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Title: Guidelines for planning programs in agricultural education
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 Material Information
Title: Guidelines for planning programs in agricultural education
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: December, 1971
 Notes
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 72H-6
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080733
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8A
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
Full Text




















GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING PROGRAMS


IN

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION


DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL,

TECHNICAL, AND ADULT EDUCATION

CARL W. PROEHL, DIRECTOR


AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION SECTION

TOM L. BARRINEAU, ADMINISTRATOR

W. R. JEFFRIES, ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR


I!








37 6 9/e~7

7tY H7-J 6























Foreword


Agriculture is a dynamic and changing industry. It is basic to the progress of Florida and America. It
contributes substantially to our nation's efforts in maintaining world peace and economic stability. In this
-important role agriculture requires the services of competent and dedicated workers. Some will be engaged in
production agriculture; many others will work in off-farm occupations to provide the supplies and services that
farmers need to produce, process, transport, and market farm products.

While there has been a decrease in the number of family owned and operated farms, these farms are now larger
and involve highly specialized mechanization and management. A great number of off-farm agricultural
occupations, some of them highly technical in nature, have evolved. Preparation for farming and for these
other agricultural occupations requires changing patterns of education and training. Increasingly complex
educational needs have developed for those who will work in the broad field of all agricultural occupations
which involve knowledge and skills in agricultural subjects.

It should be understood that the educational objectives in agricultural education are not static; that changes
will be made as the needs change. t is the responsibility of every person involved in agricultural education to
be constantly alert to changes taking place and to adjust instructional programs accordingly.

These guidelines are provided for use by teachers, administrators, supervisors, advisory committee members
and others concerned with planning and operation of Agricultural Education programs and were developed
jointly by the state supervisory and Teacher Education staffs.
















4





























PHILOSOPHY .......... ..... ..

PROGRAM OBJECTIVES . . . . . .

INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM . . . . . .

Course Titles & Descriptions . . . . .

CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION and CONTENT . .

Prevocational-Exploratory . . . . . .

Basic Agricultural Science .. .... .. ..

Advanced Agriculture .............

Post Secondary Programs ...........

Specialized Adult Programs ..........

Adult Preparatory Programs ..........

Supplemental Adult Programs . . . . .

Special Needs Disadvantaged and Handicapped .

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
IN FLORIDA . . . . . . . . .

LEADERSHIP FFA and OTHER . . . . .

SCHOOL and COMMUNITY REALTIONS . . .

FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . .

ADVISORY COMMITTEE . . . . . .

EVALUATION . . . . . . . . .

PROGRAM FINANCING . . . . . . .

Instructional Units . . . . . . .

S. T. S. Units . . . . . . . .

Department Budgeting .......... .

Salary Supplements .. ..... ....

Travel . . . . . . . . .

Twelve Month Employment . . . . .

STAFFING LOCAL PROGRAMS ..........

Procedure for Filling Vacancies . . . . .

Cerficiation . . . . . . . . .

TEACHING LOAD ............ ..

INSERVICE EDUCATION . . . . .


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PHILOSOPHY


We believe that all students in Agricultural Education should acquire a knowledge and understanding of the
opportunities available to them in agricultural occupations and develop those skills and abilities which will
enable them to take full advantage of those opportunities-including a positive attitude toward work and
respect for the dignity of all honorable occupations. Students should learn about the fundamental economic
structure of the American system, understand the basic importance of agriculture in this system, and develop
occupational competencies consistent with their interests, aptitudes and abilities.


PROGRAM OBJECTIVES

We believe that the broad objective of the Agricultural Education program based on the philosophy stated
should be to assist the individual student in the exploration of and preparation for establishment in an
agricultural occupation either on or off the farm, whether it be through high school instruction in agriculture,
post-high school instruction in agriculture, continuing out-of-school instruction, completion of further work
leading to a college degree or a combination of these.

Stated more specifically, the following are the major objectives of vocational education in agriculture:

1. To develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage
agribusiness occupations.
2. To develop, through exploratory experiences, an understanding of, and appreciation for, career
opportunities in agriculture and the preparation needed to enter and progress in agribusiness
occupations.
3. To develop the ability to secure satisfactory placement and advance in an agribusiness occupation
through a program of continuing education.
4. To develop the abilities in human relations which are essential to success in agricultural
occupations.
5. To develop the abilities needed to exercise and follow effective leadership in fulfilling
occupational, social and civic responsibilities.


INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM

Vocational and technical agricultural education is comprised of a group of related areas of subject matter
which are organized for carrying on learning experiences concerned with the preparation for, or upgrading in
occupations requiring knowledge, competencies and skills in agricultural subjects. The areas of agriculture
production, agricultural supplies, agricultural mechanization, agricultural products (processing), ornamental
horticulture, forestry, agricultural resources, and related services are emphasized in the instruction designed to
provide opportunities for students to prepare for improving their competencies in agricultural occupations. An
agricultural occupation may include one, or any combination of these areas.

The instructional program for vocational and technical education in agriculture should be developed around
the following specific classified occupational areas of agriculture including courses within each area:










AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS


Course Titles and Descriptions


*01.01 Agricultural Production

Livestock Production Subject matter and learning activities which are concerned with the principles and
practices involved in the production and management (breeding, feeding, care, housing and marketing of
livestock (beef, swine, horses). Activities include classroom instruction and laboratory experience in and out of
school, including farms and ranches.


Dairy Production Planned learning experiences which are concerned with the principles and practices
involved in the production, management and marketing (breeding, feeding, care and housing) of dairy cattle.
Activities include classroom instruction and laboratory experiences in and out of school, including dairy farms.


Poultry Production Subject matter and learning experiences which are concerned with the principles and
practices involved in the production, management, marketing of poultry. The course content is concerned with
the selection, breeding, feeding, facilities, care, and management of Poultry. Activities include classroom
instruction and laboratory experiences in and out of school, including poultry farms.


Field and Forage Crop Production Planned learning experiences which are concerned with the study and
operation dealing with principles and practices involved in the culture and production of field and forage crops
comm,non to the location where the course is taught. Areas of instruction include: selecting varieties, soil
preparation, fertilizing, cultivation, weed control, insect and disease control, irrigation, financing record
keeping and marketing.


Vegetable Crop Production Planned learning experiences which are concerned with principles and practices
involved in the production and marketing of vegetable crops. The course includes cultural practices, harvesting,
handling, storage, and transportation. Activities include in and out of school experiences including those on
vegetable or truck farms.


Citrus Production Subject matter and learning experiences concerned with the study and operations dealing
with principles and practices involved in the culture and production of citrus. Activities include classroom
instruction, laboratory and grove experiences in and out of school. Areas of instruction may include
classification, nursery practices, cultural practices, irrigation, harvesting and marketing. Activities include
classroom instruction and laboratory experiences in and out of school, including citrus production businesses.


Small Fruit, Berry and Nut Production This course consists of the production and marketing of small fruit
and nuts. It includes a study of varieties and adaptations of each variety, soils, cultural practices, irrigation,
harvesting, grading, processing and marketing.


Apiculture (Bee Keeping) A study of the principles and practices involved in the production of bees. Subject
matter is concerned with improving and maintaining bee hives and the harvesting, processing and marketing of
honey.


Farm Business Management Planned learning experiences which are concerned with farm resource analysis,
production, financing, resource acquisition, purchasing, farm inputs, performance records, contracts, farm
marketing and maintenance. The results of those learning activities are applied to formulating decisions
involved in managing a farm or ranch operation.


Citrus Technology A two year course designed to prepare technicians in citrus production management,
harvesting and marketing. The supporting courses in science, mathematics, plant propagation, and fruit
processing are designed to prepare the student in pre-production and post-harvesting techniques and
procedures.

*Numbers from U.S. Office of Education Publication Vocational Education & Occupations









Animal Science Technology -This course is designed for the two yea:- technical level. Instruction is centered
around development of abilities related to livestock production. Emphasis is given to the study of applied
principles of genetics and animal breeding, physical and chemical aspects of animal growth, animal health,
disease prevention, managing a livestock production business. Learning experiences are provided in the
classroom, laboratory and through supervised practices on a livestock farm or in a business.


01.02 Agricultural Supplies/Sales and Services:

Agricultural Chemicals, Fertilizers, Feeds, Seed, or Hardware Subject matter and learning experiences
concerned with preparing students for occupations involved in providing supplies used in the production phase
of agriculture. Included in the course is the study of chemicals related to animals and plant products, feeds,
and feedstuffs; analysis, sales; application of fertilizers and principles of selecting and using hardware.
Activities include classroom and laboratory experience as well as experience in an agricultural supply business.


01.03 Agricultural Mechanics

Diversified Agricultural Mechanics A combination of subject matter and activities designed to develop
abilities and skills necessary for assisting with and/or performing a variety of operations or processes in the
following areas: Construction repair and maintenance of agricultural facilities; maintenance and repair of small
gas engines; operation, maintenance and repair of shop and field machinery and equipment; welding; planning
soil and water management systems; and electrification.

Agricultural Machinery Service Occupations Including Sales A combination of subject matter and laboratory
experiences designed to assist the student in learning and/or developing the skills necessary to meet the job
entry requirements for prospective employees of the agricultural tractor and machinery dealerships and allied
occupations. It includes instruction in: principles and selection, operation, service, maintenance, repairs and
safety as well as principles of salesmanship of an agricultural machinery and service department.

Tractor Mechanics A combination of subject matter and experiences designed to provide opportunities for
students to gain knowledge and understanding necessary to become proficient in repairing and maintaining
tractors and allied equipment. Included for study are the operating principles of the gas and diesel engines,
transmissions, brake systems, differentials, electrical systems, fuel systems, cooling systems and hydraulic
systems. Activities include classroom instruction, shop, field, and cooperative agricultural industry
experiences.


01.04 Agricultural Products

Dairy Processing and Marketing A combination of subject matter and learning experiences designed to teach
processes, scientific principles, and management decisions concerned with agri-business competencies in the
preparation of dairy products for sale and consumption. Instructional activities are concerned with decisions
associated with milk and products derived from milk, e.g. cream, ice cream, butter and cheese. Emphasis is
placed on classroom and laboratory experiences.

Poultry Processing and Marketing- Organized subject matter and learning experiences concerned with the
scientific principles and operations involved in the selection, processing, grading and marketing of poultry and
poultry products. Consideration is given to selection, grading, packaging, storage and marketing of poultry for
meat. Emphasis is also placed on selection, grading and marketing of eggs. Instruction involves classroom,
laboratory, and industry experiences.

Meat Processing and Marketing Organized subject matter and learning experiences concerned with the
scientific principles and operations involved in the preparation of meats for sale and consumption.
Instructional activities are concerned with decisions associated with beef, pork, veal and lamb carcasses.
Instruction may be provided in one or all of these products. Emphasis is placed on classroom, laboratory and
industry experiences.

Citrus Harvesting, Processing, and Marketing A combination of subject matter and learning experiences
designed to provide information, processes, scientific principles and management decisions concerned with
agriculture competencies in the processing, inspection and marketing of citrus products. Laboratory periods
will be devoted to testing and evaluating fresh and processed fruits. Activities include in and out of school
experiences including the citrus processing industry.









Vegetable Crop Processing and Marketing Organized subject matter and learning experiences concerned with
the principles and operations involved in the processing and marketing of vegetables. Emphasis is placed on
classroom, laboratory and industry experiences.

Field Crop Processing and Marketing Organized subject matter and learning experiences concerned with the
principles and operations involved in the processing, storage and marketing of field crops for human and
livestock consumption. Activities include in and out of school, classroom, laboratory, and industry
experiences.


01.05 Ornamental Horticulture

Landscape Operations Organized subject matter and practical experiences which are concerned with
landscape planning and construction. Activities cover principles and practices in developing and drawing plans,
planting, and establishing other devices for beautification of home grounds and other areas of human
habitation and recreation. Experiences are designed to develop abilities and skills necessary to meet the job
entry requirements for prospective employees of the landscaping industry. It is recommended for a special two
year technical program designed to prepare individuals for careers in landscaping and related fields.

Landscape Maintenance A combination of subject matter and experiences concerned with principles snd
practices involved in proper care of turf, ornamental plants, walks, drives, and other landscape areas around
houses, public buildings, recreational areas, and other places of human habitation. Activities are designed to
equip the students with skills in operating and maintaining equipment used in landscape maintenance,
fertilization, disease and insect control, and minor repairs to walks and driveways.

Turfgrass Managen ent Organized subject matter and practical experiences which are concerned with the
principles involved in establishing, managing and maintaining grassed areas for ornamental and/or recreational
purposes.

Nursery Operations Organized subject matter and practical experiences which are concerned with the
production of turf, plants and/or trees for.the purpose of transplanting or propagating them. Instruction
includes plant proagation, growing, wholesaling and retailing, and business management.

Floriculture Organized subject matter and practical experiences which are concerned with principles and
practices involved in field or greenhouse production of flowers and arrangement of such flowers for
ornamental purposes.

Golf Course Operations A two year Associate of Science Degree program designed to educate and train for
careers in practical golf course operations such as: assistant golf course superintendent, golf course
construction foremen, industry technologist, sales representatives and specialists in allied fields of turf
including sod production, highway operations, athletic facilities, pest control service, lawn, garden, and
landscape business. Experiences include classroom, laboratory and industry on-the-job training.


01.06 Agricultural Resources (Natural Resources)

Conservation A combination of subject matter and practical experiences concerned with water, air, and soil
conservation including: (1) maintaining soil stability and productivity (2) water conservation and management
for agriculture, domestic, industrial and recreational purposes (3) air pollution study including the effects of .
pollution on plants and animals.

Recreation The study of recreation as one of the multiple uses of land, including emphasis on the principles
of conservation. Included in instruction are recreation activities which can be established, maintained and
managed such as fishing, picnicing, hunting, camping, and nature study.

Wildlife and Game Management A study of the principles and practices involved in the conservation and/or
improvement of wildlife such as game and fish.

Park Management A post high school technical program designed to prepare persons to work in public parks.
It includes instruction in all aspects of park operations-acquisition, evaluation, design, development,
management, maintenance, protection.

Fish Production & Management -A combination of subject matter and activities concerned with the
propagation, growing, stocking, and management of fish in public and private waters.










Sea Farming A course designed to teach propagation, cultiviation, harvesting, marketing and conservation
practices related to the production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes.


01.07 Forestry

Diversified Forestry This course is designed primarily for high school juniors and seniors who have completed
the basic agricultural science curriculum (Agriculture I and Agriculture II). It is a one-year course but may be
adapted for use on a semester basis. Instruction should result in students acquiring the basic foundation
knowledge and skills necessary for them to begin practicing forestry management, to secure positions such as
forestry aides, to advance into on-the-job training programs and to enter post high school forestry programs.
The course includes forest measurement, use of forestry tools, reforestation, forest protection, harvesting
marketing and forest management.

Timber Harvesting and Marketing This course is designed to develop competencies needed at the high school
level for occupational entry into selected service occupations connected with timber harvesting. It includes
instruction in operating, adjusting, and servicing selected pieces of equipment used in timber harvesting and in
making minor repairs which an operc.or should be able to do; basic principles of hydraulics, safety practices,
planning the harvesting system, business management and marketing. Practical experience is emphasized
through planned occupational experience programs, field and laboratory experiences.

Forest Ranger Technology This is a two-year program designed to develop knowledge and skills in forest
culture and utilization. It prepares the graduate to work in the area between the skilled forest worker and the
professional forester. Units of instruction include surveying, forest measurements, timber harvesting, outdoor
recreation and forest protection. Auxiliary or supporting courses include soils, wildlife, ecology, mathematics,
botany, communication skills and business management.


01.99 General Introductory-Exploratory and Basic Courses

Prevocational Exploratory Agriculture Instruction is connected with an introduction and exploration of on
and off farm agricultural occupations in the world of work. It emphasizes skills needed in self evaluation and is
designed to relate mechanics, soil science, animal science, plant science, and agri-buisiness to careers in the
work world. The content of the course is organized and integrated with vocational guidance and focuses
primarily on development of attitude and interest.

*Ag Science I Subject matter and learning experiences designed to develop an understanding and appreciation
of the basic principles of agricultural science for persons entering agricultural occupation on or off farm.
Instruction is provided in the areas of animal science, plant science, soil science, agricultural mechanics,
agricultural management and leadership. Emphasis is given to classroom, laboratory and supervised
occupational experiences. These experiences are obtained at school, at the students home or in an
agri-business.

*Ag Science II Subject matter and learning experiences designed for students who have successfully
completed the requirements of Agriculture I, animal science, plant science, soil science, agricultural mechanics,
agricultural management, and leadership. Subject matter and learning experiences are organized to provide
additional training in preparing for agricultural occupations on or off farm. Concern is given to more intense
classroom, laboratory and supervised occupational experiences. The experiences are provided at school, at the
students home, or in agricultural businesses.

Cooperative Agribusiness Education An occupational experience program for persons who, through a
cooperative arrangement between the school and employers, receive instruction-including related vocational
instruction-by the alternation of study in school with a job in any agricultural occupation both on and
off-farm. These two experiences must be planned and supervised by the school and employees so that each
contributes to the students' education and to his employability. Work period and school attendance may be on
alternate half days, full days, weeks or other periods of time.

For further information regarding this method of providing occupational experience refer to Bulletin 72H-5
"Developing Occupatioral Experience Programs in Agricultural Education", pages 12-23.






*Ag I and II are recommended prerequisites for Advanced Agricultural Occupations courses.








CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT:

1. Prevocational-Exploratory Programs
These programs should present information concerning:
a. The occupational opportunities, requirements and conditions in agricultural production and
related business and industry requiring agricultural competencies.
b. The role of agriculture as the nation's basic industry.
c. Basic on-hands experiences related to agribusiness.

Courses of study may be designed for junior high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools.

All boys and girls in these institutions should have the opportunity to enroll in this course or participate
in these activities. Class size should not exceed that of academic courses in the school.

2. Basic Agriculture (Agriculture Science I and Agriculture Science II)
A two year basic course in agricultural science including the fundamentals of agriculture. It is
recommended that this be a prequisite for specialization in advanced agricultural occupations "clusters".
This is subject to modification in light of developing patterns of occupational orientation-exploration for
the middle grades. Agriculture Science I is designed primarily for first year agriculture students.
Agriculture Sciencell is designed primarily for second year agriculture students. Both agriculture Science
I and II are concerned with basic foundation principles in the following instructional areas: Orientation
to agriculture, agricultural management, animal science, plant science, soil science, agricultural
mechanics and leadership. Both agricultural Science I and II are each designed to be taught in 180 hours.

3. Advanced Agriculture
Advanced agriculture consists of specialized skills, knowledge, and attitudes centered around
occupational "clusters" within the defined instructional areas requiring agricultural competencies. This
information is organized into one or two semester courses and should be taught in one or two hour time
blocks. Required hours will vary from 90 to 360 depending upon course content and objectives. The
courses scheduled may vary each semester or year depending upon occupational need and student
interest. The opportunity for as many choices as possible should be considered for the student.

The courses should be offered to 11th and 12th grade students who have successfully completed the
basic agriculture science course, or who have other experiences that will enable them to perform
satisfactorily in an advanced course offering. The recommended maximum class size is 15 students.

4. Post-Secondary Preparatory Programs
Technical Agriculture Programs (normally leading to an Associate of Science Degree or certificate)
consist of specialized skills, knowledge and attitudes centered around occupational clusters .t the
technical and/or mid-management level within the defined instructional areas requiring agricultural
competencies. The speciality area should constitute 40-60% of the curriculum content. The curriculum
should also provide instruction in the supporting disciplines including communication skills, behavioral
sciences, basic and applied math and science, and related agri-business practices (accounting, economics,
etc.

Students enrolled in these programs should have the equivalent of a high school education.

The program structure as to hours and class size should conform to that of similar offerings at the
particular college, school, or center. However, sufficient laboratory time should be provided for "Hands
On" skill training relating to class instruction and students should be required to participate in a
supervised occupational experience program in a realistic production, business, or industry setting.


5. Specialized Adult Vocational Programs (normally leading to a certificate)
Post-Secondary programs consist of skills, knowledge, and attitudes centered around specific
occupations or occupational job clusters within the defined instructional areas requiring agricultural
competencies.

The courses should be offered in time blocks of two to six hours a day and will be one or two years in
duration depending upon course content and time schedule. The number of required hours may vary
from 360 to 1080 depending upon the circumstances. In addition, each student is required to participate
in a supervised experience program in a realistic production, business or industry setting.

Students should have the equivalent of a high school diploma, but in the case of adults, former drop-outs
and secondary students the equivalent of 10th grade level completion will suffice.










The recommended maximum class size is 15 students.


6, Adult Preparatory Programs

The guidelines for Specialized Adult Vocational Programs relate to full-time adults, and those in
supplemental programs apply to part-time adult preparatory students.

7. Supplemental Adult Programs

Supplemental adult programs consist of skills, knowledge and attitudes centered around specific
occupations within the defined instructional areas requiring agricultural competencies.

The instructional material is organized into units relating to specific needs of the students and are
usually of short duration. The class can be scheduled for whatever length of time is necessary to realize
the unit instructional goals:

Prerequisites are not necessary for these short term courses and the individual class periods are usually 2
to 3 hours in length but may be varied to suit a particular class need.

Ten is the minimum student number and the recommended maximum is 15 for courses centered around
classroom and laboratory experiences.

8. Special Needs
Students have special needs because of various conditions. Many with social economic, and similar
problems or certain physical handicaps can succeed and should be enrolled in the regular agriculture
program.

However, others with more intense problems and more severe handicaps reasonably could not succeed in
the regular program and may be identified as potential dropouts. These students should be grouped for
special instructional programs as either Disadvantaged or Handicapped.

a. Programs for Disadvantaged Persons:
Disadvantaged programs consist of skills, knowledge, and attitudes centered around occupational
clusters or specific ;obs at the low skill level within the defined instructional areas requiring
agricultural competencies.

The instruction should emphasize skill development activities and the teaching approach should be
success oriented. Individualized, special or remedial instruction should be available in the school
for these students. The goals in the program are to:

(1) To keep these students in school with successful experiences
(2) To direct them back into the mainstream of regular education as successful
participants. If this fails and they become dropouts, they will have a salable skill as
result of the program.

The offering is ungraded with the requirements that the students be 14 years of age and have the
equivalent of a 5th grade achievement level.

The course should be offered in 2 or 3 hour time blocks and the course duration for any one selected
skill area is 2 years.

b. Program for Handicapped Persons
The information listed for disadvantaged programs is valid in designing Handicapped Programs
with the following exceptions:

(1) Mentally retarded students in the trainable group may not meet the 5th grade level standard
and yet benefit from the instruction.
(2) Physically handicapped students should not be trained for any occupation in which their
handicap would preclude their employment.
(3) Programs for handicapped students may be several years in duration and in some cases
extend into adulthood.








SUPERVISED OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS


Supervised Occupational Experiences in Agricultural Education are a planned series of activities in which the
student applies to the occupational area of his choice the basic knowledge, skills, interests, attitudes,
appreciations and ideals developed in the instructional program. As implied by the term itself, the student will
need instruction, supervision, guidance, and evaluation in "learning by doing" through occupational
experiences. Supervised occupational experiences are an integral part of the program of vocational education
in agriculture, consequently a close relationship must exist between the instruction received at school and the
occupational experiences gained by the student outside the formal school setting in order for the program in
agriculture to be meaningful and vocational.

Individualized supervised experience programs are required for each person served in all types of agricultural
education programs with the exception of supplemental adult and pre-vocational exploratory. The
occupational experience program should consist of one or more of the following:

a. agricultural production enterprises
b. placement or cooperative experiences in agricultural industry or business
c. supplemental experiences such as improvement projects and other contributing activities

Some of the important points to be considered in developing adequate supervised occupational experience
programs are:

1. The student will need instruction, guidance, supervision and evaluation which should be provided
cooperatively by the teacher, parent and/or employer, or other knowledgeable person throughout
the occupational experience program.

2. The type of supervised occupational experiences provided will depend upon the previous
experiences of the individual, the occupation for which he is being prepared, and the opportunities
available for such occupational experience.

3. The supervised occupational experience provided should be as realistic as possible to best prepare
the individual for his chosen occupational goals.

4. Supervised occupational experiences may be provided at home on a farm, in another agricultural
business, or facilities provided by the school.

5. The time spent in supervised occupational experience should be beyond that devoted to regularly
scheduled class or lab instruction.

6. The local advisory council should provide assistance in developing and conducting the total
program of vocational-technical education in planning realistic occupational experiences and
providing settings for such experiences.

7. In selecting cooperative on or off-farm placement as the supervised experience program, a written
training agreement between all concerned parties is required to insure a well-planned supervised
learning experience in a suitable training station. Records and legal regulations pertaining to
student health and well being must be adhered to in planning the program. Refer to Bulletin 72
H-5 Developing Supervised Occupational Experience Programs).

8. For Pre-Vocational-Exploratory classes of short duration, most experiences may be provided on
the land lab or in the mechanics lab.







AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
IN FLORIDA


PROFESSIONAL OFF-FARM
AGRI, OCCUPATIONS


PRODUCTION
AGRICULTURE

Leads To


Sc
AG
1-
Pro
i
2-Tw

3-Shor


SENIOR

COLLEGE OF
RICULTURE
-Professional
gram in spec-
alized fields
year, Technical
programs
t Course programs


PRODUCTION
AGRICULTURE /
S - - Leads To ---- --


TECHNICAL OFF-FARM
AGRI. OCCUPATIONS
















TECHNICAL OFF-FARM
AGRI. OCCUPATIONS


SKILLED OFF-FARM
POST HIGH SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL AGR. OCCUPATIONS
PROGRAMS

JR. COLLEGES & AREA VOC-SCHOOLS
Specialization in Agricultural
Occupational Clusters of Jobs
1-Short term specialized job train.
2-Specialized courses for in-service
training
3-Two year technical courses
4-College transfer courses I SKILLED OFF-FARM
AGRI. OCCUPATIONS


PRODUCTION
AGRICULTURE ----- ----Leads To ----- ------

SEMI-SKILLED OFF-
ONE OR TWO YEAR PROGRAMS IN ADVANCED AGRI- \\ FARM AGRI.
CULTURE 11 & 12 grades in OCCUPATIONS
High Schools and Area Vocational Schools
1-Production Agriculture Programs
2-Specialized Occupational Programs
3-Cluster Occupational Programs
HIGH SCHOOL AGRICULTURE ED. PROGRAMS
Supportive Education Basic Agriculture Special Programs
Courses Science Grades 9-10

Mathematics Agri. Science I 1. Disadvan-
Science Agri. Science II taged youth
English Knowledge & skills 2. Enrich-
Social Studies Needed in most ment Programs
Other Subjects Agri-occupations 3. Leadership, FFA


A


PRE-VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
MIDDLE GRADES 7-8 or 6-8


SupportiveEducation
.C9urses

Math
Science
English
Soc. Studies
Other


Exploratory Agriculture-
Education

Exploratory Experiences
in Ag. occupations
Ag. Production
Ag. Supplies
Orn. Horticulture
Ag. Mechanics
Ag. Resources
Ag. Products
Forestry


Short modules of
instruction designed to
create interest in and
understanding of
Agricultural occupations.
Minor emphasis on skill
development


ELEMENTARY


Fusion of introduction to World of Work and the role of Agriculture occupations into the existing eler
curriculum.


entry


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LEADERSHIP


All persons enrolled in agricultural education programs should participate in experiences to develop abilities in
leadership needed in fulfilling occupational, social and civic responsibilities related to agriculture as an integral
part of their instructional program.

All instructional programs should stress the role of agriculture as the basic industry in our nation, its
importance to consumers and to the national welfare, and the conservation of our resources. Personal student
development should include human relations skills.

Students should understand the purpose of membership and advantages of participating in organizations such
as Livestock and Crop Associations, Civic Service Groups, and Young Farmer organizations.

To strengthen personal leadership development and an appreciation of civic responsibilities, agricultural
organizations at various levels of instruction provide a vehicle for practical learning experiences. Competitive
activities among the various peer groups will make these experiences more realistic.

All secondary students enrolled in agriculture who are at least 14 years old shall have the opportunity to
participate as members of a chapter of the Furture Farmers of America (FFA) at the local, state, and national
membership levels. Secondary students attending area schools may belong to chapters at their home school, or
if advisable a chapter may be organized at the Area School or Center.

Post Secondary Technical and Vocational students should be organized into local interest clubs around their
occupational speciality. Opportunities should exist for competitive leadership activity, career exploration and
institution and community service.

The importance of existing agricultural service organizations should be emphasized for adults receiving
supplemental training.

An FFA chapter may be organized for disadvantaged and handicapped students enrolled in classes separate
from the regular program if a chapter is not already in existence in the school. It may be advisable in some
cases to organize leadership activities centered around a specialty area such as ornamental horticulture rather
than chartering an FFA chapter.

Extreme care should be exercised not to pressure these students for excessive dues, extensive planning,
prolonged meetings, unfair competition, or expanded club projects. The success motivation should
characterize their leadership activities. These activities must be structured within the scope of student
capability. Formal club activity is not recommended for pre-vocational-exploratory vocational programs.


FFA Organization, Contest and Awards Program

For specific information regarding chapter organization and operation, please refer to the official manual for
The Future Farmers of America or contact the State FFA Consultant's office.


SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS:

Effective school and community relations should be carefully planned to inform the public of the goals,
purposes and activities of the agricultural program. Good working relations revolve around the agriculture
teacher. The teacher should develop good relations through contact with administrators, teachers, students,
employers, business firms, community leaders, and organizations and should use students to inform the public
about the effectiveness of the agricultural program.


ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Each school district and/or school operating or planning programs of education in agriculture shall have a
committee composed of representatives from the several segments of the agricultural industry of the district or
school. Additional consultants should be used in planning and evaluating the content of specialized courses.

The members should be nominated by the agriculture teachers, principals, other administrators including the
superintendent, and appointed by the District School Board. The agriculture teachers and school








administrators may be ex-officio members.


The advisory Committee, through regularly scheduled meetings, shall assist the administrators and teachers to
plan, develop, implement, and evaluate the agricultural education programs in the district or school. The
agriculture teachers, or in the case of a district committee, the coordinator or local director may serve as
secretary to the committee.


FACILITIES

For effective teaching and efficient use the classrooms, resource center, office, storage areas, agricultural shop,
patios, horticultural facilities, and l:nd laboratory should be designed as an integral unit. A separate complex
designed and constructed for the sole purpose of teaching vocational-technical agriculture is recommended.

1. Classrooms: A single classroom will suffice for a one teacher department. Additional teachers will
require additional classrooms. Provisions should be made for the storage of instructional aids and
equipment.

2. Resource Center: A resource center provides for supervised group and individual study and
research, individual and group conferences, display of resource materials, and the preparation and
use of resource materials.

3. Office: Each teacher requires a work and planning are a apart from the classroom where he can
develop curricular materials, teaching plans, counsel with students and parents, handle
correspondence, prepare records and reports, and perform similar activities of a professional
nature. A telephone should be available. Provision for secretarial service should be provided. This
need may be satisfied by the use of student typists.

4. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: An agricultural shop with attached patio to provide adequate
working area should be provided.

5. Restroom, Clean-up, and Locker Areas: Restrooms, clean-up and locker area is needed to service
the entire complex. Direct access should be provided from the shop and classroom areas.

6. Land Laboratory: In general, the land laboratory should be sufficient in size to provide a wide
variety of teaching-learning experiences related to the instructional program of the department. It
should not be so extensive as to require an unjustifiable expenditure of time on the part of
students and instructor above and beyond the time necessary for students to be exposed to and
become proficient in the different skills and abilities capable of being developed.

7. Equipment and Instructionsl Material: up-to-date equipment and instructional material should be
provided in accordance with specifications for each program as recommended. For assistance in
determining facility specifications, equipment, instructional material, etc., contact State Staff
Personnel, Agricultural Education. (Refer to bulletins No. 72H-4 "Guidelines for Preparing
Educational Specifications for Agricultural Education" and Bulletin No. 72F -11 "Tools,
Equipment and Supplies for Agricultural Education Programs".)


EVALUATION:

Evaluation is a necessary phase of the vocational program. Evaluation should be based on the fulfillment of the
stated goals and the specific objectives identified and utilized in the school.

Continuing evaluation of secondary and community college programs will be conducted by the local director
and community college (director) respectively, in cooperation with advisory committees and state staff
personnel of the Agricultural Education Section, Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education,
taking into consideration factors such as changes in employment demand as revealed by statewide employment
studies, shifts in local employment need and demand, local placement and follow-up data, and the results of
occupational and other local studies, such as enrollment potential, having implications for vocational and
technical education.

Evaluation will be concerned with insuring that programs are adequately meeting the training needs of the
agricultural industry in terms of the numbers successfully placed, and that instruction reflects the needs,
interests, abilities, and identified occupational goals of the students and the requirements of the occupation or
occupations in which the training is given.








REPORTS TO DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Administrators and instructors of local programs of agricultural education are responsible for providing certain
information to the Florida Department of Education, Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
Report forms and applications, for supplying the information, are provided by the Department of Education.

The reports and applications will be submitted to the designated personnel on the dates determined by the
Department of Education, Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education. Prompt and accurate
completion of these reports and applications are required for allocation of instructional units, reimbursement
of special programs, evaluation of instructional programs, evaluation of leadership development programs, and
recognition of individual student accomplishment.

Copies of reports should be retained in local departmental files and utilized in evaluation, and planni ig of the
local agricultural education program.


PROGRAM FINANCING
Instructional Units for Secondary Programs (Grades 7-12) Funds are provided through the Minimum
Foundation Program for each instructional unit which is allocated on the basis of one unit for each full-time
teacher. Units are allocated to districts based on needs as determined by a survey of student interest,
occupational needs and other information which will substantiate the need for a new unit or an addition to the
existing program.

The district superintendent requests the unit on Form A and a letter of justification is sent to the
Administrator of Agricultural Education. The respective Area Supervisor of Agricultural Education surveys the
local situation and assesses the need for the unit.

The "beyond 10 month" or "11th and 12th month" unit refers to the period between the end of one 10
month contract period and the beginning of the next 10 month contract period. It is considered to be eight
weeks in length. The district is granted an additional salary increment of the unit being earned by a teacher at
the rate of 20% for the 8-week period.

Instructional Units for Post-Secondary and Adult Programs

Units for post-secondary students, including those in area vocational technical centers, and for adults will be
earned on a full-time equivalency (FTE) formula. The number of full-time equivalent (FTE) students is based
on student contact hours or pupil attendance hours. One student attending one hour of class is one student
contact hour, and 810 student contact hours equals one FTE.

The FTE required to earn a unit for agricultural education will probably range'from 12-15. Variation in
program cost will allow for flexibility in funding.

These FTE units will include funds for salary, instructional supplies, equipment purchase and replacement
which might be needed, especially for programs in a high cost category, and other current expense which may
include travel related to instruction.

Special Teacher Service Units One STS unit is earned for every 8 instructional units. Administrative,
supervisory, and coordinating personnel for Vocational-Technical Agricultural Education programs may be
provided by a district board through the use of S.T.S. units.

Twelve Month Employment
The planning and operation of an effective agricultural education program for a school and community
requires that the teacher be employed twelve months for the following reasons:

The Nature of the instructional program in agriculture requires that it continue throughout the
year through organized classes for regular students or adults and other individual and small group
activities.

a. An integral and essential part of the overall instructional program is the students
Supervised Occupational Experience Program at home or on the job. These
experiences need to continue under supervision through the summer months. Programs
for some new students will be started before school opens in the fall. Early counseling
and guidance of students and contacts with parents are necessary so that pupils may be
successful in these experiences.










b. Leadership and citizenship development is an intra-curricular part of the instructional
program. Opportunities for such education for extended periods of time are provided
for students during the summer months when more students can participate. (State
FFA Leadership Conferences, Forestry, Wildlife, Conservation camp, industry tours
and field trips.)

2. In Agricultural Education, instructional activities for individuals and small groups are continued
throughout the year as situations develop which necessitate individual instruction and supervision.
(Plant and animal growth and agricultural businesses are not limited to any particular months or
season).

3. The schools land and mechanics laboratory are necessary for adequate instruction in agriculture.
The operation of enterprises and projects involved in these areas must receive careful supervision
and attention throughout the year. The mechanics laboratory should be available for use by
students and adults for organized and informal instructional activities in the summer.

4. The rapidly changing situation in agriculture requires that the teacher participate in staff
development workshops, clinics and conferences in order to keep up with developments in
agriculture and maintain constant contact with agricultural industry. In addition, this changing
situation also requires continuous and extensive annual revision in curricula, references, and other
instructional materials. Securing and filing references and preparing revised teaching aids can best
be done in the summer.








Program Budgeting

The agriculture program should have adequate funds budgeted for equipment, supplies and services necessary
to provide quality instruction and implement program objectives. Each instructional unit includes funds for
materials and services relating to the instructional program.

1. Travel is essential for an effective agricultural education instructional program. Funds for travel
should be provided for such activities as:
a. Supervision and instruction relating to Students' Occupational Experience Programs at
home and on the job.
b. Educational field trips
c. FFA intra-curricular activities for leadership development
d. In-service meetings and/or conferences called by the VTAE Division or one of its
sections. Reimbursement for travel expenses should be justified by periodic reports by
the teacher for travel performed in situations described above and comply with local
education agency travel policy.

2. Agriculture teachers spend many hours outside of school hours with responsibilities related to
group and individual supervised experience programs and leadership development activities. Salary
supplements should be provided to teachers for this additional time based on actual additional
workload hours.

3. Federal Vocational Education Act funds may be available for equipment and instructional supplies
for new and on-going programs. Proposals for thee funds must be included in the annual district
or community college PROGRAM PLANNING GUIDE FOR VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL and
ADULT EDUCATION.

Additional funds are allocated with each instructional unit to provide for staff development and
program improvement through the Educational Improvement Expense Funds (EIE). Plans for use
of these funds are submitted by each district annually.


STAFFING LOCAL PROGRAMS

Certification The teacher of Agriculture must be certified in accordance with requirements determined by
Certification Section, Department of Education (refer to Certification Bulletin).

Procedure for Filling Vacancies It is the joint responsibility of the Teacher Education Department, University
of Florida, and Florida A&M University and the Agricultural Education Administrative and Supervisory Staff
to plan and coordinate an effective placement system so that an open communication can be maintained with
local Superintendents and Principals.

School Districts desiring assistance in hiring a teacher should contact the Teacher Education Departments,
University of Florida or Florida A&M University or the Administrator, Agricultural Education, Department of
Education in Tallahassee or respective area supervisor of Agricultural Education.


TEACHING LOAD

A teacher shall render a minimum of 5 hours of approved agricultural instructional services. The optimum load
for instructional services is 65 student contact hours per day with the following provisions:

1. Instructional services include student instructional or guidance contacts other than those in
organized class activities.

2. Individual instruction during out-of-school hours is a necessary part of the teachers' load and may
be counted as instruction time.

3. Special provisions for teacher load apply to teacher conducting "Cooperative Agricultural
Education Program". (refer to Bulletin No. 72H-5 "Developing Occupational Experience Programs
in Agricultural Education")











IN-SERVICE EDUCATION


Teachers should participate in planned, continuous in-service education. Opportunities for in-service activities
related to agriculture should be provided in the county Master In-Service Teacher Education Plan. Release time
should be provided for such activities as workshops, clinics, conferences provided by Department of Education
and visits to other Agricultural Education Programs.

All agricultural teachers should participate in the annual conference for vocational, technical and Adult
Education. Agriculture teachers are encouraged to work with Teacher Education Institutions to plan programs
for advanced degrees on the graduate level in Agricultural Education in specialized fields.




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