.
The Florida Ninth-Grade Testing Program, which was devel-
oped later, has two purposes-the identification of college poten-
tial and the determination of achievement in subject-matter
areas. This battery is composed of a scholastic aptitude test and
achievement tests in reading, language arts, mathematics, social
studies, and natural science. These tests can be helpful to students
in making plans for high school and to counselors as they assist
students to gain self-understanding, to select goals, and to evolve
County-wide General Planning. Since the schools in Florida
are organized on a county basis, the county administrative staff
has a responsibility for making sure that each school has an ade-
quate testing program. In most counties this responsibility has
been carried on by a county-wide testing committee composed
of representatives from each school. This committee plans the
scope of the testing program and makes recommendations for
the kinds of tests to be used, the grade levels to be tested, meth-
ods of administration, and the time of year for tests to be given.
The methods of administration of the county testing program
may be determined by the testing committee. Some counties
have utilized a testing team composed of county personnel;
others have made each school responsible for the administration
of its tests. If there is a county testing team, it should work
closely with individual school faculties.
Local School Planning. Each school will have to decide what
its testing program will be on the basis of its county minimum
program, if there is one, and its own need for additional tests to
improve its assistance to students.
A testing committee provides effective direction for setting up
and planning the details of a testing program. If the individual
members of a faculty have had experience or have an interest in
testing, they can learn to administer standardized tests in their
homerooms or classrooms. The testing committee and the faculty
may decide that a team approach will provide better results. A
testing team then administers all standardized group tests given
in the school. The principal and testing committee will set up
definite dates for each test. The time of year in which some
tests are given will be selected according to the uses to be made
of the results. State and national tests are administered on a pre-
In planning the over-all testing program, the committee will
plan the sequence of the tests in a way that will interest the
students and get their full cooperation. A fairly easy test may be
given first, followed by a more difficult one. The last test should
be a relatively short and pleasant one.
Specific Planning. In the administration of each test, there are
certain things that need to be done by the testing committee:
1. The purpose of the test must be explained to the faculty.
2. The testing team or teachers administering the test must
study carefully the test and the manual of directions.
3. A sufficient number of good proctors must be provided. A
rule of thumb for determining how many proctors are
needed is one for every 20 to 30 students. The functions of
proctors are to help administer the test by giving out and
collecting materials, to provide sharpened pencils when
needed, to answer any legitimate questions students may
have after the directions have been read but before the test
begins, to be alert to the problem of defective materials
such as a blank page in a test booklet, and to observe the
students for any behavior which is out of the ordinary.
4. The examiners should be informed about the importance of
creating a favorable atmosphere for testing by giving the
students some idea of what they will do, how long it will
take them, and how the results will help them as indi-
5. Physical facilities should be provided for testing which in-
clude adequate space, light, ventilation, desks, and freedom
from noise and interruptions.
6. A plan must be devised for the preparation of test materials
and supplies, including the gathering of pencils, scratch pa-
per, and stop watches, ahead of time so that there will be
no confusion at the time of the test.
7. The general readiness of students for the test should be
assured by having the classroom teachers discuss with stu-
dents the need for the test and its objectives. A mimeo-
graphed announcement which gives all pertinent informa-
tion can be handed to students to take home to their parents.
8. A plan for scoring the tests should be carefully worked out.
Since the test results are beneficial to the whole school pro-
gram as well as to individual students, the scoring should
be done as a cooperative effort. Most group tests are easy
to score by hand. Even when machine scoring is available,
some hand work is necessary in preparing the final results.
The importance of accuracy in scoring cannot be overem-
phasized, and double-checking the results is recommended.
If it is worth time, effort, and money to give a test, it is
worth making sure that the results are accurate.
The Interpretation of Test Results. Careful testing of the stu-
dent and the equally careful computation of the test results will
prove more rewarding if certain basic practices are followed in
recording and applying these results. Clarity is important when
recording test results. A systematic plan of reporting designed to
ensure proper interpretation of test results should be adopted.
Any information about the measuring tools and techniques used
should be noted. A summary of test results should be recorded
on the cumulative folder. The tests should be entered by types
and in chronological order. Some counties have developed insert
sheets on which the county and state-wide programs are printed
as suggested above. This may make the recording of data easier
and more accurate.
Methods of Expressing Test Scores. There are certain accepted
methods of expressing test scores. The principal ones are:
1. Intelligence Quotient
The score known as the I.Q. is obtained by dividing a stu-
dent's mental age by his chronological age and multiplying
the result by 100. If the student's chronological age and his
mental age are the same, his I.Q. will be 100, or average. If
his mental age is higher than his chronological age, his I.Q.
will be above average; but if his mental age is lower than
his chronological age, his I.Q. will be below average. These
results rarely indicate more than potential for academic
learning. Broader concepts of "intelligence" must be deter-
mined by more than I.Q. scores alone.
2. Grade Equivalent
Grade equivalents may be used to compare the pupil's score
with the expected norm of the grade level. For example, in
the sixth grade a grade equivalent of 6.0 signifies the ex-
pected achievement at the beginning of the school year;
6.9 (six years-nine months) is the expected achievement
at the end of the school year. If a student takes a test in the
ninth month of his sixth grade and makes a score of 7.1, his
grade equivalent will be that of the seventh grade, first
month; thus, his level is slightly above the expected class
norm of 6.9. Grade equivalent ratings may be used effec-
tively to show long-range comparisons of actual accomplish-
ments with average attainments.
Percentile scores show in percentage how an individual
rates in comparison with another group of the population
upon which the test was standardized (i.e., the norm group).
An individual's percentile score indicates the percentage of
this norm group who scored less than the individual on a
specified test. Thus, if an individual achieves a score at the
90th percentile, it means that his score exceeded that at-
tained by 90 percent of the persons in the norm group. This
also indicates that 9 percent of the norm group made scores
higher than he. By the same token, a score at the 30th per-
centile means that this student's score exceeds the scores of
30 percent (30 out of 100) of those who have taken the test
but is lower than 69 percent of the norm group. There is no
such thing as a passing or failing percentile score on a stand-
ardized test. A percentile score of 70 should not be confused
with the "70" on a teacher's test, which is often considered
to be the lowest passing grade.
The percentile score is most often used in reporting re-
sults to parents and students. While the percentile is a read-
ily understood and convenient technique, it has certain lim-
itations. The principal limitation of the percentile score is
that small differences in raw scores account for larger per-
centile differences near the average of any distribution of
scores than they do at either end of the distribution. Thus,
a score at the 60th percentile compared with a score at the
50th percentile may reflect a very small increase in the
number of test items correctly answered; whereas a score
at the 90th percentile compared with a score at the 80th
percentile will usually reflect a large increase in the number
of correct answers. The implication for test users is that
they should be wary of assuming that percentile differences
reflect significant and reliable differences in ability without
additional reliable evidence. One illustration of this prin-
ciple may be found in the Kuder Preference Record profile
sheet, on which interest scores are considered significantly
high or low only when they are above the 75th or below the
25th percentile. These are arbitrary points of demarcation,
but they serve as a general cautionary guide.
4. Standard Score
The standard score, while not so easily understood as the
percentile, also indicates an individual's position with re-
spect to the total range and distribution of the test scores.
The standard score shows how far a particular score lies
above or below the mean of a distribution. It is expressed
as standard deviation. The standard deviation is the aver-
age of all deviations from the mean. If the distributions of
scores on two or more tests are approximately normal,
standard scores derived from one distribution may be com-
pared with those derived from the others.
Standard scores must ultimately be given percentile
values to express their full significance. As an index of rela-
tive rank, the standard score is preferred by many test users
over the percentile. This is because the standard score rep-
resents a fixed and uniform number of units throughout the
scale, whereas the percentile is a position of rank in a group.
Percentile scores do not represent equal units of individual
The stanine represents the scores from a student's tests ar-
ranged on a scale of nine points. On a bell-graph, the place-
ment of high and low scores from 1 as extreme low to 9 as
extreme high (with 5 as average) gives a visual image of
the approximate work level of a student in relation to his
grade or age group. This method makes possible a combin-
ing of scores from several different kinds of tests.
Cautions in Interpreting Test Scores. The weaknesses of any
standardized test are implicit in the title. A standard method can
rarely, if ever, cover highly individualized situations. While this
limitation applies to all standardized tests, its influence may be
minimized by a careful weighing of all factors which might alter
interpretation. Achievement tests, for example, often contain
questions about material which is not included in the actual
subject-matter experiences of the particular student. As another
example, the grade equivalent score should not be interpreted
too literally. A high grade equivalent in English does not have
the same meaning as a high equivalent in mathematics, since the
two subjects differ so widely. An eighth-grader with a tenth-
grade mathematics equivalent is rarely able to solve tenth-grade
mathematics problems; he is simply a superior student of eighth-
grade math. On the other hand, a tenth-grade equivalence in Eng-
lish may well indicate understandings on a tenth-grade level in
reading, vocabulary, and other phases of English, since these are
more easily acquired in informal learning experiences in and out
There is a tendency on the part of some school personnel to
use test results as absolute methods for judging and grouping.
Such a viewpoint can defeat the essential purpose of the testing
program and could do serious harm to the scholastic program of
many individuals. For example, if a tenth-grade student has a
very contemplative nature and methodical work habits which
sharply limit his scores on timed tests and yet reads and compre-
hends the works of Whitman and Thoreau, he would be poorly
represented by standardized test scores alone. While such ex-
treme cases are not in abundance, inaccuracies are possible with
all students. Low scores may indicate that something is wrong,
but further investigation will be needed to identify precisely
what is wrong.
Even though standardized test results cannot be used as ab-
solute determinants, scores do serve as valuable indicators of a
student's abilities in relation to a normal expectancy for his
class group. This suggests that the testing program should be
adapted primarily to the local school situation and that student
progress can best be evaluated in relation to the students' imme-
A composite picture of students' standardized test scores and
comparisons may be formed by an evaluation of these data ac-
cumulated over a period of years. Only by doing this can a
teacher or guidance worker draw meaningful conclusions involv-
ing consistent patterns of a student's abilities. When this picture
has been developed, the teacher may make plans to meet the in-
dividual's needs and capacities with greater confidence.
Members of the instructional staff should be furnished guid-
ance in the use of test data. They should know the potential
values of the results and the techniques whereby the greatest
use can be made of the data.
Parents and students should be familiar with the types of tests
given and the purposes of each. The results of the students' tests
should be explained to both students and parents. Prior to an-
nouncing the actual scores, parents and students should be told
what the test measures and the meaning of the terms which will
be used in presenting the results. After the test results have been
presented and explained, it is wise to relate the test under dis-
cussion to such other factors as achievement in the classroom,
observations of the teacher or counselor, and other test results.
This may help overcome distorted opinions and frustrations
which sometimes are caused by misinterpreted test results.
Evaluation. In order to know how well the testing program is
meeting the needs of the students and to be sure that it is fulfill-
ing the five major purposes listed earlier in this chapter, continu-
ous evaluation is essential.
For example, follow-up surveys (discussed in Chapter 7)
provide information which can contribute to the usefulness of
tests in educational and vocational counseling. Has the testing
program made a contribution to vocational guidance in that stu-
dents have made better choices and are more satisfied with and
more successful in their jobs? Is there evidence that those going
to college have benefited by wiser choices in their selection of a
college or university? Are there fewer or more failures in col-
lege? Are there more students completing college work?
Another area in which the contribution of the testing program
needs to be evaluated is curriculum revision. The strengths and
weaknesses of student achievement in different areas are indi-
cated by test results. If curriculum adaptation has been based on
test results, studies must be carried on in order to see how the
results compare after curriculum revision. Have all or some of
the gaps been filled? Have the identified weaknesses been elimi-
nated? Have other weaknesses appeared?
Only two of the purposes evaluation serves have been dealt
with here. In the total evaluation others will be of equal impor-
tance and may be evaluated in the light of the objectives of the
Evaluation is a means of checking on effectiveness and of
finding points at which the program may be improved. It pro-
vides security to the staff by giving everyone an opportunity to
know what tests are given and for what purposes. Some other
considerations are important in evaluation:
1. Are the scores interpreted in relation to all other known
2. Is there time to use the results of all tests selected and are
they being used?
3. Can the expense of purchasing, correcting, recording, and
interpreting results be justified for each test?
4. Are proper interpretations of results given to parents and
One way in which evaluation may be accomplished is to have
a testing committee from the faculty make an intensive study of
the program and report its findings to the entire group. This
committee may comprise volunteers or may be appointed by the
principal. It should function during the entire school year or even
longer. Any changes in the testing program which are recom-
mended by the committee should be made with the consent and
participation of the entire staff.
Appraisal techniques are necessary tools of the educational
program. None is infallible and none should be used by educators
unquestioningly. All provide at best only an indication. Users of
appraisal tools must always be aware that their instruments may
lead them to make erroneous assumptions about students. Be-
cause of the great numbers of pupils, however, and the com-
paratively few adults who are working with them, appraisal in-
dices will continue to be needed.
The reliability of evaluative methods, records, and tests is in-
creased if those who use them have made an attempt to learn
the theories underlying them and the competencies required to
use them skillfully.
WHILE MANY GUIDANCE services are designed to help
the student understand himself, informational services
are primarily concerned with helping him to understand his
environment and the opportunities it offers. Informational serv-
ices provide educational, vocational, and personal-social materials
to students. All students are faced with developmental tasks,
choices, and plans which have to do with their educational,
vocational, social, and personal lives. The purpose of informa-
tional services is to assist the student in making choices and
plans more intelligently and realistically.
Those responsible for guidance services within a school face
the task of selecting, from a wide variety of materials, publi-
cations of interest and value to their students. Free and inex-
pensive materials are available from the state and national gov-
ernment, industry, educational agencies and institutions, and
professional organizations. Several publishing companies spe-
cialize in career literature. Whatever the source, all educational
and vocational materials should be authentic, accurate, up-to-
date, and available to students. Some reliable sources are listed
in an appended section of this bulletin.
It is a truism that one of the most important decisions facing a
student today is the choice of an occupation. While the individual
needs a high degree of freedom in making this choice, he also
needs assistance in delimiting the unknown. He should be as-
sisted in exploring job areas for which he may be fitted by na-
ture, training, and experience in the broad sense. When a student
has made a tentative career choice, he usually becomes more
serious in his school work. If certain materials are present and
adequate guidance is provided, the student may be helped to
gain a sense of competence and direction.
An educational career requires planning at each step along
the way to ensure the greatest possible benefit to a student.
This planning becomes most necessary at the beginning of the
high-school career when students need to be informed about re-
quired units for graduation, electives, and college-preparatory
subjects. Many schools encourage their students to plan a four-
year high school course near the end of the 8th grade. Although
this plan is often changed or modified as the student advances
through school, it prompts him to plan and follow a purposeful,
well-coordinated program from the beginning.
Whether to go to college or to obtain post-high school training
is a big decision facing the young person in his high-school
years. Concise information about many colleges and training op-
portunities should be available so that the interested student may
write for additional information. He should also be encouraged
to use valid criteria in selecting a school for which he is suited
and which best serves his purposes. Too often the renown of a
school's football team or the fact that father went there has over-
shadowed such considerations as the philosophy of the institu-
tion, accreditation status, faculty-student ratio, size of the li-
brary, and course offerings. The guidance staff can also serve a
valuable function by helping a student investigate the merits of a
questionable technical school or home-study course. Spring is
open season on seniors, and many can be trapped by overzealous
salesmen who misrepresent what their courses can do for the
Before a student can make a realistic vocational decision or to
select a college, he may need assistance with solving the per-
sonal-social problems which arise in his development. Under-
standing and accepting oneself and others, developing health
attitudes, acquiring better work habits, and learning how to deal
with other problems of a personal-social nature are prerequisite
to a satisfactory adjustment in a vocational or educational field.
Some of the techniques suggested in Chapter 5 may be used to
acquaint students with this information. There are many sources
for information such as this.
The viewpoint of elementary-school students about occupa-
tions needs to be understood. Teachers are usually aware that
stated occupational goals in the elementary school are, typically,
in the fantasy stage. However, they should not overlook oppor-
tunities for supplying occupational and educational information.
Indeed, fantasy often leads to constructive planning and action.
In recognizing a definite enthusiasm expressed by a child, the
teacher is promoting free growth of the child's interests. From a
wholesome attitude toward all constructive labor and an under-
standing of the contributions of various occupations to the com-
munity, the child progresses toward more clearly defined inter-
ests. Some suggested activities include:
1. A classroom unit of social studies comprising a general
coverage of occupations in the community
2. Invitations to parents to visit the class and talk about their
3. Visits by community resource people, such as firemen,
lawyers, bankers, doctors, patrolmen, salesmen, and plumb-
ers to discuss their occupations. (This discussion may be
more meaningful if pupils have formulated questions in ad-
4. Art work or compositions on the theme of "When I Grow
5. Studying biographies of people who have been successful
in various vocational fields.
The fact must not be overlooked that the elementary-school
years are those in which basic attitudes toward education and
toward life are formed. When poor attitudes and values are de-
veloped, they are difficult to change later. One of the primary
purposes of guidance programs in the elementary school should
be to assist students with the formulation of positive attitudes
and values. There are many ways in which this goal may be ac-
complished. Elementary guidance counselors may work with
parents to provide information about the normal developmental
behavior of elementary-school children. They may help parents
by giving information about the meaning of standardized test
scores. They may provide literature and other materials which
are designed to help parents feel more secure in their relation-
ships with their children.
Guidance personnel also provide many kinds of information
to teachers. Their aim is to assist teachers to develop deeper un-
derstandings of individual pupils. They may help by furnishing
materials which report the latest findings in positive mental
health. They may help teachers locate research studies which
relate curriculum development to the changing needs of the ele-
mentary-school pupil. Although guidance counselors may pro-
vide materials about the causes of failure to learn or behavior
disorders, it is important to emphasize here that counselors
serve all students, not just those who are proving to be problems
to themselves or others.
Many kinds of informational activities may be designed
which will help elementary-school pupils achieve self-under-
standing and learn appropriate responses to school situations.
These may be both group activities and individual ones. The
counselor's relationship to all students is that of an adult friend,
one whose sincere interest in the welfare of his students puts
him in a unique position to assist young people with the kinds of
information which will aid them in their growing concept of
self, and of self in relationship to others.
Junior and Senior High School Activities
It is important that a student receive the right kind of help as
the need arises. In junior and senior high school a great variety
of vocational literature should be kept available. Early explora-
tion on a broad scale may lead to recognition of more specific
needs as the student matures. As the student advances through
school, he needs general data regarding educational and voca-
tional opportunities and specific knowledge regarding areas of
work. Opportunities may be given the student to explore all
phases of work including:
1. Nature of the work
2. Advantages and disadvantages
3. Personal qualifications
4. Education and training requirements
5. Opportunities for advancement
6. Related fields.
The counselor's office will also contain much information on
the personal-social aspects of the student's development. Many
excellent materials are available to students who are unable to
discuss these matters with others. Booklets which provide infor-
mation about dating manners and etiquette, about personal ap-
pearance, and about ways in which to get along with others are
usually read widely by students. They should be kept in a place
which students can reach easily. It should be a matter of policy
that students be able to borrow such materials without embar-
assment. However, a definite policy for returning materials
should be understood, since to allow one person to keep the
material too long is not fair to other students who need it.
The counselor is also available to discuss personal-social mat-
ters with students who wish to talk them over in an individual
conference with an adult. Group guidance procedures may also
be used in conveying information about matters in the per-
Communication with Students
Educational, occupational, and personal-social information
which is neatly filed away or stacked in a closet to gather dust
can hardly be expected to contribute to a good guidance program.
This information must be available to students. Actual practices
in junior high and senior high schools are quite varied when it
comes to communicating with students regarding educational
and vocational information. They range from the occasional and
casual information provided students by homeroom and class-
room teachers when opportunities arise to the formal and care-
fully planned career or college conference. The following ac-
tivities are carried out in many Florida secondary schools.
Assemblies. Well-planned assembly programs are valuable ad-
juncts to guidance services because they provide a medium
through which educational and vocational information may be
presented to students. Vocational speakers, college representa-
tives, military recruiters, former students, and local business
and professional men and women are some of the resource
people who may be invited to participate in assembly programs
to bring important information to students. Other ways of utiliz-
ing assemblies are discussed in Chapter 5.
Publications. The school newspaper or magazine may afford
an opportunity to report educational and occupational informa-
tion which is available in the school guidance office. Some coun-
selors may wish to highlight guidance services by publishing a
weekly or monthly bulletin or newsletter containing informa-
tion about available materials, college admission tests, forthcom-
ing visits by college or military representatives, or scholarship
Occupations Course or Unit. In order to stimulate interest,
some schools offer a special course in occupations. This course
has its greatest value when it is presented at an early grade
level so that the student may plan his high-school program to
fit his broad occupational goal. Thus, the eighth or ninth grade
is suggested as a good place to introduce this subject. Sometimes
members of the counseling staff teach the course; in other in-
stances a regular classroom teacher is given the assignment. In
either case, it is important that the teacher have a thorough
understanding of the course content and its purpose. The value of
an occupations course will depend in large measure on the de-
gree to which it meets the special needs of the school and its
community. The course should provide for the interests of the
advanced student as well as the needs of the slow learner. If the
study of occupations is considered a unit in another subject, that
unit should be planned thoroughly and presented carefully. If
the unit is finished just prior to registration for the next school
year, it may help the student make his future plans. Many stu-
dents may make progress toward planning and decision-making
through the exchange of ideas in group discussion. Careful ap-
praisal of interests, aptitudes, abilities, personal traits, and avail-
able occupations can lead toward the realistic choice of a career.
Field Trips. Before undertaking field trips to various places
of work, the student should have an opportunity to discuss with
the teacher what to expect and look for. He should know in ad-
vance the kinds of contributions he will be expected to make in
class discussions after such trips. Field trips may be used ef-
fectively at any grade level.
School and College Conferences. To acquaint students with
school and college opportunities, a special conference may be
planned. Usually a survey is made to develop a list of colleges in
which students may be interested. School and college represen-
tatives may then be invited to the school on scheduled days or
nights. On these occasions the students and their parents may
discuss college aspirations with the representatives and may
make plans to tour the campuses on high-school visitation days.
The College Relations Committee of the Florida Association of
Deans and Counselors and FACROA have contributed to this
program during the past few years by setting up a statewide
calendar of college conferences for participating high schools.
This committee has also been responsible for establishing a
series of summer workshops, during which high-school coun-
selors meet with college admissions counselors to discuss prob-
lems of mutual interest.
Career Conferences. Career conferences are used to intro-
duce students to various vocational fields. Some conferences are
organized in the form of Career Days. Consultants who repre-
sent many different careers visit the school and talk with inter-
ested groups of students. Some schools utilize assembly programs
to bring in representatives of various occupations throughout
the school year, while other schools may set aside one special
week to emphasize vocational opportunities. In some schools
students are assigned to work in places of business in which they
have expressed an interest in order to gain a clearer insight into
the workaday world. All career conferences or work experiences
should be planned by students in cooperation with designated
Career Clubs. As an extracurricular activity, career clubs
can provide orientation for a future occupation. Para-medical
groups, future teachers' clubs, art clubs, and science clubs can
give excellent training and provide helpful exploratory experi-
ences. Students participating in these clubs may find opportuni-
ties to work in a local hospital or assist teachers in a classroom.
With the aid of an enthusiastic faculty advisor, many interest-
ing activities may be planned. These activities may include
special speakers or follow-up studies of former club members
who are now employed in an occupation related to the club's
Exploratory Work Experiences. When a student expresses an
interest in a particular job, it may be possible to help him se-
cure part-time or summer tryout work in his chosen field. While
many occupations do not lend themselves to actual exploratory
experiences for beginners, it is nevertheless often possible to find
related work which permits observation of the occupation in
question. For these experiences to be meaningful to the student,
he should be helped to plan for them in advance and to evaluate
the experience periodically.
Community Occupation Survey. Of special interest to seniors
may be a survey of community occupations. With the help of ad-
ministrators, counselors, and teachers, the seniors make a study
of important facts about the vocations available in their com-
munity. The collecting of facts about the areas of work and the
preparing of briefs will be of great help to students. The survey
may help seniors decide whether opportunities related to their
occupational interests are available in the local community.
The Library. The resources of the school library should be
fully utilized in the selection, dissemination, and display of in-
formational materials. The library is one of the main arteries for
distributing educational and vocational information, but the
pulse should beat throughout every classroom. The librarian
plays an important role in this part of the guidance program. He
can keep students and teachers informed about new books,
pamphlets, films, and filmstrips. He can also direct students to
career materials. An attractive bulletin board may stimulate
reading. Shelves or display racks labeled "Educational and Vo-
cational Materials" or "Career Corner" may encourage pupils to
browse and find something of interest which may have been
overlooked in the regular files.
Audio-Visual Aids. Films, slides, filmstrips, trade and scale
models for display or demonstration, posters, and recordings can
be very effective in communicating educational or occupational
information to students. The use of overhead projectors for such
purposes as explaining steps toward college admission or op-
portunities in an occupational field should not be overlooked.
The guidance office should contain bulletin boards, book shelves,
and display racks for materials on careers, schools, colleges, and
Armed Forces Information. Since almost all boys are faced
with military service and many girls choose it as a career, in-
formation about the armed forces should be available to students.
The armed forces provide a variety of opportunities for educa-
tional and vocational advancement. If students are helped to
learn about these opportunities before they enter the service,
they can plan their service experiences in a way which may
prove to be more beneficial than if they had not known about
them. Representatives of the various branches of the armed
forces will provide current military career information and will
meet with interested groups of students at the school's conven-
ience. Oftentimes, representatives of the armed forces are invited
to participate in a career day or an assembly program. Recruiting
personnel are also helpful with the school's effort to reduce the
number of dropouts. "Stay-in-School" literature is available to
schools in quantity.
Every counselor should be prepared to answer questions
about conscientious objection to military service or should be
able to refer students who raise such questions to someone who
can help them find answers which satisfy them.
Florida State Employment Service. Another excellent source
of occupational and educational information is the Florida State
Employment Service. Local offices have files and displays of oc-
cupational materials and can also provide information concerning
job outlooks and training sources.
Communication with Parents
In addition to its efforts to supply information to students, a
school guidance service should strive to communicate with
parents. One cannot assume that students will inform parents
adequately on graduation requirements, college entrance regu-
lations, and job qualifications. Parents can understand more fully
their children's problems and appreciate guidance services more
if they are given the background to decipher such things as the
College Entrance Examination Board, American College Test-
ing Program, College Scholarship Service, and National Merit
Scholarship Qualifying Test. Counselors should be alert for op-
portunities to write articles for the local newspaper and to ac-
cept invitations to speak at men's and women's service organiza-
tions, P-T.A., and other community clubs. They should also
initiate three-way planning sessions with parent, student, and
counselor in attendance.
When a student is led to think deeply and make decisions
about himself and his future, he needs accurate, up-to-date facts
upon which to base intelligent choices. Well-organized informa-
tional services within the school guidance program can do much
to meet his needs.
COUNSELING IS an activity which takes place in many set-
tings and at many levels. When a teacher talks informally
with a student about college plans, he is counseling. When a
counselor discusses vocational plans with a student in a sched-
uled interview, he is counseling. When any member of the staff
of a school attempts to help a student solve a personal problem,
he is counseling. In other words, for the purposes of this bulletin,
the term counseling is not limited to high-level consultations
between a trained specialist and a person in trouble but includes
a wide variety of person-to-person interactions.
Counseling is a kind of helping relationship in which two,
people attempt to .communicate with each other about plans, de-
cisions, attitudes, and feelings in which one of the two people is
personally involved. One of the two has decisions to make or
problems to resolve; the other has resources. The one who is
using his resources to help the other puts aside his own problems
for the time being. The one who is being helped is encouraged to
pay full attention to himself.
Basic Assumptions in Counseling
There are certain assumptions which underlie any attempt to
counsel a student. These assumptions are implicit in counsel-
ing, whether or not the counselor is fully aware of them. They
are partly philosophical assumptions, ideas which men hold but
cannot prove, and partly psychological assumptions, ideas which
men propose and hope someday to be able to prove. Some of the
main assumptions upon which the counseling or helping relation-
ship is based are these:
1. Every human being has worth. This is an axiom which un-
derlies social and political democracy and most of the re-
ligious and humanistic traditions. It follows from this axiom
that people who work with others (with students, for ex-
ample) in a helping relationship try to discover the merit
of those they are serving. This is sometimes difficult, espe-
cially when the student is using unattractive ways of assert-
ing himself and gaining attention or is suspicious of the
person who is trying to help him. The implications for coun-
seling are many. One is that the counselor must be patient.
Another is that the counselor must strive to recognize his
own biases and try to control them.
2. Behavior is caused. Every act of behavior, including sud-
den, impulsive acts and seemingly irrational acts, has an
underlying reason or reasons. Frequently, it is impossible to
discover the reasons. One implication for counseling is that
we gain nothing by merely condemning a breach of disci-
pline or an attitude which is out of line with the socially ac-
cepted pattern. This is not to say that the counselor con-
dones unacceptable behavior, but he can be much more
effective in helping the student find the best path if he tries
to understand the student and help him understand himself.
Another implication for counseling is that one must
search for patterns of behavior by putting together the
pieces in the jig-saw puzzle of behavior. The counselor does
not make judgments based on a single act but takes note of
each act as a clue to the larger pattern.
3. People seem to be able to learn and grow and develop only
to the extent that they feel secure and accepted. Since coun-
seling is a process which encourages individuals to learn to
understand themselves (just as classroom teaching is pri-
marily a process in which people are encouraged to learn
about various aspects of the world they live in), it follows
that the counselor needs to do all he can to create an at-
mosphere in which the counselee can feel secure and ac-
cepted. If the counselor or teacher who is talking with an
individual student can make the student feel that he is not
going to be lectured to, punished, or threatened; that he is
going to be listened to within reasonable limits of available
time; that the counselor sees him as a worthwhile person,
even if some of the things he has done and some of the at-
titudes he has taken are not acceptable, a solid basis for the
counseling relationship has been established.
4. Each of us behaves, feels, and reacts to situations according
to the way he perceives himself and the world around him.
"Perceive" used in this sense means the understanding that
each person has of himself and all that is happening to him.
Often these perceptions are different from objective reality.
From this it follows that a counselor can be much more
helpful to a student if the counselor can find ways of getting
as close as possible to the student's way of seeing his world
It is hoped that the foregoing discussion will provide some
general assistance to teachers and counselors in carrying out the
counseling process. While it is beyond the scope of this bulletin
to attempt an exhaustive discussion of counseling procedures,
the following suggestions may be useful guides. (The suggested
readings listed in Appendix 4 contain additional material on this
1. In order to help the student feel comfortable and secure
enough to talk freely about himself, the counselor can re-
duce initial tension by showing his friendly interest in an
informal, casual manner. There is no specific formula, but
opening small talk which suggests itself spontaneously and
is consistent with the counselor's typical behavior is some-
times appropriate. On the other hand, it is often appropri-
ate for the counselor to help the counselee to come right to
the point. Forced comments and probing questions usually
defeat their own purpose.
2. When possible, arrangements should be made so that coun-
seling takes place in physical comfort and freedom from
distracting activities, interruptions, or the possibility of
eavesdropping. When formal appointments are made, the
counselor should be prompt, since tardiness is often per-
ceived by the student as lack of interest or a sign that he is
not considered important. Conditions under which students
wait for appointments should be pleasant and comfortable
and as private as possible.
3. In the actual interview, the counselor should phrase his
questions and comments in such a way as to encourage the
student to tell his story in his own words. For example,
one might say, "Tell me about how this situation looks to
you" rather than "What grades are you getting this semes-
ter?" Sometimes, of course, a student will be puzzled by a
wide-open invitation to talk. The counselor can help him
get started by suggesting a general topic, such as his home
life or his school interests. This encourages the student and
at the same time gives him some freedom.
4. Since the goal of counseling is to encourage self-under-
standing on the part of the student, the counselor needs to
create a climate in which the student is free to explore his
real feelings and get beneath the surface of the rationaliza-
tions and self-justifications which so often interfere with
self-knowledge. This does not mean probing the uncon-
scious or performing psychotherapy. It does mean listening
to the whole story with patience and calmness. It also means
helping the student become aware of his own values rather
than imposing one's values on him. Even a question of
educational or vocational choice often involves doubts and
fears and other feelings which cannot be resolved by infor-
mation or advice. When students present problems which
the counselor feels he cannot handle or when signs of severe
emotional disturbance appear, the wise counselor will rec-
ognize his own limitations and arrange to get help from
more appropriate sources.
5. In addition to the exchange of ideas which takes place
through words, the counselor and student communicate
important feelings and attitudes through non-verbal be-
havior. This means that the counselor needs to observe the
student's manner and actions and also to be aware of his
own. Bodily squirming, nervous tics, tone of voice, signs of
vocal tension, and facial expressions are examples of clues
by which both counselor and student reveal and communi-
cate their feelings. The counselor can learn much about the
student by observing these signs and can respond to these
messages even on those occasions when the verbal channel
The Role of the Counselor
The role of the counselor is to help the individual learn to
understand and accept himself, his capabilities, aptitudes, and
interests, and to help him implement this self-understanding in
making plans. Here the subject matter to be dealt with is a hu-
man being-a much more emotionally charged content than that
found in a regular school subject. Thus the counselor, in assist-
ing pupils with the solution of their problems and in helping them
achieve self-direction, realizes that his scope of activity extends
far beyond the person-to-person relationship. He realizes that
he cannot be an all-knowing specialist who is isolated from the
other members of the faculty but that he must work in close co-
operation with all school services in order to provide for better
understanding of the child. In this role, the counselor recognizes
the value of teacher-counselor conferences on pupil problems.
He also recognizes the usefulness of case conferences involving
the teacher, pupil, parent, and counselor for joint study of all
available data and as a basis in making recommendations for
One of the critical responsibilities of the counselor is referral
of students to other specialists and agencies when services are
required which the counselor cannot provide. The counselor
must make himself thoroughly familiar with the referral re-
sources available in his community and region. Time spent in
visiting key people in the area is time well spent, since referral
is much more effective when the people involved know each
Referral is, of course, likely to be threatening to students and
their parents. Often there is an implication that the student is
usually sick, disturbed, or abnormal. The best way to deal with
anxiety and resistance when it is encountered in the course of
arranging a referral is to be candid, to admit frankly to the stu-
dent and parents that the counselor is unable to do what is
needed, or is unable to decide what is needed and, therefore, is
calling upon another resource person with specialized training.
Referral relationships with other specialists and agencies
work most smoothly in the long run if careful attention is paid
to follow-up and feedback. The counselor should take the re-
sponsibility for getting in touch with people to whom he has
made referrals after an appropriate interval to find out whether
the referral took place and what action was taken.
Counseling, then, takes its place as an integral part of the
guidance program, interdependent with other equally important
activities. Counseling occurs in many settings and is carried on
by all of the members of the school family. It deals with various
student needs and problems. This chapter has attempted to set
forth the principal assumptions on which counseling is based and
to discuss some of their implications.
Group Procedures in Guidance
GROUP PROCEDURES in guidance have been in regular use
in Florida schools for many years. Homerooms, assemblies,
and orientation predate formalized guidance programs in most of
the schools of the State. However, along with those who are
making advances in the instructional programs of many schools,
counselors are looking for better ways of assisting students. This
chapter will deal with the tried and true group procedures in
guidance and will also review some of the newer ways in which
school counselors seek to work more effectively with students in
The organization of the homeroom in junior and senior high
schools was the initial step taken in setting up guidance programs
in many Florida schools. Most secondary schools still use a brief
homeroom period for routine administrative functions. While
many schools have abandoned the homeroom as a guidance tool,
some schools continue to use it as a valuable segment of the
guidance program. The secret of success of the homeroom seems
to be the amount of enthusiasm and support which is displayed
by the faculty.
The homeroom is usually formed by dividing the various
classes alphabetically. Local conditions will determine the home-
room schedule. At least one period a week should be given to
the homeroom if it is to serve as an effective guidance instru-
ment. Among the purposes which a homeroom can accomplish
1. Providing an effective means of communication with stu-
2. Developing qualities of good citizenship (leadership, coop-
eration, and proper attitudes)
3. Contributing to wholesome teacher-pupil-parent relation-
4. Developing group and individual activities which further
guidance objectives (educational, vocational, personal, so-
cial, and health)
5. Helping students to become increasingly self-directive.
A homeroom organization which is designed through teacher-
pupil cooperation and which seeks to fulfill the objectives out-
lined above can be a vital part of group procedures in guidance.
The assembly program provides an excellent tool for group
guidance. Speakers, panels, and films may present subjects for
consideration, after which students may return to the home-
room for an interchange of ideas. Junior or senior high school
students, as many as ninety at one time, may be brought together
in an assembly situation for a presentation and later discussion
on such topics as:
1. How To Study
2. Getting Along With Others
3. School Regulations-Why?
4. School Spirit and Traditions
5. Job Opportunities
6. Who Should Go To College?
7. The Peace Corps
8. The United States Armed Forces
9. Career Choices
An important group procedure in Florida, where student mo-
bility is high, is orientation. Orientation is the process of helping
an individual to become acquainted with and comfortable in a
new environment. A student may face the circumstance of a
new school environment many times within the same commu-
nity. If he moves into a new community, his task of getting ac-
quainted becomes more difficult. It is a basic axiom of human
growth that an individual seems to be able to develop and learn
only to the degree that he is secure, happy, and accepted by his
group. The result of this acceptance will be reflected in his ca-
pacity for taking advantage of all the opportunities the school
has to offer.
A well-planned orientation program designed to help a stu-
dent understand himself and his school will include information
1. Educational offerings
2. Extracurricular activities
3. School regulations and traditions
4. Physical plant of the School
5. School personnel
6. Use of the library
Elementary School Orientation
At the elementary level, guidance functions at the present
time are primarily the responsibility of the classroom teacher.
School counselors and school psychologists can give added help.
An orientation program is usually begun near the end of a school
year when preschool children and parents are brought into the
classroom in order to acquaint them with the procedures of the
school. Activities which may be of help to children and parents
1. Organizing meetings for parents and children before regis-
tration for the purpose of presenting information about the
2. Planning a get-together of the class parents early in the
year for an informal discussion of educational objectives and
3. Selecting a Parent of the Week and inviting him to visit
the classroom any time during the week to observe a school
4. Inviting the principal, librarian, cafeteria manager, coun-
selor, and other staff members to the classroom
5. Selecting children to act as special helpers to others who
arrive during the school year.
The elementary school also has a responsibility for orienting
its pupils who are departing for junior high school. Some of the
above suggestions may be adapted for this second step in the
Junior High School Orientation
The jump from elementary to junior high school involves a
difficult transition for a child. In most instances it means going
from a one-teacher classroom to a school which has separate
classes for each subject. Well-coordinated orientation activities
1. A visit to the elementary school by the junior-high coun-
selor, principal, and student leaders. (Elementary pupils
will profit more from this visit if they have had an oppor-
tunity ahead of time to look over printed materials which
explain the junior-high curriculum and other pertinent in-
2. A spring tour of the junior high school building or, when-
ever feasible, actual classroom visitation for an entire day
3. Pre-testing of prospective junior-high pupils to assist in
4. Conference of elementary and junior-high teachers. (If
practicable, a similar conference of a more specific nature
should be arranged after the first grading period in the fall.)
5. Conference of parents of new students with administrators,
teachers, and counselors
6. Special day prior to the opening of schools in September
for new junior-high students to visit their new school
7. Assignment of Big Brother or Big Sister to each new stu-
8. Get-acquainted parties for all new students
These and other suggestions which the individual school may
follow can help the new student feel at home as he enters junior
Senior High School Orientation
The senior high school orientation program involves multiple
responsibilities for the counselor. It must be planned to orient
new students coming from the junior high schools, new students
entering during the year, and senior students getting ready for
further educational or job experiences. Many of the suggestions
previously discussed are applicable to the senior-high orientation
The increased emphasis on the importance of doing well in
college has made the staffs of senior high schools more aware of
their responsibilities in this area. Students need a good academic
background, and they also need to make a successful transition
to the independence of college life. Some of the activities which
may be helpful to college-bound seniors are:
1. College conferences as described in Chapter 3
2. High school visitation days on college campuses
3. Information services as described in Chapter 3
4. Assistance from teachers and counselors in securing infor-
mation about colleges.
The Transfer Student
The transfer student who enters school during the year has
more problems to face than does the new student who enters in
September. Some helpful suggestions for a successful transition
1. Assistance with course selections
2. Provision of a school handbook, floor plan of school, and
other printed materials
3. Provision of student guide to accompany the new student to
classes and to introduce him to teachers and students
4. Assembly of new students from time to time during the
5. Follow-up by the school counselor two or three weeks after
One of the most promising procedures for group guidance is
the organization of small groups for counseling purposes. In a
small group hostilities can be aired, feelings vented, and atti-
tudes expressed in a non-threatening atmosphere. This coun-
selor-promoted group activity is proving to be effective in work-
ing with potential school dropouts, students with social problems,
and those with a need for improved study habits. Other groups
may be formed for the purpose of discussing colleges, scholar-
ships, jobs, and teenage problems. Parent groups may be formed
in order that the members may share ideas, become acquainted
with college admissions requirements, or discuss problems of
mutual interest. The use of small group discussions tends to in-
crease the number of students who can be served by a school
counselor and to produce favorable outcomes which may not be
so easily achieved through individual counseling.
The school counselor should not be the only one engaged in
group guidance. Classroom teachers involved in the social stud-
ies or core programs have many opportunities for promoting
group guidance. A teacher who helps students understand why
they are in school, the purposes of particular subject matter, the
limits and freedoms within the classroom, respect for others
and their ideas, and techniques used in studying effectively is
contributing to group guidance. To supplement his efforts, a
classroom teacher may wish to call upon the counselor to visit
his classes to discuss the world of work, to interpret standardized
test results, to talk about schools and colleges, to give informa-
tion about scholarships, and to lead student discussions of per-
Group counseling, particularly that which is outside the reg-
ular classroom, presents certain problems. Scheduling may be
different. Administration and faculty must be convinced of its
value. Students need to understand its purposes and possibilities.
Counselors must be aware of their limits of competency. In spite
of obstacles, group counseling, as shown both in practice and
research, is based on sound principles of group behavior and
holds promise of becoming an exciting and rewarding innovation
Placement and Follow-Up
T HE PLACEMENT service is an integral part of the guidance
program. Some confusion has arisen, however, because of
the variety of ways in which the term placement has been used.
In this bulletin we are referring to the three services which are
normally provided in this area: assisting students in obtaining
employment, helping all students to choose appropriate courses,
and guiding college-bound students as they seek admission to the
colleges of their choice.
The placement services in a school are a means of bringing
the school and the community into a closer relationship. The
community's recognition of the objectives of employment place-
ment services and its awareness of the fact that the school is
functioning to assist the student, not only through the academic
program but also through obtaining employment, will result in
better understanding between a school and its public. One ex-
ample of this is the Youth Employment Service (Y.E.S.). This is
a cooperative school-community summer employment program
for young people which is encountering considerable success in
One purpose of part-time and summer jobs is to provide ex-
ploratory work experiences for young people. Students may have
an opportunity to observe or try working at occupations which
they have considered entering. Many students secure full-time
work after they have graduated or left school as a result of the
experience which they have acquired in part-time or summer
Another value of part-time employment is that it helps de-
crease the number of school dropouts. If it is possible to antici-
pate which students may become dropouts, it may be possible
to find ways to prevent these students from leaving school early.
When conferring with a student whose motivation to stay in
school is waning, the counselor may be able to help foster bet-
ter relations between the student and the school. If the reason for
planning to leave school is a financial one, a part-time job may
help solve the problem. If no solution can be found and the stu-
dent withdraws despite all efforts in his behalf, the school will
not have failed him altogether if it can be instrumental in help-
ing him obtain a job for which he may be qualified and in which
he may find some measure of success. Sometimes the desire to
drop out of school is based on a need for establishing inde-
pendence or from an impatience to assume an adult role. The
responsibility and prestige which the student may find in a part-
time job may be sufficient to restore his desire to complete his
Among the factors which determine the scope of the school's
placement service and the way in which it is organized are the
size of the school and the nature of the free placement services
which may be available elsewhere in the community. In the ab-
sence of other community placement agencies, a small school
may find itself assuming major responsibility for placing its stu-
dents. In large cities the employment process is usually such a
complex one that the school cannot handle placement functions
without the help of other community agencies. The placement
service in schools in large cities may put primary emphasis on
referral to other agencies. The counselor may also make office
space available to personnel from employment service agencies
or for employers themselves who wish to come into the school
to interview student job applicants.
Efficient organization of the placement program is a necessity.
A systematic and continuous program requires that the responsi-
bility for coordination of the service be delegated to one person.
Although the counselor may be responsible, the organizational
plan should include all school personnel. Teachers of industrial
arts, business education, homemaking, and diversified coopera-
tive training can make important contributions to the placement
program. Regular classroom instruction may be provided to job-
seeking students. Such training will include how to evaluate job
offers, how to complete application forms, how to apply for a
job, and how to participate effectively in job interviews, and how
to go about locating job opportunities.
It is essential that there be close cooperation between the
counselor and employment agencies or prospective employers.
Those who seek to employ students need honest and pertinent
information about them. A good relationship cannot be main-
tained if the counselor withholds information which the em-
ployer should have. The employer can help the counselor by
giving him up-to-date information about vacancies, about skills
required for employment, and about the prospects for continuing
employment for the student who is to be placed.
The following are activities which are often included in a
school placement service:
1. Maintaining a central record system for registration of stu-
dents who desire work, listing their qualifications, and
keeping a file of job openings and employer contacts
2. Inviting representatives of industry to visit the school to see
students at work, such as boys in the school shop or students
in a typing class
3. Subscribing to professional and trade journals
4. Placing the school's name on mailing lists for federal, state,
and city civil service announcements
5. Informing prospective employers in the community about
the school's placement service
6. Serving as liaison between students and employment
7. Stimulating the interest of civic clubs (Students can par-
ticipate in programs to inform employers about the place-
ment service of the high school.)
8. Encouraging students and parents to seek information about
9. Helping faculty members to be informed about possible job
openings and encouraging them to notify the guidance office
of available jobs which come to their attention.
The extent of the placement service will depend on the in-
dividual school; however, each school should accept those re-
sponsibilities which are not met by other agencies in helping its
students to enter the labor market successfully.
It is important both to education and to society that students
choose and are chosen by the colleges from which they may de-
rive the greatest possible benefit. Both the student and the col-
lege may suffer when a person is admitted to a school which is
inappropriate for him. A student may make the wrong college
choice if he elects to attend a college because of its prestige, its
athletic teams, or the previous attendance of a friend or relative.
The college may make the wrong choice if it selects a student
primarily on the basis of his scores on a standardized test, be-
cause of his high school grades, or his athletic prowess. The
student who enters a college which is inappropriate for him may
become discouraged and drop out before graduating. It may be
that he will never seek admission to another college. The college
which has admitted students who were not the best choices for
their particular programs may find its dormitories half empty in
the middle of a semester.
College placement is, therefore, one of the most exacting of
the counselor's jobs. It is his responsibility to know as many facts
as possible about many colleges. He gains this knowledge in a
number of ways. He reads carefully the current catalogs and
other materials which are sent him by the colleges. He talks with
college representatives who visit the high school. Whenever pos-
sible, he goes to college campuses and gains as much first-hand
knowledge as he can during a brief visit. Some colleges invite
groups of counselors to come for an exploratory visit. The coun-
selor may also attend workshops which are co-sponsored by his
state professional association and by F.A.C.R.A.O. These work-
shops, customarily held on the campus of one of the Florida col-
leges, are participated in by staff members from the colleges as
well as by counselors.
Counselors should encourage parents to confer with them
about college attendance for their children. The first conference
concerning the possibility of college should be held as early as
possible in the student's high-school career. Parents may be
helped to explore the admissions requirements of several col-
leges in which their children have expressed an interest. If the
student does not discover early enough, for example, that the
college he sincerelf wishes to attend requires four years of
high school mathematics for admission, he may fail to take the
proper courses and find that his application cannot be considered
favorably. If the student is helped to choose courses during his
high-school career which will help him to meet the admissions
requirements of several colleges, his chances of being able to
make a choice among them when the time comes for a definite
decision are increased.
If financial limitations seem to make college attendance diffi-
cult to achieve for some students, the counselor can help them
explore scholarship possibilities. Counselors should know well
the financial aid officers of all colleges within their own geo-
graphic region and should be aware of the kinds of financial aid
that are available at all of the institutions to which the high
school customarily sends its students. The counselor also should
know which of the institutions provide the five-year work-study
curriculum which enables students to be self-supporting while
working toward a degree.
Placement in Other Post High School Programs
Students who do not wish to go to college but who feel the
need for further education or training in order to prepare them-
selves for a career should seek the counselor's help. There are
many dangers inherent in the advertisements and visits from
field representatives from schools which purport to offer both
training and job placement. One of the services which the coun-
selor can provide for the young person who has been interested
in a trade or technical school is to discover for him the honesty
of the school's claims. The counselor can also investigate home-
study or extension courses for which a fee is charged and cer-
tain advantages offered. Senior high school students are the tar-
gets of many pieces of trade-school literature and many
telephone calls or visits from school representatives. No student
should consider enrolling in any post high school course from a
profit-making, fee-charging school until he has talked with his
counselor about it. Many of the trade and technical schools are
dependable training institutions. If they are reputable, they
should have no objection to a counselor's conducting an investi-
gation in order to reassure the student.
Each spring the counselor should set aside a sufficient number
of conference hours to talk with each student about his choice
of courses for the next school year. One of the most important of
these spring conferences is the one that occurs at the end of the
eighth grade. At this point, the student is usually required to
make some decisions about his future education which he may
have difficulty in making alone. If he is considering attending
college, he will need to start his college preparation in the ninth
grade. If he does not wish to attend college but has the ability to
succeed in college, he may want to prepare for the eventuality
that he may change his mind. Although decisions made at the
end of the eighth grade are not irreversible, they should neither
be made lightly nor on the basis of insufficient information.
During the spring semester in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh
grades, the counselor should help the student to evaluate the
courses in which he is presently enrolled and to make decisions
about those which he may wish to take. The college-bound stu-
dents should have the admissions requirements of possible col-
leges reviewed for them, so that they may make decisions in the
light of such requirements. Counselors should always make sure
that parents are brought into the decision of the student's course
choice. If it is not possible for the parents to visit the counselor
to discuss the choices in person, they should be asked to sign the
form on which the student has written his planned course of
The counselor should make sure that all students' course
choices are entered on clearly designed forms, so that the
school's administrators may use these forms to schedule students
to the proper classes. The counselor should attempt to complete
his course-choice conferences with students well in advance of
the time in which administrators need the information for
making class schedules.
The service which the counselor performs in attempting to
help the faculty and administration evaluate the school program
is known as follow-up. The counselor prepares students while
they are still in school to respond to the questionnaire forms and
the post cards which he plans to send to them after they have
graduated or left. He visits home rooms and talks at assemblies
about the reasons for follow-up studies and helps students un-
derstand their purposes and develop positive attitudes toward
Follow-up studies, in order to provide worthwhile informa-
tion, should be conducted each year. However, the same class
members should receive questionnaries to which they are asked
to respond only once every three or four years. Customarily, the
counselor requests information one year after the student's grad-
uation and then again at the end of a period of five years after
graduation. If possible, the counselor may send another follow-up
questionnaire after the student has been away from school eight
or nine years.
Comparisons of the answers of each class and of the answers
of members of the same class after an interval of several years
may yield interesting information. As high-school years come
into long-range retrospective, former students may tend to
change their minds about the value of their various high-school
The usual follow-up survey attempts to find out answers to
some of these questions:
1. What is your present occupation?
2. What additional education have you had or are now en-
3. What community activities are you presently engaged in?
4. What courses in high school have proven to be of greatest
value to you?
5. What courses in high school have seemed to be of least value
Other questions may be asked as they seem appropriate to
the questionnaire. Information about marital status, family re-
sponsibilities, or career plans may be of some value to school
administrators. Identification of respondents by name may or
may not be necessary in requesting information. Former stu-
dents may be more willing to respond truthfully if they do not
have to give their names.
The tabulating of the responses from follow-up surveys is a
tedious and time-consuming job. Clerical help should be avail-
able if this job is to be done properly. It is also necessary to in-
clude an item for follow-up survey expense in the school budget,
since mailing costs for this service may run into substantial sums
for a large school.
This chapter has dealt with the services of placement. It in-
terpreted placement to mean any of the several ways in which
students may be helped to find a place in a new situation. Dis-
cussion of job placement, of placement in college or other post
high school situations, and of placement in the courses which are
appropriate to the student's needs included an attempt to identify
the counselor's role in each of these functions. The counseling
service of follow-up is designed to help improve the curriculum
of the school. Evaluation of the high-school program by former
students will assist the faculty and administration in identifying
the kinds of offerings which need strengthening, those which
may be modified, and perhaps even those which should be elimi-
Evaluation and Research
T HE VERY NATURE of guidance and counseling services
tends to make difficult the task of attempting to evaluate
the effectiveness of the program. Any service which is concerned
primarily with the attitudes and behavior of others can be as-
sessed only indirectly. There is seldom any sure way of knowing
which of many factors may have contributed to attitude or be-
havior change. However, the effort must be made in all guidance
programs to determine effectiveness. Only by attempting to esti-
mate the degree to which past efforts have been successful are we
able to determine the extent to which changes need to be made.
Elements in Evaluation
There appear to be three basic questions which must be an-
swered as we attempt to assess a guidance program:
1. What are the objectives of the program?
2. What activities or experiences should be provided in order
to achieve the objectives?
3. What procedures will determine whether the activities have
resulted in achievement of aims?
Every guidance program should have a stated list of objectives.
This list should be specific enough to make possible the construc-
tion of an outline which denotes step by step the ways in which
the objectives may be accomplished. In many cases, the evalu-
ator will have to rely on inference or observation. There is al-
ways the possibility that derived inferences may be influenced by
the biases of those who are making the assessment.
Methods of Evaluation
The inventory or check list is concerned with determining
the nature of existing conditions in the guidance program. The
present status of guidance services should be discovered by com-
paring characteristics with those of some pre-determined refer-
ence. The reference may be students in another school, standards
established by Accreditation Standards in Florida's Public
Schools (1963), the Evaluative Criteria of the Southern Associ-
ation of Schools and Colleges, the Evaluative Criteria of the
Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards, or the United
States Office of Education bulletin, Criteria for Evaluating Guid-
ance Programs in Secondary Schools.
Evaluation through observation is one of the most unreliable
of all methods. Selected staff members are asked to observe
certain details in the guidance program. Very little data are
gathered and decisions are based upon a limited number of im-
pressions. The danger of this kind of technique is that it may be
considered more valid than it is. However, it is possible to make
some sound inferences about certain functions of the guidance
program by using this method.
The questionnaire is used by many evaluators of guidance
services. It is probably one of the least expensive of the assess-
ment methods. It can provide a wealth of information if it is
constructed properly. Clear and explicit questions must be form-
ulated which pertain directly to the specific guidance objective
which is being evaluated. The questionnaire is limited to provid-
ing answers only to observable facts or attitudes. It can tell what
is but not why it is.
The questionnaire can be used to conduct large surveys. Many
persons who wish to conduct research or other evaluative studies
mail out questionnaires to certain selected respondents. The use
of electronic data processing equipment has greatly extended
the uses of the questionnaire, since results can be tabulated and
analyzed easily by machine processing.
The most rigorous of the evaluative methods is the controlled
experiment. This technique requires the matching of two or
more groups. One group is exposed to certain experiences or
provided with specific advantages while the other one is not. Af-
ter a pre-determined length of time, differences between the two
groups are examined. Statistical methods are usually employed
to indicate the extent to which the groups differ. Inferences are
drawn about the degree to which differentiated treatment of the
two groups may be responsible for the dissimilarities. Controlled
experimentation should be undertaken only by a limited num-
ber of highly professional persons. This technique requires so-
phistication in research methods, ability to design a careful and
economical study, and expert knowledge in the use of statisti-
cal methods. Only if all factors are adequate can the research
results be trusted.
Many guidance staff members find it difficult to bring them-
selves to consider using the controlled experiment in order to
evaluate a program. They seem to be unable to accept the idea
that they must withhold potentially valuable experiences from
one group of students while providing them for another. Even
though the results of the study may eventually prove to influence
change in such a way that all students will benefit, counselors
are inclined to wonder if the end justifies the means.
Certain criteria need to be established by which guidance
programs may be evaluated. Those who hope to assess guidance
programs may start by asking some of these questions:
1. Has there been a reduction in the incidence of under-
2. Are more former students now enrolled in post high school
3. Has there been any reduction in misbehavior?
4. Are students making more realistic choices of courses or
requiring fewer schedule changes?
5. Has there been a reduction in the number of failures?
6. Is the over-all academic achievement level of the school
7. Are there greater numbers of requests for counseling serv-
8. Do more parents seek help from the counselor?
9. Do teachers refer students to counselors for assistance?
10. Are there fewer dropouts?
11. Do more students participate in extracurricular activities?
12. Do teachers seem to be making greater use of the cumula-
13. Do college admissions officers say that students are making
wiser college choices?
14. Do prospective employers find high-school job applicants
to be more realistic in their approach to work?
15. Do more students apply for and receive scholarships to
16. Has there been improvement in average daily attendance?
17. Are guidance materials borrowed for use by students?
Other results of the guidance program may be analyzed
profitably also. No one of the above standards by itself will give
the answers needed to make a sound judgment about guidance
programs. Answers to some or all of the questions can contrib-
ute to an over-all evaluation of guidance services if the data are
used and analyzed properly. All criteria should be approached
with skepticism about their ultimate value. It must be kept in
mind that other facets of the educational process may have con-
tributed to bringing about the changes which have been noted by
The Process of Evaluation
When guidance services are to be evaluated, certain steps
may be followed which will make the plan operate as smoothly
1. Write down the aims and objectives of the guidance pro-
2. Keep careful records, which include:
a log of the counselor's daily activities
the nature of each student conference
median scores on standardized tests over a period of
years (local norms)
number of teacher referrals
number of parents seeking help
numbers of letters of reference to college admissions offi-
cers and employers
numbers of individual tests given to entering students
3. Ask fellow faculty members to assist with the evaluation.
4. Decide on the methods which will be used to conduct the
5. Try a pilot study to see if the methods chosen will do the
job which they are expected to do.
6. Analyze the results of the pilot study.
7. Make modifications based upon the findings of the trial run
which has been conducted.
8. Conduct the evaluative study.
9. Analyze the results of the evaluation and interpret them to
fellow faculty members and other interested persons.
10. Make recommendations about further studies which may
be based on the one just concluded.
Evaluation is a necessary though difficult part of the guidance
program. This chapter has dealt with the methods which may be
used in assessing the program, some of the criteria which may be
employed, and steps to be taken in the evaluation process. No
attempt is being made here to define the limits of evaluative
method. One of the weaknesses in the evaluation of guidance
services is the restricted number of ways in which assessment
has been approached. A creative turning point in the direction
of guidance evaluation may serve to improve greatly the guid-
ance services to children and youth.
Counselor Education and Supervision. Washington, D.C.: Association
for Counselor Education and Supervision (Division of the American
Personnel and Guidance Association).
Journal of Counseling Psychology. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State
The Personnel and Guidance Journal. Washington, D.C.: The Ameri-
can Personnel and Guidance Association.
The School Counselor. Washington, D.C.: The American School Coun-
selor Association (Division of the American Personnel and Guidance
The Vocational Guidance Quarterly. Washington, D.C.: National Voca-
tional Guidance Association (Division of the American Personnel
and Guidance Association).
Sources of Vocational Information
B'nai B'rith Vocational Service Bureau, 1640 Rhode Island Avenue,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20000.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Regional Office, U. S. Department of Labor,
Suite 540, 1371 Peachtree Street, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30300.
Career Information Service, 51 Madison Avenue, New York, New York
Careers, Largo, Florida.
Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc., Moravia, New York.
Florida State Employment Service, Industrial Commission, Tallahas-
see, Florida 32301.
Glamour Magazine, Education-Career Department, 420 Lexington Ave-
nue, New York, New York 10000.
Mademoiselle Magazine, the Cond6 Nast Publications, Inc., 420 Lexing-
ton Avenue, New York, New York 10000.
National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Wash-
ington, D.C. 20000.
National Vocational Guidance Association, 1605 New Hampshire Ave-
nue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009.
New York Life Insurance Company, Education Section, 501 Madison
Avenue, New York, New York 10000.
Science Research Associates, Inc., 259 East Erie Street, Chicago, Illi-
Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20000.
The Guidance Centre, Ontario College of Education, 371 Bloor Street,
W., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
United States Armed Forces Recruiting Officers.
Publications about Colleges
Burckel, Christian E. The College Bluebook. Tenth Edition. Yonkers,
New York: The College Blue Book, 1962.
Catholic Educational Religious Institutions and Religious Communi-
ties in the United States. New York: Catholic Institutional Directory
Company, printed annually.
Chartter, Allan (ed.). American Universities and Colleges. Ninth Edi-
tion. Washington: American Council on Education, 1963.
Coleman, James C., Frieda Bornston, and William D. Martinson. Suc-
cess in College. Atlanta, Georgia: Scott, Foresman and Company,
College Admissions Data Service (Revised Handbook, 1962). Cam-
bridge: Educational Research Corporation, 1962.
College Entrance Examination Board. The College Handbook,
1963-65. Princeton: Educational Testing Service, 1963.
Escow, Seymour. Barron's Guide to the Two-Year Colleges. Great
Neck, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1963.
Fine, Benjamin. How to be Accepted by the College of Your Choice
(1963-64 revised edition). Manhasset, New York: Channel Press.
Gleazer, Edmund (ed.). American Junior Colleges. Sixth Edition.
Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1963.
Lovejoy, Clarence E. Lovejoy's College Guide. Sixth Edition. New York
Simon and Schuster, 1961.
Off to College. Edited by Guidance Research Group, Dean Charles H.
Owens, III, Chrmn. Published by Off to College, 1029 Vermont Ave-
nue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20000, 1964.
Wechsler, L. K., M. Blum and S. Friedman. College Entrance Coun-
selor. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1963.
Information about Scholarships
A Guide to Scholarships in Florida Colleges and Universities. Talla-
hassee: Florida State Department of Education, 1962.
College Scholarship Service, Box 176, Princeton, New Jersey.
"Commercial Loans for College." Report of the Changing Times Sur-
vey of Commercial Educational Loan Programs. Washington, D.C.:
Changing Times, the Kiplinger Magazine, 1962.
Cumulative Student Aid Bulletin, 1963-64. Vol. XV, No. 1. Moravia,
New York: Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc., 1963.
Eells, Walter C. and Ernest V. Hollis. Student Financial Aid in Higher
Education. An Annotated Bibliography (U. S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Office of Education Bulletin, 1961, No. 3).
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1961.
Feingold, S. Norman. Scholarships, Fellowships, and Loans, Vol. IV.
Cambridge: Bellman Publishing Company, 1962.
Need a Lift? Scholarship Information Service, National Child Welfare
Division, The American Legion, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Student Aid Annual: A Summary of Scholarships and Financial Aid
Programs Available to Entering College Freshmen, 1963-64. Vol. XV.
Alex Saba (ed.). Moravia, New York: Chronicle Guidance Publica-
tions, Inc., 1963.
Some Test Publishing Companies*
Bureau of Educational Research and Service, State University of Iowa,
Iowa City, Iowa.
*Note: For a complete listing of test publishing companies, see Oscar Buros' Mental
California Test Bureau, 206 Bridge Street, New Cumberland, Pennsyl-
Educational Test Bureau, 720 Washington Avenue, S.E., Minneapolis,
Educational Testing Service, 20 Nassau Street, Princeton, New Jersey.
Harcourt, Brace, and World, Inc., 441 West Peachtree Street, N.E.,
Atlanta, Georgia 30300.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 3108 Piedmont Road, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia
Science Research Associates, 259 East Erie Street, Chicago, Illinois
Psychological Corporation, 305 East 45th Street, New York, New York
Specialization Requirements for
Certification in Guidance (Grades 1-12)
1. Rank II Certificate
a. A master's degree with a major in guidance
b. A master's degree and twenty-one (21) semester hours of grad-
uate credit as specified below:
(1) Three (3) semester hours in one of the following: principles,
philosophy, organization and/or administration of guidance
(2) Six (6) semester hours in principles and procedures of group
(3) Three (3) semester hours in occupational and educational
(4) Three (3) semester hours in learning and personality theory
(5) Six (6) semester hours in counseling to include three (3)
semester hours in supervised practice
2. Rank I Certificate
a. A doctor's degree with a major in guidance or psychology
b. A doctor's degree and twenty-seven (27) semester hours of grad-
uate credit including the areas specified above for the Rank II
certificate covering guidance
Sample of Test Interpretation
FLORIDA STATEWIDE NINTH GRADE TEST INTERPRETATION
SCHOOL & COLLEGE ADVANCED METROPOLITAN
ABILITY TEST ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
-- -- -- --- 80 --- -- ---- --
40 -- ------ -- -
-- --- --- ---- 20 ---- -- -- - -- -- -- -
-10 4---- --
-- --- --- ---- 5 --- -- -- ---- -
The above table or graph is called a student profile which is one way
of indicating how an individual student did on a standardized test.
The numbers in the squares across the top of the graph show the
percentile score achieved on the Florida Statewide Ninth Grade Tests
by the student whose name is at the top of this page. Each number
shows how well this student did on one of the several tests which make
up the Ninth Grade Tests. The name of each test is directly above the
number which shows the percentile score of this student.
What is a Percentile Score?
It is important that you understand the meaning of a percentile
score. A Percentile Score compares a given student with all other 9th
grade students in Florida. It is a way of indicating the percentage of
the 9th grade students in Florida this student exceeded on this test.
For example: If a student's percentile score on a test is 40, this shows
that he did better than 40 percent of the 9th grade students who took
this test. This also shows that 59 percent of the students did better
than he. If a student's percentile score is 70, this indicates that he ex-
ceeded 70 percent of the 9th grade students who took this test and that
29 percent did better than he. (In each case the individual student is
the extra one (1) to make 100.) Another way of saying this is that a
percentile score is a way of indicating how many students out of every
one hundred 9th grade students in Florida this student exceeded on a
There is no such thing as a passing or failing mark on this test.
Please do not confuse a percentile score of 70 with 70 per cent which
on a teacher's test is often considered the lowest passing grade. There
is no relationship between a percentile score of 70 and 70 per cent
above which students may receive a passing mark. A percentile score
of 70 simply indicates that the person making this score exceeded 70%
of the norm group.
Students of average ability or average achievement generally score
between the 20th percentile and the 80th percentile. Students who
score above the 80th percentile rank above average or superior on this
test, and those who score below the 20th percentile rank below average
on the test.
Factors Which Influence Scores
Some things influence a test score in addition to the student's ability
or achievement. One of these is how hard the student tried on the test.
Another is how well he felt on the day he was tested. Of course, this
is influenced by his general health at the time and how much rest he
got the night before the test. Finally, failure to understand the in-
structions for taking the test affects the score. Generally, it is safe to
say that because of these influences, a student's score may be higher
or lower than it should be. It should be understood that these scores
show how well this student did on these tests on a particular day. On
another day these scores may have been slightly different. That is,
the percentile score earned by a student may be 5 percentile points
higher or lower than we think it might be under different conditions.
School and College Ability Test
The first test on the left of the profile is called the School & College
Ability Test. It is divided into two parts, a verbal section and a quan-
titative section. This test attempts to measure the pupil's developed
capacity for achieving successfully in school. It is, therefore, an indi-
cator of how well a student may be expected to do in academic kinds
of school work.
The number in the first square on the left above the graph is this
student's percentile score on the Verbal Section of the School & Col-
lege Ability Test. This test "measures developed ability in the verbal
kinds of school learning"-the developed ability to understand and
use words. This pupil's percentile score on the School & College Abil-
ity Test, Verbal was ......-......... This means that in ability to understand
and use words he is better than ......-... percent of the 9th grade stu-
dents in Florida, and approximately ....... per cent scored better than
The second number from the left is the pupil's percentile score on
the Quantitative section of the School & College Ability Test. This
test measures developed ability in certain "quantitative skills of num-
ber manipulation and problem solving"-that is, developed ability to
succeed in school subjects which are largely mathematical in nature.
The percentile score indicates the percentage of 9th grade pupils this
student exceeded on this test.
The next number is the percentile score for the total (verbal and
quantitative) School & College Ability Test. This compares the aca-
demic ability of this student with other Florida 9th grade students.
It is an estimate of the overall ability of the pupil to succeed in aca-
demic kinds of school experiences.
Metropolitan Achievement Tests
The test shown at the right of the divided section of the profile is
the Advanced Metropolitan Achievement Test. This achievement bat-
tery appraises the extent to which pupils are progressing toward at-
tainment of desirable educational goals. That is, it is designed to meas-
ure several areas of achievement in junior high school.
The first test to the right of the divided section of the profile is the
Reading Test. This test is designed to measure various aspects of
reading comprehension-that is, how well a student understands that
which he reads.
This test attempts to measure such areas of reading comprehension
as the student's ability: to select the main thought of a passage, to
understand the literal meaning of the selection, to see the relation-
ships among ideas set forth, to draw correct inferences, etc.
This student's percentile score on the Metropolitan Reading Test
was ........... This means that his general achievement level in Reading
Comprehension is better than .......... percent of the 9th grade pupils in
Florida and that approximately .......... percent scored better than he.
The second test is the Language Test. There are four subtest scores
and a total language score. The first subtest measures the student's
"knowledge of correct usage"-the ability to use the correct word in a
sentence. The second subtest indicates the student's "understanding
of proper use of punctuation and capitalization." The next subtest
shows the pupil's "ability to identify different kinds of sentences."
The fourth subtest measures the student's "ability to identify simple
parts of speech and grammatical terms." The total language percen-
tile shows how this student compares with other Florida 9th grade
students in achievement in English Grammar.
The next test is a test of Arithmetic Computation. This covers "fun-
damental operations (that is, addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division) with whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, through
fractional parts of numbers, reading graphs, addition and subtraction
of denominate numbers, square root, and various aspects of percent."
The fourth is a test of Arithmetic Problem Solving & Concepts. The
emphasis in this test is on reasoning in numerical situations. One part
of this test measures "understanding of concepts of the number sys-
tem, arithmetic processes, vocabulary, mathematical generalizations
and principles, measures and arithmetic relationships." The other
"measures the ability of the pupil to apply numbers in social situa-
tions and to make sound judgments with respect to quantitative
The next test is Social Studies Information, which "covers important
knowledge outcomes of the typical social studies offerings" in the
junior high school. That is, it measures the pupil's acquisition of facts
generally covered in social studies texts at this level.
The sixth test is a Science Test. It measures "the information, gen-
eralizations, and understandings most commonly covered in science
programs in grades 7, 8, and 9."
Comparing the Test Results
It may be interesting for student or parent to compare the scores
made on the School & College Ability Tests to scores made on the Ad-
vanced Metropolitan Achievement Tests. As you do this, keep in mind
the paragraph concerning some things that influence a test score, in
addition to the student's actual ability and achievement. One might
expect a student's achievement scores to compare rather closely to
his School & College Ability Test scores. By comparing closely, we see
the achievement percentile may be expected to be within plus or
minus 10 percentile points of the School & College Ability Test score.
If the achievement test score is more than 10 points above the School
& College Ability Test percentile, this might indicate overachievement
(achievement above expectation) for this student. On the other hand,
if the achievement test percentile is more than 10 points below the
School & College Ability Test percentile, this would seem to indicate
underachievement (achievement below what could be expected) for
this student. The greater the difference between these scores, the more
significant the over or under achievement would appear to be, again
keeping in mind the variability of test scores and the fact that other
things may have influenced this student's test results.
It may also be worthwhile to compare test scores to grades in school,
keeping in mind that students of average ability or average achieve-
ment generally score between the 20th percentile and the 80th percen-
tile. Those who score above the 80th percentile rank above average,
and those who score below the 20th percentile rank below average.
If you find discrepancies in your child's scores similar to those illus-
trated above, or if the comparison between test scores and grades in
school leave some questions in your mind, it is suggested that you ar-
range a conference with your child's teacher or counselor to discuss
Finally, if there are other questions you would like to ask about
these tests, please call your school and make an appointment for a
General Guidance Information
American Women: A Report of the President's Commission on the
Status of Women. Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents,
Beck, Carlton E. Philosophical Foundations of Guidance. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963.
Cottingham, Harold F. and William E. Hopke. Guidance in the Junior
High School. Bloomington, Illinois: McKnight and McKnight, 1961.
Cottingham, Harold F. Guidance in the Elementary School. Blooming-
ton, Illinois: McKnight and McKnight Publishing Company, 1956.
Detjen, Ervin and Mary Detjen. Elementary School Guidance. Second
Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Dinkmeyer, Donald and Rudolph Dreikurs. Encouraging Children to
Learn: The Encouragement Process. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Gary, Ralph. Guidance Techniques for Elementary Teachers. Colum-
bus: Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., 1963.
Glanz, Edward C. Foundations and Principles of Guidance. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1964.
Guidance in the Curriculum. Washington, D.C.: Association for Super-
vision and Curriculum Development (1955 Yearbook).
Hatch, Raymond and James W. Costar. Guidance Services in the Ele-
mentary School. Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Company, 1961.
Humphreys, J. Anthony, Arthur E. Traxler and Robert D. North. Guid-
ance Services. Second Edition. Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Johnston, Edgar J., Mildred Peters and William Evraiff. The Role of
the Teacher in Guidance. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-
Jones, Arthur J. Principles of Guidance. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1963.
Kelly, Janet. Guidance and Curriculum. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Mathewson, Robert H. Guidance Policy and Practice. Third Edition.
New York: Harper and Row, 1962.
Miller, Carroll H. Foundations of Guidance. New York: Harper and
Miller, Frank W. Guidance Principles and Services. Columbus, Ohio:
Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., 1961.
Ohlsen, Merle M. Guidance Services in the Modern School. New York:
Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1964.
Patterson, C. H. Counseling and Guidance in Schools. New York: Har-
per and Brothers, 1962.
Perceiving, Behaving, Becoming. Washington, D.C.: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development (1962 Yearbook).
Peters, Herman J., Anthony C. Riccio and Joseph J. Quaranta. Guid-
ance in the Elementary School: A Book of Readings. New York: The
MacMillan Company, 1963.
Peters, Herman J. and Gail F. Farwell. Guidance Readings for Coun-
selors. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1960.
Rogers, Carl R. On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Rosecrance, Francis C. and Velma D. Hayden. School Guidance and
Personnel Services. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1960.
Willey, Roy D. and Melvin Dunn. The Role of the Teacher in the Guid-
ance Program. Bloomington, Illinois: McKnight and McKnight
Wrenn, Gilbert C. The Counselor in a Changing World. Washington,
D.C.: The American Personnel and Guidance Association, 1962.
Organization and Administration of Guidance Services
Andrew, D. C. and Roy Willey. Administration and Organization of
the Guidance Program. New York: Harper and Row, 1958.
Hatch, Raymond and Bufford Stefflre. Administration of Guidance
Services: Organization, Supervision, Evaluation. New York: Harper,
Peters, Herman J. and Bruce Shertzer. Guidance: Program Develop-
ment and Management. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1963.
Stoops, Emery. Guidance Services: Organization and Administration.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
Zeran, Franklin R. and Anthony C. Riccio. Organization and Adminis-
tration of Guidance Services. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1962.
Testing Programs and Procedures
Anastasi, Anne. Psychological Testing. Second Edition. New York: The
MacMillan Company, 1961.
Berdie, Ralph F., and others. Testing in Guidance and Counseling. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.
Buros, Oscar (ed.). The Fifth Mental Measurements Yearbook. High-
land Park: Gryphon Press, 1959.
Chauncey, Henry and John Dobbin. Testing, Its Place in Education
Today. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.
Cronbach, Lee J. Essentials of Psychological Testing. New York: Har-
per and Row, 1960.
Goldman, Leo. Using Tests in Counseling. New York: Appleton-
Lindquist, E. F. (ed.). Educational Measurement. Washington, D.C.:
American Council on Education, 1951.
Super, Donald E. and John O. Crites. Appraising Vocational Fitness.
New York: Harper and Row, 1962.
The Impact and Improvement of School Testing Programs. Chicago:
National Society for the Study of Education, Yearbook, 1963.
Wood, Dorothy Adkins. Test Construction: Development and Inter-
pretation of Achievement Tests. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill
Books, Inc., 1961 (paper bound).
Baer, Max F. and Edward C. Roeber, Occupational Information. Chi-
cago: Science Research Associates, 1958.
Hoppock, Robert. Occupational Information. Second Edition. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.
Norris, Willa. Occupational Information in the Elementary School.
Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1963.
Norris, Willa, Franklin R. Zeran and Raymond Hatch. The Informa-
tion Service in Guidance. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company,
Roe, Anne. The Psychology of Occupations. New York: Wiley, 1956.
Shartle, Carroll L. Occupational Information, Its Development and
Application. Third Edition, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1959.
Super, Donald E. The Psychology of Careers. New York: Harper and
American Trade Schools Directory, 1963. Ulrich, H. E. Croner (ed.).
Queens Village New York: Croner Publications, 1963.
Calvert, Robert, Jr. and James E. Steele. Planning Your Career. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.
Career Guidance Index. R. M. Hardville (ed.). Largo, Florida: Careers
(printed monthly, subscription service).
Career Index. Chronical Guidance Publications, Moravia, New York
Directory of Vocational Training in Florida. William D. Glenn and
Ching-Ju Ho. The University of Tampa, 1960.
Handbook of Facts. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1964.
Hardy, Blanche and J. Garland Wynn, Jr. A Guide to Free and Inex-
pensive Vocational Materials. Ocala, Florida: The Guidance Center,
Central Florida Junior College, 1963.
Lovejoy, C. E. Lovejoy's Vocational Guide (revised). New York: Simon
and Schuster, 1963.
Murphy, James M. Directory of Vocational Training Sources. Chicago:
Science Research Associates, 1964.
Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1963-64. U. S. Department of Labor.
Washington, D.C., Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1963.
Occupational Outlook Publications. Washington, D.C.: Occupational
Outlook Services, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
Your Career in the Florida Sun: A Job Guide for Young Workers.
Tallahassee: Florida Industrial Commission, 1964.
Arbuckle, Dugald S. Counseling: An Introduction. Boston: Allyn and
Bordin, Edward. Psychological Counseling. New York: Appleton-Cen-
Boy, Angelo V. and Gerald Pine. Client-Centered Counseling in the
Secondary School. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1963.
Buckheimer, Arnold and Sara Balogh. The Counseling Relationship, A
Case Book. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1961.
Byrne, Richard Hill. The School Counselor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Loughary, John W. Counseling in Secondary Schools. New York:
Harper and Row, 1961.
McGowan, John F. and Lyle D. Schmidt. Counseling: Readings in
Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1962.
McKinney, Fred. Counseling for Personal Adjustment. New York:
Houghton Mifflin, 1958.
Patterson, C. H. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice.
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1959.
Rogers, Carl R. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
Tyler, Leona E. The Work of the Counselor. Second Edition. New York:
Glanz, Edward C. Groups in Guidance. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1962.
Lifton, Walter N. Working with Groups: Group Process and Individual
Growth. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1961.
Warters, Jane. Group Guidance, Principles and Practices. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1960.