FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON
CAMP O LENO, FLORIDA
April 28 May 3, 1941
FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS
Bulletin No. 24
DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION
M. W. CAROTHERS, Director
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, State Superintendent
I PREFACE-THE FLORIDA INTERNSHIP PLAN ........................ 1
II BACKGROUND OF" THE FLORIDA PROGRAM OF INTERN-
SHIP .-- ---.............------..... .. ---------.........-- 3
III EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
PROGRAM ..............- -.....-.. ................. 6
IV THE CAMP O'LENO CONFERENCE: HOW IT WAS
PLANNED ......--- .... .... ..... ......-....... .... -....... .. 9
V ORGANIZATION, WORKING METHODS, AND
TECHNIQUES OF THE CONFERENCE -...................- .....-- ......... 15
VI SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS ..-..............--................ 20
Reports of the All-Conference Committees ........--.....-- .................... 21
Report of the Committee on Terminology -......................-....... 21
Report of the Committee on Evaluation of the Growth of
the Intern ........---.........--- .---- ---................- .--...-- 23
Report of the Committee on Suggestions for the Guidance
of Directing Teachers .....--.........--. ..-- .............. --27
VII DIRECTORY OF THE CONFERENCE .............--.......--..........-... 31
VIII APPENDIX .....----.........-.....--....--. .... ..............-.............--- 35
Extract from Preliminary Report by J. D. Williams, Consultant 35
Preface to Instrument for Securing Judgments of Teachers....... 39
Tabulation of Returns from Questionnaire ....... --......... ............... 41
The Conference Calendar ......--......- ..... ......------ .-- --- ------..... 45
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
Report of Group
1 (Secondary Directing Teachers) .................
2 (Secondary Directing Teachers)-..............
3 (Elementary Directing Teachers)..............
4 (College and University Teachers) .............
5 (College and University Teachers)....-........
A (Elementary School) ....----....-------........
B (Social Studies and Home Economics)...........
C (English and Modern Foreign Languages) ...
D (Mathematics, Science and Psychology)....-.
Detailed Reports of Conference Sessions ..................-...
No phase of the program of improvement for Florida schools
is more important than that of improving Florida teachers. Teach-
ers in service have shown a commendable desire to improve them-
selves professionally and to keep abreast with present day conditions
and improved practices. The institutions of higher learning are
engaged in a comprehensive program of evaluation and improve-
ment of their programs of pre-service education for teachers.
One of the innovations in the teacher education programs of
Florida colleges and universities is a plan for internship teaching
in the public schools of the State. The success of such a plan de-
pends upon mutual understanding and cooperation among State
Department officials, staff members of the institutions, public school
teachers and administrators, and citizens of the State. The purpose
of the Conference on Internship Problems at Camp O'Leno was to
provide an opportunity for discussion of problems and for har-
monizing viewpoints to the extent necessary for an effective co-
Appreciation is expressed to the Commission on Teacher Edu-
cation of the American Council on Education for making the Con-
ference possible, to the staff of consultants provided by the Com-
mission for their effective leadership, and to Florida teachers and
administrators who participated or helped make it possible for
others to participate.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
THE FLORIDA INTERNSHIP PLAN
The work of the Florida Conference on Internship, described
in this report, was the culmination of a period of cooperative effort
looking toward an internship program first projected in 1939-40
and then promoted actively in the current academic year. Asso-
ciated in this effort are the State's seven institutions of higher
learning having four-year programs for the preparation of white
teachers, the State Department of Education, public school repre-
sentatives, and the Commission on Teacher Education of the
American Council on Education.
The aim of this planning and the subject of this Conference
was the development of "the internship plan", a procedure whereby
prospective teachers may have the benefit of participation in public
school situations over an extended period of time and on a sub-
stantially full-time basis, which goes beyond the somewhat limited
and traditional "practice teaching", to provide a realistic teaching
experience under guidance.
The Conference herein reported sought to enlist the concentrated*
study of a representative state-wide group, consisting of college
faculty members and public school teachers and principals now
involved or later to be involved in the program. It undertook to
study such problems as (a) what is meant by internship, (b) how
internship fits into the program for the preparation of teachers,
(c) what internship requires in the way of preliminary prepara-
tion, (d) what personnel is needed for its supervision, (e) the
ethics involved in the various personal relationships necessary to its
functioning, and (f) the principal issues and problems which arise
in its administration.
The Conference was searching for guiding principles which
could be agreed upon for the inauguration and development of such
2 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
a plan in Florida. Actually, several institutions in the State had
already undertaken to introduce the plan during the current year,
and the experiences of these institutions served to crystallize many
of the issues. However, for these institutions, as well as for those
yet to embark on the internship program, the Conference was to
provide an opportunity for the discovery of fundamental prin-
ciples, their statement in understandable terms, and the attainment
of common agreements based upon them.
By such agreements, and as a result of the stimulation the
Conference would provide, it was felt that the colleges, the public
school teachers and administrators involved, and the interns them-
selves, might be in a position to realize the fullest benefits possible
from the internship plan. An equally important purpose of the
Conference was to achieve a clarification of the issues and problems
bound to arise through the adoption of the internship plan in the
education of teachers in Florida.
The measure in which the institutions of this State, since the
inception of the plan, have advanced toward its realization, and
the success of the Conference in stimulating the thinking of state
educational workers as to the merits, defects, and problems incident
to the plan, are reflected in the report which follows.
BACKGROUND OF THE FLORIDA PROGRAM
Florida's development of the program of internship in teacher
education is an outgrowth of the deliberations of a group repre-
senting the colleges and universities of the State, the public schools,
and the State Department of Education. This group, known as
the Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council, was organized
in 1937 at the call of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
At first, the Council was composed of a representative of each
institution and a representative of the State Department. Later
there were added to the Council representatives of the Florida
Education Association, including the president and secretary of
that body, and the chairmen of the principals', superintendents',
and classroom teachers' groups.
In some instances the presidents of the institutions serve on
the Advisory Council; in others, the dean or head of the Depart-
ment of Education. As a matter of practice, it has often been true
that each institution has been represented by several persons at
the Council meetings. These meetings have been conducted in-
formally to make discussion as complete and general as possible.
Organized to consider general problems of teacher education
and to work with the State Department of Education on matters
of general policy, the Advisory Council first went on record as
interesting itself in the possibility of internship in 1939, although
discussions of the subject had preceded this.
In August, 1939, the Council recommended that attention be
given to the possibility of introducing internship in the teacher
education program of the various institutions in the State. In
February, 1940, the Council definitely recommended that,institu-
4 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
tions plan to introduce internship on an experimental basis, begin-
ning with the school year 1940-1941.V
In the first two or three years of its existence, the Advisory
Council approached the entire problem of teacher education from
the standpoint of certification laws and regulations. Although the
Council is purely advisory in character, practically all changes made
in the State's law and regulations governing certification since 1937
have resulted from the recommendations of this body.
Since its organization in 1937, the Advisory Council has held
no fewer than two meetings each year, and at least two of these
have been of two or more days in duration. At a meeting in 1937
which convened for four days, out-of-state consultants advised with
the group,-Mr. Ben Frazier of the United States Office of Edu-
cation, and Mr. Roy Hatch of State Teachers College, Montclair,
New Jersey. At a two-day meeting in 1938, Mr. Harl Douglas of
the University of North Carolina served as consultant.
The Council has acted as the state advisory committee to the
Cooperative Study of Uniformity and Reciprocity in Certification,
an agency which has sought over a three-year period to attain some
uniformity in the basic principles of teacher education in the
South, as a basis for providing some reciprocity among the states
with reference to the issuance of certificates to teachers trained
in the several states. The Advisory Council has participated in all
the activities of that body.
The Advisory Council, in 1938, had recommended that prac-
tice teaching be included among the certification requirements of
the State of Florida. Prior to that time Florida had not required
any learning experience of that type for the certification of teachers.
But the introduction of practice teaching was seen as only
partially meeting the needs of the situation. At least three factors
led to the discussion out of which grew the movement for internship.
These were (1) the inadequacy of practical school facilities, (2) new
certification and Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
'Institutions which actually placed interns in the field during this
school year included the Florida State College for Women, Florida Southern
College, and the University of Tampa.
BACKGROUND OF PROGRAM
Schools regulations, and (3) the unsatisfactory character of practice
teaching and the attitude of the field toward it.
Colleges and universities in Florida do not all have practice
schools connected with them or under their jurisdiction, and those
which do, in some instances find them inadequate to meet the re-
quirements of practice teaching. In other instances, the practice
schools affiliated with the institutions are on the elementary level
only and make no provision for teachers in training for the sec-
ondary field. With the Southern Association of Colleges and Sec-
ondary Schools going on record as approving a minimum of 90
clock hours of practice teaching, a provision accepted by Florida as
a participant in the Cooperative Study of Uniformity and Reci-
procity in Certification, it became evident that some institutions
would find it impossible to provide this much practice without
going beyond the facilities of the practice schools.
Moreover, there was a general feeling that practice teaching
experience confined entirely to demonstration or campus schools
had a tendency to be unrealistic and atypical, and, therefore, not
fully adequate from the standpoint of effective teacher education.
Practice teaching, both in and out of the demonstration or
campus schools, was introduced throughout the State in compliance
with the 1937 recommendations of the Advisory Council and the state
certification requirements which had been adopted as a result of
those recommendations. Problems in the selection of supervising
teachers, and in the matter of supervision by college
representatives, arose. Difficulties in schedule making resulted
when institutions tried to include practice teaching in off-campus
schools in the programs of students already carrying full-time pro-
grams in the institutions.
These and other considerations led to a speeding up of the
demand for remedies offered in the internship proposal. They are
cited here to suggest something of the background of the coopera-
tive effort described in this report.
EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
At a meeting of the Advisory Council held at Rollins College
in February, 1940, a resolution was passed recommending that a
program of internship be developed, and suggesting that institu-
tions begin the program in an experimental way by sending out
a few interns in the fall months of 1940. At the same time, another
resolution urged each college and university to set up an institution-
wide committee to assume leadership in evaluating the institution's
program of teacher education in relation to the internship program,
and in planning improvements.
In September, 1940, in a meeting at John B. Stetson University,
progress reports were made by representatives of several institu-
tions. The chairman reported that the members of the Council
had been invited to a conference in Atlanta on October 15-16 con-
ducted by the Cooperative Study of Uniformity and Reciprocity in
Certification, and that a representative of the Commission on
Teacher Education had agreed to meet the Florida Council in
Atlanta on October 14.
At the Atlanta meeting with a coordinator of the Commission
on Teacher Education, a request was made that the Commission
assist Florida by providing a consultant for two months, by pro-
viding $500 for the expenses of a conference, and by providing
consultant services for a conference. The coordinator encouraged
the Council to hope for this assistance, and the Director of the
Commission at a later date confirmed this understanding by mail.
The president of each institution of higher learning appointed
a committee to study its program of teacher education. Realizing
that teacher education is a responsibility of the entire institution,
rather than a matter of concern to the Department of Education
alone, each president appointed to this committee representatives
of the Arts and Science faculty as well as teachers of Education
EARLY STAGES IN PROGRAM 7
courses. These committeesbegan to work on the problems of teacher
education, using the internship as the focus of attention. Immediate
administrative problems included the credit to be given for intern-
ship, its duration and placement in the four-year program, selec-
tion and securing of directing teachers, supervision by the institu-
tion, pre-internship preparation, post-internship follow-up, conflict
with major subject field requirements, schedule difficulties, and
conflict with campus activities. More important problems were
revisions in the institution's course offerings, involving both general
and professional education.
The Commission on Teacher Education selected as Consultant
for Florida Mr. J. D. Williams of the University of Kentucky.
Mr. Williams spent the months of January and February in Florida.
Early in January, 1941, the Florida Council met at Florida
Southern College to discuss with Mr. C. E. Prall, Coordinator of
the Commission, and Mr. Williams the work which should be
attempted by Mr. Williams during his stay, and by these institu-
tional committees for the remainder of the school year. It was
agreed that Mr. Williams should assist in the formulation of state-
wide plans for the internship, and in the planning for program
revisions by the institutional committees. Mr. Williams visited a
number of public schools in order to become acquainted with Flor-
ida conditions. He visited all but one of the institutions preparing
white teachers, and was prevented from visiting this one by an
emergency in his home institution which prematurely terminated his
work in Florida.
As an outgrowth of the institution's study of internship prob-
lems, the Florida State College for Women requested help in an
evaluation of its program of general education. Mr. Prall, Mr.
Williams, and Mr. Robert Pace were furnished by the Commission
as consultants to assist in this work, and spent two days in the
institution in March.
Near the end of this period of active field work, the Florida
Council met at the University of Tampa to receive a preliminary
report from Mr. Williams, and suggestions from Mr. Prall and
Mr. Williams. The Council was fortunate in having at this meeting
the attendance and counsel of Mr. Karl W. Bigelow, Director of
8 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
the Commission. Local public school administrators also partici-
pated most helpfully in the deliberations. There was considerable
discussion of the suggestion that a conference be held for repre-
sentative staff members of institutions and selected public school
teachers interested in the internship program, and of the most
feasible time for such a conference. Definite decision was reached
to hold the conference beginning April 28 and ending May 3. The
goal for attendance was set at forty staff members of colleges and
universities, thirty-four public school teachers, and six interns.
During the meeting of the Florida Education Association in
Tampa in March, the Florida Council held another meeting to com-
plete general plans for the Conference. Possible locations for the
Conference were discussed, and Camp O'Leno was definitely selected.
The chairman gave a preliminary report on the work of the
Planning Committee. Committees on Arrangements and Personnel
were authorized, and memberships of these committees announced.
Invitations were to be issued by the State Department to persons
suggested by the Committee on Personnel.
THE CAMP O'LENO CONFERENCE: HOW IT
Detailed planning for the Camp O'Leno Conference was car-
ried on by the Planning Committee authorized by the Advisory
Council and appointed by its chairman. This committee held two
meetings for the purpose of working out these plans.
The first meeting was held at the State Department of Edu-
cation, in Tallahassee, on March 9 and 10, 1941. As a step pre-
liminary to the Conference, it was considered desirable to obtain
from classroom teachers in the field opinions as to what should be
included in the pre-internship training of the prospective teacher.
A series of items covering selected elements of training or prepar-
ation was prepared to be submitted to teachers in the field. The
instrument was so framed that a check could be obtained as to the
relative importance of each item in the judgment of the te;.clors
in the field.
It was considered that the responses yielded by this procedure
would give those attending the Conference a point of departure
for their study of elements involved in the internship program, and
that they would enable the Conference to see more readily the
relationship between the functions for which the institutions
might accept major responsibility, and the functions which might
reasonably be left to the field.
The complete instrument is presented at this point. The three-
page preface which was attached to the main inquiry may be
found in the Appendix, pp. 39-41.
INSTRUMENT FOR SECURING TEACHERS' JUDGMENTS
Please check the following items, relating to the Florida Internship
Program, and return to the Division of Instruction, State Department of
Education, Tallahassee, Florida :
10 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Use following key in indicating replies:
--.-------.. ... -------- V--Very important
....--. -F....... ..... .....-- F- Better leave to field
Grade Level or Subject Field
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL QUALITIES
1. A study of community customs and traditions as they affect
2. Understanding what constitutes good taste in professional
dress and other accepted social practices and a knowledge
of how to meet these standards
3. Good health .............
4. Knowledge of how to maintain good health and willingness
to conform to basic health rules ......
5. Absence of speech defects .......
6. Freedom from gross errors in English .......
7. Fluency in spoken English .......
8 . . .
1. Some contact, other than observation in the campus schools,
with boys and girls in group activities, such as scouting, clubs,
religious organizations ..........
2. Studying the relationship of school and home environment
and community background to the personality traits of boys.
and girls ......
3. Developing, keeping, and using for guidance individual and
group records, as test, attendance, behavior, anecdotal ...........
4. Checking pupil progress against accepted growth standards
and analyzing extreme cases in terms of causal factors, (health,
aptitude, experiences, etc.)......
5. Constructing, giving, and interpreting tests (informal, diagnos-
tic, and observational) .....
6. Grading papers and interpreting results --
1. Studying current practices in grade placement of materials ...
2. Studying the needs, interests, and abilities of a group and of
the individuals to the end that a better adaptation of cur-
riculum materials, activities, and learning exercises may
result .... ..
O'LENO CONFERENCE: HOW PLANNED
3. Practice in locating, evaluating, and assembling materials
for a given purpose (such as realizing an objective in geogra-
phy, numbers, or biology), keeping in mind usability in
4. Preparing instructional units-developing pupil activities in-
cluding the selection and organization of subject content and
materials for a given group ................
5. Beginning the development of a personal file of instructional
6. Some practice in day to day planning of group and individual
7. Studying the educational needs of a community and deter-
mining how to meet these needs ........
8. Finding and making available for class instruction the re-
sources of a community ....
TECHNIQUES FOR DIRECTION OF INSTRUCTION
Such background as will enable the intern to be of value to the
directing teacher by:
1. Assisting in a planning period ................
2. Planning and guiding pupil experience, both within and
outside the classroom, within a reasonable range of expense,
safety, time, geographical limits, etc.
3. Participating in and assisting with the expressional activi-
ties-graphic representation, plays, story-telling, and reading
4. Assisting in evaluating products of pupils' efforts (written
or oral work, dramatics, construction activities, etc.) to
check progress and to .plan for further teaching......
Such background as will enable the intern to be of value to the
directing teacher by assisting the pupils to develop skills and
6. Using the library and other sources of material ......
7. Note taking, outlining, etc ......
8. Using the dictionary, index, etc .--....
9. Organizing materials for presentation to class ....
Some experiences designed to develop proficiency in methods and
techniques of classroom procedure, such as:
11. Making assignments ......
12. Conducting group discussion .......
13. Conducting laboratory type lessons .......
12 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
THE BROADER SCHOOL SITUATION
1. Experience in developing and participating in recreational
and playground activities suitable to different age levels
2. Study and experience in planning, conducting, and participat-
ing in social activities suitable for school, home, and commu-
nity and ways of adapting these activities to meet varying
economic levels and community customs
3. Experience in developing school publications ..
4. Experience in various activities involved in developing pupil
assemblies, pageants, clubs, and similar activities ..--
5. Such background as will enable the intern to participate in
the guidance of school civic organizations, such as safety
councils and student government
6. Gaining acquaintance with the policies and practices of the
general Florida school situation with particular attention to
the interrelations between the principal and classroom
After the instrument was drawn up it was duplicated by the
State Department of Education and sent to approximately 300
selected public school teachers in Florida. This list was made up
from names of teachers suggested by representatives of the teacher
education institutions in the State and State Department of Edu-
cation. Care was exercised to secure a sampling of teachers from
all geographical sections of the State and from elementary and
secondary schools in both rural and urban communities.
Responses were received from 151 elementary and 85 secondary
school teachers. These returns were tabulated, and prior to the
Conference the results were reported, in part, to all prospective
The Planning Committee was concerned that the results should
be as meaningful as possible. To this end a special method of mark-
ing was used to identify items considered very important in the
preparation of the intern by 60 per cent or more of the responding
teachers. Numerical totals for each type of response on each item
were given separately for secondary teachers as a group and for
elementary teachers as a group. The complete report, which
appears on pages 41 to 45 of the Appendix, has been simplified to
make it capable of being more rapidly understood.
O'LENO CONFERENCE: HOW PLANNED
The reader will note on most items a rather unusual agreement
between the judgment of the secondary teachers as a group and
those of the elementary teachers as a group.
On April 26 the Planning Committee met in Jacksonville for
the purpose of developing plans for giving direction to the Cen
ference. These included a revision of the purposes of the Confc,
ence, the general schedule for each day, a calendar of suggested
activities for specified groups of participants and for the whole
Conference in general session, provision for special conference
committees and for such special small groups as circumstances
warranted. These plans were duplicated and distributed at the
initial general session on the morning of the first day. (For com-
plete statement of plans, see Appendix, page 45.)
With minor adjustments which appeared necessary as the
Conference progressed, the plans which the committee developed
proved adequate for the guidance of conference procedures. The
detailed nature of these plans is indicated in subsequent sections of
CAMP O OLENO DINING HALL--USED
FOR GENERAL SESSIONS OF THE CON-
ORGANIZATION, WORKING METHODS, AND
TECHNIQUES OF THE CONFERENCE
Basic Group Organization
In order that the Conference might move expeditiously, the
Planning Committee made provision for the division of the mem-
bership into groups small enough to permit participation by all
members in their deliberations and so constituted as to assure a
reasonable homogeneity of interests.
For the first two days five groups were formed as follows:
GROUP PERSONNEL CHAIRMAN
1 Secondary directing teachers Miss Helen Everett
2 Secondary directing teachers D. E. Bunting
3 Elementary directing teachers J. C. Peel
4 College representatives B. F. Ezell
5 College representatives R. L. Eyman
During both discussion periods on Tuesday, Groups 1, 2, and
3 considered these; questions: What items of the inquiry which
did not receive heavy "V" ratings are worth consideration by the
Conference? What suggestions added by the teachers should also
be studied? During these periods Groups 4 and 5 considered these
problems: Should some of the items marked "V" by large major-
ities of the respondents be left almost wholly to the intern and to
the directing teacher? On what bases may such decisions be made?
These same groups for both sessions on Wednesday consid-
ered the following agenda: Groups 1, 2, and 3: Profitable vari-
eties of experience during the internship; purposes to be accom-
plished by the internship in the training program; should there be
a general order or sequence for these experiences?; how determine
when to vary the usual sequence? Groups 4 and 5: What patterns
of preparation or what general changes in preparation seem neces-
sary when we consider the general pattern of the judgments of
the directing teachers?
16 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Secondary Group Organization
Beginning with the morning session on Thursday, a new group-
ing of the conference membership was effected along lines of fields
or levels of interest. In each of these groups, staff members of
institutions and public school teachers were merged.
A. Elementary directing teachers and
college representatives interested in
the preparation of elementary
B. Secondary directing teachers of so-
cial studies and home economics;
college representatives interested
in these fields
C. Secondary directing teachers of
English and languages; college rep-
resentatives interested in these
D. Secondary directing teachers of
mathematics, science and psychol-
ogy; college representatives inter-
ested in these fields
Mrs. Dora Skipper
H. E. Becker
Mrs. Frances Thornton
W. H. Wilson
During the morning session on Thursday these groups continued
the discussion of topics which the previous groups had begun on
Wednesday. During the afternoon they considered preparation
for internship, and discussed needs revealed in the discussion of
the morning session which were not given high cruciality ratings
by the respondents to the instrument.
These groups assembled for final meetings on Friday after-
noon to hear reports by their sub-committees and to review the
preliminary reports of the all-conference committees on Evaluation
of the Growth of the Intern ard on Suggestions and Aids for
Use of Sub-Committees
A system of committee reporting was initiated by the Plan-
ning Committee and effectively utilized by nearly all group chair-
men. When a broad topic under discussion reached a stage which
seemed to warrant the recording of a general consensus, the chair
appointed a sub-committee to draft such a statement or expression.
ORGANIZATION, METHOD, TECHNIQUE
After approval by the group, these statements were duplicated
and passed out to all conference members. In this way each
group member was kept informed as to what was transpiring in
the thinking of the other groups.
Each discussion group delegated the reporting of the total of
each day's discussion to a reporting committee. These reports were
duplicated in sufficient numbers for all conference participants
and were distributed at the general sessions. Brief oral presen-
tations of these summaries were made at the opening of the evening
Little time of the general sessions was taken for debating the
merits of the varied proposals of these reports. Yet the specific
recommendations were not lost. Some ten or twelve were reviewed
by the panels at the general sessions on Friday and made matters
of conference action. In many ways, too, the character of these
reports tended to color the final proposals of the all-conference
In addition to the committees responsible for reports of group
discussions, three integrating committees were formed, each with
one or more representatives from each of the discussion groups.
These were committees on Terminology, on the Evaluation of the
Growth of the Intern, and on Aids for Directing Teachers. Meet-
ings of these committees were held during hours hot regularly
scheduled for sessions of the Conference. Preliminary reports of
the committees on Evaluation of the Growth of the Intern and
on Aids to Directing Teachers were made to the secondary discus-
sion groups at their final sessions on Friday. Thus each conference
participant had an opportunity to reject or improve any part or
section of the tentative reports. Following these initial hearings,
the respective committees recast their reports and presented the
final or revised editions at the closing session of the Conference.
The preliminary report of the Committee on Terminology was
reviewed for the first time by the Conference in general session
and presented with requested revisions at the closing session. Full
reports of these committees may be found in the section on Summary
of Recommendations, pp. 20-30.
18: FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Use of Consultants
Consultants participated effectively in all the deliberations of
the Conference. One or two consultants were available constantly
for assistance in each group or committee meeting and all partici-
pated in general meetings. They responded to questions, drawing
from their own experiences and their knowledge of plans and policies
followed in other states.
Mr. Prall served most effectively as chief consultant. He was
a member of two discussion groups, met with all groups concerned
with planning, including the Advisory Council, the original Plan-
ning Committee, and the chairmen and vice-chairmen of discussion
groups, and presided as chairman at one general session and part
General sessions of the Conference were held in the evenings
of Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, and Saturday
In two of the evening sessions the entire time was given to
talks or panel discussions by consultants. In the Tuesday evening
session, after brief presentation of group reports, Miss Stratemeyer,
Miss Land, and Miss Blair discussed several difficult problems in
the preparation of the prospective intern.
In the Wednesday evening session, Mr. Johnson described
certain phases of the program at the Georgia Teachers College at
Collegeboro. Miss Stratemeyer discussed the program of Teachers
College, Columbia University, and commented on national trends
having a bearing on internship. Miss Land discussed off-campus
student-teaching in the programs of up-state New York institutions.
Thursday evening was observed as "fun night" around a
camp-fire on the bank of the Santa Fe River. Unfortunately, no
minutes were kept of this meeting.
Friday morning was devoted to a general discussion led by
Mr. Carothers and participated in by all members of the Conference
on the subject, "The Selection and Recognition of the Directing
Teacher". The general session of Friday evening was, in essential,
a continuation of the morning meeting with agenda drawn from
ORGANIZATION, METHOD, TECHNIQUE
recommendations of the group and sub-committee reports. The
Saturday morning session was in two sections. The Conference
first disposed of its business which consisted of the hearing and
formal adoption of the reports of its three integrating committees.
After this some time was given to the discussion of "next steps"
with attention particularly to the need for broader understanding
and communication. Action taken by the Conference in these
general sessions is reported under the next general section.
While serious effort and hard work were key notes of the
Conference the social side of the group's activities was by no
means neglected. Much opportunity was afforded the membership
during the intermissions for a variety of social activities. The
spacious grounds and numerous buildings of the camp provided
ample facilities for recreational activities. These consisted of
shuffleboard and horseshoe pitching, swimming, boating, a variety
of games, walks through the nearby woods, lingering conversations
after meals, and many a long "bull session" in the cabins.
There seemed to be general accord that the social contacts were
among the most beneficial experiences of the Conference. One
member expressed this attitude in the following contribution to the
Some forty serious teachers
And interns six or eight
Came to Camp O'Leno
From all parts of the State.
Some forty "profs" from colleges
Wise folks from far away
All gathered to "gab and gabble"
(And shuffleboard to play).
It was a glorious meeting!
We talked and listened too.
We learned college "profs" are people-
A thought that's really new.
The committee on the weather
Their work did not neglect
-It didn't rain, it wasn't hot,
What more could we expect?
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
Certain definite recommendations and suggestions growing out
of the Conference were considered and acted upon at the general
sessions held on Friday and Saturday mornings and on Friday
evening. Some of these were recommendations of a broad general
character, others were specific. Elaboration of the discussion out
of which these grew may be found in the group reports and in
the section of the Appendix devoted to Detailed Reports of Con-
These recommendations, given below, are not to be considered
as in any sense a complete summary of the thinking of the Confer-
ence. They were, however, considered sufficiently important to the
success of the program to deserve definite action by the entire
Conference. Group recommendations not acted upon by the entire
Conference are embodied in the reports of the committees and
Included in the recommendations were:
(1) The terms intern and internship should be used in connection with the
(2) Internship should represent a minimum of eight weeks in a public
(3) A code of desirable practices relating to the entire internship program
should be formulated for principals, directing teachers, interns, and
(4) A directing teacher should be consulted before an intern is assigned,
and willing agreement to the assignment should be secured.
(5) Public school administrators are urged to consider the responsibilities
of directing teachers in determining their teaching loads, including
responsibility for extra-curricular activities.
(6) Directing teachers should be given assistance by the colleges in plan-
ning and directing the activities of interns.
(7) Institutions should make available to directing teachers library ma-
terials and other teaching resources.
(8) Guidance of an intern should be thought of as a total school problem,
with the whole faculty assisting the directing teacher in his work
and sharing the responsibility.
(9) Steps should be taken to inform administrators, teachers, and the
general public concerning the internship program.
(10) The intern should not be permitted to substitute outside of the
directing teacher's room. The intern may carry on in the absence
of the directing teacher if the work has been planned with him, or
in an emergency when, in the judgment of the directing teacher and
the principal, he is ready to assume such responsibility. It is
advisable that the principal or the directing teacher consult the co-
ordinator of interns if the absence of the directing teacher is to be
prolonged. Interns should not take the place of regular substitutes
in the system.
(11) Plans should be made for the holding of a conference on internship
next year, with special attention to the needs of actual or prospective
directing teachers. The way was left open to provide either for a
state-wide conference, or for from one to three regional conferences,
as circumstances may require.
(12) The State Department of Education should be urged to allow credit
on certificate renewals or extension, in return for service by a
directing teacher in the internship program.
(13) County boards of education might authorize acceptance of the direct-
ing teacher's work, including his attendance at workshops or con-
ferences, as counting toward the fulfillment of professional growth
(14) Colleges should not be expected to pay directing teachers, or to
grant them tuition-free courses.
(15) The colleges and universities of Florida should assume as a major
project for the next school year an evaluation of. and where neces-
sary a revision of, their entire institutional program of teacher
REPORTS OF THE ALL-CONFERENCE COMMITTEES
Report of the Committee on Terminology
Internship-an extended and full-time teaching experience in a
public school situation, including the observation and partici-
pation necessary to make this effective.
Practice teaching-a part-time laboratory or local school teaching
Directing teacher-a public school instructor chosen because of out-
standing qualities as a teacher and leader of youth for the
22 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
supervision and direction of the intern's observation, partici-
pation, and independent teaching.
Coordinator of interns-a college staff member (or members) whose
task is the coordination of the activities of:
(1) the interns of the institution; (2) the directing teachers;
and (3) the staff members participating in the pre-intern and
post-intern phases of the program.
Observation-a technique in which the prospective teacher studies
a school in action.
Sustained observation-a technique in which the prospective teacher
continues the daily study of a given class with its regular
teacher over a definite period of time.
Participation-the collaboration of the directing teacher and the
intern aimed toward the gradual induction of the intern into
Independent teaching-the stage in the progress of the intern in
which he assumes complete instructional charge of the pupils
of the directing teacher. At the secondary level this need not
involve all the classes taught by the directing teacher.
Participation in community-the intern's involvement in such school
and community activities and relationships as the local situation
Pre-internship period-that part of the undergraduate career in
which the prospective teacher acquires the appropriate subject
matter and technical skills to enable him to meet satisfactorily
the experiences in the field and to profit from them.
Post-internship period-that part of the undergraduate career in
which the prospective teacher, upon returning to the college,
discusses, shares, and evaluates with faculty advisers the ex-
periences met in the field, and uses such evaluation as a basis
for further study.
Laboratory experience-observational and participational activities
carried on (1) in association with children, individually or in
groups, for the purpose of better understanding teaching-
learning situations; and (2) with fellow students and advisers
for the purpose of developing understandings and techniques
necessary for effective association with co-workers (e.g. com-
mittee work, leading discussions, reporting).
Methods in broad fields-a course in techniques, materials, problems
of teaching, and activities with similar objectives to which the
focus is upon a field as opposed to single subjects or areas of
instruction (e.g. English and modern foreign languages, sci-
ence and mathematics, social studies and literature, social
studies and home economics).
Integrated course-a course that draws upon various instructional
areas as they bear on or contribute to the solution of an edu-
Collaborating teacher-a college or public school teacher who assists
in the planning or the teaching of the integrated course or of
the sub-areas of the methods course in a broad field.
M. B. Cramer Mrs. Ruth McLean
Miss Atlant Day H. N. Rath
Mrs. Sophie Kurtz Mrs. Eunah Johnson, Secretary
Mrs. Marguerite Lumpkin C. E. Prall, Chairman
Report of the Committee on Evaluation of the
Growth of the Intern
The committee blocked out its work for the Conference into six
areas. These areas are described by the six questions which fol-
1. What kind of evaluative process may be carried on in order to arrive
at an estimate suitable for registrars' offices?
2. What evaluative processes may be suggested that will furnish useful
and satisfactory data to placement bureaus?
3. What evaluative work may be done to furnish the directing teacher with
useful data concerning the intern prior to the intern's arrival?
4. What evaluative work may be carried on that will help in the evaluation
of interning as a means of educating future teachers?
5. How may evaluative procedures help develop constantly improving method
of placing interns into the most effective interning situations?
6. What evaluation may be carried on that will be helpful to the college
faculty, the directing teacher, and the intern himself in guiding the latter's
whole, integrated development?
24 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
In working on these six problems in its various sessions, the
committee evolved the following general principles which might
guide the evaluation of the intern. It was felt that these principles
would be helpful in solving many evaluation problems.
1. Evaluation should be relatively continuous as contrasted with strictly
2. The data derived from the use of the evaluation instruments and the
evaluative process should always be used. The most frequent use should
be that of helping the intern to grow personally and professionally.
3. Instruments and devices should be as brief, as clear, and simple to use
4. The intern should be familiar with the instruments or other devices
used in evaluating his work and progress in learning.
5. The intern will frequently find it purposeful to use upon himself the
instruments used by others in evaluating his work.
6. Evaluation data are more meaningful, and hence, more useful, if they
are summarized in terms of numerical or letter grades.
7. The cooperative interpretation (as between intern and directing teacher
or college representative) of instrument data, rather than the strictly
confidential interpretation of such data will frequently be found prefer-
8. The whole process of evaluation should be carried on in such a way that
a spirit of mutual confidence can be created and maintained among the
public schools, the teacher training institutions, and the interns.
9. Full interchange of instruments and experiences in evaluation among
all institutions concerned will prove very helpful.
Taking these questions in the same order as given above, the
committee wishes to recommend as follows:
1. WHAT KIND OF EVALUATIVE PROCESS MAY BE CARRIED ON IN ORDER TO ARRIVE
AT AN ESTIMATE SUITABLE FOR REGISTRARS' OFFICES?
The coordinator of interns should have the responsibility for the letter
or numerical mark which is to be filed in the registrar's office. The
coordinator should employ all available data (directing teacher's re-
corded judgments, intern's recorded judgments, etc.) in arriving at this
2. WHAT EVALUATIVE PROCESSES MAY BE SUGGESTED THAT WILL FURNISH USEFUL
AND SATISFACTORY DATA TO PLACEMENT BUREAUS?
Placement bureau needs may probably best be met by having the co-
ordinator of interns, the directing teacher, and the school principal fill
out independent estimates of the intern, using the regular recommenda-
tion blanks of the placement bureau. In addition to this, unsolicited'
letters from the principal or the directing teacher recommending the
intern should also be filed with the placement bureau.
3. WHAT EVALUATIVE WORK MAY BE DONE TO FURNISH THE DIRECTING TEACHER
WITH USEFUL DATA CONCERNING THE INTERN PRIOR TO THE INTERN'S ARRIVAL?
Marks or scholarship records should be furnished only in those cases
where such data are necessary and where they have been requested by
the directing teacher. Certain other types of information concerning
the intern should be available and furnished to the directing teachers
on request, such as special abilities, interests, and needs; professional
plans; and experiences in dealing with children.
Conferences between the directing teacher and the coordinator may be
the best way of communicating these data; this method is preferable to
the use of less meaningful and sometimes dangerous devices such as
4. WHAT EVALUATIVE WORK MAY BE CARRIED ON THAT WILL HELP IN THE EVALU-
ATION OF INTERNING AS A MEANS OF EDUCATING FUTURE TEACHERS?
The use of the instruments and devices created to help in the evalua-
tion and guidance of the intern will give data which will be very helpful
in the evaluation of interning as a teacher education device. In addition,
questionnaires and other instruments for finding answers to many vital
and pressing questions concerning internship may be needed.
5. HOW MAY EVALUATIVE PROCEDURES HELP DEVELOP A CONSTANTLY IMPROVING
METHOD OF PLACING INTERNS IN THE MOST EFFECTIVE INTERNING SITUATIONS?
The evaluative processes will very likely furnish data which will be
useful in getting hypotheses as to how the selection of a place for
interning can best be made. Principles to guide the intern-placement
process can be derived gradually by using such data.
6. WHAT EVALUATION MAY BE CARRIED ON THAT WILL BE HELPFUL TO THE COL-
LEGE FACULTY, THE DIRECTING TEACHER, AND THE INTERN HIMSELF IN GUIDING
THE LATTER'S WHOLE, INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT?
The kind of evaluation which would best hell the intern to grow pro-
fessionally during internship and afterwards may be most effectively
described in terms of some instruments and devices which are recom-
mended by the committee. The committee did not have as one of its
responsibilities the making of any instruments. They should be made by
each institution and not by centralized groups.
It is not to be understood that the committee recommends the
use of all these devices in any one case. The individual differences
shown by institutions in choosing the combination of instruments
which they believe will best achieve their individual purposes should
2:6. FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
be preserved. Instruments and devices not mentioned here are
nrit to be considered as excluded from use. The following are the
instruments or devices discussed by the committee:
Sa. A list of suggestive questions with plenty of space for comment
For instance: "What evidences of fitness for teaching in this par-
ticular situation did you observe in the intern?" "What evidences
of unfitness for teaching in this particular situation did you observe
in the intern?" "What recommendations can you make?'
b. Check-lists concerning professional and personal development
Several statements must be made to express the committee's recom-
mendations concerning check-lists. The idea that check-lists should
represent various levels of efficiency in different areas was approved.
Teaching itself, planning, and the process of observation are three
examples of areas. Levels of efficiency can be described by an
analysis of any given area; it is possible to present the results of
such analysis in descriptive terms.
The same check-list, when it relates to such matters as physical.
mental, social and emotional qualifications, may be used repeatedly
during the internship. The repetition of the use of an instrument is
.,an aid in describing growth and change on the part of the intern.
Check-lists generally will be much more effective if written-in
comments are encouraged and adequate space provided for them.
Check-lists dealing with a few general traits which have been
broken down into some of the most important characteristics con-
tributing to these traits may be valuable.
c,. The. personal conference
Frequent personal conferences between intern and coordinator of
interns, between directing teacher and intern, and between coordina-
tor of interns and directing teacher, as well as conferences in which
all three are present, are desirable.
Conferences between groups of directing teachers and college
faculty members are also recommended.
d. Personal letters
Personal letters concerning internship problems may be a valuable
source of evaluative data
e. A diary kept by the intern
The diary would be most effective if stress is laid on recording the
significant learning of the intern, the activities associated in a casual
way with these learning, and professional problems which the intern
iould like to study further.
S The diary entries should be made in a spirit of inquiry and not
I in the spirit of negative criticism.
The diary should contain an evaluation of the intern's experiences
by the intern.
Instruction in the keeping of the diary should be given the intern.
Such instructions will lead to the avoidance of many of the short-
comings of the diary techniques, such as repeated entries concerning
simple routine actions.
f. A brief diary kept by the directing teacher
A brief diary kept by the directing teacher for his own use will be
helpful when final estimates of the intern are made.
It is recognized that the process of evaluation can best be re-
fined and improved by long-continued, watchful experience.
Mrs. Evelyn Cary Miss Audrey Packham
Mrs. Irene Christen Mrs. Mattie Mae Saunders
R. L. Goulding Mrs. Elizabeth Yearwood
A. R. Mead Miss Gloria Gutierrez, Secretary
J. G. Ogden L. C. Smith, Chairman
Report of the Committee On Suggestions For
the Guidance of Directing Teachers
Purpose of Intern Teaching.-The purpose of intern teaching
is to meet a need long felt by the public in general, and by teachers
in particular, namely, to provide for prospective teachers contacts
with experienced teachers and in real school situations, to which is
added the guidance of the college. By these direct contacts, it is
hoped that the prospective teacher will get a better understanding
of children and develop greater proficiency in working with pupils.
1. Working Relationship of Directing Teacher and Intern
a. The directing teacher has a right to expect that the intern has reached
such a stage in his development that the relationship will be mutually
stimulating and professionally profitable.
b. Conferences between the directing teacher and the intern should be
frequent enough to insure adequate guidance for the intern and
should be profitable to both.
c. The directing teacher should assist the intern by promoting desirable
attitudes on the part of the principal, other teachers, pupils, and
d. The directing teacher should discuss with the intern the ethics per-
taining to his relationship with the school personnel.
e. The directing teacher should advise the intern regarding his commu-
28 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
f: The.directing teacher should induct the intern into the school as an
"assisting teacher" and not as a "student teacher". This is impor-
S tant in order to establish the most satisfactory working relationships
among the intern, other members of the teaching personnel, and the
pupils. The attitude of the faculty toward the intern should be one
of sympathetic cooperation and helpfulness. The intern should par-
ticipate in all school duties and activities as an accepted regular
member of the faculty group.
g. Activities of an intern should at all times be under the guidance of
the directing teacher, who will give such preliminary assistance as
h. The directing teacher should consider the interest of the pupils first
and strike a balance between growth needs of pupils and develop-
mental needs of the intern.
i. It has been found that when the intern is permitted to carry out his
own ideas and to exercise initiative, educational growth may be
experienced by both the directing teacher and the intern. Such
activities imply cooperative planning.
j. Reports of activities made by the intern to the teacher education
institution should be reviewed and signed by the directing teacher.
The principal and the supervisor should have an opportunity to review
these reports. The directing teacher should be informed concerning
all instructions relating to reports given the intern by the teacher
k. The directing teacher should assume a responsibility for helping the
intern find pleasure and satisfaction in the entire experience.
1. The intern should be shown that his work is a part of the total school
2. Types of Experience from which Interns May Profit
a. The intern should have experiences sufficiently varied and extensive
to give him opportunities to study and understand better most of the
important tasks involved in teaching.
b. The intern should be encouraged to draw on various instructional
fields and other resources of the school in his work with pupils.
c. The intern needs experiences in all phases of a teacher's work; some
of the more important are suggested below:
(a) Observing teacher activities; this observation preliminary to
participation and teaching should continue only so long as is
necessary. The directing teacher should help the intern to
observe by pointing out what to look for, using written in-
structions, conferences, or other means found effective. Con-
ferences should precede and follow specific observation assign-
(b) Study of individual differences in pupils
(c) Use of references and other instructional materials
(d) Giving individual help to pupils
(e) Doing routine duties, such as checking attendance
(f) Judging exhibits of pupil work
(g) Teaching in cooperation with directing teacher
(h) Getting acquainted with pupils-learning names, studying
health and scholastic records, etc.
(i) Unit planning, daily planning, etc.
(j) Collecting materials to be used; this should include specific
application of community resources
(k) Making, giving, scoring, and interpreting tests
(1) Assuming responsibility for physical condition of the room
(m) M aking and keeping school records and reports
(n) Arranging equipment and bulletin boards
(a) Attending faculty, county, and state teachers' meetings
(b) Cooperating with other teachers in the school
(c) Conferring with supervisors and administrators
(a) Assisting with and directing assembly programs, dramatics,
(b) Participating in student social and athletic activities
(a) Participating in P.-T. A. religious and welfare groups, civic
clubs, recreational programs, etc.
(b) Visiting homes of pupils for better understanding of their
(c) Cooperating with other community agencies, such as health
department, juvenile court, and child welfare organizations
(d) Learning community resources useful in instruction
d. The intern should be inducted into these activities gradually, the type
and extent being determined by the needs and abilities of the individ-
ual intern and the particular situation. It is desirable that an in-
tern's teaching experience include the planning, executing, and judg-
ing of a unit or section of work in its entirety.
3. Reporting the Progress of the Intern
a. In addition to making summary reports of the intern's progress, the
directing teacher should feel free to make partial reports at any time.
b. The intern and directing teacher should work cooperatively in pre-
paring the evaluation report. The principal and supervisor should
be given an opportunity to review this report.
c. If the directing teacher finds that the intern is not progressing satis-
factorily, it is his responsibility to report this condition to the prin-
cipal, supervisor, and teacher education institution immediately.
d. The teacher education institution should encourage the directing
teacher to report evidences of weaknesses and strengths of the intern
relating to (1) readiness for undertaking the internship, and (2)
30 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
readiness for assuming full teaching responsibilities. Such reports
will aid institutions in developing more effective teacher education
Mrs. Lola M. Culver
Mrs. Emily T. Hylant
Olin D. King
G. Ballard Simmons
Ernest W. Cason, Secretary
J. D. Williams, Chairman
DIRECTORY OF THE CONFERENCE
Sponsors: Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council; State
Department of Education; Commission on Teacher Education,
American Council on Education.
Participating Institutions: Florida State College for Women; Uni-
versity of Florida; University of Tampa; University of Miami;
John B. Stetson University; Florida Southern College; Rollins
County School Systems Represented: Alachua, Dade, Duval, Hardee,
Hillsborough, Leon, Levy, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole,
Putnam, St. Lucie, Volusia.
Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council: W. S. Alien, Presi-
dent, John B. Stetson University; W. S. Anderson, Dean, Rol-
lins College; M. W. Carothers, Director of Instruction, State
Department of Education; R. L. Eyman, Dean, Florida State
College for Women; Miss Sara Ferguson, Chairman, Classroom
Teachers Department, Florida Education Association; C. R.
Foster, Dean, University of Miami; J. E. Mooney, President,
University of Tampa; Miss Marguerite Morse, President, Flor-
ida Education Association; J. W. Norman, Dean, University
of Florida; Robert Reed, President, St. Petersburg Junior Col-
lege; J. S. Rickards, Executive Secretary, Florida Education
Association; L. M. Spivey, President, Florida Southern College;
J. B. Walker, Chairman, Department of County Superinten-
dents, Florida Education Association; and H. L. Watkins,
Chairman, All-Principals Department, Florida Education As-
Consultants: Miss Alice Blair, Georgia State College for Women;
L. M. Johnson, Georgia State Teachers College; Miss Adelle
Land, University of Buffalo; C. E. Prall, American Council
on Education; Laban C. Smith, Alabama Polytechnic Institute;
Miss Florence Stratemeyer, Teachers College, Columbia Uni-
versity; and J. D. Williams, University of Kentucky.
Coordinator: M. W. Carothers, State Department of Education.
32 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Conference Leader: C. E. Prall, Commission on Teacher Education,
American Council on Education.
Members of the Conference:
College Staff Members: Florida State College for Women-
H. E. Becker, Ernest Cason, Miss Ruth Connor, R. L. Eyman,
R. L. Goulding, Mrs. Dora ^!i'ii ; University of Florida-
R. S. Atwood, A. R. Mead, J. W. Norman, G. Ballard Simmons,
W. H. Wilson; University of Tampa-M. K. Adams, D. E.
Bunting, M. B. Cramer, Ellis Freeman, C. II. Laub, J. E.
Mooney; John B. Stetson University-W. S. Allen, Miss Olga
Bowen, Mrs. Sue Burns, Miss Veronica Davis, B. F. Ezell, Miss
Maude Emma King, Mrs. Frances Thornton; Rollins College-
William Hutchins, Mrs. A. G. Lamb, Miss Audrey Packham;
Florida Southern College-Charles Brown, Miss Helen Everett,
J. G. Ogden, J. C. Peel, Walter Williams; University of Miami-
C. R. Foster, E. V. Hjort, J. F. Lehner.
Directing Teachers: Mrs. Evelyn S. Cary, Sulphur Springs;
Mrs. Irene S. Christen, Fort Pierce; A. V. Clark, Williston;
Mrs. Lola M. Culver, Jacksonville; Mrs. Ruth M. Daniel, Plant
City; Miss Sara Ferguson, Orlando; Mrs. Fred Ferrell, Talla-
hassee; Mrs. Sarah Goodman, Orlando; Horace Gray, DeLand;
Mrs. Douglas Hopkins, Tallahassee; Mrs. Emily T. Hylant,
Tampa.; Mrs. Eunah Johnson, DeLand; Mrs. Ruth M. Johnston,
Miami; Miss Alice Kahl, Miami; O. D. King, Sanford; H. H.
Kraneman, New Smyrna; Mrs. Sophie L. Kurtz, Tampa; Miss
Natalie Lamb, Daytona Beach; A. P. Leto, Tampa; Miss Al-
berta Losh, Coral Gables; Mrs. Marguerite Lumpkin, Lake-
land; Miss Jane Marshall, Winter Park; Mrs. Ruth McLean,
Tampa; Mrs. Freda O'Neil, Miami; Mrs. Dwight T. Parker,
Daytona Beach; Miss Eloise Patterson, Miami; Miss Eleanor
Rankin, Daytona Beach; H. N. Rath, Miami; Mrs. Myrtle Reece,
Tampa; Miss Ann Richardson, Jacksonville; H. E. Richey,
Miami; Mrs. Mattie Mae Saunders, Wauchula; Mrs. Lillian T.
Scott, Miami; Miss Gertrude Shaffner, Miami; Mrs. J. E. Smith,
Palatka; Mrs. Ann Spires, Daytona Beach; Miss Anne Stone,
Orlando; Miss Mildred Swearingen, Bartow; Miss Kate Whar-
ton, Winter Park; Miss Vara Woodward, Daytona Beach; Mrs.
Elizabeth Yearwood, Largo.
Interns: Miss Atlant Day and Miss Irene Edwards of Florida
State College for Women; Miss Gloria Gutierrez and Miss Car-
roll Thomas of the University of Tampa; Miss Martha Brooks
and Miss Jennie Lou Dewar of Florida Southern College.
State Department of Education: M. W. Carothers; Colin Eng-
lish, State Superintendent; Joe Hall.
Visitors: (Out-of-State) Miss Nora Beust, Washington, D. C.;
G. P. DeYoe, East Lansing, Michigan; Miss Frances K. Martin.
Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Miss Katherine Mason and Miss Ethel
Shimmel, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Turner,
(Florida) Joe Ballenger, R. D. Dolley, W. T. Edwards, Mrs.
Helen Hall, Douglas Hopkins, Sr., W. F. Jacobs, Miss Eulah
Mae Snider, and J. F. Williams of Tallahassee; Mrs. Evelyn
King, Sanford; Mrs. J. E. Mooney, Tampa; Major Thornton,
Personnel of Conference: W. S. Anderson, D. E. Bunting,
R. L. Eyman, B. F. Ezell, C. R. Foster, J. W. Norman, J. C.
Arrangements: M. W. Carothers, Joe Hall, J. W. Norman.
Menus: Miss Martha Brooks, Miss Jennie Lou Dewar, Miss Helen
Planning: M. W. Carothers, Mrs. Lola Culver, Miss Helen
Everett, R. L. Goulding, J. C. Peel, C. E. Prall, Mrs. Dora Skip-
per, J. H. Wise.
Editing Reports of Committees: M. W. Carothers, Miss Helen
Everett, C. R. Foster, R. L. Goulding, J. C. Peel.
Group Chairmen: Group 1, \1-, Helen Everett; Group 2, D. E. Bunt-
ing; Group 3, J. C. Peel; Group 4, B. F. Ezell; Group 5, R. L.
Eyman; Group A, Mrs. Dora Skipper; Group B, H. E. Becker;
Group C. Mrs. Frances Thornton; Group D, W. II. Wilson.
Group Vice-Chairmen: Group A, Mrs. Ruth Williams; Group B,
Mrs. Sophie Kurtz; Group C, Mrs. Eunah Johnson; Group D,
Mrs. J. E. Smith.
Recreation Director: Joe Hall.
Housing Director: J. W. Norman.
Dining Room Director: Miss Helen Everett.
Publicity: C. R. Foster.
Secretaries: Miss Mildred Parrish, Mrs. Dorothy Sauls.
", *. "
OUTDOOR PAVILION AT CAMP O LENO
-USED FOR GENERAL SESSIONS AND
COMMITTEE GROUP MEETINGS OF THE
Extract From Preliminary Report of J. D. Williams,
Consultant, at Conclusion of Field Study in February
Observations, conferences, and other experiences in the colleges,
universities, and public schools of Florida are the basis for this
Its purpose is to help those who contribute to the program of
teacher education in at least two ways:
1. By stimulating thinking on the possibilities an intern pro-
gram has for the improvement of the total program of
teacher education, and
2. By presenting some of the problems that must be met in
planning and implementing such a program.
It is admittedly incomplete and should be supplemented and
revised in the light of further experience and need.
The State Department is encouraging the institutions to de-
velop improved programs of teacher education. The Department
feels that the detailed certification requirements as now listed could
conceivably hinder an institution from making the maximum use of
its staff and material resources. Therefore, it has suggested that
each institution study, revise, and develop its own program in
terms of its own variables, and, when the program is approved by
the Department, the graduates who are recommended by the
institution will be certificated.
This relationship gives the college or university wide latitude
and, at the same time, a heavy responsibility. Also, the State De-
partment must assume the responsibility of helping the institutions
to plan and organize their individual teacher education programs.
The relationship between the State Department and the teacher
education institutions becomes one of great importance.
36 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Internship means an extended preliminary teaching experience
in actual school situations. Teaching experience is the focal objec-
tive. It does not mean that the intern's experiences should be lim-
ited to the classroom functions of a teacher. The primary concern
is to provide ample opportunity for the intern to direct the learning
of children. Effective direction of the learning of children calls
for more than the mastery of a bag of tricks or techniques. It re-
quires such understandings as child growth, development, and be-
In this report the internship period has been thought of as
coming the last of the junior year or the beginning of the senior
year in a four-year program of teacher education. Such an ar-
rangement provides for some time on the campus after the intern
Maximum contribution of the intern experience to the students
preparing to teach can be secured when all those persons directly
concerned understand each other and the purposes and objec-
tives of the program. An institution can build the machinery for
starting internship as a phase of teacher education with comparative
ease. A few interested persons, with the assistance of the adminis-
Iration, can create blanks, a new job or two, determine the amount
of credit to be allowed for the experience, and the number of weeks
the period is to cover, and secure the cooperation of public school
administrators. However, when human relationships are involved,
mere machinery cannot be substituted for understandings. If the
intern program is to be successful in realizing its possibilities,
careful attention must be given, and great effort must be made to
secure the understanding and active support and cooperation of
all who participate in it. A large proportion of an institution's
staff is involved, as are students preparing to teach, their parents,
the public school teachers, principals, and superintendents, the par-
ents of the children, and, to some extent, the communities in which
the interns go.
There is some evidence that indicates .
1. A period of several weeks or months off the campus and in a full-time
school situation gives the student a more complete conception of the
2. The school, and to a lesser extent the community, becomes a laboratory
in which the student's ability to gain insights and understandings in
sociological, economic, and professional areas depends to a large extent
upon the background experience furnished by the institution.
3. Students' intern or field experiences may feed back into the work of
the institution if provided the opportunity. A seminar or conference
group organized for the purpose may provide such a channel. This
procedure could lead to the reorganization of content and the rebuilding
of the total program of teacher education in the light of the discovered
needs of interns and teachers in the field.
4. Teacher education depends upon many other resources of an institution
than those found within the limits of what is often termed "professional
5. The relationship of the intern with the directing teacher has possibili-
ties for in-service growth of teachers and the principal.
6. Intern experience has little to offer if it means no more than a period
of time spent in a public school situation. It becomes vital only when
the quality of that experience is of a high order.
7. The public schools are involved in this program. If an institution pushes
the interns into the schools without careful preparation. the relation-
ship between the institution and the schools will become strained and
may break completely, thereby destroying for as much as a period of
years the possibility of having the schools contribute to the profes-
sional education of beginning teachers.
8. An intern must "carry her own weight". That is, she should contribute
to the school program enough to pay for the school's time in helping
her. This raises the question as to what are the minimums of teaching
techniques, procedures, or competencies the intern should possess before
she begins this kind of experience.
9. A student should have the opportunity to help plan her own preparation
for the internship and then help evaluate her growth in that experience.
10. The directing teacher is the key person, rather than the school system
or the school principal.
11. The experience of the interns now under way appears to be satisfactory
to them at least.
12. The interns feel that there should be a closer integration of theory and
SOME AREAS IN WHICH IFURTHIER THINKING NEEDS TO BE DONE
1. What an intern is going to do is basic to any fundamental planning as
to how to get an intern ready to profit most by the experience and to
contribute most to it. An institution or group of institutions should
not go into the planning of the preparation for the internship inde-
pendent of the cooperative thinking of the directing teachers.
2. Meaningful evaluation of an intern's growth during the intern period
is worthy of study. While many will agree that the intern should
38 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
participate in such evaluation, a pattern for such student participation
is yet to be developed.
3. Maximum use should be made of the intern's experiences in his further
work on the campus. Considerable thinking and planning need to be
done to capitalize on those experiences, both for the benefit of the
student and for the institution in the improvement of the program of
preparation for the internship.
4. One of the questions that calls for much study and that should concern
many people is how can general education make its greatest contribution
to the preparation of teachers. Part of this same problem is the place
general education has in the preparation of students for the intern
experience. Two of the many possible contributions that general edu-
cation might make are listed.
a. It is conceivable that with a certain kind of general education the
student would learn something of cultural anthropology, sociology,
economics, political science, and related fields, so that, when he goes
into a community as an intern, he will understand the pressures,
the mores, the values, the customs, and the traditions, as well as
the problems that he linds there. Such an understanding will make
him aware of those areas in which the culture is flexible and also
where it is rigid. Also, the contribution lie can make to a par-
ticular community as a teacher becomes clearer to him.
Once, the wisdom of community experiences in a teacher educa-
tion program may have been questioned, but, as Lloyd A. Cook says,
that day seems to have passed. Cook observes that young people,
in training to be teachers, must know a great deal about the pattern
of social relations in which schools are involved, in which teachers
live and work. and which makes children what they are in any final
sense. Such objectives are not an issue today in leading teacher
education institutions; the real problem is to find ways of achieving
An important factor in the matter of preparation for the intern
period and for the development of the understandings that are under
consideration is student "readiness" to learn, and this, in turn, is
dependent on the individual's life experiences and on formal prepara-
tion in college. Throughout the four years of a teacher's education,
the experiences in the institution and in the field should flow back
and forth into each other. Theory and practice fertilize each other.
For this reason, the intern experience must be considered in relation
to the program of general education and other professional expe-
riences if the learning outcomes are to be maximized.
b. General education should contribute to the personal and social needs
of teachers. Of basic importance to a successful realization of such
an objective is a good plan of sound counseling. It has been custom-
ary for professional educators to give the do's and don't's to begin-
ning teachers concerning dress, behavior and speech; and they, too,
often fail to build the background of understanding that gives
meaning to such preachments. This function and others may be
considered part of the responsibility of the program of general
A successful program of teacher education, including the phase
referred to in the report as the intern period, depends upon the
relationships of individuals. These relationships must be based
upon mutual respect, confidence, and understanding, because, in
an evolving, growing program, problems must be met continuously.
Their successful solution will depend upon new patterns of action
and different combinations of individuals. The problem is not
one that can be met successfully by casting machinery that will
handle the project with the attention of a small number of people.
Progress in this program is a matter of successive planning by
wider and wider groups.
Many of the problems must be met in terms of institutional
and other local variables. However, it appears that the period of
cooperative attack should continue for some time to come.
Preface to Instrument for Securing
Judgments of Teachers
March 15, 1941
To: A Selected List of Florida Public School Teachers
From: Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council
The seven institutions of higher education in Florida training
white teachers at the four-year level have been studying for some
months the feasibility of internship as a part of the four-year
preparation for teaching. Internship has been defined as "extended
preliminary teaching experience in actual school situations". In the
thinking of the various institutional representatives, the term has
been further delimited to mean a full-time, off-campus responsibility,
varying from a half semester (9 weeks) to a full quarter (11 weeks),
and conceived largely, if not wholly, as a period of service with
a single directing teacher of a given school system.
The program thus far conceived has not been designed as a
sequel to student teaching, although in this experimental year some
interns have been rounding out preparation which has included
40 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
student teaching. It has been considered as an experience alterna-
tive to student teaching and one which may ultimately come to
replace the latter for the majority of the prospective teachers in the
four-year program. Thus internship will come to represent the pros-
pective teacher's total contact with teaching as the responsible
person in the classroom situation. The so-called professional side of
teacher education under this new plan may be properly conceived
as in three interdependent parts: 1) a preparation period in the in-
stitution; 2) the internship; and 3) a final or culminating stage at
the conclusion of the internship which, again, is to be at the institu-
tion. It is obvious that preparation for internship in this setting
may require a different emphasis or focus than that which has
sufficed for practice teaching where the student teacher was to be
in daily touch with full-time critics and general supervisors. Even
under the most cooperative relationships between institutions, on
the one hand, and directing teachers, on the other, the task of pre-
paring students for internship presents elements of difficulty which
have not received much attention in teacher education circles.
We approach this task from two points of reference: 1) How
can we prepare the intern so that he will readily fit into the class-
room situation and carry his own weight? and 2) How can he be
prepared so that he will secure the optimum growth from his expe-
riences with the directing teacher and his pupils? A satisfactory
general education and a reasonable proficiency in a given field
or level of work have been assumed; none of us believe that there
would be disagreement on these essentials. Beyond these, however,
there have been tasks of preparation which many see as feasible
but which provoke disagreement on the criterion of importance.
The study and experimentation of the current year have supplied
some general answers, but the total number of classroom teachers
involved, to date has been too few to warrant confidence in the
judgments that have emerged. This letter represents the beginning
of a plan to secure the judgments of a representative body of
teachers on a scale that is far wider than has been previously
In asking your cooperation in this general inquiry, we hasten
to say that this creates no obligation on your part to affiliate with
any institution as a directing teacher; nor does it imply that you
are necessarily in sympathy with the plan itself. It merely means
that you are willing to take the time to contribute your thinking to
the cumulative judgments of those in Florida who are closest to
the teaching situation in the public schools.
Code for Answering:
V-indicates "very important preparation for internship in my
M-indicates "moderate importance for preparation . etc."
R-indicates "remote from the most essential demands that
would be placed upon the intern in my situation"
F-indicates "better leave to the internship period itself"
There are blanks at the bottom of each list where you may make
brief note of additions of the "V" character that you feel have
Use to Be Made of Your Replies:
Judgments on the various items will be pooled and studied for
the extent to which primary teachers, for example, are agreed. The
data from these returns will constitute one of the discussion foci at
an early spring Conference at which both institutional representatives
and a limited representation of the State's public school teachers
will be present. The Conference will be partly subsidized by a grant
from the Teacher Commission of the American Council on Education.
This agency has already supplied us with the services of a full-time
consultant for a seven weeks' period and has expressed a continuing
interest in your problems. Promptness in returning your marked
copy of the instrument will help to guarantee the success of the
Tabulation of Returns From Questionnaire Sent To
Selected List of Teachers, Relating To
Florida Internship Program
"V" and "F" totals from the returns from 151 elementary teachers and
from 85 secondary teachers. Items given rating of "V" by 60 per cent of the
responding teachers have been marked with an asterisk (*) in the case of
elementary teachers and a dagger (t) in the case of secondary teachers.
"F" totals are recorded only when they equal ten or more percent of the
42 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Key: V-Very important
F-Better leave to field
Elem. Sec. Elem. Sec.
V V PERSONAL AND SOCIAL QUALITIES F F
75 40 (1) A study of community customs and 26 13
traditions as they affect teachers.
110 57 (2) t*Understanding what constitutes
good taste in professional dress and
other accepted social practices and
a knowledge of how to meet these
147 78 (3) t*Good health.
136 76 (4) t*Knowledge of how to maintain
good health and willingness to con-
form to basic health rules.
132 64 (5) t*Absence of speech defects.
141 81 (6) t*Freedom from gross errors in Eng-
98 50 (7) Fluency in spoken English.
57 27 (1) Some contact, other than observation
in the campus schools, with boys
and girls in group activities, such as
scouting, clubs, religious organiza-
113 56 (2) t*Studying the relationship of school 32 10
and home environment and commu-
nity background to the personality
traits of boys and girls.
78 33 (3) Developing, keeping, and using for 13
guidance individual and group rec-
ords, as test, attendance, behavior,
79 37 (4) Checking pupil progress against ac- 29 11
cepted growth standards and ana-
lyzing extreme cases in terms of
causal factors (health aptitude, ex-
87 47 (5) *Constructing. giving, and interpre- 19
ting tests (informal, diagnostic, and
63 41 (6) Grading papers and interpreting re- 35 13
V V CURRICULUM EXPERIENCES
70 32 (1) Studying current practices in grade
placement of materials.
89 55 (2) t*Studying the needs, interests, and
abilities of a group and of the indi-
viduals to the end that a better adap-
tation of curriculum materials, activ-
ities, and learning exercises may
122 67 (3) t*Practice in locating, evaluating,
and assembling materials for a given
purpose (such as realizing an objec-
tive in geography, numbers, or bi-
ology, keeping in mind usability in
112 61 (4) t*'Preparing instructional units-de-
veloping pupil activities including
the selection and organization of
subject content and materials for a
92 42 (5) *Beginning the development of a per-
sonal file of instructional materials.
9S 52 (0) t*Some practice in day to day plan-
ning of group and individual activ-
64 36 (7) Studying the educational needs of
a community and determining how
to meet these needs.
62 39 (8) Finding and making available for
class instruction the resources of a
TECHNIQUES FOR DIRECTION OF
Such background as will enable the
intern to be of value to the direct-
ing teacher by:
95 48 (1) *Assisting in a planning period.
81 40 (2) *Planning and guiding pupil expe-
rience, both within and outside the
classroom, within a reasonable range
of expense, safety, time, geograph-
ical limits, etc.
103 33 (3) *Participating in and assisting with
the expressional activities-graphic
44 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Elem. Sec. Elem. Sec.
V V F F
representation, plays, story-telling,
and reading to pupils.
104 49 (4) *Assisting in evaluating products of 22
pupils' efforts (written or oral work,
dramatics, construction activities,
etc.) to check progress and to plan
for further teaching.
Such background as will enable the
intern to be of value to the directing
teacher by assisting the pupils to
develop skills and techniques in:
119 71 (6) f*Using the library and other sources
81 51 (7) t*Note taking, outlining, etc.
99 59 (8) t*Using the dictionary, index, etc.
121 74 (9) f*Organizing materials for presen-
tation to class.
Some experiences designed to develop
proficiency in methods and techniques
of classroom procedure, such as:
96 65 (11) t*Making assignments. 20
110 73 (12) t*Conducting group discussion. 17
88 64 (13) t*Conducting laboratory type lessons.
THE BROADER SCHOOL SITUATION
87 29 (1) '*Experience in developing and par-
ticipating in recreational and play-
ground activities suitable to different
72 34 (2) Study and experience in planning. 17
conducting, and participating in so-
cial activities suitable for school,
home, and community and ways
of adapting these activities to meet
varying economic levels and commu-
16 11 (3) Experience in developing school pub- 12 11
65 39 (4) Experience in various activities in- 20
volved in developing pupil assemblies,
pageants, clubs, and similar activities.
54 31 (5) Such background as will enable the 9
intern to participate in the guidance
of school civic organizations, such as
safety councils and student govern-
106 53 (6) t*Gaining acquaintance with the pol- 16
icies and practices of the general
Florida school situation with par-
ticular attention to the inter-relations
between the principal and classroom
THE CONFERENCE CALENDAR
Purposes of the Florida Conference on Internship
1. To pool the thinking of institutional representatives, classroom teachers,
and supervisors upon the general problem of preparing the student for
2. To discover possible ways of insuring intern readiness in the tasks judged
"very important" by a significant percentage of classroom teachers.
Preparation methods more effective than "learning about" some task
but still short of actual "learning by doing in real school situations"
must be discovered.
3. To explore the general pattern of intern activities or experiences during
the period of internship, paying particular attention to the maturity level
of the intern and to the role of the directing teacher in the intern's
4. To study possible ways to evaluate the growth of the intern.
5. To draft a statement of aids or suggestions to directing teachers.
6. To permit voluntary groups to confer and reach decisions on matters
not involving the entire conference membership.
GENERAL SCHEDULE OF EACH DAY
8:30-11:00 Morning session (9:00-11:00 last two days)
2:00-4:00 Afternoon session.
(Monday evening only, 7:00)
8:00-9:15 Evening Session
CALENDAR BY DAYS
Tuesday, April 29
8:30 A.M. General meeting organization and announcements
9:00-11:00 Group Discussions
Group Personnel Chairman
1. Secondary directing teachers Miss Helen Everett
2. Secondary directing teachers D. E. Bunting
3. Elementary directing teachers J. C. Peel
4. College representatives B. F. Ezell
5. College representatives R. L. Eyman
Agenda for Groups 1, 2, and 3: What items of the inquiry
which did not receive heavy "V" ratings are worth con-
46 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
sideration of the Conference? What suggestions added by
the teachers should also be studied?
Agenda for Groups 4 and 5: Should some of the items
marked "V" by large majorities of the respondents be left
almost wholly to the intern and the directing teacher?
On what bases may such decisions be made?
2:00-4:00 Group Discussions; personnel and agenda as above.
8:00-9:15 General meeting; clearing house for reports of decisions
made by discussion groups; treatment of two or three of
the hardest preparation problems by the consultants.
Wednesday, April 30
8:30-11:00 Group Discussions; personnel as above.
Agenda for Groups 1, 2, mnd 3: profitable varieties of
experience during the internship; purposes to be accom-
plished by the internship in the training program: should
there be a general order or sequence for these experiences?;
how determine when to vary the usual sequence?
Agenda for Groups 4 and 5: what patterns of preparation
or what general changes in preparation seem necessary
when we consider the general pattern of the judgments
of the directing teachers?
2:00-4:00 Group Discussions; personnel and agenda as above.
8:00-9:15 Contributions by Consultants, J. D. Williams, Chairman.
Providing Curriculum Experiences in
the Program of the Georgia Teachers
a'. 1.--_ L. W. Johnson
Summarizing the Current Thinking
about the Internship in Teacher
Education Miss Florence Stratemever
The Status of Off-Campus Student
Teaching in the Programs of Up-State
New York Institutions Miss Adelle Land
Thursday. May 1
8:30-11:00 Group Discussions; new groupings by fields or levels of
A. Elementary directing teachers and college representatives
interested in the preparation of elementary teachers.
B. Secondary directing teachers of social studies and home
economics; college representatives interested in these
C. Secondary directing teachers of English and languages;
college representatives interested in these fields.
D. Secondary directing teachers of science and mathematics;
college representatives interested in these fields.
Agenda: Continuation of discussions begun in Groups 1-3
2:00-4:00 Group Discussions; personnel as for morning session.
Agenda: Continuation of discussions begun in groups dur-
ing morning session; concentration upon both the intern-
ship itself and upon the pre-internship period.
8:00-10:00 "Fun" night.
Friday, May 2
9:00-11:00 General meeting; panel discussion; how and in what way
shall the services of the directing teachers be recognized?
M. W. Carothers and members of the Advisory Council.
2:00-4:00 Group meetings; preliminary reports of sub-committees
authorized by each group; preliminary reports of the
committee on the Evaluation of the Growth of the Intern
and of the Committee on Aids and Suggestions to Direct-
8:00-9:15 General meeting: preliminary report of the Committee on
Terminology; panel discussion led by C. E. Prall and
members of the Advisory Council: further issues which
seem to suggest the necessity for common policies.
Saturday, May 3
9:00-11:00 General meeting; reports of the recommendations of dis-
cussion groups A, B, C, and D. Final reports of the three
integrating committees of the Conference: Terminology,
Evaluation of Intern Growth, and Suggestions for the
Guidance of Directing Teachers.
General discussion: What Lies Ahead?
M. W. Carothers, leader.
REPORT OF GROUP 1
(SECONDARY DIRECTING TEACHERS)
The following are other pre-internship tasks considered neces-
sary by secondary teachers of the group in addition to those points
marked "V" on the instrument by more than 60 per cent of the
respondents. In some cases the definition of a task in the original
instrument has been revised.
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL QUALITIES
1. Develop a consciousness of a variety of social customs and traditions
current in Florida communities and provide techniques for learning
customs and adapting one's self to them.
48 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
2. Develop fluency in spoken English and freedom from gross errors.
(Fluency should be interpreted as knowledge of the subject and an
enthusiastic presentation in language the pupil understands.)
1. Provide an opportunity for the interns to work in scouting, clubs,
religious organizations, etc.
2. Emphasize in psychology courses the techniques used in developing,
keeping, and using for guidance individual and group records as tests.
attendance, behavior, and anecdotal. Check pupil progress against
accepted growth standards and analyze extreme cases in terms of
causal factors (health, aptitude, experiences. etc.)
3. Construct, give, and interpret tests (informal, diagnostic, and observa-
4. Grade papers and interpret results, not only in light of pupil achieve-
ment but also in light of teacher achievement.
1. Prepare instructional units; develop pupil activities including the selec-
tion and organization of subject content and materials for a given group
and familiarity with the currently used textbooks in the field to be
2. Begin the development of a personal file of instructional materials.
3. Create a consciousness of the variety of educational needs in different
communities, but leave definite experience in meeting these needs to
TECHNIQUES FOR DIRECTION OF INSTRUCTION
1. Begin in college the study of planning and guiding of pupil experience
both within and outside the classroom and continue during internship.
2. Participate in and assist with the expressional activities such as graphic
representation, plays, story telling, and reading to pupils. These expe-
riences contribute toward developing fluency in spoken English.
3. Have some experience in the use of the ditto machine, mimeograph,
visual education equipment, etc.
4. When needed give the prospective intern remedial reading and spelling.
5. Have some training in meeting situations requiring first aid such as
cuts, burns, nosebleed, etc.
BROADER SCHOOL SITUATION
1. Where needed provide experiences in planning, conducting, and partici-
pating in social activities suitable for school, home, and community and
ways of adapting these activities to meet varying economic levels and
2. Leave to the internship experience in developing school publications
except for English or journalism majors.
3. Have experience in various activities involved in developing assemblies,
pageants, clubs, and similar activities.
4. Gain acquaintance with the best practices regarding relationships be-
tween such groups as trustees, county boards, and county superintendent.
5. Become familiar with a code of ethics which should be practiced
The following are recommended as profitable varieties of expe-
rience during internship:
1. Interns should be assistant teachers.
2. Interns need experience in all phases of a teacher's work including
instructional, professional, extra-class and community activities and
3. Interns should assmne a share of the responsibility for their own work.
4. The general process of inducting interns includes planning, teaching,
and evaluation of the teaching, and planning again in the light of this
5. The work should be adjusted to the individual differences in pupils and
Recommended purposes to be accomplished by the internship
in the training program are as follows:
1. To provide schools with better teachers.
2. To bring about a closer cooperation and coordination between public
schools and colleges.
3. To provide an opportunity for gaining a command of factual material of
a particular subject and the ability to apply this knowledge.
The following are recommendations concerning sequence for
the intern's experiences:
1. Sequence depends upon the particular situation.
2. A suggested sequence:
a. Orientation, including experiences such as observation of teaching
practices, participation in routine duties of teacher, becoming famil-
iar with whole school situation, studying the children in the school,
and becoming familiar with the community.
b. Planning for teaching.
c. Independent teaching.
Special recommendations of this group are as follows:
1. There should always be a directing teacher in charge of each intern.
2. A code of ethics should be formulated for principals, directing teachers,
and interns in regard to the entire internship program.
3. Public school teachers might be profitably used by the college in the
period of preparation for internship.
4. Conferences of persons connected with the internship program should be
held from time to time. It is suggested that these conferences be held
early in the year.
50 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
REPORT OF GROUP 2
(SECONDARY DIRECTING TEACHER)
The committee makes the following recommendations regarding
the pre-internship program:
1. That college teachers use more specific materials in methods courses,
more devices, more handling of materials, textbooks, tests, etc.
2. That they teach the prospective intern to adapt himself more thoroughly
to the viewpoint and level of ability of the high school pupil.
3. That more care be taken in a continuous program of selecting prospec-
4. That study and experience in planning, conducting, and participating in
social activities suitable for home, school, and community, and adapting
these activities to meet varying economic levels and community customs
should be included as items of importance in the preparation of the
Within the limits of practicability the intern should have all
of the experiences of a directing teacher.
These experiences should be in the sequence of observation,
shared control, and full responsibility.
These experiences may be listed under two main headings: Ex-
periences in classroom; Experiences outside of classroom.
1. Experiences in Classroom
a. Teaching experiences
(1) Learning pupils' names
(2) Lesson planning
(3) Collecting materials to be used
(4) Actual presentation of subject matter
(5) Assuming responsibility for discipline
(6) Making and grading tests
(7) Keeping records of results
(8) Assuming responsibility for a homeroom group
b. Classroom Management
(1) Assuming responsibility for physical condition of room
(2) Keeping and making all school records and reports
(3) Arranging laboratory and bulletin boards
2. Experiences outside of classroom
a. Participating in faculty meetings
b. Attending P.-T. A. meetings
c. Assisting with assembly program
d. Conferences with directing teachers, supervisors, and administrators
e. Accompanying directing teacher on home visitation
f. Making community contacts
g. Participation in student social and athletic activities
General recommendations are as follows:
1. That the directing teacher be given a period each day for conference with
2. That the directing teacher be given tuition and expenses for study in
exchange for services rendered the intern.
3. That directing teachers be carefully selected in cooperation with the
university coordinator, principal, and teacher.
4. That a committee on terminology be appointed.
REPORT OF GROUP 3
(ELEMENTARY DIRECTING TEACHER)
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE INTERNSHIP PROGRAM
A college should:
1. Have a sufficient number of staff workers to insure more careful plan-
ning with officials, principals, and directing teachers before a student
begins his internship.
2. Furnish information to the directing teacher as to the intern's personality
traits, special interests, scholarship record, and cultural background.
The public school should:
1. Build up right attitudes by advance planning with principal and teacher,
sympathetic understanding of the entire faculty, and insuring cooperation
of the community.
The following conclusions were reached in a discussion of the
1. Because of the large number of student teachers as compared with lim-
ited number of children available, much of the personal contact with
children will have to be left to the field.
2. Interns should be given the fundamental knowledge for keeping and
using group records but practice will have to be given in the field.
3. Interns should have a knowledge of constructing, giving, and interpreting
tests; this knowledge should be gained preferably in teaching situations
rather than through a formal course.
4. The period of internship is too short for the intern to have the necessary
curriculum experiences except as practical applications after the basic
work has been done by the college. Although some of the experiences
may have to be given in an artificial setting there should be a carry-over
into actual teaching situations.
5. The intern should know to what community he is to be sent sufficiently
far in advance to enable him to familiarize himself with the community.
6. A background for teaching techniques must be given in the college in
order that the intern may go out into the field and make a practical
application of these techniques.
52 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
7. Since, for the best interest of the school, teachers must be aware of the
whole school situation, no opportunity should be missed during college
life through which the prospective teacher could be given experience which
would prepare him to take part in the activities of groups of children
from the whole school.
Interns should learn that:
1. School people will advance more rapidly professionally if they do not
2. For successful adjustment an intern must keep his morals above reproach.
3. Probably the best argument to use against youth smoking is to urge
them to wait until they reach physical maturity.
All interns should have health certificates. The form adopted
by the State Department is recommended for use by interns.
Students who are not normal either physically or emotionally
should, except in unusual cases, be encouraged to prepare for some
work other than teaching.
An intern can be helpful in a school by:
1. Assisting with a limited amount of routine work.
2. Assisting the teacher in planning; the intern should be able to make con-
3. Doing remedial work with small groups.
4. Assisting on trips, both in arrangements and execution.
5. Taking over, first, a small unit of the work, but increasing responsibility
until the intern may relieve the teacher entirely.
6. Assisting in preparing auditorium programs.
A school may stimulate the intern's growth by:
1. Helping him to adjust to both school and community.
2. Helping him to make a study of all types of homes represented in com-
munity and to apply this knowledge in studying individual differences.
3. Arranging his program so he may gain some knowledge of different types
of schools and aid him in seeing the strong points in each.
4. Enabling the intern to trace growth in individual pupils or in small
5. Giving training in planning work, both long-time and day to day planning.
6. Giving opportunity for contact with children for the entire internship.
7. Giving the intern opportunity to construct, give, and use results of
8. Not expecting an intern simply to observe work over long periods unless
the observation is directed.
9. Giving training in organizing and using the library.
Saturday mornings can well be used for conferences or for
familiarizing the intern with departments in administration.
General suggestions will be much better as a guide to directing
teachers than specific directions.
Interns should be placed only under four-year graduates who
have had at least two years of experience.
It is desirable, though not necessary, that the same directing
teachers be used repeatedly. It is probably advisable that centers
be established throughout the State where this work will be carried
For financial reasons, it may be necessary that teachers intern
in their own home towns, though many advantages can be seen for
having them intern in new situations. If the first course is fol-
lowed the county superintendent may wish to be consulted as to
number and persons as these teachers will doubtless apply to him
for employment for the following year.
It will likely be a valuable experience for an intern teacher to
spend as much as possible of the opening week of school in Septem-
ber in the school in which he is to intern. This should first be
carefully planned by the college.
In the psychology or curriculum courses in the colleges empha-
sis should be placed on the use of good judgment in dealing with
both patrons and children.
Colleges should urge directing teachers to be frank in telling
the coordinator of interns where the institution has fallen short
in its preparation of interns.
Some type of rating blank for use of the directing teacher
using brief statements is preferable to a system of checking.
If the intern is received in the schools as another teacher rather
than as a student his position will be given greater security.
Interns should have weekly conferences with either a staff
worker from the college or a person selected by the coordinator of
interns. This will doubtless necessitate an increase in staff workers.
A rather exhaustive list of suggested activities in which the
intern should take part should be included in the bulletin of
54 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Colleges should offer as a service to directing teachers the
use of a carefully selected library of books available for short
periods as requested.
All who have met the college requirements for practice teach-
ing should be given the opportunity to intern. Practice teaching
as a preliminary preparation is advisable. (Editor's Note:-These
two recommendations were not concurred in by the Conference.)
REPORT OF GROUP 4
(COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS)
The conclusions reached by the group during the first day's
discussions may be summarized as follows:
1. None of the items indicated "V" by 60 per cent or more of the secondary
teachers can be allocated as the exclusive responsibility of either the
institution or of the public school in which the internship is served.
They must share in varying degrees the responsibility for these items.
2. The education of teachers is a responsibility of the whole institution,
with all departments working together. In addition, it is a joint responsi-
bility of the institution and the school in which an intern serves.
3. Prospective teachers can gain certain elements best in the institution and
others best in the public schools.
a. In general, those phases of the program which should be developed by
the institution are those which help students make best use of the
b. In general, those phases of the program which should be developed by
the schools are those which demand contact with children, class
materials, schools, and the community.
4. For many activities preparatory aid in developing such things as a point
of view and preliminary contacts with sources can be taken care of by
The following statements indicate general agreements reached
during the second day's discussion:
1. The pattern of preparation for internship, as indicated by responses to
the instrument, should consist primarily of specific knowledge, under-
standings, and beginning skills to be achieved before the intern goes
into the field.
2. There is definite need for instruction in the selection and organization of
subject matter to be taught in high school classes. This should be in
addition to basic subject matter courses on college level.
3. It is extremely desirable for all teachers of methods to make contact
with the field. Because of this, it is desirable to reduce the number
of individuals' teaching methods and make it possible for them to
contact the field frequently.
4. There is no general pattern possible for collaboration within all insti-
tutions. The pattern of collaboration for a specific institution must be
determined by circumstances found in that institution.
5. In introductory courses in education there should be little emphasis on
historical or encyclopedic treatment of education. Much emphasis should
be placed upon individual guidance and planning programs by indi-
viduals preparing to teach. This introductory course should also
emphasize what education seeks to accomplish and should give an over-
view of the public school system of Florida.
6. One of the outstanding needs of interns is the ability to make adjust-
ment to social situations.
7. There is need for the development of respect for the personality of the
8. The prospective intern should be given some idea of the physical aspects
of a satisfactory school situation. This should not be emphasized
to such a degree as to exclude adequate consideration of the deeper
social aspects of teaching.
9. A conscious effort should be made to develop the attitude that teaching
is a profession. This should include such things as the development of
a definite understanding of the nature of desirable professional rela-
tionships, and respect and enthusiasm for teaching.
10. Every prospective intern should be helped to begin the development of
a sound philosophy of education.
11. In addition to basic general education, the pre-internship period should
give an introductory knowledge of the broad problems of education and
should develop some skill in teaching procedures.
REPORT OF GROUP 5
COLLEGEE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS)
The group took up the question: What can be done to attain
the objectives of this item? After some discussion it was apparent
that both a knowledge of the pupils and a knowledge of the mate-
rials of instruction are important.
This discussion had hardly gotten under way before certain
questions of an administrative type developed, indicating that it
is necessary that there be full cooperation between teachers, prin-
cipals, and the teacher training institutions.
It was suggested that we would have to return to these adminis-
trative problems later in the discussion. An important issue here is:
Shall internship be worked out on a practical basis according to
what can and can not be done, or shall it be worked out individually,
56 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
with the teacher training institutions determining what the opti-
mum conditions for internship are, and then going out into the field
to find places which meet these conditions?
In the discussion dealing with how the prospective teacher can
learn the needs, interests, and abilities of children the point was
made that it is advisable to study the same group for a period of
time and rather intensively, rather than to move around with short
observations of many and varied groups.
It was suggested that one means of learning about children
lies in studying and becoming acquainted with the textbooks they
use and the materials they study. Another suggestion held that
children may be studied through observation of them in the demon-
stration school and through observing the methods of good teachers.
But, it was asked, what lies back of these textbooks and these methods ?
It was suggested that the student must study the child first and that
such an approach is basic.
Practically, it was pointed out, it is difficult to gain access to
the child where large numbers of teachers are under training. The
plan of having the students spend six semester hours in the methods
and curriculum of the elementary school, working in the demon-
stration school and visiting classes and observing them along with
their more theoretical discussions and work, was outlined. This
course would precede the internship of the candidate. All oppor-
tunities which will give the prospective teacher a greater knowledge
of children should be used. Such an intensive course, preceding
internship, and worked out largely in the demonstration school
through the cooperation of the professors of education and the
demonstration school staff, would be an attempt to provide the
prospective teacher with both theoretical knowledge and with expe-
riences with children.
It was also suggested that colleges should encourage their pros-
pective teachers to get out-of-school experiences with children
through such means as supervising playgrounds, working in camps,
doing Sunday School work, and other forms of community service.
It was noted in this connection that such experiences would not
only give the prospective teachers more experience with children,
but would also give them a greater general civic consciousness and
sense of community obligation.
More attention, it was agreed, should be given to matters of
training prospective teachers in the use of materials, the construc-
tion of units, and the evaluation and criticism thereof. It was urged
that teachers should have more experience in developing personal
source units of materials.
One difficulty here lies in the fact that a class of students in
college may have trouble developing unit materials for a hypothetical
group of children. Working with a given group whose needs are
understood would be better, and we should avoid giving the pros-
pective teacher the impression that units may be all worked out
ahead of time and then laid down for classroom instruction, without
modification to meet the development levels and needs of the child
At the afternoon session the group undertook to examine cer-
tain specific points with reference to teacher preparation-points
which were highly rated in importance on the questionnaire.
S Considerable discussion was invoked on the point referring
to good taste in professional dress and other accepted social
It was feared that too much conformity to the habits of the
community might make the teacher passive and non-resistant to
undesirable community practices and restraints. On the other
hand it was pointed out that many children find, in the school, their
only contact with worthy standards in these matters. After con-
siderable debate, it was agreed that the teacher must expect to
adjust to many conditions and customs local in the community,
but that it is part of the teacher training institution's task to help
her in these problems, and to see to it that a part of teacher educa-
tion is devoted to a study of community life, its influences and
customs, and the forces which give rise to these. Only by a thor-
ough understanding of these phases of social life can a teacher be
prepared to cope with community intolerances and arrive at a wise
pattern of conformity, or resistance, as the situation may demand.
The following are important experiences in the pre-internship
1. The prospective intern needs to understand the important aims of edu-
58 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
2. He needs to know the place of the public school in relation to other
agencies in achieving these aims.
3. He should have experiences in the socio-economic areas of learning.
4. He should know and have contact with the organization and control of
different kinds of schools.
5. He should develop the ability to work with children, other teachers,
administrators, and adult members of a community.
6. He should understand the physical and social factors which condition
the learning process.
7. He should appreciate the contributions which can be made by various
subject areas to the aims of education.
8. He should have experiences teaching him to select, organize, and use
9. He should have experiences promoting the acquisition of techniques
and methods of teaching-learning situations.
10. He should learn how to evaluate the activities in the various areas of
a school program.
REPORT OF GROUP A
It is advisable that interns have some practice teaching before
beginning the internship.
Suggestions relating to preparation in music are:
1. Teachers and interns should realize that music -is a regular part of
elementary work, not just an extra-curricular activity.
2. The music courses now offered in the colleges should be improved by
integrating music with the education courses; by homogeneous grouping
in music; by giving proficiency tests, in order that students already
having achieved a degree of music ability may be exempt from going
over materials already learned; and by teaching sufficient music to
prospective interns to give them confidence in their ability to present
music to children.
Integrated courses in education should develop or provide:
1. Love for children.
2. Willingness of the teacher to enter into games with children.
3. Basic background in all subjects: science, social studies, art, music, phys-
ical education, literature. (Basic background has been insufficiently in-
corporated in education courses.)
4. Student experiences which are of practical use in the classroom.
5. Coordinated effort of science, art, music, social studies or other needed
instructors with those teaching education.
6. Much observation and many conferences as the courses progress.
7. Practice in integrating education and basic background on an elementary
The course in Introduction to Education is valuable only as an
orientation or guidance course which should emphasize the qualities
which produce a good teacher, training in study and research methods,
and information concerning the total school situation (including
control, finance, legislation).
Specific preparation of the intern should include:
1. Speech. The following elements should be stressed: pleasing voice,
correction of speech defects, broad vocabulary with a sense of the finer
meanings of words, freedom from gross errors, fluency.
2. Health. This should include experience in first aid work, hygiene,
calisthenics (provision for taking orders, precision, motor control),
practice in healthful living, recreation, realization of physical require-
ments of teaching, knowledge of and ability to carry-on in sports and
games, and a general knowledge of a well-rounded program for living.
including provision for social contacts, recreation, study, and reading of
3. Community contacts in own home community and other communities.
Institutions should prepare interns for getting along with
1. By teaching them how to make friends.
2. By teaching them good manners.
3. Through participation in committee work, club work, group games, and
activities conducted with strange groups.
4. By developing in social techniques which will fortify them in life
5. By teaching to be natural.
An intern should not be sent to a situation in which the direct-
ing teacher is likely to be unsympathetic with his weaknesses.
Weak prospective interns should be given added security by
1. More careful planning with directing teachers by coordinator of interns.
2. Practice teaching before entering internship.
3. More gradual assumption of the responsibility of independent teaching.
Special preparation of directing teachers may be needed, because
1. A good teacher may not be a good directing teacher.
2. There may be a need for better understanding of relationships between
coordinator of interns and directing teachers.
No exact pattern for induction of the intern should be followed.
1. Induction should be gradual and in keeping with the ability of the intern.
2. Moving from work with small groups to responsibility for certain activ-
ities for the entire room and then to responsibility for an entire day's
work is a recommended pattern.
60 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
The intern should not substitute outside of the directing teach-
er's room. The intern may carry on in the absence of the directing
teacher if the work has been planned with him, or in an emergency
when, if in the judgment of the directing teacher and the principal,
he is ready to assume such responsibility. It is advisable that the
principal or the directing teacher consult the coordinator of interns
if the absence of the directing teacher is to be prolonged.
Extensive visiting defeats the purposes of the internship.
1. Continuous contacts with one situation are preferable to shorter contacts
with many situations.
2. Observational visits to other rooms or buildings should be left to the
judgment of the directing teacher and the coordinator of interns.
REPORT OF GROUP B
(SOCIAL STUDIES AND HOME ECONOMICS)
Suggestions for procedures during the pre-internship period:
1. Use should be made of total institutional resources in the pre-internship
2. Interns need to gain experience in selecting and organizing materials
of instruction. This may be accomplished by special methods courses
in social studies and home economics. These courses should be presented
by instructors having adequate background in both subject matter and
3. Modified college subject matter courses stressing relationships within
the subject and correlation with other subject matter fields would aid
interns in their teaching.
4. The general education of the intern should develop a democratic philoso-
phy of life and a critical attitude toward current problems.
5. The intern should become familiar with the policies and practices of
the general Florida school situation (e.g.. knowledge of Florida School
6. Interns in social studies and home economics should have opportunities
for experiencing discussion techniques in subject matter courses.
7. Attention should be given to the problems of personal appearance and
hygiene. Courses in personality development and personal faculty
advisors are suggested.
Suggestions for procedures during internship:
1. No pattern of procedures may be set for the period of internship which
will fit every intern in every situation.
2. Interns should work with one class a sufficient length of time to become
acquainted with individuals and situations in that class. Other class
experiences later in the internship would be highly desirable.
3. An intern's teaching experience should be continuous throughout a unit
or section of work.
Suggestions for procedures during post-internship period:
1. Provisions should be made to help interns meet the needs discovered
during the internship. This may be accomplished by the following:
a. Evaluating the intern's experiences in a seminar course partially
based on reports of the directing teacher and the intern.
b. Meeting other possible needs such as deficiency in subject matter.
It is recommended:
1. That opportunities be provided for contacts between the college staff
and directing teachers through conferences held at college centers.
2. That college teachers of subject matter and education concerned with
the internship program familiarize themselves with public school situ-
3. That a state-wide educational campaign be planned to familiarize com-
munities, administrators, and directing teachers with the internship
4. That the handicaps encountered by students interning in their home
towns should be recognized by the college and the directing teacher.
5. That varying situations in communities of different sizes and types
should be taken into consideration when placing interns.
6. That a committee consider the formulation of principles governing re-
lationships between directing teachers and interns.
7. That the total community resources be looked upon as possible aids to
instruction in social studies and home economics.
REPORT OF GROUP C
(ENGLISH AND MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES)
The committee recommends:
1. That a general methods course be supplanted by a course in methods
in broad fields of teaching the language arts. in which students will
meet jointly to study common elements, and will meet separately to
study specific problems of their major fields.
2. The teaching of this methods course should be done by a competent
specialist in methods, and he should be aided, particularly in the part
of work dealing with specific fields, by experienced collaborating teach-
ers from the secondary schools in the immediate locality as well as by
other staff members of the college. During the time this course is given,
a part of the time of each week should be devoted to common elements
and a part to specific elements.
The following activities are regarded as important in the pre-
internship period, and are suggestions for content of this methods
course. These suggestions are based on opinions of teachers as
62 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
expressed in the questionnaire, but are only suggestive. It is to be
noted that laboratory experience as defined by the Committee on
Terminology will be basic to the development of some of the ele-
ments of this course.
1. Constructing and interpreting tests.
2. Studying the needs, interests, and abilities of a group and of the indi-
viduals to the end that a better adaptation of curriculum materials.
activities, and learning exercises may result. These experiences may
best be gained by observation and participation in the secondary schools
of the near-by community early in the course.
3. Practice in locating, evaluating, and assembling materials for a given
4. Beginning the development of a personal file of instructional materials.
5. Becoming aware of how to plan to meet "the educational needs of a
G. Finding and making available for class instruction the resources of a
community. It is suggested that this be gained through ,observation in
the immediate community of the college.
7. Familiarity with the currently used textbooks in the field to be taught.
S. Acquiring such background as will enable the intern to be of value to
the directing teacher by assisting the pupils to develop skills and tech-
niques in using the library and other sources of material, in note
taking and outlining, and in using the dictionary, index, etc.
9. Some experiences designed to develop proficiency in methods and tech-
niques of classroom procedure, such as making assignment and expe-
rience in group discussion.
10. Use of ditto machine, mimeograph, visual education equipment, etc.
11. A study of the use of graphs as an instrument to show the progress of
individuals and groups.
12. A study of the types and purposes of reports and records required for
13. Remedial reading and spelling for prospective teachers of English.
14. For language arts teachers, emphasis should be placed on important
elements of grammar that are difficult to teach.
Part of this course could best be taught by a secondary school
teacher, and part by a college teacher.
This outline is not to be regarded as indicating the complete
content nor the proper sequence of items. It is purely an attempt
to choose from those items that the teachers of the State thought
needed more stress, those particular items which naturally belong
in a methods course. At best this is but a start from which a more
adequate methods course should evolve. Possibly the problems grow-
ing out of the observation and participation will eventually become
the major content of the course.
REPORT OF GROUP D
(SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS AND PSYCHOLOGY)
1. Closer cooperation between the colleges and secondary schools is strongly
endorsed. The science group recommends definite visitation of the
secondary schools by those college teachers who have any part in the
training of teachers, especially subject matter teachers. This visitation
should be continuous, to keep them informed concerning the conditions
in the area in which the interns will work. The college professor must
approach the situation as a learner and cooperator, with the recognition
of the high school as the source of needed information.
2. One learns by precept and example. Essential in the preparation of a
prospective teacher is the example of the mode of presentation of his
professors. It is recommended that prospective teachers be placed in
the classes of professors with a high order of teaching ability who have
an appreciation and understanding of the high school viewpoint. This is
just as essential as the contact of a student who wants to go into grad-
uate work with a teacher with a research viewpoint, or the contact of a
student who wants to go into industry with teachers with industrial
viewpoint or experience.
3. There are a large number of Florida schools in which the science or
mathematics teacher handles a variety of subjects. The traditional
college course with its major and minor gives an inadequate and too
narrow preparation for the teaching of more than one subject. It is
recommended that in the revamping of curricula to meet the needs of
the internship program a broad science major be introduced, in which
groupings of related courses would take the place of the existing majors
and minors. An understanding of a variety of related fields is of value
in the teaching of any one of these subjects.
4. Where it is not feasible to put in special methods courses because of
the small number of students, it is advised that a college teacher of the
subject the intern will teach should by conference, reading, assignments,
recommendations for demonstration, etc.. help to orient the prospective
teacher for his internship. Such aid should continue during and fol-
lowing the internship.
5. The State Department of Education should furnish to science, mathe-
matics, and psychology teachers memoranda concerning books for parallel
reading in their subjects and advanced methods in instruction, not
neglecting the best of modern texts on the secondary level. These
memoranda should be furnished regularly in order that the teachers
may be kept informed of good new material in their fields. In general,
only one intern should be assigned to a directing teacher at one time.
DETAILED REPORTS OF CONFERENCE SESSIONS
Friday Morning Session
The general discussion, together with formal decisions, were
reported by the secretary as follows:
64 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
1. Selection may wisely be carried out through conference by
the coordinator of interns with the school administrators and the
directing teacher, giving the directing teacher the right to refuse
or to accept an intern.
2. The institution should attempt to prepare the prospective
intern to "carry his own weight" in the school situation.
3. Administrators are requested to consider the responsibilities
of directing the intern in the teaching load, including extra-cur-
ricular activities, of the directing teacher.
4. The institution should attempt to render every possible
service to the directing teacher. These services may include profes-
sional materials, library services, specifically planned courses or
workshops, and other resources, in addition to aid with the guidance
of the intern. (A proposal that institutions be asked to provide
courses or workshops to directing teachers without tuition charge
was voted down as not feasible. Following a general discussion it
was agreed, without dissenting vote, that it is not feasible to ask
extra pay for directing teachers.)
5. A conference similar to the Camp O'Leno Conference or
several conferences in regions of the State should be planned for
6. The work of directing an intern and attendance at intern-
ship conferences should be recognized as profitable professional
activity. Some way should be found to recognize such activity in
the renewal or extension of certificates and county boards should
be requested to authorize its acceptance as partial fulfillment of pro-
fessional growth requirements.
Friday Evening Session
The report of the Committee on Terminology was introduced
by individual presentations of the choices to be considered as names
for the project. Mrs. Kurtz presented the reasons for continuing
the terms, intern and internship; Mrs. Johnson presented the rea-
sons for changing to the substitute terms, apprentice and apprentice
teaching, which had been selected by the Committee as the most
desirable alternatives. General discussion from the floor followed.
Finally it was moved that the terms, intern and internship, be
retained. This motion was carried by a vote of 48 to 22.
For the remainder of the session a panel made up of members
of the Advisory Committee and other members of the Conference
led in discussing seven issues which seemed to require common
policies. These issues or problems had been collected from the
recommendations of the small discussion groups.
Issue 1: Should we define internship in terms of a minimum period
in the field?
Action: The internship should represent a minimum of eight weeks
in the public school situation.
Issue 2: Should internship be defined so as to permit interning in
the second semester of the junior year?
Action: After discussion in which the preponderance of opinion
seemed to reject this except for occasional instances, it
was decided to take no action at the present time.
Issue 3: Prospective interns should have at least a "B" average in
their major fields of interest.
Action:: The Conference voted down a motion to make this re-
quirement a common policy.
Issue 4: All who have met the college requirements for practice
teaching should be given an opportunity to intern.
Action: This proposal was rejected. Discussion indicated that
(1) the internship was conceived in part as a training
experience in lieu of student teaching, particularly where
facilities for student teaching were inadequate; and
(2) that the policy suggested might interfere with plans
for making the internship more selective than graduation
from a teacher-education curriculum.
Issue 5: It is desirable though not essential that the same directing
teachers be used repeatedly.
Action: The discussion made it clear that any institution might be
compelled to enlist new directing teachers from year to
year in response both to growing demands and to fluctuat-
ing requirements in teaching situations. A motion to
make this a Conference recommendation was lost.
Issue 6: Shall the intern be allowed to substitute? Shall permis-
sion to substitute carry with it the privilege of receiving
pay for such services?
66 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
Action: After discussion, the following excerpt from the reported
recommendations of Group A was adopted as the general
policy to be followed:
The intern should not be permitted to substitute outside
of her directing teacher's room. The intern may carry
on in the absence of the directing teacher if the work has
been planned with her, or in an emergency when, in the
judgment of the directing teacher and the principal, she
is ready to assume responsibility. It is advisable that
the principal or the directing teacher consult the co-
ordinator of interns if the absence of the directing teacher
is to be prolonged. Interns should not take the place of
regular substitutes in the system.
Issue 7: A code of desirable practices in connection with the entire
internship program should be formulated for principals,
directing teachers, and interns.
Action: It was decided to hold action on this recommendation until
the final report of the Committee on Suggestions to Di-
recting Teachers had been received.
Saturday Morning Session
The revised report of the Committee on Terminology was read
and upon motion and vote was accepted by the Conference.
The final discussion meeting of Group A, consisting of elemen-
tary teachers and those interested in the training of elementary
teachers, was reported by Mrs. Skipper. (See Appendix, page 58.)
The report of the final discussion meetings of Group B, con-
sisting of secondary teachers of social studies and home economics
and of those interested in the training of teachers of these subjects
was presented by Mr. Becker. (See Appendix, page 60). There
was some discussion of the need for clarification of the phrase
"courses in personality" appearing in No. 7 of the suggestions for
procedures during the pre-internship period. It was not the inten-
tion of this group to suggest general courses dealing with the develop-
ment of improved personalities.
The reporter for this group, in response to a question from
the chairman, revealed little progress in group thinking as to the
feasibility of a methods course in the "broad field" of social studies
and home economics. There was some sentiment to the effect that
the social studies themselves constituted a broad field. After discus-
sion a motion to drop the bracketing of social studies and home
economics from the examples given under the definition of "methods
in broad fields" in the report of the Committee on Terminology
was lost by a vote of 22 for, to 24 against.
The final reports of Group C, consisting of secondary teachers
of English and foreign languages and of those interested in the
training of teachers for these subjects, were read by Mr. Brown and
supplemented by Mrs. Goodman. The consensus of the discussion
seemed to indicate that the suggestions made in these reports
(see Appendix, page 61) should be implemented for use in Florida
The final report of Group D, consisting of secondary teachers
of science and mathematics and of those interested in the training
of teachers of these subjects, was presented by Mr. Wilson (see Ap-
pendix, page 63). In the discussion it was suggested that "memo-
randa" be substituted in No. 5 for "lists of books for parallel read-
ing in their subjects . .". This suggestion met with the approval
of the reporting chairman.
The revised report of the Committee on the Evaluation of the
Growth of the Intern was presented by Mr. Smith and upon motion
and vote was accepted by the Conference.
The revised report of the Committee on Suggestions for the
Guidance of Directing Teachers was presented by Mr. Cason and
upon motion and vote was accepted by the Conference.
The chairman then called attention to the matter left over from
the preceding meeting-the preparation of a code of desirable prac-
tices dealing with the whole program of internship. Discussion
revealed the belief that the report of the Committee on Sugges-
tions contained basic statements for a code of ethics for directing
teachers, but developed no similar basis for a statement for interns
or for college faculty members involved in the program. The fol-
lowing motion was made and adopted:
A code of desirable practices should be formulated for principals,
directing teachers, interns, and institutional staff members in regard
to the entire internship program.
Mr. Carothers took the chair at this point and directed attention
to the consideration of "next steps". There was an early demand
68 FLORIDA CONFERENCE ON INTERNSHIP PROBLEMS
for broader publicity for the Conference and for widening the
understanding of the internship project-its purposes and develop-
ment to date. Among the suggestions made for wider publicity
Widespread distribution of the Conference report;
Briefer reports of the Conference in the Florida Education
Preparation and distribution of bulletins for special groups,
e.g. classroom teachers, college faculties;
Wider publicity and discussion at the Florida Education Asso-
ciation convention and at Florida Education Association district
It was moved and carried that a committee be appointed by
the chairman to organize and direct a program of further publicity
for the internship project.
The chairman introduced the subject of curriculum revision,
and the probable need for specialized consultant services in several
of the teacher-preparing institutions. Curriculum revision in the
institutions was regarded as a major phase of the program for
Mr. R. L. Eyman, in behalf of the Committee on Resolutions,
presented the following resolution, which was adopted by the Con-
The Conference wishes to express its gratitude to the American
Council on Education for making this meeting possible. Especially
d'o we wish to thank Mr. C. E. Prall for his sincere interest in our
problems. His qualities of democratic leadership have brought us to
a much clearer understanding of our problems in teacher education.
This Conference has enabled teachers. principals, and teacher prepa-
ratory institutions to realize the need for cooperation in the develop-
ment of our state program of internship.
We wish to thank the out-of-state consultants for the valuable
assistance which they have given us. We have been delighted to have
out-of-state guests participate in -our Conference.
Audrey L. Packham
J. C. Peel
R. L. Eyman, Chairman of the
Resolutions Committee of the
Mr. Eyman, acting for the same committee, introduced the fol-
lowing resolution, which was adopted:
That the Conference express its appreciation to county super-
intendents. principals, and county and local boards for making it
possible for teachers to leave their work and attend this meeting.
Mr. Prall supplemented his praise for the Planning Committee
with a word of appreciation for Mrs. Sauls and Miss Parrish of the
The Conference then adjourned.