Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The coordinator and the school...
 The guidance program
 Standardized testing
 Guidance materials
 Professional relationships
 In-service education
 Evaluation and research
 Back Cover

Group Title: handbook: coordination of guidance services.
Title: A Handbook: coordination of guidance services.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080743/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Handbook: coordination of guidance services.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1965
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 63
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080743
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    The coordinator and the school counselor
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The guidance program
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Standardized testing
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Guidance materials
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Professional relationships
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    In-service education
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Evaluation and research
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Back Cover
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text


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Copyright 1965

Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent


Copyright 1965
Tallahassee, Florida

THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent


THIS HANDBOOK for county and area coordinators of
guidance services is one of several recent efforts sponsored
by the State Department of Education to offer guide lines and
to give direction to school personnel as they enter into new
programs of administration and teaching.
The guidance worker responsible for coordination of guidance
services will find that his way is not marked and that he must
make choices regularly as to which direction will take him nearer
and more expeditiously to the place he wants to be. A creative
job is demanded and expected of the individual who undertakes
the task of coordinating guidance services in one or more counties.
This bulletin is but the beginning of a full description of the
guidance coordinator and his responsibilities. It offers in tenta-
tive form some of the important functions of the coordinator as
that position is presently conceived. It should be understood by
all concerned that the future nature of the operation and the
identifying characteristics of the person who performs it will be
largely determined by those who do the job in the years im-
mediately ahead. School people fortunate enough to be assigned
to the role of coordinator in these formative years have an
opportunity to make a lasting contribution to the effort. Their
responsibility is an enlarged one. Not only must they do the
best job of coordination possible with little assistance in the
form of established guide lines but they must also help bring
into focus the image of the coordinator and add to the concept
of coordination the new insights and professional wisdom gained
from their experiences.
The Florida State Department of Education congratulates
the county and area supervisors, who with the professional
leadership and support of the guidance staff of the Department,
recognized the need for this handbook and assumed full re-
sponsibility for meeting this need. In the years before us as the
functions of the guidance coordinator increase and his place in
the educational scheme becomes more clearly defined, this pio-

neering effort will stand out as a good beginning, a solid founda-
tion on which later developments can be built and expected to

State Superintendent of Public Instruction

Table of Contents

1. Introduction ............... ........................ 1

2. The Coordinator and the School Counselor .......... 6

3. The Guidance Program ........................... 10

4. Standardized Testing .............................. 16

5. Guidance M materials ....................... ......... 23

6. Professional Relationships ........................... 27

7. In-Service Education ............................ 33

8. Articulation ....................................... 36

9. Budget ............................................ 39

10. Evaluation and Research ........................... 40



WITH THIS DOCUMENT, Florida educators are moving
into an uncharted area. The position of the coordinator of
guidance services is so new that few descriptions of the position
have been attempted, and little research has been conducted to
determine whether the services which have been developed are
those which are appropriate or needed. The one certainty is that
the function will be modified as the job becomes more usual and
those who hold it acquire the wisdom which accompanies long
It has been thought for some time that a general description
of the responsibilities of the guidance coordinator would be help-
ful to those who work in that capacity and to others who work
with the guidance coordinators. No description already formu-
lated will apply to every coordinator and to the position which
he holds. Although it is difficult to design a statement which is
general enough to cover a description of all the jobs yet specific
enough to be helpful, this document will attempt to cover
broadly the many different kinds of services which the coordi-
nator provides and to indicate generally those in which he plays
a major role and those in which he contributes mainly his
support and skill.

Use of the Document
This statement may be used by the school personnel indi-
cated in the following ways:
1. By the coordinators themselves to help them compare their own
jobs with those of others who carry the same title
2. By administrators, to help them in their efforts to understand and
guide the work of the coordinators on their staffs

3. By administrators who are contemplating employing coordinators
4. By supervisors of instruction or other county-level supervisors who
can give professional support to the program as well as receive
specialized assistance from the coordinator
5. By principals, who need to have a realistic level of expectation of
the coordinator's services
6. By counselors in the schools, who need to know what to expect
from the program of the coordinator and where the counselors
stand in relation to it.

This document may be used as:
1. A guide for initiating new county or area-level guidance leader-
2. An explanation of the duties and functions of the coordinator for
those who require such an explanation
3. An introduction to principals or other administrators of the kinds
of help which they may expect to receive from the coordinator
4. A guide for school counselors, who may refer to it when they are
in doubt about functions or relationships.
It is hoped that this statement of the coordinator's responsi-
bilities will not serve to make the county- or area-level guidance
program inflexible. The description may be modified and ex-
tended as new needs arise or old ones become unimportant.
However, any philosophy governing the role of the coordinator
which deviates too far from all of the tenets of this statement
should be re-examined to determine whether the school sys-
tem has in reality a coordinator of guidance services or instead
a person who carries the title, but is not functioning in a guid-
ance capacity and, therefore, should be designated differently.

Qualifications for Coordinators

The guidance coordinator should have had wide experience
in education. He should also have had experience in counseling
with young people. If possible, he should have had some class-
room teaching experience. It is also desirable for him to have
had some experience as an administrator or a supervisor. One
of the main advantages that results from acquiring many kinds
of experience is the opportunity such experiences offer for
achieving deep understandings of educational problems and sit-
uations. There are, of course, other ways of achieving such un-
derstandings, and each person may reach the goal in his own way.
Not everyone must have the same experiences in order to reach
goals which are comparable to those of his peers.

To date, there is no formal certification for county and area
coordinators of guidance services. As a general rule of thumb,
it has been thought that the coordinator should be certified in
both guidance and supervision. The coordinator should hold at
least a Master's degree in guidance. Many coordinators, how-
ever, hold a doctorate.
The coordinator should be a creative and forceful educational
leader who is deeply involved in the welfare of all youth. He
should possess the highest possible personal values and stand-
ards of conduct and should exemplify in his own life the kinds
of practices and ideals which young people may copy.
The coordinator's most important asset is his ability to relate
well to others, particularly to adults, though his relationship with
youth is also important. In all situations, he should be both
patient and tactful and should refrain from pushing a program
too vigorously when it meets with delay and resistance. He
must keep in mind always that the guidance program is not his
alone and that it will develop successfully only as others also
recognize the need for guidance services. The coordinator must,
therefore, combine the qualities of dynamic leadership and un-
limited patience.

Consultation and Supervision
The coordinator's background of knowledge and his developed
skills play a part in his role as consultant to other educators.
His knowledge must be thorough enough for him to help
others to recognize possible solutions to problems and to dis-
card solutions which are beyond practical possibility. His skill
in human relations should be grounded in an understanding of
behavior dynamics to such an extent that he can develop a
tenable set of hypotheses about the reactions of others to certain
circumstances and to certain other individuals.
The consultative function in the coordinator's job is the one
which requires a creative approach to the job. The guidance
program develops and grows as it is worked with, and it is sub-
ject to constant modification. The normal frustrations which are
a part of every job serve the purpose of forcing those who work
in the job to look more closely at it and thus to become more
familiar with it. It is possible that solutions which are achieved
too easily may actually encourage a superficial understanding of

the problem at hand. The more concentrated the effort demanded
by a situation, the deeper is the comprehension of the problem.

The consultant's function is to help others meet and solve
the needs and problems which they recognize. He does not
dictate the course of action, but he helps others achieve greater
professional growth as they make wise choices toward the solu-
tion of their own problems.

Although other educators have studied and worked with the
areas of child behavior and child development, learning theory,
personality theory, evaluation of behavior, student records, col-
lege financial aid, educational and vocational information,
achievement and aptitudes of students, standardized test inter-
pretation, and group dynamics, the coordinator may be assumed
to be a specialist in some or all of these areas. As a specialist,
he should be a source of information from which others may
draw, and they may be able to make judgments on the basis
of the facts which the coordinator is able to supply.

The coordinator should be a resource person not only for
in-school personnel, but also for the superintendent to whom
he is responsible. The school superintendent may depend upon
the coordinator to furnish information on which policy or ad-
ministrative judgments may be made. The coordinator should
probably be included in policy-making meetings of school-sys-
tem level personnel, in order that he may be called upon to
contribute his special understandings of individual problems and

The consultant should approach each situation with imagi-
nation, a willingness to experiment, and the self-discipline which
keeps him from forming judgments too soon. He works with
people in order to help them find the most effective ways to
develop their programs. The function of supervision is subtly
different from that of consultation. Many supervisors have a
legal responsibility for direction of the program. In some cases,
this responsibility is spelled out by organizational charts and
by stated policies. Whenever possible, the supervisor who works
as a consultant may advisedly use consultative techniques rather
than supervisory ones. Many supervisors think of themselves
as enablerss" to help others get the job done. This attitude to-
ward the job is also appropriate for the coordinator.

The direct line of responsibility extends from the Super-
intendent of Public Instruction of the school system to the prin-
cipal of the individual school. The principal, in turn, delegates
certain responsibilities to members of his staff. He gives into
the hands of the counselor the responsibility for the guidance
The coordinator does not stand in a line-of-authority rela-
tionship to the counselor in the school. Rather, the coordinator's
role is supportive and advisory. Because of his special knowledge
and because he is in a position to develop a broad perspective
on guidance needs in his community, he is the person on whom
the counselor may rely for professional guidance. The coordi-
nator does not "grant permission" to undertake certain pro-
grams. He may "make recommendations" to the counselor or to
the principal. It must be remembered, however, that the principal
is the administrator in charge of the school facility and that he
is the one who is responsible for the educational processes which
are carried on in his building.


The Coordinator and the School


THE WORKING RELATIONSHIP of the coordinator with
the counselor in the school is a close one. Although the
counselor is supervised by and responsible to his school princi-
pal, he looks for professional support to the guidance coordina-

Employment of Counselors
The usual applicant for a position in a school writes first to
the school superintendent. The superintendent refers the appli-
cation to the appropriate person for processing. Sometimes the
person is a personnel officer, but sometimes the referral is made
to a specialist who is able to make judgments about the candi-
date's qualifications. Where there is a guidance coordinator, the
superintendent should ask him to review the applications of those
who have applied for positions as counselors in the schools. He
should do so whether the applicant for the counseling position
comes from within or outside the school system.
The coordinator often will screen applicants for counselor
positions and refer only those who are qualified to the super-
intendent for possible employment. When the coordinator and
the superintendent together have agreed that the applicant is
suitable, the principal then may be asked to talk to the applicant
in order to make judgments about whether the applicant would
be a compatible staff member and whether the principal feels
that he can establish an effective working relationship with the
prospective counselor. If the principal's reaction to the appli-

cant is a positive one, the superintendent may then be asked to
offer him the position.

Orientation to the Job of Counselor
Many persons are involved in helping the new counselor be-
come familiar with the school, the persons in the school, and the
philosophies and policies under which he will work. Student
needs made it mandatory that the new counselor become a pro-
ductive member of the school team as soon as possible.
After the counselor is employed, the coordinator and the
principal should have a conference with him in order to provide
him with basic information concerning the school plan and pro-
gram. Afterwards, the new counselor and the coordinator should
work together in the counselor's office. They should explore the
content and conditition of guidance materials, of cumulative
folders, and of office files. They should work together on pro-
jected plans for the year, on an anticipated time table, and on
changes or modifications of program which seem to be desir-
The new counselor should also have an opportunity to come
to know his fellow faculty members as soon as possible. If the
coordinator can schedule conferences between teachers and the
counselor, he should offer to do so.

Both the principal and the coordinator should observe closely
the work of the counselor and should confer frequently on the
counselor's progress. If the counselor fulfills his obligations as
both the principal and the coordinator see the responsibilities
of the job, then they will likely agree that the counselor should
be retained on the staff. Some school systems may stipulate a
probationary period for new counselors. The coordinator and the
principal should review the counselor's performance regularly
during this period with a view toward helping him achieve the
required effectiveness in his work. If either the principal or the
coordinator has reservations about the effectiveness of the ser-
vice which the counselor is rendering, these questions should be
discussed with both the counselor and the superintendent. Ex-
cept in cases where the counselor's incompetency is unmistak-
ably clear, each counselor should be given an opportunity to

improve the quality of his services before a decision to release
him is reached.

From time to time, for both professional and personal rea-
sons, it may be wise to consider transferring a counselor from one
school to another within the school system. Initiation of such a
transfer may come from the counselor himself, from the princi-
pals in the two schools concerned, from county-level supervisor or
administrative personnel, or from the coordinator. In cases where
there are regulations against married couples working in the
same school and the counselor marries a member of the faculty
of the school in which he is employed, the coordinator may work
out with other educators an appropriate transfer for one of the
persons in question so that the counselor's services will not be
lost to the school system. Other factors may also be involved in
the decision to transfer a counselor from one school to another,
but all steps in the transfer should be worked out with all
concerned, including the counselor himself.

Release of Counselors

The decision to release any educator is a difficult one to make.
As many persons should be involved in the decision as possible,
and sound reasons should be advanced for the judgment which
is made. In cases where the person is clearly unsuited for the
position which he holds, only an advance notice need to be made
to him that he is not to be reemployed. However, if there are
extenuating circumstances or if there is a possibility that the
deficiencies may be rectified by the sincere cooperation of the
person himself, a series of conferences may be scheduled with
him in which the principal and the coordinator attempt to help
the counselor devise ways to improve his performance.
Whenever a counselor is to be released from his job, it is
quite necessary that he understand fully the reasons for his
discharge and that he leave the system with as little bitterness
as possible. The coordinator may be asked to work with him
over a period of time so that the circumstance of losing a job
will be a growth experience for him, rather than an embittering
one. In this situation, as in many others, the coordinator may
serve as the counselor's counselor.

Letters of Reference
Coordinators may often be asked to write letters of reference
for counselors who have applied for other positions or for
prospective counselors who need a recommendation for admis-
sion to graduate study. For the most part, such letters are easy
ones to write. Occasionally, however, a request for a recom-
mendation is made when the recommendation cannot be given.
At such times, a telephone call may be more effective than a
If school system policy decrees that all letters of reference
be sent from one central office (as, for instance, the Personnel
Office), the person designated to write such letters should al-
ways consult the coordinator before sending the reference to the
person who requests it. When lines of communication are open,
mistakes and misstatements will be reduced to a minimum.


The Guidance Program

T HE GUIDANCE COORDINATOR is an integral part of the
educational team which operates at the county level to pro-
vide an increasingly effective educational program for all students
in the school system. Because he has both general and specific
responsibilities for the over-all guidance program, he must seek
opportunities to interact with other staff members and must
refrain from getting so involved with promoting his own pro-
gram that he loses touch with his colleagues.

Over-all Educational Program
The guidance coordinator should be invited to participate in
the staff meetings which are held to formulate the total over-
all educational program for the year ahead. Not only should his
ideas about the total program be considered when making plans,
but his goals for the guidance program for the year should also
be considered. The ways in which guidance and instruction
supplement and support each other should be enunciated, inso-
far as possible, throughout all written statements of educational
aims. The coordinator should be among those who are listed
as responsible for the planning of the educational prospectus for
the academic year.

Initiation of New Programs
In schools where there is presently no guidance program, the
coordinator may lend his support toward initiating one. Part of
the coordinator's responsibility may be to spell out to the school
administration, faculty, and students the role of guidance and
the functions of a counselor. Only if the personnel already in

the school see guidance as a real help to them will they wish to
incorporate such a program. If they do not have a positive atti-
tude, they may designate someone as a counselor, but assign to
him a series of non-guidance-even non-professional-duties.

Most school faculties and administrators during this decade
have a real interest in providing effective guidance services for
students. Counseling and guidance have proved their worth suffi-
ciently at this time in educational history to be viewed as an
advantage by progressive-minded educators. Most administrators
are seeking support in their efforts to determine what the best
services of a guidance program are. The coordinator, then, has a
responsibility to help school personnel take steps toward the
inaugurating of an operative program.
One good way to start a guidance program is for the principal
to appoint a committee of interested faculty members to work
with the county coordinator to determine what steps should be
taken first. The committee, with the coordinator serving as a
resource person, should work toward a program which will be
in keeping with the total educational philosophy of the school.
They may decide from among the many services which are
possible which ones should be initiated and emphasized first.

When all basic decisions of philosophy and general policy
have been made, it is time to make recommendations to the
administration and faculty. The projected program may then be
modified to incorporate practical suggestions and considerations
offered by this group, whose work is also directly affected by the
program. The final step in inaugurating a program is the selection
of a person to serve as the school counselor. As stated earlier,
this is the joint responsibility of at least three educators: the
superintendent, the principal, and the coordinator.

Facilities for Guidance Services

One of the important matters about which coordinators
should always be consulted is the providing of space for a
guidance office in the school. The requirements of the guidance
program are so special that anyone who is not an expert in the
field will hardly know how to plan space to house it.
Since informational materials of all kinds are an important
part of the guidance service, ample space must be allowed to

house and display them. Standardized testing supplies also must
be kept in the guidance office. Locked cabinets or closets are
needed to care properly for them.

Because the cumulative folders of all students are used regu-
larly by several different persons in the school, the file cabinets
which contain these folders should be readily available in an
office convenient to everyone who needs to consult them. Cer-
tainly the counselor is one of these persons, and folders should
be located either in his office or in an office close by. The necessity
for sharing cumulative folders should be one of the determining
factors in locating the counselor's office.

It is essential that a waiting room be provided for students
who come to see the counselor. No student should have to stand
around in the hall while he waits for the counselor to be free
to see him. However, the wall between the counselor's private
office and the waiting room should be so solid that voices do not
carry from one space to another. It is not sufficient to place book-
cases around a counselor's desk in one corner of a converted
classroom. Complete privacy in a counseling situation means
that the counselor and counselee be neither observed nor over-

The coordinator's role in determining proper office space can-
not be overemphasized. To a great extent, the job which the
counselor is able to do is determined by the space which is
provided for him to work in.

On-going Work with Faculties

A going guidance program in a school does not mean that the
coordinator should feel that he no longer needs to maintain his
communication with other members of the faculty. He should
continue to work with the faculty guidance committee and meet
with the entire faculty whenever he is invited to do so. He may
visit with faculties on an informal basis in the lounge when-
ever he is in the school. From time to time, he may drop by a
classroom to observe or to visit. He will know in which class-
rooms he is welcome, and may want to stay away from those
in which he poses a threat to the teacher. He will make certain
that all faculty members know that he is always available to
talk with them or to help them at any time he is needed.

Work with Administrators

As a matter of general courtesy, the coordinator seldom visits
a school without going by the principal's office to let his presence
be known. If the principal is not busy, it is usually a good idea
to visit for a few minutes with him to get his views about how
the guidance program is going and what services the coordinator
may render to help support the program. The chat may be only
friendly "small talk," or it may develop into a real professional
conference. In either case, the coordinator and the principal are
cementing their relationship and are achieving greater feelings
of mutual confidence and trust. As with other faculty members,
the coordinator must be sure that the principal understands that
he is always available for a conference on call.

The coordinator should also have a friendly working relation-
ship with such other administrative personnel in the school as
the assistant principals or deans. The deans should feel that they
may discuss guidance-related problems with the coordinator at
any time. Since much of the deans' work is in the nature of
counseling, it is important that they feel they have a resource
person to whom they may turn when they need support. Much
of the deans' work is with students who are presently seeing or
will see the counselor. The coordinator should have an oppor-
tunity to communicate with the deans who are to a large extent
engaged in guidance-related work.

Case Conferences

The guidance coordinator is often the person who calls case
conferences in which solutions are sought to group or individual
problems. He may schedule time for case conferences on a regu-
lar basis, such as the first Monday in every month or every
other Friday. He may, on the other hand, call such conferences
only in cases of special need. When he does call a conference,
he is careful to include all interested persons. From time to
time, he requests the attendance of those who are no longer
responsible for the group or individual, but who have some
knowledge of the history or development of the situation. Such
persons may be, for example, the elementary or junior high
school counselor, or perhaps the elementary or secondary school

In some counties the coordinator seldom initiates a case
conference, but is always issued an invitation to attend if he is
able to do so. Although he may not have first hand knowledge
of the difficulty under discussion, he may be sufficiently well
informed in theories of behavior that he can offer suggestions
of methods of procedure or recommend referral resources which
had not been previously considered.

Case conferences are an important part of the procedures of
the "helping professions." Often, they will have been established
and operating effectively over a long period of time. If not, co-
ordinators may find it desirable to initiate case conferences and
involve all of those professional persons who may be able to help
students and teachers identify and remedy those problems which
interfere with the best teaching and learning of which all are

Referral Resources

One of the functions of the coordinator should be to keep
himself informed about resources in the community to which
students may be referred when their needs cannot be met by
the schools. It is necessary that the individuals, groups, or agen-
cies which provide these resources receive a personal visit from
the coordinator. To maintain a list of resources which has been
copied from the yellow pages of the telephone book is not helpful.
It is possible that agencies which bear a title which is appropriate
for youth problems may be carrying out a program which is
different from expectations.

Most clinics and social case work agencies carry heavy loads
of patients or clients. It sometimes happens that there is a long
waiting list and that the waiting period may extend to six
months. If the coordinator has established a good working rela-
tionship with clinic or agency personnel, they may respond to
his plea when he assures them that a certain case is in urgent
need of attention and that a six-months' waiting period may be
dangerous to the counselee.

Since the coordinator may know well all referral resources
in the community, including such organizations as men's and
women's service groups, he can serve as a source of information
for school counselors who may need help with problems which

range from providing breakfast for an underprivileged child to
preventing a potential suicide.

Although follow-up studies are frequently conducted by
counselors in individual schools, they may also be made on a
county-wide basis and directed by a coordinator. Sometimes,
although the studies are made on a school-by-school schedule,
the form used has been adopted by all schools so that the results
may be pooled and a county-wide report may be made. Such an
enlarged report may be especially helpful to individual schools,
since it serves as a basis for comparison and will show significant
differences or similarities within the same community.
Many follow-up studies are considered to be part of an on-
going research program. The time is coming soon when such
studies may be made with the assistance of electronic data pro-
cessing equipment and both the amount of information gathered
and the comparative data will be greatly extended.


Standardized Testing

THE SUPERVISION of testing is handled by people with a
variety of titles. Sometimes it is a part of the job of the guid-
ance coordinator. Sometimes there is a coordinator of testing
who works under the supervision of the coordinator of guidance.
Sometimes there are two coordinate positions. Occasionally,
testing is handled by an instructional supervisor rather than
by the guidance coordinator. This description covers the job of
the person responsible for supervising the testing program, no
matter what other title or responsibilities he holds.
In considering responsibilities in this area, it seems that there
are three dimensions: the types of activities, the kinds of pro-
grams, and the roles of personnel.
The activities may be considered to be: (1) planning, (2)
test selection and evaluation, (3) the mechanics of distribution,
(4) administration, and (5) scoring. Further activities consist
of the reporting and disseminating of test results, interpreting
and using test results, and relating the testing program to the
work of other school personnel and to the total school program.
In carrying out these activities, the person who is doing
the test coordination will play these roles: consultant, advisor,
administrator, supervisor, and in-service educator. The programs
with which he may be concerned include: the system-wide test-
ing program, testing in individual schools (including teacher-
made tests), special testing for research purposes, and external
(state and national) testing programs.

The County Testing Program
The coordinator may work with a committee which is re-
presentative of the entire school system to identify goals and

objectives of the testing program and of the total educational
program in the county. His manner of working with such a
committee will be largely that of a consultant.

When new tests are planned, the coordinator will locate and
identify the available tests for the grade or area to be tested and
will present them for study and review to members of the test-
ing committee. He will help committee members evaluate the
tests in the light of the goals and objectives which have been
enunciated for the new testing program. In this capacity, his
function will be that of both consultant and advisor.
The coordinator will be aware of trends in curriculum de-
velopment and of new developments in the testing field. Since
his is a key role, he must at all times have current information
and must be able to convey this information to the appropriate
persons. Because of the necessity for thorough knowledge in the
testing field, the coordinator must be allowed time and oppor-
tunity to attend professional meetings and to read professional
journals and official notices from professional organizations.
The coordinator works with a testing committee to plan the
details of test administration. He must arrange for scheduling,
instruction of test administrators, choice of testing sites, organ-
ization of needed materials (pencils, stop watches, scratch paper,
"Do Not Disturb" signs) and notification of every individual who
will be affected by the testing program.
The coordinator also plans for using test results as part of
research programs, either as the central focus of the design or
as corollary or supportive information. Tests must be thought of
not as isolated entities but rather as part of a large and complex
educational program. The results of standardized tests should
provide deep insights into the teaching-learning process.

The coordinator is deeply involved in attending to the details
and mechanics of the testing program. It is he (or someone
designated by him) who prepares notices, orders materials, ar-
ranges for distribution of test booklets, and makes preparation
for collecting materials when the test is completed. Since the
test schedule must move forward smoothly and on time, such

preparation is an essential part of the program. One of the rea-
sons for the careful scheduling of a county-wide testing pro-
gram is the economical use of test materials. Fewer booklets,
pencils, stop watches, and like materials need to be in stock if
the testing programs of all the schools are scheduled on a rota-
tion basis. More detail-work is involved for the coordinator,
however, to make sure that the materials are in satisfactory con-
dition before being taken to the next school for student use.
The coordinator will work with representatives from each
school to make decisions about how the test is to be given
(for instance-in one testing period or in several), where it is
to be given (in classrooms or in one large central location), and
by whom it is to be administered. All of these decisions are
important ones and must be made to the satisfaction of all who
will be concerned with the program. The in-service training
of all of those who will be giving the test is one of the co-
ordinator's primary duties. Unless there is uniformity in test
administration, the results will be neither valid nor reliable. It is
unjustifiable to spend the time of all the students and faculty
members who are involved in the testing program unless the
test is administered capably and efficiently. Only those persons
who sincerely wish to take part in the program should be in-
cluded. Those who are bored by it, threatened by it, or antago-
nistic to it should not be allowed to administer a test.
The coordinator must plan in advance for the collection of
test booklets and answer sheets and their return to a central
location. He must also make arrangements for testing those who
were unable to take the test during its initial administration.
When booklets and answer sheets have been returned to the
central office, the coordinator must arrange for someone to in-
spect them carefully for tears, extraneous marks, and other dis-
When tests are to be machine scored, the coordinator must
instruct the clerk who will deliver them to the scoring machine
or prepare them for mailing. If there is a test scoring machine
for which the coordinator is responsible, he must train someone
to operate it properly and to score the test answer sheets. If
the test is to be hand scored, the coordinator must teach the
clerk the proper hand-scoring procedures.
The coordinator also initiates checks on the accuracy of the
scoring procedures, maintains constant supervision of the clerical

staff, and arranges for item analyses of tests where needed, ap-
propriate, or requested.

This section of the job description assumes that there will
be provided an adequate clerical staff. If such a staff is not avail-
able, an ambitious testing program should not be attempted by
the school system.


The coordinator supervises the preparation of the reports of
the testing program which will be used by individual schools.
There are many different kinds of reports for test scores. Each
serves a unique purpose. One of the most important of the re-
ports is that which is made to individual students about their
own test scores. Coordinators help determine which way these
reports will be most meaningful to students. When the decision
has been made, the coordinator will assist those who are to
interpret the test scores to decide about the most effective inter-
preting techniques. The technique for test interpretation may be
the drawing of individual profiles, the devising of a narrative
report, the designing of charts or graphs, or the outlining of a
verbal report method to students and their parents. He will want
to help counselors with techniques for having test scores entered
in cumulative folders.

Another of the reports which should be made is a summary
of the test results for each individual school and for the school
system as a whole. The preparation of the summary is one of
the coordinator's responsibilities. The coordinator also may pre-
pare bulletins about the test program, may conduct workshops,
and may make reports to total faculties or other school-related

The coordinator may feel the necessity for preparing special
reports for special individuals or groups. For example, it may
seem desirable to prepare a special report for the curriculum
supervisors, for the principals, or for the superintendent. It may
be a good idea to prepare a report of the results of the item
analyses to teachers, principals, or directors of instruction. It is
sometimes wise to write a special bulletin for teachers, discuss-
ing the interpretation of the test given, and its special meaning
for instruction.

Local School Testing
The coordinator may serve as a consultant to school staffs, to
certain departments within the school, or to individual teachers
who wish to improve their testing and grading practices. Under
these circumstances, the coordinator waits for an invitation from
those who wish his help. It is, of course, necessary for teachers
to know of his interest in helping them and of his ability to
do so.
The coordinator may help the teacher in many ways. He may
help to identify the objectives of the course. He may help the
teacher identify those objectives in hoped-for, modified student
behavior. Next, the coordinator will help the teacher select the
kinds of test techniques which will be most helpful in measuring
the learning which has taken place. He will help the teacher
decide whether objective tests or essay-type tests (or a combina-
tion of both) will measure best the outcomes of the teaching
process. Once the technique has been decided upon, the for-
mat of the items must be chosen. He must help resolve the
dilemma of whether these questions, so stated, really get at
the ultimate course objectives which were initially identified.
The coordinator helps the teacher find reference materials
on test development, helps him locate appropriate sample items,
and helps him make decisions about sequence of testing, based
upon the research or experience of others. There are several
good commercially produced materials, including series of film-
strips, on teacher-made tests.
Another assistance which the coordinator can give to the
teacher is help with designing answer sheets which are easy to
score. The little additional planning which will be required in
scoring design may save many hours of time when the test is
The coordinator, too, can help the teacher with item analyses,
which will help him sharpen up the many uses to which test
results may be put and may make his teaching methods more
effective. Such pin pointing of student responses to the ques-
tions will serve to show not only the strong and weak areas in
the teaching-learning process but will also demonstrate
strengths and weaknesses in the test itself, so that improvements
may be made in the teacher-made instrument the next time such
a test which covers that material is needed.

The coordinator may also help the teacher develop norms
constructed on the basis of a test which is used more than one
time. Such norms can strengthen the teaching-learning process
in the classroom and prove to be of great value when con-
scientiously developed over a period of time.

External Testing Programs
An "external" testing program is any testing program not
planned at the local level to meet local school needs. Such a
program may be a state-wide test designed for a specific pur-
pose, such as the awarding of nursing or teaching scholarships.
It may be part of a state, regional, or national research program,
such as Project Talent. It may be college entrance examinations
or a competitive program such as that administered as one cri-
terion for the admission of candidates to military academies.
The coordinator's responsibility in external testing programs
is to keep informed of the schedule of the examinations and
to notify all of those who may be interested in or concerned
with them. Often, these examinations are given on Saturdays
at some central location away from the home community of
the students who wish to take them. It is necessary that stu-
dents be informed accurately of the time and place of the testing
program. The coordinator must also understand the purpose of
the examination, so that he can inform school counselors of the
test and be assured that all students who are interested in the
program and may qualify for it will learn about it in time to
Although many of the external testing programs are both
reputable and desirable, there may be from time to time some
which are of doubtful value. The coordinator should study and
evaluate all external testing programs and make recommenda-
tions about them to those who may be interested.

Special Research Testing
The coordinator has a responsibility either to initiate or to
support research in his school system. If others are carrying a
research project, the coordinator may serve as consultant to
suggest sources of information about tests which are being con-
sidered for use in the program. He may also be of assistance
by evaluating all tests which are to be used in the project and

by making recommendations as to their suitability or useful-
ness in his school system.
Since the coordinator is familiar with the results of testing
programs which have been carried on or are now underway in
his own school system, he can make recommendations which
will help the research teams avoid duplication or give school
personnel new or additional information about their own stu-
The coordinator may also help the research team with the
design of its project and can devise ways in which research
results can be meaningful to the schools in which the research
was conducted.


Guidance Materials

THE COORDINATOR serves as a source of information con-
cerning guidance materials. Such materials may be books,
pamphlets, commercially produced information, free materials
(and ways of obtaining them), journals and journal articles,
films and filmstrips, newly published or revised standardized
tests, or occupational information materials produced by asso-
ciations or industries.
New Materials
The coordinator has a responsibility for being aware of new
commercially produced materials. In most cases, the publishing
firms themselves send advertising materials and sales represent-
atives to coordinators to make sure that they are informed of
new books, pamphlets, or tests. However, sometimes publishers
confine their efforts to announcing new publications in profes-
sional journals. Not only should the coordinator read profes-
sional journals for content, but he also should look in them for
announcements of new materials. The coordinator will find help-
ful the book reviews which are usually included in professional
journals, since he may not have time to read all new books
which are published. He should, however, have a substantial
idea about their content and possible use and not make unquali-
fied recommendations of books he has not read.
The reviewing of films and filmstrips is time-consuming.
However, many of these audio-visual materials are of consid-
erable value. The coordinator should see as many films as he can
in order to make sound judgments about possible uses for them
and to enable him to recommend films for showing to faculties,
to civic groups, to students, and to school counselors.

Most coordinators find that they must rely on their leisure
time for reading the many journals which they receive as one
advantage of membership in professional associations. Whenever
possible, time for journal reading should be included in the
working day.

Central Location for Materials
The coordinator's office may serve as a central location for
certain types of materials. For example, fewer test booklets
need to be bought when they can be used by all schools on a
rotating basis. When the school has completed its schedule of
testing, the booklets and other materials (such as pencils and
stop watches) are returned to the coordinator's office to be ex-
amined for marks or flaws, and then are distributed to the next
school for use. At the conclusion of the school system testing
program, all test materials should be returned to the coordina-
tor's office for safe keeping.
It may also be economical for schools to share other kinds of
materials. Certain occupational-information materials may be
moved from school to school and left at each school facility for a
period of time. The coordinator should have a system of ac-
counting for materials. In this manner he will know where to
locate information if there is a special need for material of a
particular kind.
If the school system is able to buy films and filmstrips, the
coordinator may keep them either in his office or in a nearby au-
dio-visual center. He should be able to recommend appropriate
films and filmstrips for such special events as assemblies, civics
classes, or P.T.A. meetings.
The coordinator will keep a file of all guidance materials. He
should keep annotations on his file cards so that he will know
what materials are appropriate for certain purposes. Whenever
he is asked to recommend books, articles, pamphlets, or films
on any given subject, he should be able to consult his file and
compile a brief bibliography for the person who has made the
Certain standard reference materials on guidance subjects,
such as Buros' Mental Measurements Yearbooks, and various
college and scholarship references may be on the coordinator's
shelf for use by him and other county personnel.

Some of the standard guidance textbooks which are of value
in explaining the nature and goals of guidance services are
usually a part of the coordinator's professional library. Although
he may have many of these books on his own bookshelf at
home, he should also have some school system-owned books
which he may lend to persons who are seeking information about
guidance services. Persons interested in returning to graduate
school to take courses in guidance subjects may be encouraged
to read some of the books which the coordinator keeps on hand.

Many publishers who specialize in guidance publications pro-
duce kits of various kinds to be used in schools for guidance or
guidance-related purposes. Often, publishers will send such kits
to guidance coordinators so that they may come to understand
the purposes of such commercially produced materials. Most
representatives are eager to show their new materials and will
want the coordinator to see for himself the advantages con-
tained in the publisher's newest device.

From time to time, there will be displayed in schools some
particularly interesting audio-visual aid which relates to guid-
ance. When such a poster or display has been taken down in
one school, it may be sent to the coordinator's office for possible
re-use or loan to another school. Or perhaps some student or
faculty artist may wish to see the work done in another school
in order to get some ideas about how to produce similar audio-
visual aids. The coordinator should be alert to new or unusual
school-developed display materials and may request them when
the school has finished using them.

Locally Produced Materials

The coordinator will assume leadership in producing certain
guidance materials at the local school system level. Such ma-
terials may be bibliographies, booklets describing guidance pro-
grams, testing procedures manuals, radio or television scripts, a
speech file, or audio-visual aids.

The coordinator may also assist with the developing of ma-
terials in individual schools. Handbooks, forms, mimeographed
orientation information, and other kinds of guidance-related ma-
terials may be useful in helping to support the guidance pro-
gram in the school.

The materials produced at the local level are often more use-
ful and meaningful than those which have state or national cir-
culation. The coordinator has only to make sure that they pre-
sent a sound and positive picture of guidance programs to those
who will read them.


Professional Relationships

THE COORDINATOR has many important professional re-
lationships to maintain. Although most of his working days
with his professional colleagues are spent in a relaxed, easy,
and friendly atmosphere, there are certain lines of authority
and communication of which he always must be aware, even
though they are seldom called to his attention.

The Superintendent

The school superintendent is the person who employs the
coordinator and the person to whom the coordinator is ulti-
mately responsible. In rural areas, where the coordinator may be
serving several counties, each superintendent in each cooperat-
ing county will join together to employ a coordinator in whom
they have confidence. Each superintendent also assumes a cer-
tain degree of responsibility for the performance of the coordi-
Ideally, the coordinator should have easy access to the super-
intendent (s) to whom he is responsible. This statement does not
imply that he should overlook or habitually bypass locally es-
tablished channels of communication. He should be able to share
any problems which he faces with his superior. There are, of
course, superintendents who are so busy that they are unable
to grant time to the coordinator at any time when he may seek
it. If the coordinator does not abuse the privilege of direct access,
however, and if he can be patient while waiting his turn to see
his superior, he should never be denied the opportunity of dis-
cussing his problems with the person who is ultimately responsi-
ble for the working of the total system. The coordinator should

not have to clear with anyone in order to talk with the super-

Members of the School System Staff
In some school systems, there is a director of instruction or an
assistant superintendent who is responsible for instructional
services. Since guidance is one of the supporting services to in-
struction, the coordinator in some systems is responsible to the
director of instruction. In other systems, the relationship in-
volves liaison between guidance and curriculum. The instruc-
tional supervisor, who is called by various titles, may be re-
sponsible chiefly for keeping lines of communication open and
for supporting the efforts of both counselors and teachers. Al-
though the coordinator works closely with the supervisor, keeps
him informed about all aspects of his program, and seeks his
advice whenever it is needed, it is seldom the supervisor's as-
signment to dictate the program of the coordinator or to take
responsibilities which are primarily those of the leader of the
guidance program.
The coordinator may work very closely with persons from
the other helping professions. The school social worker (s) and
the school psychologists) should find frequent opportunities
to confer with the coordinator concerning problems which af-
fect them all. Each has a unique function to perform, but each
may perform his own tasks more effectively if he has the assis-
tance and support of the others.
The relationships of the coordinator to other members of the
county staff should be cordial and friendly. Each should be inter-
ested in and informed about the work of the others. Part of the
coordinator's responsibility is to make sure that everyone under-
stands the true nature and purpose of guidance in the schools.
Other county-level staff members can do much to support and
promote the guidance program if only they understand it
thoroughly and are in sympathy with it. In turn, of course, the
coordinator should make an attempt to understand as thoroughly
as possible the nature and goals of other fields of endeavor and
lend them his active support whenever possible.
Together, all county-level staff members should work out
the plans and purposes of the total county-wide educational pro-
gram for the coming year and, insofar as possible, for the ac-

complishment of long-range goals. They can help each other sig-
nificantly by making a sincere attempt to understand and to
help attain the worthy educational goals of their colleagues.

The coordinator works with principals to help them formu-
late unique guidance objectives for their schools, employ a well-
qualified counselor, and embark upon a constructive guidance
program. The principal supervises all faculty members in his
school, including the counselors on his staff. The coordinator,
however, can help the principal understand the nature of guid-
ance functions and can assist him in determining the kinds of
jobs which the counselor should be asked to perform.
The coordinator can also help the principal evaluate the pro-
gram which is being provided in his school. The coordinator will
usually visit with the principal for a few minutes each time he
comes into the school. Their conversation will usually be con-
cerned with ways in which the counseling and guidance pro-
gram in the school is meeting students' needs and ways in which
the coordinator can help the principal and counseling staff to
make it even more effective.

School Counselors
The coordinator may be considered the "counselor's counse-
lor." He works closely with all the counselors in the school sys-
tem and tries to see them frequently. He maintains a cordial
and informal relationship with the counselors and makes him-
self available to discuss with them whatever problems they may
be encountering.
With the coordinator's help, the school counselors should be
able to operate more effectively within their own areas of re-
sponsibility. They may rely on the coordinator for many dif-
ferent kinds of assistance and may call upon him whenever they
feel the need for advice or information. If the coordinator cannot
provide a service for the counselor himself, he usually knows
where to go for help and can direct the counselor to the proper
individual or agency.

School Faculties
The coordinator will attempt to know personally as many
members of the faculties of individual schools as possible. In very

large school systems, such a goal is unrealistic. In smaller sys-
tems, however, and particularly in those in which the turnover
in the faculty is small, it is possible to come to know by name a
large number of faculty members.
Whenever a coordinator is invited to a school faculty meet-
ing, he should attend. If there is an opportunity for him to dis-
cuss for a few minutes the progress of the guidance program in
the school system, he should do so. If an informal social session
follows the faculty meeting, the coordinator should stay for it
and talk with as many faculty members as he can in the short
social period.
Whenever the coordinator visits the school, he may try to
find time to drop by the Faculty Lounge, to talk on an informal
basis with those who are gathered there. This time spent may
help the coordinator come to know persons whom he otherwise
may never see. When he knows teachers as individuals, he is
better able to judge the various ways in which the guidance pro-
gram can help them in their work.

Students and Their Parents

Most coordinators regret the fact that they are not able to
spend more time with students and their parents. Since coordi-
nators work primarily with other adults, they often do not have
either the time or the opportunity to spend time with students.
However, parents frequently telephone coordinators when seek-
ing solutions to some of the problems which they face. Coordi-
nators have an opportunity to do an excellent public relations
job with community members when they respond in a helpful
manner to parents' concerns and inquiries.

The Community
Public relations is one of the many jobs of the coordinator.
He will be asked often to speak to civic groups, to appear on
local radio or television panels, and to write articles for the
newspaper or to be interviewed by reporters.
Most coordinators fully understand how much (or how lit-
tle) the community knows about guidance programs. It is their
aim to get across the message that guidance services are for all
children and are not provided for deviant or problem children

alone. This is not an easy message to convey and cannot be re-
peated often enough.
The coordinator should make it clear to persons in the com-
munity that he always appreciates an opportunity to talk about
the guidance program, whether to a small group or a large one.
He will not lack for invitations if he can establish himself as
an interesting-and brief-speaker.

The Junior College
If there is a community junior college in his county or area,
the coordinator will want to maintain as close a relationship as
possible with key personnel. He will certainly want to know well
the deans and the counselors, for his relationship to them
should be similar to his relationship to other deans and coun-
selors in the school system. He will establish a relationship with
the registrar and the admissions officer and, if possible, the presi-
dent and other administrative officers. Since many of the stu-
dents will have come from local high schools, he will know some
of them and will be a familiar sight to them in their new en-
Too, the coordinator may be viewed as a valuable person to
junior college personnel as an interpreter of the value of the
local community college to the community itself and to the
students it serves. The coordinator will want to take as many
counselors as possible to visit the junior college campus. If the
counselors have a thorough understanding of the offerings of
the junior college, they can inform students who have an inter-
est in pursuing courses which are offered by the college at
their door step. Every counselor ought to be thoroughly in-
formed not only of course offerings but also of costs, extra-
curricular activities, placement possibilities, and other attrib-
utes of the local community junior college.

State Department of Education Personnel
All coordinators have four scheduled conferences with the
State Department of Education guidance staff each year. The
first is held early in the school year to obtain new information
about current state and national developments and to learn of
local needs or requests. The first meeting is scheduled for two
days and is held in a location where there are as few interrup-
tions and distractions as possible.

Other meetings during the year are held in connection with
state-wide conferences or workshops. The coordinators usually
are assigned one or two sessions to discuss their own concerns
and to be informed of current developments around the state or
nation. Meetings may be called by the State Department of
Education when certain decisions must be reached before the
next regularly scheduled meeting.
During the year, there are many "mailings" to coordinators
from the guidance staff of the State Department of Education.
The content of the "mailings" is usually informative only and
does not require a reply. Occasionally, however, coordinators are
asked to respond to a questionnaire. The data gleaned from the
coordinators' responses are used to help the state staff work out
more effective ways of meeting local needs.


In-Service Education

ONE OF THE COORDINATOR'S responsibilities is to pro-
vide school counselors with current information about guid-
ance. Since the field is one which is constantly being modified by
new discoveries about human behavior, keeping up with trends
is difficult for those who are busy with a heavy daily schedule.
Although the coordinator is also busy, he has more opportunity
than most counselors to attend professional meetings and to
learn of 'new concepts in guidance and counseling. Part of his
professional responsibility is to pass on to other educators what
he has learned.

Staff Meetings
The coordinator should schedule regular meetings with all
the counselors in his system or area. He will need to obtain per-
mission from his superintendent (s) for calling such meetings.
Once such permission is granted, he should clear the meeting
dates for the year with all principals concerned. Meetings may
be scheduled for a certain date each month, or they may be set
up in any other way which is convenient for those expected to
The coordinator will plan the agenda as carefully as possible
to include all matters of interest to counselors. Whenever he can,
he will send out written materials to the counselors to be studied
ahead of time so that no time is wasted at the meeting while the
materials are being read.
Usually, staff meetings are information-giving and opinion-
sharing sessions, and no action is required on the part of the
participants. Occasionally, however, counselors will want to

make recommendations about some course of action to be fol-
lowed. They should be encouraged to do so if they wish.

In-Service Education for Other Educators
The coordinator may appear before groups of educators as a
major speaker or as a member of a panel. Since the guidance
function is often not well understood even by those who work in
schools with good programs, no coordinator should miss an
opportunity to explain guidance. He may be asked to speak to
all faculty members in a school at a regularly scheduled faculty
meeting. He may find an opportunity to address the faculties of
all the schools in the community at a large school system-wide
meeting. He may classify his talk as in-service education whether
it be to a small group, such as the members of a School Board, or
to a large school-related group, such as a P.T.A.
The coordinator should arrange to have guidance workshops
as often as he sees need for them. He may include as participants
in the workshop only the counselors in the schools, or he may
wish to invite all faculty members in the school system. This
in-service education workshop may focus on the concepts and
functions of guidance, and should be planned to help all partici-
pants develop realistic ideas about guidance services and about
their parts in the program. The amount of time which is devoted
to the workshop is not so important as the efficient organization
of it.

The Coordinator's Professional Growth
Since the coordinator is deeply involved in bringing new
information and concepts to other educators, he must have many
opportunities to "re-charge his batteries." Although some of the
re-charging may be accomplished by the reading of newly pub-
lished educational materials, there is no substitute for attendance
at professional meetings in order to attain intellectual growth.
Since the coordinator's job is a leadership position of great com-
plexity, his superiors should understand and concur with his
requests for leave to attend state, regional, and national meetings.
The coordinator should accept the responsibility for being
the kind of professional educator whom others may emulate. He
should recognize the fact that the counselors under his super-
vision will look to him as an example of the kind of professional

model who exemplifies acceptable standards. This may be par-
ticularly true in the area of membership and participation in
professional associations. The coordinator should be an active and
interested member in his local, state, regional, and national
professional organizations and should work to improve the qual-
ity of services which these organizations are pledged to provide.



ONE OF THE MANY ADVANTAGES inherent in guidance
leadership is better articulation among the schools in the
system. Even such a simple device as regularly scheduled staff
meetings of all counselors in the schools helps to promote a
unified system of guidance.
Articulation does not mean uniformity. There is great oppor-
tunity for uniqueness and flexibility in the guidance program in
each school. Articulation does mean, however, that the lines of
communication are open and that all counseling personnel in the
schools are informed about the programs of all other schools, so
that they may modify their own services according to student
needs and expectations. It may be desirable, too, for junior and
senior high schools to consider consolidating some of their
services. For example, when career days are planned, all second-
ary schools in the community may cooperate in holding one
program and avoid unnecessary duplication of the programs in
each of the schools.

Orientation Programs

One of the opportunities for achieving good articulation
among schools occurs when counselors plan orientation pro-
grams. The coordinator can contribute to smoother and more
effective orientation programs by helping with the planning and
production of written materials as well as the actual orientation
programs themselves. Duplication of effort may be prevented if
all the sixth graders from all feeder schools who are to enter a
specific junior high school in the fall can be assembled in a
central meeting place (such as the auditorium of the junior high

school) to hear an explanation and description of the junior high
school program. This kind of cooperative program planned by
the coordinator, can help make the junior high school counselor's
job not only more effective but also easier because it cuts down
on needless repetition.

Some of the basic preparation for effective orientation pro-
grams is accomplished when elementary and secondary school
counselors meet together to discuss mutual problems in their
regularly scheduled staff meetings. The coordinator may also ar-
range for counselors to visit schools other than their own in
order to gain first-hand information about other programs.

Testing Programs

County-wide testing programs, previously discussed (4), are
often initiated when a coordinator is employed. There are both
advantages and disadvantages to such a testing program. One of
the chief advantages is economy. A relatively small number of
testing materials will serve a large number of schools, if the
testing program is scheduled properly. A further advantage is the
opportunity for establishing county-wide local norms. Still
another advantage is that test scores are reported in cumulative
folders for the same test, given in the same year, for all students
in a given grade. This gives the counselor a better basis for com-
parison of students than could be obtained from different tests
administered in different grades.
There are also disadvantages to articulating the testing pro-
gram. It is difficult to find tests which are equally satisfactory to
all faculties in all schools. There are some complaints from time
to time that the testing program is dictating curriculum content.
And there may be technical difficulties involved in scheduling
tests so that every school is served on a day which is convenient
for everyone.

Special Events

The coordinator may wish to plan special programs which
will be the combined effort of many persons in many schools
rather than separate events in each school in the community.
College or career days are illustrative of this kind of joint effort.
Many of the secondary schools may wish to join forces in order

to provide the advantages of a bigger and better college day for
all students who are interested.
There is no such thing as good articulation unless there is
good communication among the people in the schools. Coordi-
nators facilitate good lines of communication and thus help speed
the process of articulation.



involves expending money for the guidance program. In
cooperation with others, he plans the guidance budget and helps
see that expenditures are in line with the prepared budget.
Preparation of the over-all budget for the entire educational
program for the year is part of the responsibility of the county
staff. Although staff members do not have the final authority for
setting budgets, they must make realistic estimates of the needs
of their own programs and ask for amounts that are a reasonable
percentage of the total. Budget-planning should follow logically
the development of the total educational plans for the year and
should reflect the same educational values as the plan itself.

Title V-A Requests
The coordinator usually prepares and submits the request
form for Title V-A allocations. All requests must be signed by
the coordinator, including requests from individual counties in
joint-county programs. Requests are approved or rejected on the
basis of their appropriateness under the state plan for Title V-A.
Since each county is entitled to a given sum, the coordinator may
submit requests within the limits of the allocation. Some items in
the original request may not be approvable under the State plan,
but amendments may be submitted. Also, there are times when
special projects can be requested in addition to the original
allocation. In each case, the county coordinator must approve.

Purchase of Materials and Supplies
The coordinator is responsible for purchasing guidance
materials and supplies. The county pays for the materials and
seeks reimbursement from the State Department for those funds
which have been approved by the Administrator of Title V-A.


Evaluation and Research

EVALUATION may be thought of as the measurement of the
amount of progress made toward a set goal. If no goal has
been defined, it is not possible to measure progress. If goals are
noble but nebulous, evaluation will be vague, general, and

The coordinator's first responsibility is to work with others
in his system to define realistic guidance goals, then to design
methods by which these goals may be reached. His next step is
to devise evaluative criteria to measure growth toward the stated

Recognition of Need

Every educator has an implicit responsibility to contribute
some new dimension to his educational specialty. The contribu-
tion does not have to be great or sensational, and may be
represented simply by some small, tangible progress toward the
advancement of knowledge. Research and evaluation are two of
the ways in which knowledge can be advanced. They are,
however, not the only ways.

Because of the multiple and complex duties of the coordi-
nator, the evaluation process may be put off or put aside until
more time or more help is available. Other responsibilities are
often more pressing than research or evaluation, but these stock-
taking techniques are the ones which will help the coordinator
determine where he should place major portions of his time or
emphasis. If evaluation discloses that part of his daily work is
without tangible value, it may be wise for him to change his

schedule to devote time to the kinds of jobs which seem to be
producing real educational benefits.

Necessary Steps
One of the first steps in the evaluative process is the involve-
ment of others who will be touched by the findings. Not everyone
is wholeheartedly in favor of evaluation. To some, the rut is
comfortable and as long as they are busy with familiar tasks,
they feel satisfied in the job they are doing. Convincing everyone
that soundings need to be taken is not, therefore, always an easy
When everyone is involved in the evaluation, it is then
necessary to decide upon which phases of the program will be
reviewed. An over-all evaluation may be appropriate, but such
an undertaking requires the full-time participation of many
persons and may not be feasible. It may be a better choice to
concentrate the measurement process on some particular aspect
of the program and to move into another area within the near
After the part of the program to be reviewed has been
chosen, the criteria must be established and the design for the
project determined. It is important that the design be as original
and creative as possible, since it should be tailored specifically
for the program under review. Although the duplication of
someone else's effort may serve some valid purposes, no two
programs are exactly alike and, therefore, no two evaluative
techniques should be identical. Only when one program is being
compared with another is it desirable to imitate the evaluative
design of another system.

When undertaking an evaluation, those who are involved
must enter into it honestly with the intent to report the
findings, whether favorable or unfavorable. Everyone who is
concerned with an evaluation is entitled to share in the results
of it. The purpose of the undertaking is to discover strengths
and weaknesses of the program so that appropriate modifications
can be made. The discovery of a weakness in the program may
be the best possible way to obtain administrative support and the
necessary budget to strengthen that particular area.

Evaluation Reports
Whenever possible, reports of evaluations should be made in
writing. They need not be long, but they should cover the major
points and should summarize the results. Recommendations
should be made on the basis of the results.
Many reports stress primarily the need for further research
on the subject. Although this kind of recommendation is accept-
able, other findings in addition to this should be included. It is
necessary to avoid the impression that research and evaluation
are a circular process, leading only to further research.
The goal of every professional educator is or should be con-
stant improvement of the "environment for learning" of all
children. The programs currently being provided are never good
enough. All who are engaged in the teaching of young people
are looking for ways to make them better. The task of the
coordinator is to seek ways in which to make guidance a more
effective force in the learning process. Thus, the primary
emphasis of his program is to seek better ways to serve the
students, faculty, and administration of all the schools in the

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