• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Map to accompany the boy travellers...
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Advertising
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 A new journey, etc.
 From Cork to Killarney; plans for...
 Origin of wakes; originally religious...
 The sights of Dublin, etc.
 The vale of Avoca, etc.
 From Belfast to Port Rush,...
 A glance at the "Irish question,"...
 The great buildings of Glasgow;...
 Anecdotes of Glasgowegians; captain...
 House where John Knox lived,...
 Arthur's seat and Salisbury crags,...
 To the Trossachs; the usual route,...
 From the hebrides to inverness,...
 The walls of York, etc.
 Robin Hood's bay, etc.
 The English lake district; Windermere,...
 Barrow-in-furness; a rapidly growing...
 From Douglas to Liverpool,...
 From Liverpool to Chester,...
 From Chester to Shrewsbury; sights...
 Cardiff castle; its history and...
 From Merthyr to Swansea, etc.
 St. Michael's mount, etc.
 The exe; Mary's joke about it,...
 Leaving Plymouth, etc.
 Departure from Stratford, etc.
 Living in lodgings, etc.
 Working-men in Parliament; Joseph...
 The nobility and aristocracy of...
 Stock exchange, etc.
 London society, etc.
 Advertising
 Map to accompany the boy travellers...
 Back Cover
 Spine














Group Title: The boy travellers in Great Britain and Ireland : adventures of two youths in a journey through Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and England, with visits to the Hebrides and the Isle of Man
Title: The boy travellers in Great Britain and Ireland
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080706/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boy travellers in Great Britain and Ireland adventures of two youths in a journey through Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and England, with visits to the Hebrides and the Isle of Man
Physical Description: xvi, 536, 6 p. : ill., map (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Thomas Wallace, 1835-1896
Nicholls, G. P ( Engraver )
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1891, c1890
 Subjects
Subject: Youth -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Irish -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sick -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Accidents -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Romanies -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Immigrants -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Silk -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Ireland   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1891   ( rbgenr )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1891   ( local )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas W. Knox ; illustrated.
General Note: Maps on endpapers printed in red and black.
General Note: Some illustrations engraved by Nicholls.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080706
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002469903
notis - AMH5414
oclc - 189849537

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Map to accompany the boy travellers in Great Britain and Ireland
        Map 1
        Map 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
    Advertising
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    List of Illustrations
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    A new journey, etc.
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    From Cork to Killarney; plans for the journey; the different routes, etc.
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Origin of wakes; originally religious ceremonies; suppressed by royal command, etc.
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    The sights of Dublin, etc.
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The vale of Avoca, etc.
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    From Belfast to Port Rush, etc.
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    A glance at the "Irish question," etc.
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    The great buildings of Glasgow; the cathedral, etc.
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Anecdotes of Glasgowegians; captain Patoun, etc.
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    House where John Knox lived, etc.
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Arthur's seat and Salisbury crags, etc.
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    To the Trossachs; the usual route, etc.
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    From the hebrides to inverness, etc.
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    The walls of York, etc.
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Robin Hood's bay, etc.
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    The English lake district; Windermere, Biscay how, and orrest head, etc.
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Barrow-in-furness; a rapidly growing city, etc.
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
    From Douglas to Liverpool, etc.
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
    From Liverpool to Chester, etc.
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
    From Chester to Shrewsbury; sights of the latter place, etc.
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
    Cardiff castle; its history and present condition, etc.
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
    From Merthyr to Swansea, etc.
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
    St. Michael's mount, etc.
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
    The exe; Mary's joke about it, etc.
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
    Leaving Plymouth, etc.
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
    Departure from Stratford, etc.
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
    Living in lodgings, etc.
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
    Working-men in Parliament; Joseph Arch, Thomas Burt, Alexander MacDonald, etc.
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
    The nobility and aristocracy of England, etc.
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
    Stock exchange, etc.
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
    London society, etc.
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
    Advertising
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
    Map to accompany the boy travellers in Great Britain and Ireland
        Map 3
        Map 4
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text






























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THE BOY TRAVELLERS


IN


GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND




ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS TN A JOURNEY THROUGH

IRELAND, SCOTLAND, WALES, AND ENGLAND, WITH VISITS TO THE HEBRIDES
AND THE ISLE OF MAN





BY

THOMAS W. KNOX
AUTHOR OF
"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "IN SOUTH AMERICA" "IN RUSSIA" "ON THE CONGO"
"IN AUSTRALASIA" AND "IN MEXICO" "THE YOUNG NIMRODS"
"THE VOYAGE OF THE 'VIVIAN'" ETC.





Jllustratcb









NEW YORK


HARPER & BROTHERS,
1891


FRANKLIN SQUARE


















By THOMAS W. KNOX.


THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Volumes. Copi-
ously Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $3 00 each. The volumes sold separately. Each
volume complete in itself:
I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO JAPAN AND CIlNA.
II. ADVENTUREa OF Two YOUTHS is A JOURNEY TO SIAM AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago.
I1I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO CEYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmah.
IV. ADVENTUREs or Two YOUTcn IN A JoURNEY TO BEGYPT AND PALESTINE,
V. ADVESTUREiS OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TitROUGOI AFRICA.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA- Adventures of Two
Youths in a Journey through Eciuador, Peru. Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argen-
tine flepublic, and Chili ; with Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego,
and Voyages upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated.
8vo, Cloth, $3 00.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Adventures
of Two Youths in a Journey in European and Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a
Tour across Siberia, Voyages on the Amnoor. Volga, and other Rivers. a Visit to
Central Asia, Travels among the-Exiles. and a Iiistorical Sketch of tlI. ..I...
from its Foundation to the Present Time. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, C i -

THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO. Adventures of Two Youths
in a Journey with Henry M3. Stanley "Through the Dark Continent." Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA. Adventures of Two Youths
in a Journey to the Sandwich, Marquesas. Society, Samoan. and Feejee Islands,
and through the Colonies of New Zealand, New South Wales, Queensland, Vic-
toria, Tasmania, and South Australia. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO. Adventures of Two Youths in a
Journey to Northern and Central Mexico, Campeachy, and Yucatan, with a De-
scription of the Republics of Central America, and of the Nicaragua Canal. Copi-
ously Illustrated 8vo, Cloth, S3 00.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN. Adventures of Two
Youths in a Journey through ireland, Scotland, Wales. and F.. ... i ;th Visits
to the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. Copiously Illustrated. ., .. ', $3 00.

THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE AND
BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open 'olar Sea. Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.

HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two Volumes. Copi-
ously Illustrated. 8ro, Cloth, $2 50 each The volumes sold separately. Each
volume complete in itself.
I, THE YOUNG NIaIRODS IN NORTH AMERICA,
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND TUE WORLD.


PUBLIStED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.

gis Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to anyi part of the United
Slates or Canada, on receipt of the price.


Copyright, 1890, by HARPER & BROTHERS.-All rights reserved.















PREFACE.



T HE journey described in the following pages is over a route more
familiar to the general reader than are the countries which have
been hitherto visited by Frank and Fred; but it is hoped that those
who have been following those youths in their wanderings will find
their present tour no less interesting than its predecessors. The Boy
Travellers have kept a careful record of what they saw and heard; have
been studious in history and geography; observed closely the manners
and customs of the people among whom they travelled; and, altogether.
have presented us with an interesting picture of the British Isles as they
found them. An excellent addition to their narrative will be.found in
what we have gleaned from the mother and sister of Frank, who accom-
panied the youths in this expedition. It was the first journey abroad
of Mrs. Bassett and her daughter Mary, and we are certain that the
boys and girls who peruse this volume will be greatly entertained with
their comments upon everything that came under their observation.
The plan pursued in the preparation of previous volumes of the
"Boy Travellers" series has been followed in the present one. Perhaps
it will be found that Doctor Bronson is less conspicuous than hereto-
fore; this arises from the fact that Frank and Fred may now be re-
garded as veterans of travel, and have less need of their accomplished
mentor than in former journeys. They have become authorities of
themselves, and especially so when endeavoring to answer the numer-
ous questions propounded by Mary, or to dispel some of the illusions
into which Mrs. Bassett had fallen. We will leave our young readers
to judge of the fitness of the much- travelled youths to undertake the
care, the escort, and the instruction of the amiable woman and the viva-
cious and intelligent girl who accompanied them on their roundabout
way from New York to London.
For the historical matter that has been introduced here and there in
the volume the author has taken great care to insure accuracy; should






PREFACE.


any errors be discovered, he trusts that they may be regarded as arising
from a conflict of authorities rather than from neglect. In several in-
stances discrepancies have been found in historical data; in such cases
preference was given to those which were of greatest weight, or were
corroborated by other events.
As in previous volumes, the author has made use of the work of
other travellers over the same ground, in addition to the results of his
own observations in several visits to the countries described. Nearly
all these authorities have been quoted in the text of the book, and their
repetition here is unnecessary. Indebtedness is also acknowledged to
the liberality of Messrs. HARPEn & BROTHERS, who have kindly allowed
the use of engravings that appeared in previous publications of their
house.
With this brief preface the narrative is submitted to the hands and
eyes of critics and readers, young and old, with the hope that it may
enjoy the kindly reception accorded to other accounts of the travels of
Frank and Fred.
T. W. K.
NEW YORK, July, 1890.



















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I.

A NEW JOURNEY.-ACROSS THE ATLANTIC.-ARRIVAL AT QUEENSTOWN.--LANDING IN THE TENDER.-
MRS. BASSETT AND HER DAUGRTER.-ROUTE OF THE MAILS BETWEEN QUEENSTOWN AND LONDON.
--IRISH EMIGRANTS FOR AMERICA.-THE EMERALD ISLE, AND HOW IT GETS ITS NAME.--PASSING
THE CUSTOM-HOUSE. PEDDLERS AND BEGGARS. HOW MRS. BASSETT WAS DECEIVED.- TIIE
MONEY-CHANGING BEGGAR.-SIGHTS OF QUEENSTOWN.-OLDEST YACHT CLUB IN THE WORLD.-
UP THE RIVER LEE.-MONKSTOWN AND ITS THRIFTY BUILDER.-CORK.-IN A JAUNTING-CAR.-
BLARNEY CASTLE.--KISSING THE BLARNEY-STONE.--FATHER MATHEW AND HIS TEMPERANCE
CRUSADE . . . . . age 1


CHAPTER II.

FROM CORK TO KILLARNEY; PLANS FOR THE JOURNEY; THE DIFFERENT ROUTES.--BANTRY BAY.-
GLENGARIFF.--GALWAY AND ITS CURIOSITIES.-THE CLADDAGH.-HOW A FATHER CAUSED lIS
SON TO BE HANGED.-REMNANTS OF THE ANCIENT IRISH POPULATION.-A REGION OF RAIN.-
IRISH SCENERY.-FROM GLENGARIFF TO THE LAKES.-IRISH BEGGARS; FRANK'S PLAN FOR THEIR
SUPPRESSION.-B.GGING AS A REGULAR OCCUPATION.-A LITTLE STORY.-THE KILLARNEY LAKES
AND THE GAP OF DUNLOE. -KATE KEARNEY AND HER DESCENDANT.-IRISH LEGENDS.- THE
SEVEN-YEAR SPECTRE.-WHERE THE FAIRIES DANCE.-ROSS CASTLE, INNISFALLEN, AGHADOE,
MUCKROSS ABBEY, AND TORC LAKE.-WHAT THE ECHO DID FOR THE EAGLE . 15


CHAPTER III.

ORIGIN OF WAKES; ORIGINALLY RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES; SUPPRESSED BY ROYAL COMMAND.-" A
GOOD SUBJECT FOR A WAKE."--A DISAPPOINTED WOMAN.-INCIDENTS OF A WAKE, AS TOLD BY
A SPECTATOR.-THE "KEENER" AND HER OCCUPATION.-PROFESSIONAL MOURNERS.-A GHASTLY
FESTIVAL.-A DANCE AND "KISS IN THE RING."-HOW THE CHURCH REGARDS THE WAKE.-
LIMERICK; ITS FISH-HOOKS AND LACE MANUFACTURE.-IRISH BUTTER.-THE POTATO HARVEST.
-AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF IRELAND.-THE FAMINE OF 1846; EMIGRATION TO AMERICA IN
CONSEQUENCE ; ANECDOTES OF THE NEW COUNTRY.-DUBLIN.-CAR-DRIVERS AND THEIR TIT.-
TEN MILES WITHOUT A LINCHPIN.-- WAGER AND ITS RESULT.-" THE TWELVE APOSTLES 32


CHAPTER IV.

THE SIGHTS OF DUBLIN.-" THE LIBERTIES."-THE SILK INDUSTRY.-AN ENTERPRISING POLICEMAN.-
THE BREWERY OF GUINNESS AND CO.-ORIGIN OF BREWING IN IRELAND.-THE RIVER LIFFEY.-







CONTENTS.


lHorUE WHERE TOM MOORE WAS BORN.-TRINITY COLLEGE; A GREAT SEAT OF LEARNING.-
CHARLES LEVER.-OTHER FAMOUS BUILDINGS oF DUBLIN.-ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL.-SNAKES
IN IuRELAND ; IOW THEY WERE BANISHED.--PIENIX PARK.-DONNYBROOK FAI.--ROUND TOW-
ERS AND THIIEIR CARACTER.-TIIE GRAVE OF DANIEL O'CONNELL.-HISTORICAL TALKS.-THE IRE-
LAND OF ANTIQUITY.--EARLY KIINGS.-OnRIN OF MANY MODERN FAMILIES.-THE MILESIANS;
WIO AND WHAIIT TIIEY WERE.-END OF THE PAGAN DYNASTIES.--BRIAN BORU AND WIIAT II1
DID .. .. ... .. ... Page 47


CHAPTER V.

TIIE \ALE OF AVOCA.-TIE MEETING OF TIE WATERS.-EXCURSION TO COUNTY WICKLOW ; FAVORITE
RESORT OF THE PEOPLE OF DUBLIN.--THE DARGLE.--LOVER'S LEAP; AN INTERESTING LEGEND.-
PHIOIL-A-PIIOUCA FALL.--THE SPIRIT HORSE.-TOMMY CUTTINGS'S ADVENTURE.-" WHERE THE
BRIGHT WATERS MEET."-GOLD-MINES IN WVICKLOW.--MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN IRELAND.
-WOOLLEN AND LINEN INDUSTRIES.-REPRESSIVE LAWS OF ENGLISH RULERS.--TEXTILE FABRICS
IN ANCIENT IRELAND.--LEGEND OF TIE MIRACULOUS SPRING.-BELFAST; ITS GENERAL APPEAR-
ANCE AND CIIARACTER.-FUNNY STORY OF IRISII SHIP-BUILDING.-ORIGIN OF THE TEMPERANCE
MOVEMENT.-RELIGIOUS RIOTS IN BELFAST AND TIIHEIR SUPPRESSION . ... .64


CHAPTER VI.

FROM BELFAST TO PORT RUSII-TIIE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.-AN ELECTRIC RAILWAY; THE FIRST OF ITS
KIND IN TIE WORLD ; HOW IT WAS BUILT AND MODE OF WTORKING.-DUNLUCE CASTLE.-THE
BANSIRE.--AN IRISH SUPERSTITION.-ANECDOTES OF GIANTS AND TIIEIR PERFORMANCES.--CAES
NEAR TlE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.-WRECK OF A SPANISH SHIP.-CARRICK-A-REDE.-BY WATER TO
LONDONDERRY; CURIOUS FACTS IN TIE HISTORY OF THE TOWN; TIE GREAT SIEGE; REV. GEORGE
WALKER; RELIGIOUS WARS IN IRELAND; HOW THE SIEGE WAS RAISED.-THE HOLY WELL.-MI-
RACULOUS CURES OF PILGRIMS. .. .... ... ... .. 80


CHAPTER VII.

A GLANCE AT THE "IRISH QUESTION."-RELATIONS BETWEEN ENGLAND AND IRELAND.-RELIGIOUS
WARS.--CONFISCATION OF LANDS.--TE BATTLE OF TIE BOYNE.--ABSENTEEISM ; THE CAR-DRIV-
ER'S EXPLANATION.-REVOLUTIONS IN IRELAND; TIIEIR CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCES.--LANDLORDS
AND TENANTS.--WILLIAM, PRINCE OF ORANGE.-ORANGE SOCIETIES; TIEIR FORMER AND PRESENT
EXTENT.-FROM BELFAST TO GLASGOW.-SHIIIP-BUILDING ON TIE CLYDE.-JAMES WATT.-COM-
MERCE AND MANUFACTURES OF GLASGOW ; FIRST VIEW OF THE CITY; ITS GROWTH AND PROSPER-
ITY.-THE IRON INDUSTRY.-TRYING JOKES ON A SCOTCH GUIDE; HIS VIEWS OF "THE JUMPING
FROG". .. . . . 96


CHAPTER VIII.

THE GREAT BUILDINGS OF GLASGOW; THE CATHEDRAL--ItEN IT WAS BUILT; THE NECROPOLIS.-
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW ; ITS EXTENT AND AGE.--BIRTIIPLACE OF SIR JOHN MOORE.-How
GLASGOW OBTAINED ITS COMMERCIAL IMIPORTANCE.-STATUES OF BURNS AND SCOTT.-INDUS-
TRIES OF GLASGOW. HOW THE JOKES OF TIE VISITORS WERE NOT APPRECIATED.- SIIOPPING
IN GLASGOW; MARY'S COMMENTS THEREON. -EXCURSIONS AROUND GLASGOW.--PAISLEY AND
ITS SIIAWLS. -HAMILTON PALACE AND PARK.- CADZOW CASTLE. AYR AND TIE COUNTRY OF
BURNS. TAM O'SHANTER INN. WALLACE TOWER. -- TIE TWA BRIGS OF AYR. RELICS OF








CONTENTS. vii

BURNS; HIS BIRTHPLACE.-ALLOWAY KIRK.-BRIG o'DOON.-ScoTCH CUSTOMS. -TIE MONU-
MENT TO BURNS .... ... . Page 113


CHAPTER IX.

ANECDOTES OF GLASGOWEGIANS; CAPTAIN PATOUN.-A TOBACCO LORD; JOIN WALLACE; A MAN
WHO PAID TO BE ABUSED.-LOWRIE COULTER.--ARRAN ISLAND AND TIIE ARRAN ISLANDS.-AN-
CIENT FORTS AND CHURCHES.--EGYPTIAN Doo-WAYS IN IRELAND.--RIVALRY BETWEEN GLASGOW
AND EDINBURGH.-DIPLOMATIC TEACHINGS FOR TRAVELLERS.-FROM AYR TO EDINBURGIL--A
GLANCE AT SCOTTISH HISTORY.--TIIE CATTLE STEALERS OF OLDEN TIMES.--SI WILLIAM WAL-
LACE AND IIIS EXPLOITS; HIS CAPTURE AND EXECUTION.--SCOTS AND PICTS.-IN EDINBURGH;' THE
CASTLE.-REGALIA OF OLD SCOTLAND. HISTORICAL ASSOCIATIONS.--MONS MEG; VIEW FROM
TIIE RAMPARTS.-EDINBURGH, OLD AND NEW .. ..... . . 135


CHAPTER X.

HOUSE WIIERE JOHN KNOX LIVED.-COAMMENTS ON KNOX'S CIIARACTER.-CHURCII OF ST. GILES.--THE
HEART OF MID- LOTHIAN. -SIR WALTER SCOTT. -PARLIAMENT HOUSE.--THE SCOTTISH LAW
COURTS.-GREYFRIARS' CHURCH AND CHURCH-YARD.-SIGNING THE COVENANT.-THE COVENANT-
ERS' IRISON.-"GREYFRIARS' BOBBY."--WHOLESALE NEW-YEAR GREETINGS.-OILYROOD PAL-
ACE.-MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS; INCIDENTS IN TIE LIFE OF MARY; HER CIARACTER.--MURDER OF
RIZZIO; THE SCENE OF THE CONSPIRACY.-LORD DARNLEY; HOW HE WAS BLOWN UP.-MRS. BAS-
SETT'S VIEWS ON HOLYROOD HOUSE-KEEPING.-QUEEN MARY AND THE EARL OF BOTHWELL 150


CHAPTER XI.

ARTIuR'S SEAT AND SALISBURY CRAGS.-GEORGE HERIOT'S HOSPITAL.-A MAGNIFICENT BEQUEST.-
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF EDINBURGH.--THE SCHOOLS AND THE UNIVERSITY.--LEITH WATER.
-LEITH.-A DOG STORY.-IfAWTIIORNDEN.-ANECDOTE OF BEN JONSON.-MELROSE ABBEY AND
ABBOTSFORD.-RELICS OF SIR WALTER SCOTT.-THE ENTRANCE HALL, LIBRARY, STUDY, AND AR-
MoRY.-THE HAUNTED DUNGEON IN DRYBURGH ABBEY.-THE VOW OF THE LADY.-TOMBS OF
SCOTT AND HIS ANCESTORS.-CISTERCIAN AND INOBERTINE MONKS.-THE WHITE MAID OF AVENEL.
-A SCOTCH MIST . ................... 166


CHAPTER XII.

TO THE TROSSACHS; THE USUAL ROUTE.-STIRLING AND ITS CASTLE.-BANNOCKBURN.-" THE LADY
OF TIE LAKE."--LocH KATRINE.-FRANK AND FRED VISIT THE HEBRIDES.-IONA AND STAFFA.-
SAINT COLUMBA.-THE CROFTERS; HIOW THEY LIVE.-QUARRELS BETWEEN CROFTERS AND LAND-
LORDS.-HUTS WITHOUT WINDOWS OR CHIINEYS.-OLD CHURCH AT IONA.-VISITING FINAL'S
CAVE.-EXTENT AND POPULATION OF THE HEBRIDES.-THE ISLAND OF LEWIS.-STORNOWAY.-A
FISHING PORT.-BURDENS CARRIED BY THE WOMEN.-THE CALLERNISH STONES; THEIR SUPPOSED
ORIGIN.-SKYE.-RETROSPECT .......... . ]181


CHAPTER XIII.

FROM THE HEBRIDES TO INVERNESS.-THE CALEDONIAN CANAL.-CULLODEN MIOOR.-CASTLE OF MAC-
BETH.-PERTH.-A SCOTCH CONUNDRCll.-GREAT BRIDGE OVER THE FIRTH OF FORTH.-INCH GAR-
VIE.-DOCTOR BRONSON GOES TO LONDON.-A DAY AT NORTH BERWICK.-THE GAME OF GOLF;







vii1 CONTENTS.

HOW IT IS PLAYED.--NORTH BErIWICK ABBEY.-TANTALLON AND AULDHAME CASTLES.-A SCOTCH
CADDY.-ON TIE LINKS.-ORIGIN AND POPULARITY OF GOLF.-THE BLACK WATCI.-HIGHLAND
REGIMENTS AND THEIR RECORD.-OUT OF SCOTLAND.--HISTRY IN RnIYM.-MARY ASTOUNDS HER
COMPANIONS.-ARRIVAL AT YORK. ... . ... Page 200


CHAPTER XIV.

THE WALLS OF YORK.-HOW TIE JEWS WERE MASSACRED BY CIRISTIANS.-CLIFFORD'S TOWER.-
ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.--WALMGATE BAR. MRS. BASSETT'S MISTAKE. MONK BAR. ANOTHER
MISTAKE.--MUSEUM OF ANTIQUITIES AND OTHER CURIOSITIES.-A SITE FOR MANY CHURCHES.-
DESCRIPTION OF THE CATHEDRAL. DIFFERENT STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE. OUT-DOOR PARLIA-
MENTS IN THE OLDEN TIME.-WHY MODERN PARLIAMENTARIANS KEEP THEIR HATS ON.-THE
BRITISH SEA-SIDE; 'WHTITY AND SCARBOROUGH; SEEKING LODGINGS; THE SIGHTS OF SCARBOR-
OUGH; DRINKING THE WATERS; BEACH AND PROMENADE; SCARBOROUGH CASTLE; STORY OF A
SIEGE; A BRAVE WOMAN; GEORGE FOX'S PRISON . .. ... 215


CHAPTER XV.

ROBIN HOOD'S BAY.--WHO WAS ROBIN HOOD? HIS GAMES, AND TIE BALLADS ABOUT HIM.-WIIITBY.
-CAPTAIN JAMES COOK.-REAL WHITBY JET; WHERE IT COMES FROM AND HOW IT IS MADE.-A
DISAPPOITNTENT.-ENGLISH ARISTOCRACY.--HOW FASHIONS ARE FOLLOWED.-WITCHCRAFT IN
YORKSHIRE.-FROM WIIITBY TO SHEFFIELD; CUTLERY AND OTHER ESTABLISHMENTS; ANTIQUITY OF
SHEFFIELD; FOLLOWING A KNIFE THROUGH THE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES; IRON FOUNDERIES AND
OTHER INDUSTRIES; PARKS, HOSPITALS, MUSEUMS, AND CHURCHES; HOW THE WORKMEN LIVE 230


CHAPTER XVI.

THE ENGLISH LAKE DISTRICT; WINDERMERE, BISCAY HOW, AND ORREST HEAD.-LOCAL NAMES OF
PLACES AND POINTS OF INTEREST.-WEATHER IN THE LAKE DISTRICT; SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVE-
MENTS.-BELLE ISLE.-THE LAKE SCHOOL OF POETS.--WORDSWORTH AND HIS HOME.-HAWKES-
HEAD SCHOOL-HOUSE.-MRS. HEMANS.-A POET WITH A PRACTICAL MIND.-QUEER RULES FOR A
SCHOOL-MASTER'S CONDUCT.-THE PRINCIPAL LAKES AND MOUNTAINS.-DERWENTWATER AND TIIE
FALLS OF LODORE.-SOUTHEY'S LINES A DECEPTION.-A ROMAN FISH.-PRACTICAL JOKE BY AN
AMERICAN.-PLANS FOR THE FUTURE .. .. .. 2. 252


CHAPTER XVII.

BARROW-IN-FURNESS; A RAPIDLY GROWING CITY.-TO THE ISLE OF MAN.-A ROUGH VOYAGE.
-DOUGLAS; THE HARBOR AND TOWN, OLD AND NEW.--SUMMER TOURISTS. -CATS WITHOUT
TAILS. CASTLETOWN AND PEEL. FISHING INDUSTRIES. -INTERIOR OF A COTTAGE. HOME
LIFE AMONG THE MANX.--HOME RULE IN MANXLAND. -ORIGIN OF THE GOVERNMENT.-THE
TYNWALD COURT, OR HOUSE OF KEYS.-GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL.-TYNWALD HILL.-ANCIENT
CEREMONIES PRESERVED. A DAY OF FESTIVITY. OLD LAW AGAINST DRUNKENNESS. -RE-
FLECTIONS... . .. . .. . 269


CHAPTER XVIII.

FROM DOUGLAS TO LIVERPOOL,-LANCASTER AND PRESTON.-ORIGIN OF THE WORD "TEETOTAL."-ARK-
WRIGHT, THE INVENTOR.-SIGHTS IN LIVERPOOL.-ST. GEORGE'S HALL.-SHORT HISTORY OF LIV-








CONTENTS.


ERPOOL.--FORTUNES MADE IN SLAVE-TRADING.-A SECESSION HOT-BED IN TIE AMERICAN CIVIL
WAR.-THE ALABAMA" AND HER CONSORTS.-THE MERSEY TUNNEL.-DOCKS OF BIRKENHEAD
AND LIVERPOOL.-FERRY-BOATS.-LARGEST LANDING-STAGE IN THE WORLD.-COMMERCE OF LIV-
ERPOOL.-A CONTRAsT.-HISTORY OF THL DOCs.-EXTENT OFRADE WITH AMERICA AND OTHER
COUNTRIES.-ROMANTIC HISTORIES OF STEAM LINES.-JOKES ON THE MERSEY Page 284


CHAPTER XIX.

FROM LIVERPOOL TO CIESTER.-CIIAT ABOUT ENGLISH[ RAILWAYS.-THE FIRST RAILWAY IN ENGLAND.-
SITIP-CANAL BETWEEN LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER.--AN ENGLISH RAILWAY TRAIN; TIE GUARD
AND ILIS DUTIES.-RELICS OF COACHING DAYS; FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CLASS.--NO CIIECKS FOR
BAGGAGE; ENGLISIL VIEWS OF TIE NON-CIECKING SYSTEM.-ENGLISH AND AMELICAN LOCOMOTIVES.
-TIE POINTSMAN AND HIS DUTIES.-COMPARATIVE SPEED OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN TRAINS.-
CHESTER.-" TIE ROWS."-ANCIENT CHURCH.-ROMAN REMAINS.-EATON HALL.-THE ROUTE OF
TIE "WILD IRISIIMAN."--CONWAY CASTLE, BANGOR, AND THE BRITANNIA BRIDGE.---OLYHEAD 301


CHAPTER XX.

FROM CHESTER TO SIIREWSBURY; SIGHTS OF THE LATTER PLACE.-JUDGE JEFFREYS AND SIR PHILIP
SIDNEY.-HEREFORD; ITS FINE CATTLE AND SHEEP.--VALLEY OF THE WYE.-WALES AND ITS
PEOPLE.--WRESTLING WITH THE WELSH LANGUAGE.-INCIDENTS OF THE BORDER WARS.-ROSS.-
THE MAN OF ROSS.-BOATING ON THE WYE.-MONMOUTH CASTLE.-CRADLE OF HENRY V.-TIN-
TERN ABBEY.-CHEPSTOW CASTLE.-THE REGICIDE MARTEN.-HOW THE MONKS OUTWITTED THE
DEVIL.-THE SIEGE OF CHEPSTOW.-NEWPORT AND CARDIFF . .. 321


CHAPTER XXI.

CARDIFF CASTLE; ITS HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION.--THE MARQUIS OF BUTE.-DOCKS AT CAR-
DIFF; RAPID GROWTH OF THE CITY; BUSINESS IN COAL AND IRON; ALONG THE STREETS.-RO-
MANCE OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY.-CURTHOSE TOWER. COURT JESTERS; SOME ACCOUNT OF
THEM.-LLANDAFF; TI E. SMALLEST CITY IN THE KINGDOM.-LLANDAFF CHURCH.--ST. TEILO'S
MIRACLE.-VALLEY OF THE TAFF.-CASTELL COCH.-CAERPHILLY CASTLE.-THE GREEN LADY'S
GIIOST.-MERTHYR-TYDVIL; WHAT OUR FRIENDS SAW THERE.-AMONG THE WELSH PEOPLE.-A
PEEP AT THE COTTAGES.-FASHIONS IN WALES ...... .. 38


CHAPTER XXII.

FROM MERTHYR TO SWANSEA.-INDUSTRIES OF SWANSEA; COPPER-SMELTING.-ST. DONAT'S CASTLE.-
WELSH WRECKING CUSTOMS.--ILFRACOMBE.--BRISTOL. MILFORD HAVEN.--TRANSATLANTIC
PROJECTS.-DEVON AND CORNWALL.--WATERING-PLACES IN THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND.-ST. IVES.
-AN OLD NURSERY RHYME.-AN ENGLISH FISHING-PORT.-THE PILCHARD AND HIS USES; HOW
HE IS CAUGHT.-ACROSS COUNTRY.-ANTIQUITIES OF CORNWALL.-PENZANCE.-SIR HUMPHRY
DAVY AND THE SAFETY-LAMP .I . ... ... .. .. 356


CHAPTER XXIII.

ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT.-JACK THE GIANT-KILLER; SCENE OF HIS EXPLOIT.-LOCAL SUPERSTITIONS.-
ANTIQUITIES OF CORNWALL; THE LOGAN-STONE.-EXPENSIYE AMUSEMENT FOR A BRITISH LIEU-
TENANT.-AT LAND'S END. THE SCILLY ISLES; "THE BREAKING WAVES DASH HIGH."-RED-







CONTENTS.


RUTI.-THE MINING DISTRICT.-COPPER AND TIN MINING.--WOMEN IN MINING-WORK.-CURES
FOR RHEUMATISM AND FITS.--IARN BREA.-TRURO.-PENDENNIS CASTLE.-FALMOUTII AND LODE.
-ST. KEYNE'S WVELL.-THE CORNISIIMAN'S STORY.-ARRIVAL AT PLYMOUTH ... Page 373


CHAPTER XXIV.

THE EXE; MARY'S JOKE ABOUT IT.-EXETER,--THE GREAT BELL.-TORQUAY.-A WINTER WATER-
ING-PLACE.-CLIMATE, AND OTHER ATTRACTIONS.-LANDING OF PRINCE WILLIAM OF ORANGE.-
TOIRQUAY IN TIE OLDEN TIME.--HOW MODERN VISITORS AMUSE THEMSELYES.-PLYMOUTH.-TIHE
DEFEAT OF TIE SPANISH ARMADA ; HISTORY OF TAT FAMOUS EXPEDITION.-DRAKE'S GAME OF
BOWLS, AhD THE RESULT.--HOW THE ARMADA WAS DESTROYED.--TIE FISHERMAN'S FALSEHOOD.
-THE HOE.-SMEATON'S EDDYSTONE LIGHT-HOUSE.-VIEW OF PLYMOUTH SOUND.-GOVERNMENT
VICTUALLING-YARD AND DOCKS. .. ... .. ... .. 389


CHAPTER XXV.

LEAVING PLYMOUTH. -GLOUCESTER. -STRATFORD-ON-AVON.-THE RED HORSE INN.--VASHINGTON
IRVING'S ROOM.--ANTIQUITY OF STRATFORD.-A TOWN LIVING ON ONE MAN'S REPUTATION.-
HOUSE WVIEIIE SHAKESPEARE WAS BORN; ROOMS AND CURIOSITES.-RELICS OF SHAKESPEARE.-
WHAT AN AMERICAN SHOWMAN DID.-AUTOGRA-PHS OF FAMOUS PEOPLE.-BYRON, SCOTT, GAR-
RICK, AND THACKERAY.-SHAKESPEARE'S SIGNET-RING.-NEW PLACE,-TRINITY CHURCH.-BUR-
IAL-PLACE OF SHAKESPEARE.-THE FAMOUS BUST.-BAPTISMAL FONT.-ANNE HATHAWAY'S COT-
TAGE.-CHARLECOTE PARK . ... .. .. 406


CHAPTER XXVI.

DEPARTURE FROM STRATFORD.-WARWICK CASTLE.-WARWICK, THE KING-MAKER."-OLD LEGENDS.
-OXFORD.-THE UNIVERSITY.-HALLS AND COLLEGES.-BRIEF HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY.-
COLLEGES FOR WVOMEN.-COURSE OF STUDY AT OXFORD.--WIFE-AUCTION IN ENGLAND.-THE
THAMES FROM OXFORD TO LONDON.-SIGHTS ALONG THE RIVER,-HOUSE-BOATS AND THEIR USES.
-PUNTS AND ANGLERS.-COMFORT IN FISHING.-RICHMOND, WINDSOR, AND GREAT MARLOW.-
SHENSTONE'S VERSES ON A WINDOW.-HENLEY REGATTA.-ARRIVAL IN LONDON.-THE CITY AND
THE METROPOLITAN DISTRICT.-AN ENGLISHMAN'S JOKE UPON AN AMERICAN ... 426


CHAPTER XXVII.

LIVING IN LODGINGS.-LODGING-HOUSE CUSTOMS.--SMOKE, RAIN, AND FOG IN LONDON.-HOTEL LIFE.
--WESTMINSTER ABBEY -THE ORIGINAL CHURCH ON THE ISLE OF THORNS.-MIRACULOUS AP-
PEARANCE OF ST. PETER.-HOW AND WHEN THE PRESENT ABBEY WAS BUILT.-THE STONE OF
SCONE.-CORONATION CHAIR.-ROYAL COFFINS.-MONUMENTS AND TOMBS IN THE ABBEY.-POETS'
CORNER.-GRAVES AND MONUMENTS OF FAMOUS MEN; CHARLES AND JOHN WESLEY.-TOMBS OF
ROYAL PERSONAGES.-WESTMINSTER HALL.-HISTORY OF ENGLAND IN WESTMINSTER HALL.-
FAMOUS STATE TRIALS.-THE FOUR GEORGES.-CROMWELL AND HIS MANY SKULLS.-GUY FAWKES
AND THE GUNPOWDER PLOT ..... ... .... .. ..442


CHAPTER XXVIII.

WORKING-MEN IN PARLIAMENT; JOSEPH ARCH, THOMAS BURT, ALEXANDER MACDONALD.-ORIGIN OF
PARLIAMENT.-KING JOHN AND MAGNA CHARTA.-COMPOSITION OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS; LORDS








CONTENTS.


SPIRITUAL AND LORDS TEMPORAL.--MOCK PARLIAMENTS IN LONDON AND OTHER CITIES.-COGERS'
IALL.-ANTIQUITY OF TIE COGERS; NATURE OF THEIR DEBATES.-TEMPLE DISCUSSION FORUM.-
FAMOUS DEBATERS AND TIEIR EARLY TRAINING.--POLITICAL AND OTHER QUESTIONS.-THE LIVER-
POOL R PARLIAMENT.-KJNSINGTON PARLIAMENT.-LADIES' NIGHT.-A FASIIIONABLE ASSEMBLAGE.
-TIIE TOWER OF LONDON; SOMETHING OF ITS IIISTORY.-- PRISONERS OF STATE.-" BEEF-EAT-
ERS," AND ORIGIN OF THEIR NAME.--HISTOIIC TOWERS, GATES, AND ROOMS.--TIE EXECUTION-
LOCK ............. . .... Page 44


CHAPTER XXIX.

THEi NOBILITY AND ARISTOCRACY OF ENGLAND.-TITLES AND TIEIR CIIARACTER.-DUKE, MARQUIS,
EARL, VISCOUNT, AND BARON.--"HIS LORDSHIP." -ORDINARY KNIGIITIOOD.-PEERS OF THE
REALM.--WEALTH OF SOME OF THE PEERS.-RELATIONS OF LANDLORD AND TENANT.-PECULIARI-
TIES OF BRITISI LAW.--THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS; ITS HISTORY AND CIIARACTER.-SIR
JOSHUA REYNOLDS, BENJAMIN WEST, AND OTHER FAMOUS ARTISTS.-THE NATIONAL GALLERY.-
VISIT TO TIE BANK OF ENGLAND.--HISTORY OF THAT INSTITUTION.-BULLION VAULTS, TREASURE-
ROOM, PRINTING-PRESSES, AND OTHER SIGHTS .. ... . 479


CHAPTER XXX.

STOCK EXCHANGE.-ROYAL EXCIIANGE.-LLOYD'S.-WITAT AN UNDERWRITER IS.-GEORGE PEABODY.
--HOMES FOR THE DESERVING POOR.-VISITING THE PEABODY HOUSES; OTIER IMPROVED DWELL-
INGS.-SIR SYDNEY WVATERLOW.--THE POULTRY.-CHEAPSIDE.-ST. PAUL'S CIIURCH.-THE LON-
DON COMPANIES; WHAT THEY ARE.-GOLDSMITHS' HALL.-H-ALL-MIARKED JEWELLERY.--FLEET
STREET.-NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS.-TEMPLE BAR.-A LAW-SCHOOL FIVE HUNDRED
YEARS OLD.-THEATRES OF LONDON.--VISITING A CHEAP THEATRE.-FRED'S ACCOUNT OF WHAT
THEY SAW ...... ... .......... . .501


CHAPTER XXXI.

LONDON SOCIETY.-THE SEASON IN LONDON.-BALLS, RECEPTIONS, PARTIES, BAZAARS, MUSICALS,
TEAS, ETC.--MRS. BASSETT'S ACCOUNT.--WHO COMPOSE SOCIETY.-DINNERS AND OTHER FESTIVI-
TIES.-POPULARITY OF TITLES.-AT A GARDEN-PARTY.-RACES AND CRICKET MATCHES.--CIIARITY
SHows.-A GYPSY FAIR IN SURREY.-SIGHTS AND SCE.NES.--HORSE-JOCKEYING.-SHOOTING-GAL-
LERIES. -CHEAP JACKS. -HOW THE PUBLIC IS DECEIVED.-STEAM CIRCUS AND PANORAMA.-
SNAKES, WILD BEASTS, AND OTHER CURIOSITIES.-RETURN TO LONDON.-THE END 519





















ILLUSTRATIONS.



Sketches in England and Ireland............. ...... ........................ ..Fronispiece.


A Queenstown Peddler ..................
"A Pinny, ef ye plaze !"...............
Street View in Quieenstown ..............
Of' for America .......................
A Cottage on the Queenstown Road .......
A Car-driver.........................
The Jaunting-car .......................
Blarney Castle........................
The Tourist's Car......................
The Witch's Stone....................
A Fisherman and his Assistant. .........
On the Quay at Galway. ...............
W ater-fall at Glengariff .................
The Lakes of Killarnley................
Ross Castle, Lake of Killarney...........
Tore Lake............................
M ickross Abbey ......................
The Colleen Bawn Caves. ...............
"Lit mne till yer about the Aigle."........
Waiting for the Funeral ................
The Dispensary Doctor. .................
Way-side Toilet................ ...
From Limerick .......................
Beloved by the Butter-maker ............ .
A Frugal Breakfast ....... .... .......
A Wandering Bard ..................
A Love-match ..... ... .. .........
"The rist is inside, a-sortin' the letterss"
li...!.. the Geese ....................
A House on Kildare Street, Dublin.........
Pickiing Turkeys for Christmas ..........
The Birthplace of Thomas Moore .........
Fac-simile of Moore's Handwriting ......
A Proposal ............................
Monument to Dan iel O'Connell ...........
Ancient Round Tower, Antrim, Ireland ....
Shanel s Castle, Lough Neagh, once thle Ilone
of the O' eills............ ...........
Of Milesian Blood.....................
Irish Rural Scene ...................
Water-fall at Glen Ariff ................


PAGH
Tom M oore............................ 67
The Tara Brooch ....................... 69
The Cross of Cong .................... 71
John Grubb Riclhardson ................. 72
Nicholas Malony. ....................... 73
The Shrine of St. Patrick's Bell.......... 75
Piece of Lace-work, unfinished ........... 70
Power-loomi for Fancy Weaving .......... 77
Sunday Scene in an Irish Village......... 78
Of the Old Stock........................ 80
Dunluce Castle......................... 81
Coast Scene in the North of Ireland....... 83
The Giant's Causeway. .................. 85
I .,t;. i i ... near the Giant's Causeiway.. 86
Carrick-a-Rede......... ................ 87
Walker's Pillar, Londonderry ............ 80
"'There is America!" .................... 91
Bathers at the Sea-side.................. 93
Dance in an Irish Cabin ................. 94
Pilgrims at a IIoly Well. ................ 95
Tomb of the First Lord Antrim ......... 96
Peasant Cottages in the North of Ireland.. 97
Mount Erigal, Gweedore, near Londonderry. 99
A Cabin and its Owner .................... 101
A \.. on the West Coast of Ireland... 1)03
Among the Iills....................... 104
Irish Gossips and Costumes............... 105
A Rural Scene in Ireland ................ 106
View of Glasgow in 1093............... 107
View of Glasgow from Sailors' IHome, be-
low the Bridge ...................... 109
Arms of Glasgow.................... 110
The Old Customn-house .................. 111
Oni a Side Street ......................... 112
i .. Cathedral .................... 113
University of Glasgow. ................ 115
The Old Tolbooth ........................ 116
House where Sir John Moore was Born.... 117
Episcopal Palace and Cathedral .......... 119
Street View in Glasgow ................. 120
Fair in Glasgow, from an old print........ 121








ILLUSTRATIONS&


A Glasgow Tenement ...................
The Twa Brigs of Ayr..................
High Street and Wallace Towel. .........
Tant o' Shanter Inn ........ ...........
"There's a line Ilaggis !" ..............
" At the Spoot.".................. ...
Thie Spinning-wheel .....................
Birthplace of Burns ....................
Scotch W\ ashiing i .......... ........
Alloway Kirk.........................
Auld Brig o' Doon ......................
Robert Burnl. .........................
Captain Patoun ........... ...........
John W allace ........................
Lowrie Coulter........................
Dwelling-house of the Sixth Centurty, Arran
Islands ........................ .. .
Door-way of Teampull AMic Duaclh.........
Door-way, Fort Angus...................
Oratory of St. enianl ...................
Edimburgh Castle and the Grass-market....
Night View of thle Old Town ............
A Street in Old Edinburgh ..............
View from Calton Hill..................
Old Town, from Princes Street..........
Iloltrood Fountain ................... .
Covenanters' Prison (ate................
North Bridge ..........................
Grave of the Regent Morton ............
Cellar where tile Union was Signed .......
Fac-simile of Sir Walter Scott's IIandwriting
Portrait of Sir W alter Scott.............
Edinburgh Castle and the Scott Muonument.
The Old Tolbooth-IIeart of Mid-Lothian.. .
Mackenzie's Tomb .....................
Key of tile Old Tolbooth.... ... .......
HIolyrood Palace.... ..................
Lord Darnley .........................
Mary Queen of Scots..................
Door-way where Rizzio was Murdered ...
St. Anthony's Chapel ..................
Leith Water and St. Bernard's Well.......
IIawthornden ........................
Cast of Sir W alter Scott's ead ...........
Portal of the Old Tolbooth ...............
View of Abbotsford, from the Garden .....
Entrance Iall, Abbotsford ..............
The Library...... ....... ...........
Study where Scott W rote.....:....... ...
The A rmory ....................... ...
Tomb of Scott, Dryburgh Abbey...........
Window in thie Refectory ...............
A Scotch Lassie ........... ..........
A Highland Deer. ......................
Tantallon Castle......................


PAGE
122 Aros, Sound of Mull ...................
123 An Island Fishing-village ...............
125 Iona and tie Sound ................... .
126 Crofter's Hut ... ................ ...
127 Ready for Sport.......................
128 Moonlight in the Hebrides ...............
129 Fingal's Cave, Staffa ....................
130 Map of the Hebrides ....................
131 The Butt of Lewis .....................
132 StornowaY Harbor, Island of Lewis ......
133 The Stones of Callernishl ...............
134 Dunfeilan Castle, Isle of Skve ............
186 Sphinx-like Rock near the Butt of Lewis...
137 Near Strome Ferry ...................
138 A Lowland Scene.................... ..
Town of North Berwick ................
139 The Bass Rock. .......................
140 -*-..ii- i. ,,;,. the Game...............
141 At the Putting-green ..................
142 Harbor of North Berwick ...............
143 Auldhame Castle. .....................
144 Street Scene in York ...................
145 York, near the Railway Station ..........
146 | York ................................
147 A Street in York ......................
149 View from Monk Bar. .................
150 Barbican, W almgate Bar...............
151 Mieklegate Bar. .......................
152 Minster Towers, from Peter Gate ........
153 The Black Swan.......................
154 Flamborough Iead, near Scarborough .....
155 Robin Hood's Town....................
156 Landing Fish in the Early Morning .......
157 Scarborough Castle .....................
159 Whitby, from the Railway Station ........
160 Entrance to Whitby Harbol..............
161 Robin Lythl's Hole, near IWhitby.........
162 Whitby Harbor at Low Tide.............
163 Rnnswick, near 'A I. ..................
165 V Ride on a Broomstick .......... ..
166 Sheffield, a General View ............
167 View in Old Sheffield ..................
169 The Manor House .......... ...........
171 A Sheffield Factory. ....................
172 Forging Knife-blades...................
173 Grinding Blades .......................
174 A Finisher's Bench ....................
175 A Very Clear Day .....................
176 A Sheffield Foundery ...................
177 A Picturesque Corner in Sheffield .........
179 Southern End of Windermere. ..........
180 Windermere Ferry.....................
181 Seeing the Lakes ......................
182 W illiam W ordsworlth .. ...............
183: A Windermore Kitchen. .................








ILLUSTRATIONS.


Felicia Hemanas ........................
Rubbiing of Wordsworth's Name ..........
rVordsworth's Desk ...................
Old Bridge in the Lake District..........
The Wordsworth Graves, Grasmcre .......
Ullswater. ............................
Lower Rlydal Falls ......................
Ilioiston Crag and Vale ................
IHaymakcers in the Lake District .........
Doerwentwater.........................
A alanx Cat...........................
Entrance to Douglas Harbor. ............
Douglas, the LManx Capital ...............
Victoria Street, Douglas.................
A Manx Fisherman ....................
Castle Riuslln, Castietown i ..............
" Good-afternoon, Genltlnemen ............
A M anx .. ...... ..........
Peel Castle and Harbor................
The Isle of Man.......................
Thie Hlouse of Keys in Seision ............
Tynwali Hill and St. John's Church. ....
Fisherman's Daughter...................
A Fleet of Liverpool Lighters...........
The Port of Liverpool ..................
Strand Street...........................
The Town-ihall ........................
St. George's Dock.....................
A W oodside Ferry-boat..................
A Liverpool Graving-dock ................
S1,- i ,,- Dock and Warehouses..........
St. George's Hall, Lime Street............
Free Library Reading-room, and Art Gallery
The SNlvainnah, first Transatlantic Steamer.
Log-book of the Savannlor ah ...............
The Exchange, Liverpool ................
French Rock Light, below Liverpool ......
An English Signal-box ............... .
A First Class Compartment.............
The G( nird ............... ........ .
S ;... Office. ........................
Third Class ...........................
Baggage-checks not Wanted ..............
Claiming Luggage .....................
Poilntsmnalln' Room. ....................
An English Railway Station .............
A Peinny a M ile ............ ............
Ifawardeni Castle .......................
The W ild Trishman"..................
Conway Castle .........................
South Stack Lighlt, near Ifolyhead ........
Ancient, anid M odern ....................
The Valley of Ilie VWxv ... ..............
A Castle on the Border. ..................
Welsh Peaisants........................


PAGE pA0E
259 A Solid Citizen ........... ........... 327
2(0 Village Belle ............ ..... .328
261 Heni ry V.' Cradle ..................... 3. 29
262 Ancient Stoup at Monollluthi..' ......... 33 0
263 Cistercian M onk ..................... .. :331
264 Tintern Albbe ...................... 332
265 West Window, Tintern Ablbey. ........... 333
266 Chepstow Castle ................ .... 334
26;7 Tile -I ., ,11... I.. I .... .... ..... 335
268 Marten's Tower. ....................... 33 (
269 View froln Chepstow Castle Walls ....... 337
270 A W elsh Stile.......................... 338
271 Cardiff Castle, ITomen of the Marquis of
273 Bute .............................. 339
274 Entrance to Bute Docks, Carditf ......... 341
275 High Street, Cardiff ................. .. .43
277 New Tower of Cardiff Castle............. 344
278 Crlthose Tower ....................... .345
279 Map of Talf Valley ............... .... :347
280) Ancient Cross at Llandaff ........... ..348
281 Valley of the Taft ..................... 349
282 Leaning Tower of Caerphilly ..... .... 350
283 Pont y Pridd .............. ........... 351
284 Merthyr Market Thirty Years Ago ........ 352
285 A Miner's Child........................ 353
287 A Miner's Wife......................... 354
288 Street and Canal in Cardiff................ 355
289) Sotlherdown Sands, Coast of Wales ....... 356
291 Cliffs near St. Donat's Castle............. 358
293 Old Church near Swansea ................ 359
2904 The Mumbles. ......................... 361
295 A Devonshire Village.................... .3(3:-
296 Receivinlg Orders ...................... 364
297 ; .;,. at St. Ives ............... 365
298 House in St. Ives ............ .... ... .. 367
299 Ancient Cross, St. Ires................... 368
300 A Cornwall Cottage ..................... 3(;9
301 .-. ...-.. : in Cornwall.................. 371
303 The Davy Lamp...................... .372
304 The Guildhall, Loo. .................... 373
305 Near the Coast........................ 375
307 A Cornwall Interior. .................. .376
309 Windy WIork at Land's Enld............. 377
310 The Town-crier, Penzance ............... 378
311 Women Handling Copper Ore ............ 379
312 'Castle at Karn Brea. ................... 381
313 Interior of a Cornish Inn 1 ................ 383
315 Falmouth ........................ 385
31 I Thle Jolly Sailors, Loo. .................. 387
317 Londing Sea-weed on the South Coast..... 388
319 Exeter Cathedral ....................... 389
321 P1orch of the Guildhlall, Exete............ 390
322 At Torquay. ........................... 391
323 Landing of William Prince of Orange..... 393
325 Invalids at Torquay ............. ... .395








ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
Iris Berries, TorLquay. ................... 396
Sir Francis IDrake ...................... 397
Fight betee n anl English and a Spanish
Ship ............... ... ............. 399
A Sea-.ide Group .............. 401
Eddystone Light-house.................. 403
Looking from Shore .................... 404
Low Tide at an English Watering-place .... 405
Bust of Shakespeare (O'Donovan) ......... 406
Irving's Chair at the Red Horse.......... 407
Old Mill at Stratford. ................... 400
A Street in Stratford...... ... ........ 411
Birthplace of Shakespeare ................. 412
The Stratford Portraitt.". .............. 413
Room in which Shakespeare was born... .. 414
Shakespeare's Desk.................... 413
Shake: peare's Signet-ring................. 415
Old Iridge at, Stratford.................. 417
Holy Triniut Church, Stratford............ 418
Avenue ill the Church-yard .............. 419
Poreh of the Church .................... 421
Tablet over Shakespeare's Grave ........... 422
Shakeslpeare Mlemorial lall. ............ 423
Inst over Shakespeare's Grave .......... 424
Anne Hlathaway's a .. .... . ....... 425
By the Way-side .......... ............ 426
Hallway and Ancie nt Armor.............. 427
3Iagdalen College, Oxford .............. 429
The College Governor," Magdalen (..1. .. 431
Dr. Puey..................... ....... 432
Bodleian Library, Oxford................. 433
The Thames, near Oxford ............... 435
Parlor of a House-boat .................. 436
A IHoue-boat in Motion-night ......... 437
The Tow-path......................... 438
Fishing from a P lunt ............ ....... 439)
Taking a Rest.......................... 411
West Front of WVestmlinster Abbey....... 443
NWestminster Abbey and Hall, about 1535, 444
The Choir, Westminster Abey ........... 445
Shrine of Edward the Confessor .......... 446
The Cloisters........................... 447
Entrance from Cloister to Chapter-house... 448
The Coronation ........................ 449
Three Royal Coffins .................. 451
The Poets' Corner (Milton's Bust i ll he
Cetre) ............... ............ 453
Shakespceare's Monument................ 454
Challer's Monumllent ...... ............ 455
W estminster Hall, interior.............. 45
Parliament of Edward I................. 458
W illiamI IR fs ........ .... ............. 4.39
Trial of Charles I ...................... 461
The GIuy ,Fawkes Conspirators (from an old
print). .................. ......... 462


Plan of W estminster, 1647 ............
Joseph Arch ..........................
Thomas Burt..........................
The late Alexander Macdonald..........
Westminster Hall and Palace Tower......
The Cogers in Olden Times ............
S.. .' Hall .........................
A R adical............................
A Chairman ..........................
Sketches in Kensington Parliament.......
Sir W alter Raleigh ....................
Anne Boleyn. .......................
Home of the Marquis of Salisbury........
The Duchess of Devonshire's Dressing-room
Cottages near Bedford Park, London......
Sitr Joslhua Reynolds ...................
Staircase in Reynolds'4 House............
Key to I .. ...- the Pictures...........
"I i .... '.- the Pictures ................
At the Royal Academy ..................
The Bank of England ..................
Garden in the Bank....................
Bullion Truck.........................
Entrance to the Garden .................
Bank-note Library.................... .
Bullion Cellar ................... .....
Gordon Rioters........................
Lotlibury Court, Bank of England.......
Sir Sydney Waterlow\. ..............
London Coffee-lhouse, Seventeenth Century.
Statue of George Peabody...............
Peabody Buildings, Great Wild Street.....
Front of a Waterlow Dwelling ..........
A Three-room Dwelling ................
Dr. Johnson's House ...................
Fireplace in the Cock Tavern .........
Crane Court...........................
Printing-room of the London TimYs.......
The Rehearsal. .........................
The BritishA A y. ............ .......
The Heroine and the Villain ............
The Wicked Nobleman Unasked ........
The Prom pter .........................
Anglers not in Society..................
Anglers in Society .....................
A Grand Reception ....................
Society Captains ......................
Sweet Things on the Staircase ............
The Charity Bazraai ................
Tle Supper...........................
A Village in Surrey ....................
G ypsies ................... ..........
"An 'ansuml Gold Candlestick ".........
At a -,, o .i y .... .............
" PlaY usi a Toon" .













THE BOY TRAVELLERS

IN


GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.



CHAPTER I.
A NEW JOURNEY.-ACROSS THE ATLANTIC.-ARRIVAL AT QUEENSTOWN.-LAND-
ING IN THE TENDER.-MRS. BASSETT AND HER DAUGHTER.-ROUTE OF THE
MAILS BETWEEN QUEENSTOWN AND LONDON.-IRISH EMIGRANTS FOR AMER-
ICA.-THE EMERALD ISLE, AND HOW IT GETS ITS NAME.-PASSING THE CUS-
TOM-HOUSE.-PEDDLERS AND BEGGARS.-HOW MRS. BASSETT WAS DECEIVED.-
THE MONEY-CHANGING BEGGAR.-SIGHTS OF QUEENSTOWN.-OLDEST YACHT
CLUB IN THE WORLD.-UP THE RIVER LEE.-MONKSTOWN AND ITS THRIFTY
BUILDER.-CORK.-IN A JAUNTING-CAR.-BLARNEY CASTLE.-KISSING THE
BLARNEY-STONE.-FATHER MATHEW AND HIS TEMPERANCE CRUSADE.

" THERE'S the tender coming out .f th.: h1bor.". 'i ,'
"T Yes, there she is," was the 1i. ...
"She'll be alongside in a few

The baggage is on deck, and the
steward is keeping a watchful eye !
on us, as he hasn't yet received the
fees that he expects from us."
The foregoing dialogue took
place between Frank Bassett and
Fred Bronson on the deck of the
transatlantic steamship City of Par-
is at an early hour one morning.
The steamer had brought them from
New York, and they were intend-
ing to land at Queenstown and pro-
ceed thence through Ireland on a
roundabout way to London. They -_ --
had travelled much in other parts A QUEENSTOWN PEDDLER.






2 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

of the world, but had never yet visited the Emerald Isle, though they
had several times passed within sight of its rocky shores.
"We are not altogether unlike other Americans when they go
abroad," said Fred, when they were projecting the tour we now have
under consideration. Nine-tenths of them pass by Queenstown on the
outward voyage and go direct to Liverpool; they are in a hurry to get
to London, and determine that they will see Ireland on their way home;


"A PINNY, EF YER PLAZE !"


and their determination is an entirely honest one. But they .linger so
long on the Continent and in England that they have no time to stop
on the way home; and that's the way Ireland is neglected by the Amer-
icans. With many of them it is a question of money as well as of time,
as the majority of returning tourists find themselves with pockets so
nearly empty that they would be no temptation to the pilferer along
the streets or the ordinary hotel thief."
"We'll land at Queenstown this time, sure," Frank replied, "and







HOW THE PLANS WERE MADE.


will have no further occasion to reproach ourselves for having neglected
Ireland." This was agreed to by all the party, and in compliance with
the agreement we see them preparing to go on shore.
Previous travels of Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson are known to
many of our readers.* The present volume is the record of their jour-
ney through the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Those who have read the story of the wanderings of these youths in
other lands will remember that they were accompanied only by their
uncle, Doctor Bronson, or, rather, that they accompanied him. On the
journey in which we are to follow them the party was enlarged by the
addition of Frank's mother and his sister Mary. Neither Mrs.
BaaSptt nnr her io'th.eclhtr had Pver heen .hroard. thb former ,-











.overcomin ,r his mother's fear of the Atlantic by one Iay taking herl to.
thoroughly inspection the sip, she was convinced that it would be both... i ir
Sa s a a b


















her assent to the proposed journey. Mary was so excited over the pros-
pect of a visit to London and the other cities of the United Kingdom
that she lost all appetite for the morning meal, and devoted herself to

"The Boy Travellers in the Far East (five volumes), and The Boy Travellers in
South America," The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire," "The Boy Travellers on
the Congo," The Boy Travellers in Australasia," and The Boy Travellers in Mexico"
(five volumes) See complete list at the end of this book.
e- ._-- -.









ST-FJI'- VI iN I,,E-TOI, ,,




th.o.rohly inspectin the ship, she was convinced that it wouldd be both
--------a---. "_-- z,- -




comfortable and safe, and at breakfast the next morning she announced
her assent to the proposed journey. Mary was so excited over the pros-
pect of a visit to London and the other cities of the United Kingdom
that she lost all appetite for the morning meal, and devoted herself to

"The Boy Travellers in the Far East" (five volumes), and "The Boy Travellers in
South :America," The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire," ''The Boy Travellers on
the Congo," The Boy Travellers in Australasia," and The Boy Travellers in Mexico"
(five volumes). See complete list at the end of this book.






4 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

making a mental list of the fine things she would be able to buy for
herself and her mother in the British capital.
Fortunately for Mrs. Bassett, the ocean was calm during the entire
voyage, and the great vessel behaved admirably, so far as rolling and
pitching were concerned. Very few of the passengers were in any way








.- "' ,.l










OFF FOR AMERICA.

disturbed by the motion of the steamer, and Mrs. Bassett was not among
the unfortunates. She declared that it was not half so disagreeable to
go down to the sea in ships as she had supposed, and said that in future
she would always be ready to go abroad whenever she had the oppor-
tunity.
Her views changed somewhat when she went ashore at Queenstown
in the tender that carried the mails and passengers, as the accommo-
dations of the boat are very meagre, when compared with those of the
great ship they were leaving. They had the further discomfort of a
shower just as they started for shore. The consolation which Frank
offered, by explaining that the frequent and copious rains gave the hills
of Ireland the beautiful green which greeted their eyes, did not wholly
make up for the inconvenience.
"This is the port of call for all the great steamers between Liver-
pool and New York," Frank said to his mother, as they entered the
harbor of Queenstown. On their eastward voyages they land passen-








ROUTE FROM QUEENSTOWN TO LONDON.


iO,
F.4 -
-AL


"'-'. -.' > T ~- -'S^
-A : CTA O-N~ TH... QENT'W RO

A COTTAGE OX TrIE QUEENSTOWN ROAD.


gers and mails here, and when they go west they stop to 'receive them.
The mails reach London sooner by this route than if they were taken
to Liverpool, and you know that with the mails time is of the very
greatest importance."
"How is it in coming from London ?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
"I was just going to speak of that," said Frank. Suppose a steamer
leaves Liverpool on Wednesday noon for New York. Well, it is a run
of five hours by rail from London to Liverpool, and therefore her Lon-
don passengers and mails would have to start very early in the morning
in time to connect with the steamer. But they may wait, and the mails
do wait, until nine o'clock in the evening, when a train leaves London
for I-olyhead. It reaches Holyhead at three in the morning; then the
Channel is crossed in steamboats that get to Dublin by eight o'clock,
and connect with a train reaching Queenstown at four in the afternoon.
Then passengers and mails are put on board the steamer which is wait-
ing in the harbor, and away she goes for her voyage over the Atlantic.
It isn't a trip to be recommended to invalids, or to anybody who wants
to sleep comfortably at night. The mail-bags don't mind it, and we can
say the same of business men, and some others, to whom time in London
is of far greater consequence than the fatigue.."
Why do they call the place Queenstown ?" was the next query of
the good woman. "Does the Queen come here to live sometimes ?"
"Not exactly that," replied the youth; "but she came here once in






6 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

1849; and in honor of her visit the place received the name by which it
is now known. Before that time it was the Cove of Cork."
"It reminds me of New York harbor somewhat," said Mrs. Bassett,
as the tender rounded Roche's Point and came into smoother water than
she had enjoyed outside. "But there's this difference," she continued;
" the land is more hilly, and there's no such beautiful green around New
York as we see here."
That has been observed by many other visitors," Frank answered.
Then he pointed to the terraces of buildings that mark the site of
Queenstown, near the head of the broad bay, which is large enough for
hundreds, yes, thousands, of ships to moor in safety. The harbor is
three miles in length by two in width, completely sheltered from the
storms of the Atlantic, and its entrance is two miles long and a mile
wide. According to the histories, it was a small fishing village until
the time of the Napoleonic wars, when it became an important naval
station. With the establishment of steam navigation between England
and America it increased in importance, and is now a port of great
commercial activity and prosperity.
As the tender came to her dock she met a similar boat going in the
direction of a large steamer that was anchored in the harbor. The
decks of this tender were crowded with people who were evidently from
the humbler walks of life, and Mrs. Bassett asked what they were, and
where they were going.
"They are Irish emigrants for America," said Frank-" the Michaels
and Patricks, the Bridgets and Norahs, and other Irish men and women,
with whose names we are familiar all over the United States. From
this port of Queenstown more than two millions of the inhabitants of
Ireland have sailed for homes in the New World in the past forty years.
It is the great point of departure for Irish emigrants, more of them
leaving Queenstown than all the other Irish ports combined."
The white buildings that compose the town appeared in strong con-
trast to the dark green of the bills. Mary said she understood why
Ireland was called the Emerald Isle, as there was never in the world an
emerald with a more beautiful green than greeted their eyes in every
direction. The shower had ceased, the sun came out just as the tender
touched the dock, and as the drops of rain sparkled on the foliage and
deepened the tint of the verdure everywhere, Mary declared she had
never in her life seen anything prettier.
But other things engrossed the attention of the travellers. As they
stepped on shore they found themselves subject to the examination of






PEDDLERS AND BEGGARS.


the customs officials, who seemed to have a particular eagerness to dis-
cover contraband tobacco and spirits, two articles on which the British
Government lays a heavy tax. Fred took charge of the trunks of the
party, while Mary stood by to aid in any examination that the officials
might wish to make of the baggage of her mother and herself. She
was greatly amused at the question as to whether she had any tobacco
or spirits to declare. The official accepted her prompt and slightly in-
dignant negative, and courteously passed the impedimenta of the trav-
ellers with a very cursory examination. Customs officials are generally
good judges of character. They make mistakes now and then; but hu-
man nature has a goodly number
of imperfections, and these men are
quite up to the average of their
race the world over.
Before Mrs. Bassett knew how
it came about, she was beset by a
group of beggars and peddlers in
about equal numbers, all intent upon
extracting money from her purse. .
They swarmed about her so that
she could hardly move; and had it -- ,
not been for the efforts of Doctor i
Bronson, she would have been in 1
danger of being overwhelmed. The
beggars invoked blessings on her
head; and so forcibly was she im-
pressed by them that her hand made A CAR-DRIVER.
a movement towards her pocket.
She was checked by the Doctor; and when the beggars found their
blessings of no avail, they changed them to curses. The goods of-
fered by the peddlers were "rale Irish lace" at five times its cost in
New York, a profusion of ornaments cut out of bog-oak, shillalahs
which could be warranted to break any head whose owner was fool-
ish enough to encounter them, grapes and other fruit at extravagant
figures, and now and then a sprig of shamrock, which more than like-
ly was plucked from a currant-bush or some similar product of the
garden or hill-side.
"They are an unbecoming lot of folks," said Mrs. Bassett, with
their long cloaks hanging from their shoulders to the ground and their
heads stuck in caps, just as we see them sometimes in New York. They






8 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

must be very poor, for they haven't any shoes to their feet; I wonder
the authorities allow them to suffer as they seem to."
The Doctor explained that many of the peddlers were rich, from the
point of view of an Irish peasant; and as for the beggars, they were
able to make a good living through the liberality of American visitors.
"The English," said he, "understand all the tricks of the business, and
so do the Americans who have been here and travelled through the
country. But the Americans who come abroad for the first time arc
generally taken in, as the spectacle seems to them one of real suffering.
They buy things at outrageous prices, and give freely to the 1 :.-.: -
who pretend to be starving. The beggars and peddlers know their cus-
tomers, and exactly how to capture them."
Later on the Doctor told, to the great amusement of Mrs. Bassett,
the story of an experience of a friend of his at the lakes of Killarney.

.














THE JA.UNTING-CAR.

While going through the Gap of Dunloe he was greatly annoyed by an
able-bodied fellow, who stuck close to him for some time, pleading ear-
nestly for a shilling or a sixpence, with the assertion that he was starv-
ing. Finally, the gentleman said, in a tone of despair, Go away, go
away; I haven't a sixpence; if I had I'd give it to you."
Instantly the beggar thrust his hand into his pocket and drew out a
handful of silver, saying, as he did so:
"All right, yer honor; I'll change a sovereign for yer."
"There are four ways of going from Queenstown to Cork," said
Frank, as soon as they had finished with the formalities of the Custom-







THE OLDEST YACHT CLUB IN THE WORLD.


house. "The distance is about eight miles, and we can go by carriage-
road, by railway, by the river, or partly by river and partly by rail.
Which do you prefer ?"
Mrs. Bassett suggested that the river would be the most agreeable,
and in the same breath Mary proposed the carriage-road. But she at
once assented to the river route, out of deference to her mother, and
Frank arranged to have the baggage carried to the boat, which lay at
the quay a short distance away. Hie ascertained that the boat would
leave in little more than an hour, and so they had time for a stroll about
Queenstown and on the soil of Ireland.
The brightest and least soiled of the boys in the crowd was selected
to serve as guide to the curiosities of the place; but our friends soon
found that they had very little need for his services. Queenstown has
not much to show in the way of sights, as it consists principally of a
street of shops and hotels, that derive their support mainly from emi-
grants and sailors. The steep hill back of this street is covered with
residences, and some of these buildings are quite extensive. A traveller
who has made a close study of them says that the higher up the house
is placed, the more aristocratic is the class to which it belongs. The
finest houses belong to -the wealthy ship-agents and other men whose
business affairs are at Queenstown, and there are some costly structures
where the officers of the garrison make their homes.
Doctor Bronson pointed to an old war-ship anchored in the harbor,
and said it was principally used for flying the flag of the admiral who
was stationed there in accordance with English custom. The admiral
has very little to do, and a staff of officers to assist him in doing it.
Whenever a ship of war comes into the port there are certain formal-
ities to be observed, but otherwise the time is chiefly devoted to idle-
ness. There is a club-house which the officers frequent, and the club
to which it belongs is said to be the oldest yacht club in the world.
It was established in 1720. One of its rules in olden times was that
"no long-tail Wigs, large Sleeves, or Ruffles shall be worn by any mem-
ber of the Club." It is needless to say that this rule was long since
abrogated in favor of something more modern.
Our friends were at the quay in good season, and promptly at her
advertised moment the steamer was under way. The course of the Lee
-the river which flows into Queenstown harbor, and on whose banks
Cork is situated-is somewhat tortuous, but this feature adds very
much to its beauty. The hills on both sides are covered with pretty
residences, green fields, and pastures, and not a few cabins of the






10 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

poorer sort. One of the first objects to attract Mary's attention was
a ruined castle a few miles above Queenstown, and she asked what it
was and who built it.
"That is Monkstown," said the Doctor. "It was built more than
two hundred years ago by a woman."


BLARNEY CASTLE.


She must have been very rich to put up such a castle as that,"
Mary remarked.
"It cost her only a groat," was the quiet reply.
How much is a groat ?"
"Fourpence in English money, or about eight cents of ours."







TO CORK BY THE RIVER LEE.


"How could such a building as that be put up for only eight cents?"
the girl inquired, with an air of the greatest curiosity.
"This was the way of it, according to the histories," the Doctor an-
swered: "She paid her workmen in goods, on which she made a hand-
some profit. The profits on these goods covered the whole cost of the
building, with the exception of an odd groat, and so the castle is said to
have cost only a groat."
That woman ought to have been a Yankee," said Mary, when Doc-
tor Bronson paused; "and quite likely she was the ancestor of some of
the smart people in our own country." With this philosophical remark
the subject was dropped, and attention given to other features of the
landscape or thoughts that it suggested.
All agreed that "the pleasant waters of the river Lee" deserved the
name they had received, and that the river route of eleven miles was
certainly the most agreeable one between Queenstown and Cork. On
reaching the city the party proceeded to the Imperial Hotel, where they
took luncheon, and then started out for a view of the place and a ride
to Blarney Castle.
Frank explained that Cork was founded in the ninth century, and
that its walls were built by the Danes; its site was in a swamp, which
was called Corroch" in the Irish tongue, and it was not at all difficult
to understand how Corroch" became Cork.
But there isn't any swamp here now," said Mary, at least I don't
see anything that looks like one."
"No," answered Frank; "it has all been filled up. The island which
forms the centre of the city was probably the swampy portion, as you
observe that a goodly part of the Cork of to-day has climbed up on
higher ground."
It was unanimously agreed that the ride about the city and to Blar-
ney Castle should be made on a jaunting-car, partly for the novelty of
the vehicle, of which only a few specimens have ever been seen in Amer-
ica. Here is how Mary described the car in her first letter to her cousin
Effie, who had never been abroad:
"It's the funniest thing you ever saw," she wrote. It's like a New
York omnibus turned inside out, the seats placed back to back, and the
top thrown away. Frank rode by the side of the driver; Fred and I
had the seat on one side, and mother and Doctor Bronson were on the
other side. The ordinary cars seat four passengers, but they have some
that will carry from six to ten, and are made for parties of tourists.
The ordinary cars have two wheels, but the large ones are four-wheelers,






12 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

and are drawn by two horses. One horse is enough for a small car, and
he goes along at a good speed, provided the driver is willing to urge him.
"The disadvantage of this kind of a carriage is that you don't see
much on the side opposite to where you are seated; you take in all the
scenery on your own side of the road, but anything on the other is apt
to twist your neck.
"Fred told me a story of an Englishman who rode from Queens-
town to Cork on the hill side of a jaunting-car, and didn't see anything
of the river; on the way back he changed seats with another passenger,
so that he was on the hill side again, and of course had the same view as
when he went up. He denies that there is any river between Cork and
Queenstown, nothing but a' beastly hill,' and says he has been twice
over the route, and ought to know."
For the account of the visit to Blarney we will continue our refer-
ence to Mary's letter. She seems to have been an excellent correspond-
ent, both in her powers of description and the fidelity with which she
wrote to her friends at home.
"We followed the course of the Lee for several miles. Before going
out of Cork we saw Shandon Church, which has been made famous all
over the world by the poem about 'The Bells of Shandon.' Frank
recited the verses as we rode along, and it seemed to me that they were
prettier than ever. They were written by Francis Mahoney, an Irish
humorist, who was born in Cork in the year 1805. I always thought
the poem was the work of a Catholic priest named Prout; but Frank
says Mahoney wasn't a priest at all, but he gave the impression that he
was one by writing under the name of Father Prout.' He was right
about the beauty of the river Lee, but when he spoke of 'Sweet Cork,'
he was rather more enthusiastic than I am. Cork isn't sweet at all; at
any rate, the streets are dirty enough, but some of the fine residences on
the hills may possibly justify his words.
It is five or six miles from Cork to Blarney Castle, or, rather, to the
village of Blarney, which isn't far from the famous ruin. There are
cloth factories and other establishments at the village, but we didn't
stop to look at them; we were there to look at the castle, and so we
went straight to it. It was built before America was discovered, and
is very much in ruins. Close to it are the Groves of Blarney, which
Father Prout has celebrated in his verses, but not so much so as the
bells of Shandon. The groves are very pretty, and a capital place for
a picnic or a camp-meeting.
"The place is kept by an old woman, who took a sixpence for each







KISSING THE BLARNEY-STONE.


TIE TOURIST'S CAR.


one of the party, and intimated that she ought to have an extra shilling
because there were so many of us. Of course we all kissed the Blarney-
stone-not the real one, which is in the wall of the building many feet
from the ground, and can only be reached by the lips of a person who
is suspended by his heels from the top of the castle four or five feet
above. There's a fragment of rock, which is called 'The Ladies' Stone,'
on the floor just inside the entrance, and you can kiss this as easily as
you could the edge of a dining-table.
"Father Prout says of the Blarney-stone:

"'There's a stone there that whoe'er kisses, sure he ne'er misses
To become iloquint.'

"Now, if you find when I get home that I'm unusually talkative
and wonderfully winning in my ways of speech, you must ascribe it to
my having kissed the famous stone of Ireland. The tradition is that
anybody who has done so will acquire, in the language of one writer on
the subject,' the gift of gentle, insinuating speech, with soft talk in all






14 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

its ramifications, whether employed in vows light as air, such as lead
captive the female heart, or elaborate mystifications of the grosser
grain, such as may do for the House of Commons.'
While we were at the top of the castle enjoying the view and rest-
ing from the fatigue of the climb, four young Englishmen came up, and
said they were going to kiss the real stone. And they did it too. Each
was lowered in turn by his three companions. To make sure that they
should not drop him, a sash was tied to his heels, and he was lowered,
head downward, till his lips touched the stone. The first of them for-
got to empty his pockets, and a shower of shillings and sixpences went
tumbling below. Whether he got the money back again or not we
didn't wait to see. He came up very red in the face from his suspen-
sion head downward, and I fancy that he would not care to repeat the
performance with all its risks."
From Blarney the party returned to Cork by the valley road, visited
some of the churches, and gave a hasty glance at the public buildings,
of which the inhabitants are especially proud. The driver of the jaunt-
ing-car pointed out the jails, hospitals, asylums, and similar establish-
ments, and said there wasn't another city in Ireland that had more of
them. Frank asked for the statue of Father Mathew, a noted temper-
ance reformer, and made note of the fact that it was surrounded by sev-
eral drinking shops, as if in mockery of the work of the man commemo-
rated by the figure. Mary asked who Father Mathew was, and Doctor
Bronson made the following reply:
He was a Catholic priest, who was born in 1790 and ordained in
1814, and the early part of his ministerial labors was devoted to the
poor people of Cork. In 1838 he became interested in the Temperance
cause, and evoked so much enthusiasm that in five months he admlinis-
tered the pledge of total abstinence to one hundred and fifty thousand
converts in and near the city of Cork. After that he travelled through
Ireland, lecturing on temperance and administering the pledge, and it is
reported that he administered it to one hundred thousand persons in
Galway in two days. Then he went to England, and afterwards to the
United States, and there is probably no one man who ever did as much
as he for the cause of temperance. A curious circumstance about the
case is that his brother was a wealthy distiller, and was ruined by the
temperance crusade of Father Mathew, which caused the closing of
many distilleries all over Ireland, in consequence of the great numbers
of people that signed the pledge and kept it, at least for a while."







THE DOCTOR GOES TO LONDON.


CHAPTER II.
FROM CORK TO KILLARNEY; PLANS FOR THE JOURNEY; THE DIFFERENT
ROUTES.-BANTRY BAY.-GLENGARIFF.-GALWAY AND ITS CURIOSITIES.-THE
CLADDAGH.--HOW A FATHER CAUSED HIS SON TO BE HANGED.-REMNANTS
OF THE ANCIENT IRISH POPULATION.-A REGION OF RAIN.--IRISII SCENERY.-
FROM GLENGARIFF TO THE LAKES.-IRISH BEGGARS; FRANK'S PLAN FOR
THEIR SUPPRESSION. BEGGING AS A. REGULAR OCCUPATION.--A LITTLE
STORY.-THE KILLARNEY LAKES AND THE GAP OF DUNLOE.-KATE KEARNEY
AND IIER DESCENDANT. -IRISH LEGENDS.-THE SEVEN-YEAR SPECTRE.-
WHERE TIE FAIRIES DANCE.-ROSS CASTLE, INNISFALLEN, AGHADOE, MUCK-
ROSS ABBEY, AND TORC LAKE.-WHAT THE ECHO DID FOR THE EAGLE.

N returning to the hotel at Cork after seeing the city and the few
things of interest it contained, Doctor Bronson found a telegram
which called him to London by the first through train. He therefore
left the youths to take
.-.. care of Mrs. Bassett and
S Mary, with the under-
standing that they were
to keep him informed
S.- of their movements, and
She would join them at
.".the first favorable op-
E IC portunity. He had no
hesitation at trusting
them to themselves, as
they had seen a consid-
erable part of the world
and were well versed
S in the requirements of
'" ,,..' l.,etothemsetravel.
"We were going, as
TIE WITCH'S STONE. you know, from here
to Killarney," said the
Doctor to the youths, "and I had planned to make the journey by the
boach. It gives a better view of the country than the route by railway






16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

through Mallow, where the branch to Killarney leaves the main line.
The railway journey takes about six hours, and the station at Killarney
is about two miles from the lake. There is another route from Cork by
iM i-,,:'iii and Glengariff, partly by rail and partly by stage-coach, but
it takes two days, while the all-coach route can be made in a single
day over an interesting road.
"I suggest," continued Doctor Bronson, "that you hire a carriage
to take the four of you, with light baggage, to Killarney, and send the
trunks on by train to meet you wherever you may designate. Be very
careful about your bargain, or you will find yourselves tricked in some
way. You observed that when we took the car to Blarney I was care-
ful to stipulate there and back.' -lad I not done so, the fellow would
have been sure to claim, on reaching Blarney, that he had only been
hired one way, and an equal sum would have been required for the re-
turn journey, and perhaps more."
After a few suggestions of a similar character, the Doctor left them
to their own resources. How well they succeeded without his guidance
we will learn as we follow them.
They sought to engage a carriage for the journey; but as soon as
they began to negotiate for it, the prices advanced to a high figure, and
there seemed to be a combination among the owners of all available ve-
hicles to make the strangers pay the highest possible price. Thereupon,
the youths dropped the idea of a carriage journey all the way to Kil-
larney, and contented themselves with the route by Glengariff. The
trunks were sent on by rail to Killarney, and the four travellers started
for the station in high glee. The anticipations of the carriage-owners
were not realized, and they probably entertained more respect than be-
fore for the young Americans whom they had sought to victimize.
The train carried them through a picturesque country to the head
of Bantry Bay, where the railway terminates, about fifty miles from
Cork. Bantry is a small town, with possibly three thousand inhabi-
tants, and is said to have been in former times a fishing-place of consid-
erable importance; at least this was what our friends learned from a
fellow-passenger in the train, who appeared to know all about the coun-
try and its history.
"It's the finest harbor in the world, is Bantry Bay," said he, as the
train brought its waters into view. "Just look at it; twenty-five miles
long by three or four wide, and anchorage-ground for all the ships in
the world. As if the bay wasn't enough, Nature has put three or four
harbors around it, so that if the wind gets too strong for weak craft in







BANTRY BAY. 17

the open water, they can run into these little nooks. We could put the
whole of the Cove of Cork into Bantry Bay a dozen times over, and
then have room for the harbor of New York."
Frank was about to suggest that these estimates were somewhat ex-
lr..-.,! I,.-1, but he remembered the nationality of the speaker and the
probability that he might have a landed interest in the neighborhood;
so he said nothing but words of approval, and remarked that Bantry
Bay would be an excellent harbor for the transatlantic steamers.


1'


-. .,,
/
...,, -

l ,4,






II- 7', '
^^ '



III
--/ "


/ ..


A FISItERMAN AND HIS ASSISTANT.


"You're right when you say that," was the reply. It's been talked
of several times, and some day, perhaps, we'll see it done. Bantry's
nearer to New York than Queenstown is, and the steamers could save
time by coming here."
Fred whispered to Frank that he wished there was a Galway man
present, so that they might hear the claims of that port as a terminus
for a steamship route. We may remark that a line was once in opera-
tion between Galway and the United States, and the hopes of the peo-
2






18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

pie of that city were carried very high. But the Galway line came to
grief; and though much talk has been indulged in towards securing the
restoration of the commerce of the port, it has never succeeded. Gal-
way is considerably nearer to Dublin and London than Queenstown,
and also nearer to New York by several hours than the last-named port.
At present it is a sleepy place, with no great amount of commerce, its
inhabitants deriving their principal support from fisheries and a few
local manufactures.
Galway was mentioned in the course of the conversation. The stran-
ger advised the travellers to visit it if it came in their way, but assured
them they wouldn't be repaid for their trouble. This confirmed the sus-
picion that he had a direct interest in the prosperity of Bantry against
any possible rival.
"If you go to Galway," said he, don't fail to see the Claddagh."
"Please, sir, tell us what the C'l I.l.i.,ih is," said Mary.
"Why, it's a suburb of Galway where the fishermen live. They
speak the ancient Irish language, wear the Irish costume-at least the
women do-marry entirely among themselves, and won't allow stran-
gers from anywhere to live among them. They elect a mayor of their
own every year, and he makes laws for them concerning their fishing
business, and settles most of their difficulties. Sometimes they are ar-
rested by the police for fighting, but generally any trouble among them
is referred to their own mayor, who has more control over them than
the city authorities have.
"Then yon must see a house that has a skull and cross-bones on it;
and when you ask what it means, they'll tell you that four hundred
years ago the house was owned by James Lynch Fitzstephen, who was
at one time mayor of the city. There's a remarkable story connected
with that house."
"What is that?" one of the party inquired.
"It is this," was the reply. A son of Fitzstephen had committed
murder; he was tried before his father, the mayor; and the father, in
his judicial capacity, condemned the son to death. The murder was in
some way connected with the local quarrels of the time, and there was
a rumor of a plot to rescue the young man on his way to the scaffold.
To make sure that there should be no rescue, the father caused the son
to be hanged from the window of his own house, and that's why you
see the skull and cross-bones on the building."
Mary thought she didn't care to see the house which had such a
dreadful memory connected with it. Frank told her there was little







THE ROAD TO GLENGARIFF.


probability that she would see it, as their plans did not include a visit
to Galway. Mrs. Bassett was glad they were not going there, as she
wanted to forget that horrid house, and wouldn't be likely to if they
were once in its vicinity.
The stranger apologized for mentioning the matter. Frank assured
him there was no need of an apology, and that the anecdote was inter-
esting. It was an illustration of the conditions of the time when the
incident is said to have occurred, and therefore was worthy of note.
Suiting his action to his words, he recorded it in his memorandum-book.


N i 7


ON THE QUAY AT GALW AY.


Our friends left the railway at its terminus, and had a delightful
drive along the shore of Bantry Bay as far as Glengariff. Sometimes
the road took them close to the edge of the water, then suddenly as-
cended among the hills, and then as suddenly descended. Most of the
slopes were very steep, and altogether the scenery was quite picturesque.
Towards the head of the bay the mountains are in places precipitous,
and many of the rocks are quite bare of verdure. The mountains are
brown in some of the bare spots, black in others, and of a rich green
wherever the grass finds a foothold. Mrs. Bassett wished she could
have a few square miles of the beautiful green of the Irish fields and
hill-sides transported to the country around New York, and Mary thought






20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.


;.l .'l in~iiL t,:, i n el 'rr .. ... _-_... __* .... S" a
month and climb to the top of....
each of the mountains that WTER-FALL AT LENGAR.
looked upon Bantry Bay and
sheltered it from the winds.
Frank explained that he would try to meet her wishes to some ex-
tent; they would spend the night at Glengariff, at the head of the bay,
and for the rest of the month of her desired stay she would be able to
feed upon her imagination. Glengariff has two or three good hotels,
and is quite a pleasure resort during the summer season; in fact, the
spot is so attractive at all seasons that the hotels remain open through-
out the year. The waters of the Gulf Stream are poured upon the west-







CLIMATE OF WESTERN IRELAND.


= .- -
--.I .: f._ _


I.-Il'- I _ll' i -

winter than the
same latitudes in
England. Proba- THE LAKES OF KILLARNEY.
bly the mountains
that shelter the spot have something to do in mitigating the rigors of
the winter. If some one could patent an invention whereby the num-
ber and frequency, and especially the wetness, of the rains could be re-
duced, he might be certain of an ample fortune from his royalties. The
chief drawback of a tour in Ireland, and, in general, of a tour anywhere
through the United Kingdom, is the frequency and copiousness of the
rain.
"This thing is arranged best in some of the tropical islands," said
Fred one day, while the rain was under discussion. There are places
in the world where it rains only in the night; you know exactly at what
hour it will rain and when it will clear off and be delightful. You have
the whole day out-of-doors, without the necessity of carrying an um-
brella, except to protect you from the sun; and if you get home any
2"'






22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

time before midnight, you're all safe. The rain falls between midnight
and daylight, and that's just the time when honest people are supposed
to be in their beds."
Frank suggested a petition to Parliament for the regulation of the
rain, and Fred replied that he would think the matter over and report
the result. As no report has yet reached us, it is probable that he is yet
in the midst of his meditations.
As they approached Glengariff the road made a long descent from
the i i,_-- and bare hills to a delightful glen where the grass was thick
and bright, and the lines of ownership of the land were carefully defined
by luxuriant hedges covered with rich blossoms that converted them
into walls of flowers. Vines were growing wherever they could find
clinging-places, and some of the houses by the road-side were so com-
pletely embowered in them that hardly a bit of the material of which
they were constructed could be seen by the casual wayfarer. The bay
at this point is almost completely landlocked; and though the winds
were blowing outside, the surface of the water was as smooth as that of
a mountain lake. Several islands rise from the bay and add to its pict-
uresqueness and natural beauty.
Several little streams flow into the bay at different points, and as
they tumble down from the hills they form here and there pretty cas-
cades. These water-falls are an attraction for visitors, and our friends
lost no time in going to the one of the greatest fame. Frank said it
reminded him of the Bridal Veil Fall in the Yosemite Valley, of which
it might be taken to be a copy in miniature, as the amount of water was
only a fraction of that in the Yosemite stream, and the height was lim-
ited in proportion. Neither Mrs. Bassett nor Mary had any compari-
sons to make, as they had little acquaintance with cascades, but they
agreed that one must go far to find a prettier fall than the one at Glen-
gariff. Below it the bed of the stream was full of picturesque rocks,
and there was a wealth of leafy trees, bushes, and vines all about the
fall that gave it a magnificent setting. The creamy foam of the cata-
ract made a sharp contrast to the dark green of the leaves and the
blackness of the rocks, and the party was reluctant to leave the spot
and continue its promenade.
Seats were secured on the coach for Killarney, and our friends took
their places for a ride through the wild scenery of.this part of Ireland.
Frank had secured places on the outside of the vehicle, and taken care
that the water-proof cloaks of his mother and sister were ready for
them to don when the first shower came. It came before they started,









RAIN IN IRELAND.


*1,


ROSS CASTLE, LAKE OF KILLARNEY.


and reminded Fred of Mark Twain's pugilist, who "broke up the riot
before it began." A water-proof cloak or overcoat is as necessary an
adjunct of travel in Ireland as a rifle is to a hunter of bears or lions.
Woe betide the tourist who ventures into the Killarney district with
neither water-proof nor umbrella..
From (I.-g. ll the road ascends far up into the mountains, and the
rich verdure of the lower ground disappears. There are farms here and
there, but they do not have an air of prosperity, and some of them are
altogether deserted and their houses are crumbling into ruin. The for-
mer inhabitants have emigrated, perhaps to other parts of the United
Kingdom, or, more likely, to the shores of America, and none have come


--~;- -----


-r-


_~
--- ;~-~--~~--~~
;---

~-~-~, r-~-~-----~

;r






24 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

to take their places. The mountains are i ul_'.:-,, and however attractive
they may be to the eye of the traveller, they are not specially inviting
to his feet. They are interspersed with bits of moorland, which are
broken by rocky ridges, and very often we come to narrow ravines that
the road-maker has not dared to penetrate. Some of these ravines widen
into valleys, while others dwindle down to nothing and disappear alto-
gether. A fellow-passenger described them to our friends, and Fred
said they must be like a road he had heard of somewhere in the West-
ern States of America that began grandly with sufficient width for
four or five carriages at once, but gradually diminished till it became a
squirrel-track, and ran up a tree.
Forty miles of this kind of travel brought our friends to the en-
trance of the valley where the Lakes of Killarney are situated. From
the top of a ridge, several miles away, they caught sight of the three
lakes, and Mary's cheeks were red with excitement when she beheld the
sheets of water in their setting of hills and verdure. She was disap-
pointed at their size, as the mention of a lake ,.i1,-,t,-,l to her mind
something like the vast bodies of water upon the map of the United
States. Fred tried to make a mental calculation of the number of Kil-
larneys that could be made out of Lake Erie or Lake Michigan, but soon
abandoned the effort in despair.
As they descended towards the lakes the sterility of the uplands
gave place to rich foliage, and on each side of the valley there was a
bewildering mass of vines and other green things that almost hid the
rocks from view or revealed little more than their outlines. At one
place the road wound around the side of a mountain covered with green
almost to its top; on one side was the mountain, and on the other a rich
slope down to the lakes. The slope was diversified with field, pasture,
and forest, with here and there the houses of the inhabitants. Some of
the newest of the houses were clearly distinguishable through the con-
trast of their color with the surrounding verdure, but the older ones
were embowered in vines like those around Glengariff, which we have
already described.
The approach to the lake was indicated by the swarm of beggars
that made its appearance and solicited alms in tones calculated to ex-
tract money from the most hermetically sealed pocket. Frank and
Fred held counsel, and determined that they would go on record as not
having contributed in any way to the begging propensities of the na-
tives, and they asked the ladies to be guided strictly by them, and not
to give out a penny, or the half of it, except with their approval.







BEGGARS AT KILLARNEY. 25

Mrs. Bassett and Mary agreed to the plan, and, as a preliminary, each
of them handed her purse to Frank.
They'll be sure to wheedle something out of me," said Mrs. Bassett,
"in case I have it about me. Now that Frank has my purse, I can't be
generous if I would."
These people live by '" 'i., and some of them are said to be com-
fortably well off," said Frank, in explanation of his apparent want of
charity. "This is their business, their occupation, just as much as any
occupation or trade where people work for their living and come hon-
estly by their money. They have a settled purpose to tire you out and








----












TORC LAKE,

compel you to give something from sheer weariness at the repetition of
their demands, and experience has shown them that this plan is pretty
sure to succeed."
That reminds me of a little story," said Fred, of a man who had
been dunned a great many times for the amount of a bill which he
finally paid. When he paid it he said to his creditor, with a good deal
of indignation in his tone:
"' You've dunned me at least a hundred times for this money. I'd
like to know what made you do it ?'
"'Because the ninety-ninth time didn't fetch it,' was the reply."






26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

"That's exactly the principle on which these Killarney beggars
operate," said Frank. They stick to you all day, in the confidence
that you'll surrender in the end."
As they reached the unprepossessing town of Killarney and de-
scended from the coach, Frank saw a priest in the crowd, and a bright
idea occurred to him. Walking up to the priest, he handed him a sov-
ereign, and explained that it was the contribution of his party to the
poor of the parish. The priest accepted the coin, and Frank bowed
himself away. During their stay in the neighborhood they referred
all .,- i., to the fund in the hands of their spiritual adviser, and thus
cleared their consciences of any charge of having neglected the apparent
suffering around them. Their example is commended to other tourists
as long as the i1 ---; i nuisance is allowed to continue. If the British
Government were half as tyrannical to Ireland as some people have
claimed, it would suppress this degrading business by putting every sup-
pliant for alms under arrest and sending him to the poor-house, which is
his proper place, if his sufferings are as he represents them to be.
To follow our friends in their movements around the lakes of Killar-
ney would require more time and space than are at our disposal. We
will quote from Mary's letter on the subject, which was submitted to
Frank and Fred for their criticism before its completion. At their sug-
gestion some of its exuberance was stricken out, through the fear that
any one who came there with the letter in hand and looked for all the
wonders set forth might be doomed to disappointment. The letter, in
its amended form, ran as follows:
"We've been here three days, and are to leave to-morrow. A good
many visitors hurry through in a single day, and others stay a week
and don't find it too long. I could stay a month, but Frank says three
days are quite enough to 'do' the lakes thoroughly. He's seen so many
places that he ought to know. To me the place is the grandest I ever
saw or imagined, but Frank says it doesn't compare with the Italian
and Swiss lakes in the way of grandeur, though it may in beauty.
"There are three lakes altogether, and they are called the Upper,
Middle, and Lower. The Lower Lake is the largest; the guide-book
says it is five miles long by three wide, the Middle Lake (also called'
Tore Lake) one mile wide and twice as 1 ..-, and the Upper Lake just a
little smaller than the middle one. It is about three miles from the
Upper to the Middle Lake, while the Middle and Lower lakes are so
close together that many people regard them as one. Some of the
guides here would make you believe, if such a thing were possible, that







AN IRISH LEGEND.


MUCKROSS ABBEY.


there are a hundred or a thousand lakes in the Killarney group, and
then they'd proceed to collect a shilling from you for each lake. The
guides, boatmen, pipers, and all the other people who make a living out
of the tourists that come here are nearly as bad as the beggars, and
have shaken my head so that I hardly know what I'm writing about.
"The Upper Lake is the prettiest and most picturesque, but all of
them are very nice, and I wouldn't have missed them for anything. We
went along all the lakes in boats, and had carriages and saddle-horses
wherever they were needed. The boatmen amused us with lots of sto-
ries and legends as we went along, and some of them must have drawn
a good deal on their imaginations.
Here's a specimen of their legends: when we were in the Lower
Lake we came to an island large enough for a good farm, and contain-
ing the ruins of Ross Castle, which was built hundreds and hundreds
of years ago. It's all in ruins now, and very much ruined it is, fit only
for the owl's and bats, and all grown over with ivy and other creeping
and clinging vines.
"'That,' said the boatman, 'was one of the castles of the O'Dono-
hues; there was lots of thim in Ireland, and this was the powerfulest
of thim all. P'r'aps yer won't belave me, but it's thrue for a fact that
iv'ry sivin years the chief of the O'Donohues comes back to see his cas-
tle. And yer can't imagine how he comes.'
Of course we couldn't imagine, and asked him to tell us.






28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

"'Well, thin,' said the man, 'this is the way of it: he wakens out
uv his grave and gits up; thin he calls for his boss, that's white as the
goat's milk they sell at Kate Kearney's cottage, and whin they bring
the hoss he gets onter it. And away he rides right over the lake jist
like a bird, till he comes to the castle, and thin he blows his horn, and
there stands the castle, iv'ry stone of it back agin jist as it was whin he
lived in it five hundred years ago.'
Frank asked the man if he had ever seen the castle when it was
thus restored, and how long it remained standing.
"' It stays there jist as it was until the day breaks,' said the boat-
man, and whin the furst bares of the risin' sun touches it, it milts
away and goes off for sivin years more.'
Frank repeated his question as to whether the narrator had ever
seen this wonderful restoration of the castle.
"'I've nivir seen it meself,' said the man,' but there's a dozen friends
of mine that has seen it and told me all about it.' We were obliged to
accept this story as the nearest we could get to the actual facts con-
cerning the performances of the O'Donohues.
"There's a place where the fairies come down and have a dance in
the moonlight once in every three years, and another where the witches
assemble on stated occasions for a grand revel. We went through the
ruins of the castle, and certainly found room enough for the ancestor of
the O'Donohues to hold a council of war and summon his followers to
battle. One of the pipers said he was a descendant of the real O'Don-
ohue, and wanted extra pay for his services in consequence. He played
some Irish airs for us, and put on a good many more when we paid
him off. These fellows are never satisfied.
"We had a ride through the Gap of Dunloe, a very wild pass be-
tween two high mountains, called the MacGillicuddy Reeks and the
Toomies. Before we came to the Gap we passed the cottage of Kate
Kearney. You remember the old song:

"'Did you ever hear tell of Kate Kearney,
Who lived by the banks of Killarney?'

Well, Kate was accounted a witch in her day, and she was won-
derfullv beautiful, according to the song and the legend. One of her
descendants keeps the cottage to-day, and sells milk and' mountain
dew' to thirsty travellers. Kate was evidently selfish, and kept all
her beauty to herself, if we are to judge by her descendant, who hasn't
any. Fred says she's a descendant through another line of fathers and







KATE KEARNEY'S DESCENDANT.

-- .. ,'* .'''*. ^ t
- -- :---"B '{.,-: -;'. ,* .
-Th
~~4.
A3i~~~p~t


I--.c~


THE COLLEEN BAWN CAVES.


mothers, and I guess he's right. I wonder they don't get a pretty Irish
girl to come here and pass for the -t_-.it-. anddaughter of Kate. I've
seen some that are pretty as pinks, and I envied the roses on their
cheeks, which seemed to be just as natural as the dew on the grass.
"There's a brook running through the Gap of Dunloe which they
call the Loe, and every little while it rounds out into a pool. After
getting through the Gap you come to the Black Valley. It gets its
name partly from the peat, which gives a dark color to the waters in
the pools scattered through it, and partly on account of the shadows
from the Reeks. At some places the Gap is so narrow that there is
barely room for the path by which we went. One of the beggars that
was following us missed his footing and fell into the water. We all
laughed, and, would you believe it? the fellow picked himself out of the
water, scrambled after us, and was soon alongside demanding pay for
having given us something to laugh at. Frank referred him to the fund
we had left with the priest; and when the fellow repeated his demand,
he was told that we did not owe him any-tlin-. as we hadn't hired him
to tumble into the water for our amusement or any other purpose.
Our ride ended at Lord Brandon's cottage, and we had the journey
back by boat, a distance of about eleven miles. We went ashore at In-
nisfallen Island, not far from Ross Castle. You've heard the song about






30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

' Sweet Innisfallen,' and it certainly must have been a delightful place
before it went to decay. It's very pretty now; and though it looks
from the lake like a mass of forest, you find when on shore that it has
pretty lawns and glades, with the same abundance of vines and leafy
plants that we see all about here. Fred said the ruins were very much
out of repair-worse, if possible, than those of Ross Castle.
There are several caves that they showed us; but since we saw the
Mammoth Cave in Kentucky last year, I don't care much about any
small caves they can get up here. The
prettiest they have are the Colleen Bawn
caves, which seem almost as though they
had been hewn out of the rock. The
sun was quite warm outside when we
Sent there, and you may be sure it was
delightful to feel the coolness of the
\\c\ caves and listen to the echoes of our
voices. And speaking of echoes, there's
Sa remarkable one at a bluff called the
Eagle's Nest; it repeats a short sen-
tence very distinctly, but gets confused
i j if you give it a long speech. Frank
/ says this is the case with the echo-places
S all over the world."
Our friends took a day to visit Tore
SCascade and Mnckross Abbey, together
with the ruins of Aghadoe. Here is
I Frank's description of these curiosities:
Tore Cascade is a charming water-
fall, sixty or seventy feet high, tumbling
down from the mountain very much as
the old poem says the water comes down
at Lodore. Prettier and grander than
the cascade was the view of the valley
from a point higher up on the path that
--- we followed to reach the cascade; and
LIT ME TILL YER ABOUT THE AIGLE." some who have been all over the coun-
try say there isn't a finer view in all
Ireland. Fred and I wanted to climb to the top of Mangerton M,..,l-
ain; Mary was willing to go with us, but we thought the climb would
be too much for mother, so we gave it up. She told us to go without







THE LEGEND OF THE EAGLE.


her; but we didn't want to be selfish, and besides, we'd seen more than
we're likely to remember.
"Muckross Abbey is an interesting ruin, which is all that remains of
what was an important seat of religion five hundred years, ago. It
serves as the tomb of many distinguished families of former days, and
we found the portions of the building that remain very interesting.
Whatever they lacked in any way, the guide made up in the flowery
language of this part of the world. Mary thinks he has not only kissed
the Blarney-stone, but had a few pounds of it pulverized, so that he can
take a pinch regularly in place of snuff.
"We've greatly enjoyed the stories of the guides all around here,
though sometimes there's a trifle too much of them. The best of their
talk is found in the legends and traditions, as the most of them are of a
very supernatural kind. Here's a sample, which relates to the echo at
the Eagle's Nest:
"' There was an aigle had a nist there for years and years, and that's
why the place got its name. The would bird was a sly one, and she'd put
her nist where it wasn't aisy to get at it. The only way was for a fel-
ler to lower hisself down along the face of the big rock you see over
beyant there. Well, one day whin the would bird woz away, a sodger
said he'd have the young uns out o' the nist onyhow, and so he goes
and gits along rope and lowers hisself down.
"' Jist as he got in front o' the nist the would bird come a-flyin' out
of a cloud. Mornin'," says she to him; and he says Mornin' to her
jist as perlite as yer plaze. Wot yer want here?" sez she. Nothin',"
sez he. I jist dropped down to ask arter the hilth uv yer nice little
birdies." That's a lie," sez she. It's the troth," sez he. No, isn't't"
sez she. And thin she hollered out so's yer cud hear her a mile, ez ef
she woz a-talking to the mountain, Didn't he come to rob the aigle's
nist ?" Av coorse the echo sed, Rob the aigle's nist," and wid that she
hit him a wipe atween the eyes wid her hooked would nose, and away he
tumbled inter the lake, and he's bin thar iver sence.' "







32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.


CHAPTER III.
ORIGIN OF WAKES; ORIGINALLY RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES; SUPPRESSED BY ROY-
AL COMMAND.-" A GOOD SUBJECT FOR A WAKE."-A DISAPPOINTED WOMAN.
-INCIDENTS OF A WAKE, AS TOLD BY A SPECTATOR.-THE "KEENER" AND
HER OCCUPATION. -PROFESSIONAL MOURNERS.-A GHASTLY FESTIVAL.-A
DANCE AND "KISS IN THE RING."-HOW THE CHURCH REGARDS THE WAKE--
LIMERICK; ITS FISH-HOOKS AND LACE MANUFACTURE.-IRISH BUTTER.-
THE POTATO HARVEST.-AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF IRELAND.-THE FAMI-
INE OF 1846; EMIGRATION TO AMERICA IN CONSEQUENCE; ANECDOTES OF TIHE
NEW COUNTRY.-DUBLIN.-CAR-DRIVERS AND THEIR WIT.-TEN MILES WITH-
OUT A LINCHPIN.-A WAGER AND ITS RESULT.-" THE TWELVE APOSTLES."

O N their last evening at Killarney our friends made the acquaint-
ance of a fellow-countryman who had spent much time in Ireland,
and was familiar with the customs of the people. He was ready to give
the strangers all information in his power, and promptly answered the
questions which were put to him.




,/bI-'. _









I -- A j_ J_ L.-' --

VAITING FOR THE FUNERAL.

Mrs. Bassett had read and heard of an Irish wake," and wanted to
know what it was. She was aware that it was a form of mourning for
the dead, but beyond that she was ignorant.
Pardon me if I am a trifle pedantic," said the gentleman, "but it







ORIGIN OF THE IRISH WAKE.


is well to begin at the beginning. Wake' is a Saxon word, and means
a holiday festival. Wakes had their origin at the time of the conversion
of the Saxons to Christianity, and were established for the purpose of
celebrating the birthday of a saint to whom a church was dedicated.
In this respect they were exactly like the saints' days of the Catholic
and Russian churches, and were properly devoted to religious ceremo-
nies exclusively. In those times the Church day was reckoned from
sunset to sunset, and consequently the people began their celebration in


La.q

"lia*.fZi' -^


TIE DISPENSARY DOCTOR.


the evening, continued it through the night, and all the following day
until the sun went down.
"So much for the wake as it was in the beginning. Gradually the
ceremony degenerated into boisterous merrymaking, and worse. So bad
did the wake become that it was discontinued by royal edict three hun-
dred years ago. It was not entirely suppressed, as the saint's day still
continues to be celebrated in various parts of England and the other
countries of the United Kingdom. In Ireland the principal existence of






34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

the wake is among the humbler classes of the people, and it is connected
with the services over the dead."
That's the kind of wake I wish to know about," said Mrs. Bassett,
as the gentleman paused.
"Well," he continued, through nearly all the country it is the fash-
ion among the poorer classes to hold a wake when one of them dies. I
can best tell you what they do by describing the last one I saw in a vil-
lage on the west coast."
The listeners gathered closer about him, and by their movements
and attitudes indicated their interest in the subject.
In the small villages of Ireland the principal amusements are-wed-
dings and funerals, and the tendency of human nature is to make the
most of its opportunities, all the world over. What wonder, then, that
an old person of either sex is generally regarded as a fit subject for a
wake, and that the rest of the population looks forward with some
eagerness to the day when the Angel of Death will favor them with a
chance for a local festivity.
"I once saw a case of real anger on the part of a woman who was
celebrated for the fervor with which she could cry at a wake. An old
man in the village had fallen ill and was supposed to be near his end,
and his friends had sent word to this keener,' or crier, who lived some
distance away. When she arrived he had taken a turn for the better,
and was able to walk about and make short calls upon the neighbors.
Norah the crier in question, pointed at him with a look of scorn,
as she said:
"'Look at the would chate, gittin' up and goin' round among folks,
and me a-coming from two counties away to cry at his wake. He ought
to be ashamed of hisself ; but niver mind, he can't stay round this way
for long, and whin he does go we'll have a mighty foine time over
him. I won't go back to County Cork jist now till I see how the would
scoundrel holds hisself.'
"Well, the wake that I attended was that of an old man who had
gone the way of all flesh and yielded to the inevitable. I happened to
be passing the cabin one morning, and observed a crowd of people com-
ing and going. On stopping to ascertain the cause of the commotion, I
learned that would Dinnis' had died during the night, and his people
were considering how the wake should be held. 'Sorra bit o' nIii, .
there's in the house,' said my informant, 'and the coffin-maker won't
give 'em the box till he's got the money in hand.'
"I entered the house, and on questioning the son of wouldd Dinnis' I







WAKES AND WHISKEY.


learned that such was the case. A collection was then being taken for
the purposes of the wake, but all the people were poor, and the money
was not easy to obtain. So I opened my purse and gave what was
needed to make up the amount.
"Blessings were showered upon me, and I was invited to the wake.


2'1
w~


WAY-SIDE TOILET.


As this was my object in making the contribution, I gladly accepted,
and took my leave, not, however, until I had been solicited for an addi-
tional contribution, 'jist for buyin' a drop o' whiskey.' A wake without
whiskey would be Hamlet' without Hamlet, or Boston without the
east wind.
During the day the coffin was obtained, and on its way to the house
it was followed by many of the people, as though it had been a hearse
on its way to the cemetery. This is a custom of some parts of the
country, but not of all. Those who follow the empty coffin give them-
selves up to lamentations over the friends they have recently lost,






36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

recounting their many virtues, and the grief of the living over the depart-
ure of the dead. When the coffin reached the house of Dennis it was
hidden away until wanted, as it is not the custom to place the corpse
within it until a few minutes before it is to be taken to the cemetery.
"In the evening I went to the house, where several neighbors and
friends had already assembled, and was cordially greeted by all whom I
knew. The late Dennis was lying upon a table with a sheet over him,
and a dish filled with tobacco resting upon his breast. There was a jug
of whiskey, and not a small one, either, and there were cups at hand
for drinking the fiery beverage. Then there were pipes for all who
wished to smoke, and each smoker as he filled his pipe did so from the
dish of tobacco that I have mentioned.
People chatted freely until the entrance of an old woman, who
paused at the door-way, and said: God bless all here God rest the
soul of the dead!' Then she sat down by the side of the corpse and
began to lament in a loud voice. It seemed as though she could have
been heard for a mile or more, and a stranger passing along the road
might have been excused for supposing some one was suffering the
most excruciating pain.
There were perhaps a dozen other old women in the room, and all
of them joined in the lament. This lasted for several minutes, and then
gradually died away as the old woman who led the chorus had com-
pleted the enumeration of the many virtues of the deceased. Whenever
a new group of guests entered the house, it was the signal for fresh
lamentations, which were particularly loud and prolonged when two
old women came in together. I asked one of the party why this was,
and he answered,' Thim wimmen's the tidiest criers in the parish,' an
explanation which was sufficient.
"You've been in Egypt, I believe," said the gentleman, turning to
Frank and Fred. "The keeners, or professional criers, in Ireland are
exactly analogous to the professional mourners of Cairo and other cities
in Moslem lands. Where the custom arose among the Irish no one can
tell, but it is generally believed to be of Eastern origin."
"The custom of hiring mourners to cry at funerals," said Frank, "is
not confined to the countries you have mentioned. It is to be found in
various parts of Asia and Africa and in some of the islands of the Pa-
cific Ocean."
All the population of the village, old and young, was assembled at
the wake, and it very soon became more a merrymaking than a scene of
grief. The whiskey-cups circulated freely from hand to hand, and the







THE RESULT OF A TRANCE.


consequence was that the party became noisy at a very early hour. The
old men and women sat and gossiped in the intervals of the lamentations;
the young people started a game of some sort, which reminded me of
the Round a ring, Rosy' of my childhood days. They formed in a cir-
cle at one side of the room; one of the girls was placed in the centre,
where she picked out one of the youths and saluted him with a kiss.
Then she retired and joined hands with the rest of the circle, while the
youth selected a girl to be kissed
and left in the ring. Then there was
S --a dance, in which all the younger
ones joined, and altogether no spec-
tator would have imagined that it
was a place of grief.
11 1/ "I didn't stay very late, as there
S(," i, I. was quite a chance of a fight when
I some of the party had become af-
-/ fected by the whiskey. Wakes have
i been the scenes of many fights. The
i ,'" Church has tried to suppress them,
but its power is defied, though it is
a gratifying circumstance that the
number is less numerous than for-
merly. The scene is a demoralizing

Uprising that the ceremony is frowned

try.
I/ i I.', i "I have heard a story," the gen-
'*'-- tleman continued, "of a wake where
the supposed corpse was only in a
'' -"- trance. He came to life in the midst
of the lamentations over him, and
quietly reached out for a glass of
FOM LMon.CK. whiskey which one of the mourners
had placed on a chair close by. Tak-
ing the glass and draining it, he soon afterwards sat upright, to the
great consternation of the assemblage, who fled in horror from the spot.
And there's another story of a man waking from a trance under such
circumstances, who was beaten into actual death by the infuriated at-
tendants, who declared that he couldn't impose on them by pretending






38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

to be alive when he wasn't. Needless to say that it was late at night and
they were in a condition of wild intoxication. One of the saddest feat-
ures of a wake is the wild revelry that almost always accompanies it."
"I'm glad we have nothing of the kind in our country," Mrs. Bassett
remarked, when the description of this strange custom was finished.
"We have a relic of the wake," was the reply, "in the 'watching'
that is maintained in some parts of the United States throughout each
night between a death and a funeral. The old custom, now happily
unknown among us, of making a festivity out of a funeral, was also a
relic of what I have been describing, and you will find the wake still in
existence among many of the Irish people who have settled in the land
beyond the sea. But the world moves, and every year customs and
practices are changing for the better."
Various other topics were discussed during the evening, and then the
party retired for the night.
The next day our friends went to Dublin, taking the railway line to
Mallow, where a junction was made with the main line from Cork to
the capital. The distance is 186 miles in all, of which 145 belong to the
main line and the rest to the branch.
Fred wished to make a detour from the line long enough to visit
Limerick, but the scheme was voted impracticable under the circum-
stances, and the journey was not made. The youth's acquaintance with
the city was chiefly due to his having used Limerick fish-hooks in sev-
eral angling excursions, and he thought it would be interesting to see
where and how they were made.
"If that's why you want to go there," Frank answered, "I can save
you the trouble. I thought of the same thing, and have been looking
up the subject."
Then he went into a dissertation upon fish-hooks, which we have not
space for in full. It was to the effect that the English fish-hooks are
made from steel wire, which is first cut into the proper lengths for
hooks. Then the wire is softened, and the ends of three of the pieces
are inserted into a rest or standard, where they are held while the barbs
of the three are cut at a single blow with a knife. Then they are
pointed and turned, and after this has been done the other end of each
hook is flattened out to prevent the line slipping over it. The Limerick
hooks are made by cutting the steel wire into lengths sufficient for two
hooks; the ends are then forged out to the shape of barb and point, and
the barb is undercut with a file, instead of being turned up with a knife,
as is the case with the English hooks. This feature constitutes the chief






LIMERICK LACE.


advantage of Limerick hooks over English ones. The shaping is done
by means of pliers, which are manipulated with a great deal of skill
by expert workmen.
Fred listened with much interest to Frank's account of how fish-
hooks were made, and Mary did likewise. When it was ended, she
mildly suggested that Limerick was celebrated for lace as well as for
fish-hooks, and she had been trying to find out how it was made.
"I've learned something about it," said she, "but not all I wanted












-. '' "''y '


BELOVED BY THE BUTTER fAKER.

to know. A great deal of it is made in the houses of the people, and
that kind is called pillow-lace, for the reason that it is wrought upon
pillows into which pins are stuck to hold the threads. One must have
excellent eyesight to make this kind of lace, as it is very trying to fol-
low the fine threads and see that they all get into their proper posi-
tions. Then there is lace which is woven in looms, and it is so cheap
that the hand-made lace can't compete with it in price. Nottingham,
in England, is the greatest place for loom lace, so far as I've been able
to find out, and I hope we'll.go there and see the looms at work."
You're a good traveller," said Frank, proudly, as the girl paused,
" and I'm sure you'll learn a great deal before you get back home again
in America."
Mrs. Bassett joined in the commendation, and so did Fred. Mary
blushed at the praise for her efforts, and, to change the subject, called
attention to some cows that were grazing in a field near which the train
was passing. They were sleek animals, and evidently received careful
attention from their owners.






40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

The fine grazing in this part of Ireland," said Frank, and the good
breed of the cows are probably the reasons why the butter is so famous.
The butter of this region goes to Cork for a market, and Cork butter is
claimed to be the finest in the world."
The Irish butter had already been discussed by our friends, though
they were hardly prepared to admit that the dairy product of Ireland
was better than that of some parts of the United States. Mrs. Bassett
was emphatic on this point, but readily agreed that she had never tasted
finer butter anywhere than had been served to them since they landed
on Irish soil.
After the subject of butter had been exhausted, the potato came next
under discussion, the subject being brought up by the sight of a potato-
field where several men were at work. Everybody knows that the po-
tato is the reliance of the Irishman, and that a failure of the crop has
more than once caused a famine.
"Many people have an idea," said Frank, "that there is little else
than the potato raised in the fields of Ireland. To show how much they
are mistaken, I've been gathering some figures of the agriculture of the
country in a single year, and here they are."
So saying, he read off the following, remarking beforehand that he
would omit the last three figures of each statement: wheat, oats, rye,
and barley, 2,091,000 acres; potatoes, '.,',: II; turnips, -1^4,i I'I; other
green crops, 1;.,;,1,n ii ; flax, 122,000; and meadow and clover, 1,800,000.
'" ine hundred and ninety-two thousand acres will produce a great
many potatoes," said Fred. Let us see how many there are."
Frank turned again to his figures, and reported that the crop of po-
tatoes in Ireland in a single year was estimated at 2,794,641 tons. The
population in the same year was 5,402,759, so that there was not far
from half a ton of potatoes to each inhabitant.
"No wonder there was so much distress when the potato crop
failed," said Mrs. Bassett. "I well remember the reports of the dis-
tress in 1846 and 1847, and how there were liberal subscriptions every-
where to relieve the suffering. They told us that a great many people
actually died of hunger, and thousands were reduced to skeletons before
relief came to them."
The potato famine in those years," said Frank, was largely the
cause of the emigration to America, which had been growing slowly
before that time, but afterwards increased rapidly. Finding life so un-
certain at home, the people went abroad, and as fast as they earned any
money they sent home for their relatives and friends. Probably three-






EMIGRANTS' TALES.


fourths, if not more, of the Irish in America were brought there by
their friends who had already found a home in the New World."
They used to send back the most wonderful accounts of the wealth
of America," said Mrs. Bassett. I remember one of the stories current
when I was a child was that an Irishman wrote home to his friend:
'Come to America, Dinnis, where the rocks are covered with loaves of
bread, and the pigs run around all roasted, with knife and fork sticking
in 'em; the dollars and shillings grow on the bushes, and you may have
all you want for only the trouble of picking 'em off.'"
"And there's another story," said Frank, "of a newly landed emi-




I II I I -
... 1 -I *{ f m ,




,, )

i i '
"- I 'V~ f .-
L- ...I -;\ ^ r',,r .2 "

".. ,* t ,, <'h



A FRUGAL BREAKFAST.

grant, who saw a piece of silver lying in the street. His friend stooped
to pick it up, but the new-comer checked him with the suggestion that
it wasn't worth while, as they'd come soon where the heaps of gold
were to be found."
It was now Fred's turn, and he recounted the statement of an emi-
grant as to the easy way in which he was earning his money. "All I
have to do," said he, is to carry a hodful of brick up a ladder to the
top of a four-story building, and the man up there does all the work."






42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

Then Mary was called upon, and the only anecdote she could remem-
ber at the moment was about a cook from Ireland who had learned to
prepare some French dishes, and thought it would be a good thing to
have a French name.
She consulted her mistress on the subject, and the latter consented
to put Mary Murphy" into good French.
After a moment's thought, she said, "I have it. Mary Murphy will
hereafter be known as Marie Pomme de Terre." And she went by that
name as long as she remained in the service of her new godmother.
The presence of policemen at some of the railway stations suggested
the disturbances with which Ireland has been afflicted for a very long
time. Frank said it would be a hopeless task to inform themselves
thoroughly on the subject of the wrongs and rights of the Irish ques-
tion, as it was utterly impossible to get at the exact truth from the
statements of either side. Human nature," said he, is so constituted
that nobody can give an impartial account of a dispute in which he is
concerned. In the quarrel between England and Ireland there are two
sides, and neither party can be relied upon. I don't mean to say for a
moment that they wilfully misrepresent the case, but it is impossible
for either to see things through the other's eye-glasses.
"There are no more patriotic people in the world than the Irish,"
Frank continued; and this is shown by the money that has been sub-
scribed and the blood that has been shed in the effort to liberate Ireland
and give her the independence that she had centuries ago. The efforts
in that direction have been more patriotic than practical, as any one can
see who reads the accounts of the various insurrections of the past hun-
dred years. That the Irish were in earnest was very clearly evident,
but they were contending against a military and naval power which
was altogether too great for them."
"Later on," said Frank, "we'll take a glance at Irish history; at
present we will employ ourselves with Dublin, which we are fast ap-
proaching."
In due time they reached the Irish capital, and were quartered at a
comfortable hotel. Then they set out to make a tour of its sights, and
to study the peculiarities of the city which is associated with many fa-
mous names of the Emerald Isle.
Mary ventured upon a conundrum that she had heard somewhere,
in which was the query, Why is Ireland the richest country in the
world ?" and the answer is that "Its capital is Dublin every year."
Fred thought it could be improved upon by using "day" or "hour" in
I r~ j ----p 0






ANTIQUITY OF DUBLIN.


A WANDERING BARD.


place of "year." The conundrum, he said, was made long ago at an
Irish fair, and took the first prize, the second being awarded to the
following:
Why is a timid girl like a ship coming into a harbor ?"
The answer to this interrogatory was, Because she endeavors not
to come near the b(u)oys."
Fred had duly acquainted the rest of the party with the historical
fact that Dublin was a city of great antiquity. It was," said he, the
Eblana of Ptolemy, the Dubh-linn (Black Pool) of the ancient Irish, and
the Duflyn or Dyvlyn of the Danes. It was captured by the Danes in
the ninth century, about the time of the capture of Cork and Limerick,
and during the next three hundred years it was the scene of many
battles. Celtic remains had been discovered in making excavations in
Dublin, the last of them being only a few years ago. The Castle, which
is an important edifice, was built in 1205, but has been so often rebuilt
that very little of the original structure remains."
Our friends had been advised to hire a jaunting-car for their sight-
seeing, and rely upon the driver to serve as a guide. They found one
to their satisfaction, and the man proved so amusing that they gave
him an extra shilling by way of acknowledgment. On receiving it he






44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

thanked them for the gift, and suggested that a shilling additional
would enable him to remember his American friends a good deal better.
Frank said the circumstance reminded him of a story about a gentle-
man who said that it was impossible to pay a Dublin car-driver enough
to prevent his asking for more. IHe offered to wager a supper for half
a dozen that such was the case. The offer was taken, and he and the
one who took it started out together to settle the question.
They engaged the first car they found, drove about for nearly two


K 'N
JIJ~r


A LOVE-MATCH.


hours, and then returned to the club where the wager was made. As
they stepped from the vehicle one of them handed a sovereign to the
driver, and said:
Never mind the change, Pat; it's Saturday night, and you want
to make out a good week."
The driver turned the shining gold over in his palm two or three
times, and then said






ANECDOTES OF CAR-DRIVERS.


"Shure, yer honors wouldn't be after havin' me break this nice
piece, which I wants to take home to Biddy and the childer. Plaze,
yer 'onors, won't yer be after givin' me a small saxpence to drink yer
'onors' health ?"
"After all," said Frank, "though the Dublin drivers have a bad rep-
utation in this respect, they are lit-
tle, if any, worse than men in the -
same occupation all over the world.
Where the cabby, boatman, porter,
guide, and all of that ilk are not re-
strained by law, the result of deal- -.
ings with them is pretty much the -''',' ',
same. The story of the wager is a i.I i',' 'i '
good one, but it might apply to hun- '' i
dreds of other places, as I have good '
reason to know, and with the dif- ..
ference that the demand for more 4', ,
would not be accompanied by so .' ''
plausible a reason as in this in-
stance." ,
Innumerable stories are told of .'' 1
the wit of the Irish car-drivers. It ',',f I
is next to impossible to get them to ,
say what their fare is; they always
want to "to lave it to yer 'onor;" and -
no matter what is paid them, they
insist that it is not enough. Some- "THE RIST IS INSIDE, A-SORTN' TE LETTHERS."
times they offer to carry a passen-
ger for nixt to nothing' at all," but when the journey is ended he finds
that the respective views of employer and employed upon the exact
quantity of "nothing" are materially different.
A story is told of a driver who took a traveller across the country
for a considerable distance, and when the settlement came at the end of
the route there was considerable grumbling at the offer of a single shil-
ling extra. As he took the shilling, the fellow said: "Faith, it's not
putting me off with this you'd be if you knew everything." The trav-
eller offered an additional shilling, and then asked the driver what he
meant by "knowing everything."
"It's jist this, yer 'onor," said the driver, that I've druv ye the last
tin miles widout a linchpin."







46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

An examination of the vehicle showed that this was actually the
case, and the necks of both traveller and driver had been in no little
danger.
An Irish driver is never at a loss for an answer to a question. If
he happens to know the correct one he will probably give it, unless it
should happen to interfere with his prospects of revenue from his cus-
tomer; but if he is ignorant of it he will give the first that his imagi-
nation suggests.
A traveller tells a story of an English tourist who was seeing the
sights of Dublin, and on passing the post-office asked what the statues
on the roof represented.
The driver thought a moment, and then answered: "Thim, sur,
thim's the twilve apostles."
"That can't be," responded the tourist; "there are only four oi
them."
And shure it's right I am, sur," replied Pat. Thim's the twilve
apostles; there's four of 'em there, and the rist is inside a-sortin' the
letterss"


..- -:-' '. .. .-':".' *-7 -' -- ,-
,.. r, ;,:.g...': .' .


Iiir ri -.," T [i r '[ "1i







SIGHT-SEEING IN DUBLIN.


CHAPTER IV.
THE SIGHTS OF DUBLIN.-" THE LIBERTIES."-THE SILK INDUSTRY.-AN ENTER-
PRISING POLICEMAN.-THE BREWERY OF GUINNESS & CO.-ORIGIN OF BREW-
ING IN IRELAND.-THE RIVER LIFFEY. -HOUSE WHERE TOM MOORE WAS
BORN.-TRINITY COLLEGE; A GREAT SEAT OF LEARNING.-CHARLES LEVER.
-OTHER FAMOUS BUILDINGS OF DUBLIN.-ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL.-
SNAKES IN IRELAND; HOW THEY WERE BANISHED.-PH(ENIX PARK.-DON-
NYBROOK FAIR.-ROUND TOWERS AND THEIR CHARACTER.-THE GRAVE OF
DANIEL O'CONNELL.-HISTORICAL TALKS.-TIE IRELAND OF ANTIQUITY.-
EARLY KINGS.-ORIGIN OF MANY MODERN FAMILIES.-TIIE MILESIANS; WHO
AND WHAT THEY WERE.-END OF THE PAGAN DYNASTIES.-BRIAN BORU,
AND WHAT HE DID.

FRED will tell us what our friends saw during their stay in the cap-
ital of Ireland.
"There is so much in Dublin that is interesting," Fred wrote in his
journal, "that I hardly know where to begin, and am afraid that when
once started I shall not know where to stop. The contrasts which the
city presents are not always seen even in places of as great a population
as we find here. The aristocratic part of Dublin is very pretty, the
streets being wide and the houses fine in construction. There are some
beautiful squares in this part of Dublin, and everything is laid out with
a great deal of taste. We have driven through many of the streets in
the wealthy part of the city, and are never weary of admiring them.
But when we go to the south-western district, which is known as
' The Liberties,' there is a different story to tell. Dirt and degradation
are all around; men, women, and children are in rags, and it seems as
though we were in the midst of people on the verge of starvation.
Fights are of hourly occurrence among the inhabitants of 'The Liber-
ties,' and the police have no easy task to preserve anything like order.
In former times the silk trade had its centre here, but very little is to
be seen of it now. The name of the district comes from certain privi-
leges or 'liberties' that were formerly enjoyed by the inhabitants.
Some of the houses are very old; they show signs on their exterior of
having cost a considerable amount of money to build, and they were
once the homes of wealthy people. Now they have gone into the







48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.


A HOUSE ON KILDARE STREET, DUBLIN.
A HOUSE ON KILDARE STREET, DUBLIN.


occupation of the poor, and are divided into tenements of the most re-
stricted character. It is said that at one time over one hundred persons
were found sleeping on the bare floor in one house, and not a very large
house at that!
Frank and I went through' The Liberties,' accompanied by a guide.
We had been advised not to take the ladies with us on that excursion,
and very glad we were that we heeded the advice. The guide pointed
out several buildings that had been the scenes of murders, and in
Thomas Street he showed us the house where Sir Edward Fitzgera]d,
one of the insurgents of 1798, was arrested. He had concealed himself
there, but was betrayed, and when the officers went to arrest him he















t,.
'*0
r. -





0 I''


tfr A


.sa -~


_-i~ -;I-
--: Q



:L; ~-q-
.-I-?:
13


.-..-..


PICKING TURKEYS FOR CHRISTMAS.


----------------------


." :r


-- -


tlr


i

: '--l'.r:-l----- ~Iz- --I-:.' -r






50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

killed one of them with a (d _.'.-i. and was himself fatally injured by a
bullet from a pistol.
The inhabitants of 'The Liberties' are employed at any kind of
labor that comes to hand, and it is proper to say that there are many
industrious and sober persons among them. Our guide told us that tie
curse of' The Liberties,' as of other parts of Ireland, was whiskey. If
it wasn't for whiskey,' said he, 'there'd be a dale of prosperity where
you see nothing now but wretchedness.' Very little observation is re-
quired to show the correctness of his assertion; drunken people are to
be seen on the streets at almost every turn, and as long as they make
no actual disturbance they are not molested by the police. And this
reminds me of a story of a policeman who had just been appointed on
the force, and the very day he went on duty he made an unusual num-
ber of arrests of men charged with drunkenness. When the cases came
to be investigated, it was found that nearly all his arrests had been made
after the victims had gone home and retired to bed. IHe had heard they
were intoxicated, and thought'it his duty to bring them to justice. The
judge reproved him, and said that for the future he must not disturb any
one under similar circumstances, greatly to the surprise of the over-zeal-
ous officer.
"We saw some hand-looms in which the celebrated Irish poplins are
made, though they are fast giving place to machinery. Poplins are tle
most celebrated manufacture of Dublin. The work was introduced by
French refugees, and is said to occupy five or six hundred people. The
manufacturers complain that their product is imitated in other parts of
the world, and one of them told us that not one-tenth of the Irish pop-
lin sold in London was ever in Ireland at all. There was once a large
industry in Dublin in the manufacture of woollen goods, but it has fallen
off greatly in the past sixty or eighty years.
SThe guide took us to the immense establishment of Guinness &
Co., famous for its brewery where porter is made. It covers a large
area of ground, and its product goes to all parts of the world. Our
guide said that Dublin owed this enormous business to the west wind.
This statement excited our curiosity, and we asked him how it came
about that the wind could make a brewery.
"' This was the way of it,' said he. The porter for Ireland used to
come from London; that was before the days of steamboats and rail-
ways, when everything was carried by sailing-vessels, and of course they
had to look out for the winds.
"'Well, one time there were west winds and west winds for a long







WEST WINDS AND BREWERIES.


TIHE BIRTHPLACE OF THOMAS MOORE.


while, so that the country ran short of porter, and for weeks there
wasn't a bottle to be had for love nor money. The agents of the Lon-
don firms thought they would not be caught again, and so they set
about the experiment of making porter for themselves. They hit it the
first time, and made porter so good that it couldn't be told from the
London sort. Ever since then we haven't imported any from London
or anywhere else; and, what's more, we've sent more of it to England
than they ever sent to us.
"'If you don't believe there's money in the business,' lie continued,
'I'd have yer know that Guinness is one of the richest men in the world,
and some say he's the very richest of thim all. Anyway, lie's rich
enough to spend a hundred and fifty thousand pounds on repairing St.
Patrick's Cathedral, and he did it jist as aisy as yer honor would give me


ir,,,






52 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

an extra sixpence for telling about it. His ginerosity is in everybody's
mouth-jist like his porter.'
Dublin stands on both sides of the river Liffey, which is navigable
for small vessels up to the middle of the city, but not for large craft of
the present day. There is a harbor at the mouth of the river, partly
natural and partly artificial, where larger craft may find good anchor-
age. The foreign commerce of Dublin is said to be very small, most of
the imports and exports being by small steamers from Liverpool. We
went down to Kingstown, eight miles away, and saw the swift steamers
that carry the mail between that port and Holyhead. We were told
that they were the fastest steamers in the world, as they can run twenty-
two miles an hour, and have been known to exceed even that high rate
of speed. They are as full of machinery as a watch, and have very little
room for anything but passengers and mails and such baggage as the
passengers carry. Freights by these boats are so high that nothing but
the most important express matter is sent by them.
"There are several bridges over the Liffey, some of them very old.
One that they call the Barrack Bridge was formerly known by a more
sanguinary name, for the reason that there had been much blood spilled
in its vicinity in the battles for the supremacy of Ireland. The tradi-
tions concerning it are too long for me to give, and they are a good
deal confused, owing to the carelessness of those who have written
about them.
"We were shown the house where the poet Thomas Moore, better
known to the reading world as Tom Moore, was born. It's a very ordi-
nary building, and has a bust of the poet in a niche just above the cen-
tre of three windows in the second story. The ground-floor is occupied
by a grocery, and our guide said a large part of the revenues of the
proprietor came from showing the house to strangers. We did not go
through it, as we were told that the interior had been changed very
much of late years, and it was said that the house would soon be torn
down to make way for a finer structure.
Moore's melodies are very popular in Ireland, and in fact all over
the English-speaking world. His long poems are hardly so well known;
but what school-boy or school-girl is there who has not heard of Lalla
Rookh,' or does not know by heart a verse or two at least of 'Araby's
Daughter'? The melodies are for sale in every music-store in Dublin,
and the guide said they had made a fortune for their publishers since
the death of their author, as well as before it. We have been to a
fashionable concert one evening since we came to Dublin, and nearly






TRINITY COLLEGE.


half the songs given for the entertainment of the audience were from
Moore.
"Who has not heard of Trinity College, Dublin, where so many men
famous in life have received their education ? Probably many who were
never within its walls have claimed to have graduated from it, and cer-
tainly the college is widely celebrated and is an object of great interest
to the visitor here. We were shown through a part of the college, and
couldn't fail to admire its extent and facilities for instruction. It was
founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1591, and its charter was confirmed and
extended by King James I. It has been in successful operation ever
since, though it has passed through some stormy scenes. Formerly the
fellows of the college could not marry without losing their fellowships;
but this condition was removed by Queen Victoria. A gentleman told














FAC-SIMILE OF MOORE S HANDWRITING.

us that when the prohibition was ended, every fellow of the college
seemed to consider it his duty to fall in love and get married as soon as
possible.
"We entered the college through a large quadrangle, the buildings
being erected around this open space. The Examination Hall, Library,
and other buildings are spacious and finely equipped, and the man who
showed us about said that the hall of the library was the largest of its
kind belonging to any college in the world. There are many very old
and valuable manuscripts, and they told us that the library contained
more than two hundred thousand printed volumes. The college admits
students of all religious denominations. Formerly the adherents of the
Catholic religion were excluded, and this naturally caused a great deal
of opposition on the part of the Catholic Irish. The managers of the






54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

college try to hold it clear of politics; and in order to do so they keep
a very watchful eye over the debating societies and other associations
formed by the students.
Our visit to the famous institution recalled some of the scenes de-
scribed by ('!i.1, I s Lever in his stories of Irish life, many of them hav-
ing been laid at Trinity College. lie was born in Dublin, and educated
at the college. His books are still popular here, and the salesman in
a book-store that we visited said their sale was as regular as that of
' Moore's Melodies,' or the speeches of Daniel O'Connell. His first sto-
ries were published in the 'Dublin University Magazine,' and he was
the editor of that publication for three years and more. Some of the
incidents in his early stories were actual experiences of the writer, who
is said to have been mixed up in a good many pranks of the students
during the time he was here.
"That will do for the institution of learning which has been the
schooling-place of many famous men. The other celebrated buildings
of Dublin are the Castle, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Bank of Ireland, Post-
office, Four Courts, and Christ Church. We have seen them all, and
they are very interesting, especially to Mrs. Bassett and Mary, who are
not as old travellers as Frank and myself. We might have omitted
some of the sights if it had not been for the ladies, and their enthusi-
asm has helped us along very much.
I've already mentioned St. Patrick's Cathedral when referring to
the handsome gift of the brewer, Guinness, for its restoration. It
stands on the site of a church which is said to have been built by St.
Patrick himself. As he died about the year 495, the church must have
been a very old one when the present building was begun in 1190. The
saint did such excellent work for Ireland that it is no wonder he is held
in such high estimation. Ile converted nearly the whole population to
the Ci, r ~ 1. l faith, and, according to tradition, banished snakes from
the country.
Speaking of snakes, there is a dispute as to where the last of them
disappeared under the influence of St. Patrick, as several places claim
that honor. There are naturalists who assert that the climate of Ire-
land is unfavorable to serpents of every kind. A gentleman tells us
that snakes are brought here sometimes to be exhibited for money, but
they never live more than a few weeks. He also said that moles will
not live in Ireland, and that Irish earth is sometimes carried to Scotland
to cover lawns, for the reason that the moles cannot live in it. There
is an old song which locates the scene of the departure of the last snake







ST. PATRICK AND THE FROGS.


from Ireland at the Hill of THowth, not far from Dublin; it begins as
follows:
"''Twas on the top of Ihis high hill
St. Patrick preached his sarmint;
He drove the frogs into the bogs,
And banished all the varmint.'

"The historians say there were no frogs in Ireland as late as the end
of the last century, but they are now common enough in many parts.
"When we had finished with the public buildings, we went to the


A PROPOSAL.


far-famed Phoenix Park, of which the Dublinites are very proud, and
justly so. Very few cities in the world have parks that can approach
it in extent and beauty. It occupies nearly two thousand acres of
ground, and one can walk or drive about it for hours without travel-
ling the same road more than once. The trees are splendid specimens
of their kind, and many of them are of great age. The Park is a popular






56 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

resort for pleasure, and was formerly equally popular for the shedding
of blood. It is said that in the days when duelling was in fashion there
were not fewer than a hundred duels a year in Phoenix Park, and some-
times the average was three a week. Since duelling passed under the
ban of the law, there are not as many hostile meetings with sword or pis-
tol as of yore, and whenever one occurs the affair is managed with great
secrecy. The scene of several famous duels was pointed out to us, an!
also the spot where Lord Frederick Cavendish was murdered. The
residence of the Viceroy is in the Park, and at the farther end of the
grounds we come to the '1't, .'berry Beds, which are a very popular
resort in the season of strawberries. Everybody goes there, from high-
est to lowest, or at least everybody who can afford the price of a vehicle
and the feast upon berries and other refreshments, which are a part of
the excursion to the famous locality.
We asked for Donnybrook Fair, of which we had read, and were
told that it ceased to exist years and years ago. The authorities legis-
lated it out of existence on account of the riotous scenes that occurred
there. The story is that men used to go to Donnybrook with their
coat-tails .1i.i_. --;1 on the ground, and then issue a challenge to any one
to 'jist tried on the tail of me coat.' Of course some one would do so, in
the determination to provoke the fight that was sure to follow. I've
chalked a band all round me hat,' said an Irishman at the fair one day,
Sand challenge anybody to say it isn't gold-lace.' Irish and other writ-
ers have described the scenes of the fair in former times as a disgrace to
civilization, and it is a wonder that they were permitted to continue as
long as they did. The fair was formerly held in August of every year.
and was attended by the largest and worst part of the population of
Dublin, and continued for several days."
Mary was interested to learn that the Duke of Wellington was born
in Dublin, a circumstance of which she was not aware until she saw the
monument to his memory. She had read about the battle of Waterloo,
and knew that Wellington commanded there and was a great general.
When she came to the monument to O'Connell she asked if he was also
a great general, too.
No," answered Frank, good-naturedly; "he was a great orator,
and one of the most talented men that Ireland has ever produced. He
did more to secure the rights of the Catholics and their equality before
the law than any other man of his time. He made many speeches to
immense assemblages of people; and while he always denounced the
treatment of Ireland by the British Government, he never counselled






THE ROUND TOWERS OF IRELAND.


opposition to the law. The Irish people revere his memory, as you see
by that monument which they erected."
What a funny shape it is !" said Mary; "I never saw such a monu-
ment as that in a cemetery anywhere else."
"There is something typical of Ancient Ireland in the shape of the
monument," Frank answered. "It
represents a 'round tower,' as it is -----
called, of which you've already seen
several specimens."
Mary recalled that she had seen
one of these towers at Aghadoe, '
but she had not thought to ask any
question about it. ,
"They were once very numerous
throughout Ireland," said Frank,
"but at present there are only fifteen
or twenty perfect ones in the whole I '
country, and about sixty which are
more or less decayed. Their use is a I,- '1 .
mystery that has never been fully |11
revealed, though there have been i _
numerous explanations or attempts
in that direction. They vary from ,. -' _, .I .
seventy to one hundred and thirty -
feet in height, and their diameter
is from eight to fifteen feet. They '
are perfectly round, and their doors MONUMENT TO DANIEL O'CON.NLL.
are several feet above the ground.
Each floor has a single window to light it, except the upper floor, which
has four windows facing the cardinal points of the compass."
"Who built them, and what were they built for ?" Mary asked.
"That is the conundrum that has been unanswered through hun-
dreds of years," replied Frank. Nobody knows their history, and,
from present indications, nobody is ever likely to know it positively.
The people have a great many legends about the structures, and the
idea prevails among the superstitious that each tower was built in a
single night by supernatural aid or agency. Volumes have been writ-
ten about the round towers, and they have been ascribed to every race
of people, from the earliest and prehistoric pagans down to the Danes
of the ninth century. If you can solve the riddle you will receive a






58 TIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

handsome prize, which has been offered for a satisfactory and authentic
explanation. Nobody has yet formed a theory that has not been quickly
demolished by some one else."
The modern round tower which marks the resting-place of O'Connell
in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, is one hundred and seventy feet high.
Curran, Hogan, and other celebrated Irishmen are buried in this ceme-
tery, and also several men whose deaths on the scaffold testified to their
love for their native land. Their graves are frequently strewn with
flowers, and handsome shafts have been raised in their honor.
The conversation about the round towers naturally led to questions
relative to the early history of Ireland. Mrs. Bassett and Mary wanted
to know all about the subject, and Frank kindly set about the collection
of the desired information. Iere is the result of his investigation:
Like nearly every other country the world over, Ireland has a good
deal of mystery connected with her early days. It appears on a map of
Ptolemy, and is mentioned in the "Argonautica" of Orpheus and Cro-
tona, where it is called lernis. It was mentioned by Caesar, Tacitus,
and Pliny as Hibernia; other historians allude to it as Juverna, and the
native name is given as Ir, Eri, and Erin. Irish writers have claimed
a very remote antiquity for their native land, and some of them would
even place its existence prior to that of the Garden of Eden.
Taken altogether, it would seem that the country could be traced
very fairly since about one thousand years previous to the Christian era,
and that all before that date is fictitious or mythological. The island
was occupied by various tribes, who seem to have been of the same race
as the early Britons. About the year 900 B.c. there appears to have been
a sort of triennial assemblage or Parliament at Tara, under the leader-
ship of Ollav Fola. This Parliament condensed and arranged the laws
into what was called the psalter of Tara. Ollav Fola (probably the an-
cestor of the Foleys of the present day) was a progressive and far-seeing
ruler, as he founded schools of philosophy, astronomy, medicine, poetry,
and history, and established them so firmly that they were continued by
his successors. Hle may be regarded as the earliest king of Ireland of
whom we have any reliable record.
About the year 300 B.C. the country was ruled by IHugony the Great,
who married a daughter of the King of Gaul, made war upon the Picts
until they consented to pay tribute, and divided Ireland into twenty-
five provinces for administrative purposes. Previous to his time the
kings had been elected by the different tribes or provinces. Hugony
thought he would improve on this plan, as there was great jealousy






HUGONY AND HIS WORK.


aImong the tribes, and the elections were often the
.. ,, ...1. f .. l..- 1 ,1 ...,.1, I n ib ; i. .-, t h -t,, i
:, ,. ,,i i l.: ,,, l ,t h ,.* l ,!.- .i t I ,*I '.- t i ,,..,, ," .

,,. it l I l. [i .I t i t i Il.l, ..*.. J.t .


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1111 V 1b i l*. **- i r 1. 1 le li s I


t



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a~Id-L+


4


BONN "s


ANCIENT ROUND TOWER, ANTRIM, IRELAND.

clans. One of the rebellions was so successful that the King was forced
to give up half his dominions to the King of Munster, and the line of


I,;

h.-t






60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

division between them was marked by a ditch, which extended froi
Dublin to Galway. This separation lasted only a year, and the country
fell under the control of Conn Keadcahagh, or Conn of the hundred bat-
tles. His grandson Cormac (ancestor of the M'Cormacks) was a great
warrior as well as a statesman. During his reign Fin M'Cool, or Fingai.
organized a military brotherhood, which was hostile to the King anil
made considerable opposition, but it was conquered during the reign of
Cormac's successor.
You have often heard the term 'Milesians' applied to the Irisi
people," said Frank to his mother. "Now, what do you suppose was
the origin of the word ?"
"I don't know, I'm sure," replied Mrs. Bassett. I always supposed
it was another way of saying they were natives of Ireland."
"I always thought so too," answered the youth, "but find I was
mistaken. There was a Spanish warrior named Mileagh, who invaded
Ireland before the Christian era, and settled there with his followers.
His people were called Milesians, and in a few centuries they were so
mingled with the original inhabitants that their identity as a distinct
race was lost. But traces of them are preserved in the people that we
see about us to-day. Haven't you observed that some of the girls have
long, coal-black, silken hair, while others have the hair of a very posi-
tive auburn hue ?"
Mrs. Bassett had already remarked it, and said she was speaking to
Mary on that very subject only a few hours before.
"Well," continued Frank, "the dark-haired ones are of Milesian
blood, while the blondes belong to the more ancient stock. The same
characteristics are observable among the men, some having dark hair
and beards, while others run very much to a sandy hue."
Leaving this dissertation upon the Milesians and their origin, Frank
returned to the historical discussion.
Nial (O'Neil) was the last but one of the pagan kings, and his suc-
cessor, Dathi, was the last of the line. They were both inclined to war,
the former being killed in battle on the banks of the Loire in France.
and the other losing his life in the same way at the foot of the Alps.
Altogether, Ireland is said to have had a hundred and seventy-one kings.
The royal families were sufficiently numerous to furnish many lines of
descent, and this is the reason why so many people of the present day
can trace their ancestry to a throne.
Now we come," said Frank, to the establishment of Christianity
and the troubles that arose between Ireland and England. The Danes







THE DANISH INVASION AND BRIAN BORU.


-- -I--a-IBCCEp?


LiE. -


* -. ~


SHARES CASTLE, LOUGH NEAGH, ONCE THE HOME 'OF THE O'NEILLS.

and Normans invaded Ireland in the eighth and ninth centuries, built
Dublin and other cities, or greatly enlarged the settlements that they
found there, and gave an impetus in the direction of civilization that
the country had not before known. Naturally the native Irish resented
this invasion, and rose against the invaders. Several battles were fought,
in fact many of them, and a vast quantity of blood was shed. The most
successful warrior against them was Brian Boru, whose name is ievered
among the Irish people everywhere, and from whom the O'Brians, or
O'Briens, claim their descent."
"I've seen him mentioned very often," said Mary, "and wondered
what it was that made him famous."
"It was his successful warfare against the Danes," was the reply.
" He besieged them. in Limerick and Waterford, and compelled them to
pay tribute to him. He made himself supreme ruler of Ireland; and in


J


a. ~~~-~~-~2-Z~c=I~.

.~SLair-
-~--






(i6 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

order to do so, put aside the legitimate families of O'Neills and O'Me-
laghlins (O'Laughlins). This reminds me that I once heard of a fight in
New York between two Irishmen, Kennedy and O'Neill, growing out of
the action of Brian Boru (the son of Kennedy, King of Munster) in the
year 1002, nearly nine centuries before the quarrel on Manhattan Island.
Brian Boru's palace was at Kinc,-
ra, County Clare, and he had two other
palaces, one at Tara and one at Cashel."
| -i i iJ Mary asked if that was the palace
the one at Tara, of which the poet
I/l \ 4 Moore speaks in his melody about
/j ,." \ ," '' The harp that once through Tara's halls
Il The soul of music shed."

S" I suppose it is," Frank answered.
"as the historians seem to agree pretty
q /I well as to there having been a royal pal-
S,' i ace there. Of course it can hardly have
been a palace such as we understand a
building of that sort to-day. But let us
go back to Brian Boru and what he did.
It is said that in his reign the laws
were so strictly administered that a lad '
could travel from one end of the king-
dom to the other with a gold ring on the
top of a wand in perfect safety. It has
been surmised that the custom of the
S\ v time was for ladies to wear their rings
S in this way and not on their fingers.
S You remember the lines in one of
/- Moore's poems:
''Rich and rare were the gems she wore,
And a bright gold ring on her wand she bore;
oF MILSIAN BLOOD. But, oh! her beauty was far beyond
Her sparkling gems and snow-white wand.'
"Brian Born had his final battle with the Danes at Clontarf, a vil-
lage near Dublin. The battle was a defeat for the Danes, but the vic-
tory of the Irish was saddened by the death of Brian and his son, and
also of other of the native leaders. The Danes had no power in Ireland
outside of Dublin after this battle. They remained in the city, however,






THE BATTLE OF CLONTARF.


for more than a hundred years later, when they were driven out by the
English, who made up their minds for the conquest of Ireland."
"What was the date of the ('l.. ti. I' battle ?" asked Fred.
"The battle was fought on Good Friday, 1014. The country, after
his death, was broken up into five kingdoms and many small principali-
ties, which were constantly at war with each other. This made Ireland
an easy prey for the English when they came here in the latter part of
the twelfth century, and the country fell into their hands with very
little opposition.
"That will do for this evening," said Frank, glancing at the clock.
Some other time we'll have a further talk on the subject." The oth-
ers thanked him for the information he had given them, and Mary was
particularly grateful for being instructed as to the origin of many fa-
miliar names.



- .---i


I -M


IRISH RURAL SCENE.







64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.


CHAPTER V.
THIE VALE OF AVOCA.-THE MEETING OF THE WATERS.-EXCURSION TO COUNTY
WICKLOW( ; FAVORITE RESORT OF THE PEOPLE OF DUBLIN.-THE DARGLE .-
LOVER'S LEAP; AN INTERESTING LEGEND.-PHOUL-A-PHOUCA FALL.-THE
SPIRIT IIORSE.-TOIMY CUTTINGS'S ADVENTURE.-"WHERE THE BRIGHT WA-
TERS MEET." GOLD-MINES IN WICKLOW. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN
IRELAND.- WOOLLEN AND LINEN INDUSTRIES.-REPRESSIVE LAWS OF ENG-
LISII RULERS.--TEXTILE FABRICS IN ANCIENT IRELAND.-LEGEND OF THE
MIRACULOUS SPRING.-BELFAST; ITS GENERAL APPEARANCE AND CHARIAC-
TER.-FUNNY STORY OF IRISH SHIP-BUILDING.-ORIGIN OF THE TEMPERANCE
MOVEMENT.-RELIGIOUS RIOTS IN BELFAST AND THEIR SUPPRESSION.

'" THEN I was called for breakfast," said Mary, the next in. in; .
I' was looking through Moore's Melodies,' and had just got to
'The Meeting of the Waters.' How charming is the beginning:

"'There is not in the wide world a valley so sweet
As that vale in whose bosom the bright waters meet.'"

"Well," said Frank, yon shall have an opportunity to judge of the
correctness of the statement, as we're going to County Wicklow to-day
and will see the Yale of Avoca, where the scene of the poem is laid."
"Won't that be delightful!" exclaimed the girl, and she fairly danced
with joy, making the circuit of the room.
Mrs. Bassett echoed her views, and ..L-'.t,;l that a good break-
fast would make it more delightful, and enable them to bear whatever
fatigues were connected with the journey. Fred agreed with her, and
Mary became demure at once, and signified her intention of following
the example of the rest.
A carriage took the travellers to the railway station, and the train
whirled them quickly into County Wicklow, which is claimed to be the
prettiest county of Ireland; at any rate, such is what you will hear
from its inhabitants. It is proper to say that there is a certain amount
of jealousy on this point, and the rest of the country is prepared to dis-
pute tlhe views of Wicklow.
The impartial stranger will certainly agree that County Wicklow is
a very pretty region, though policy may dictate his withholding the







COUNTY WICKLOW. 65




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WATER-FALL AT GLEN AlRFF,

are many of the houses that the traveller who looks from the railway
train would not be aware of the extent to which the country has been






66 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

occupied by city people. This was the case with our friends; and nei-
ther Mrs. Bassett nor Mary was aware of it until informed by Frank
and Fred. The railway wound through a very picturesque country, and
carried them rapidly to their destination. Frank said it was a pity they
were obliged to travel so fast, and he more than half wished that the
old system of posting was still in vogue. However," said he, we'll
accept things as we find them, and perhaps the railway will show us
enough of the beauties of Wicklow to satisfy us, at least till we can
come again and look for more."
Their first stop was at Bray, where they took a carriage to the Dar-
gle, a beautiful glen, which is a favorite resort of the people of Dublin.
It is a deep ravine, with steep hills on each side, and the hills are cov-
ered to their tops with a thick growth of trees, save in a few places
where the absence of soil does not leave sufficient clinging ground for
their roots. In the centre of the glen is a steep crag, called "The Lov-
er's Leap," and of course there are many stories concerning it. A guide
had joined the party, and, in answer to a request on the part of Frank,
he gave some of the legends, of which the best is the following:
"A long time ago there was a lady whose lover died suddenly, and
she knew nothing about it until she heard the bell tolling for his fu-
neral. Every night she went and sat by his grave, and no matter how
much her friends tried to persuade her, she would not come home till
after sunrise the next morning.
One day she told her sister that her lover had risen from the grave,
and had promised to walk with her in the glen as soon as the sun went
down. Then her friends knew that she was out of her mind, and they
tried to shut her in the house, and thought they had her safe. But she
managed to get out; and when they found she had gone, her brother
went straight to the church-yard. He was just in time to see her run-
ning, or almost flying, to the Dargle. He followed as fast as he could,
but could not stop her. She jumped from the top of the cliff into the
river, and every midsummer night since then her spirit comes here, and
can be seen floating in the air on its way from the church-yard to the
glen. Sometimes it takes the shape of a white fawn, that runs through
the forest and jumps from the cliff that you see there. Ever since then
it has been called The Lover's Leap.' "
A very good story," said Mary, as the guide paused.
Thus encouraged, the guide gave them a bit of history, to the effect
that during the various revolutionary disturbances for which Ireland is
noted, the mountains of County Wicklow have often sheltered the rebels.







HOW A REBEL GENERAL ESCAPED. 67
There was once," said he, "a rebel general here-it was in the revolu-
tion of 1798-who was so close beset by the military and the police that
he could see no way of getting out. He had been wounded in the head,
which of course was a mark by which they might know him; but he got
away by his impudence, and nothing else. He walked boldly up to a
party of soldiers, and asked which way the army had gone, and he de-
nounced the rebels who had
robbed him of his horse and
hat. They showed him which
way the army was, and he fol-
Slowed, and then he turned off
into the bushes and got safe-
T .ly away."
SFrom the Dargle our
friends paid a visit to the
i demesne of Powerscourt,
which is one of the finest
estates in Ireland. It con-
tains about fourteen hundred
acres, and the buildings are
S, extensive and constructed
,. ,p p htwith much taste. It is the
property of Lord Powers-
court, and a great deal of
money has been expended
upon the grounds. There
TOM MOORE. are several water-falls on the
slopes of the mountains sur-
rounding the estate, and one of them, Powerscourt Fall, has in the sea-
son of floods a perpendicular descent of nearly three hundred feet. In
ordinary times, however, it is a good deal broken by the rocks over
which the stream tumbles, and much of its beauty is lost.
There is another interesting cascade in Wicklow, called the Phoul-a-
Phouca Fall, where the river Liffey is precipitated over a steep rock into
a deep pool, which has been worn into a gigantic bowl by the action of
the water through centuries and centuries of time. The term Phoul-a-
Phouca applies more particularly to the pool than to the cascade, and of
course there's a legend connected with it. The whirlpool at the bottom
of the fall is said to be unfathomable, and is the haunt of a spirit-horse,
the Phoul-a-Phouca, that hires people to the brink of the cataract, to






68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

drown them beneath the waters. The only person who ever escaped
was a little tailor, who started out one night to carry a pair of breeches
which he had been making for the priest, and was under contract to
deliver as soon as they were done. His name was Tommy Cuttings,"
said the guide; "and when you know his name you'll know the story
is true. His rale name was Moloney, but they called him Cuttings'
because he was a tailor.
"It was just after dark when he started, and he hadn't gone fur
before a fine black horse come up and asked him if he wanted a ride.
Tommy didn't like the looks of a horse that could talk, but he knew he
could get along faster, and, besides, the horse tould him to get on whether
or no. Tommy had never rode any beast in his life, except it was a
pig, when he was a boy. Of course he always mounted a pig by taking
hold of the tail and sliding up his back, and he started to get on the
black horse the same way. With that the beast guy an awful kick, and
told Tommy to come around to the side and take a hold of his mane.
Tommy trembled for his life, but he did as he was bid, and when lie
touched the critter's mane he found himself on his back in no time.
Away wint the horse as soon as Tommy was mounted, and he wint
like wind, with his feet never touching the ground. When he come
to the edge of the cliff above the fall he guy a shake, and Tommy wint
overboard as though he had been shot from a gun. How he ever got
out nobody can tell; and he's the only one that ever did get out after
he'd been shook over by the spirit-horse. Tommy come home all wet
to the skin, and widout the priest's breeches, which he'd lost in the wa-
ter. He never wint out-o'-doors after dark again in all his life, though
he lived to a good old age, rispicted by all his neighbors."
Our friends returned to Bray in season to take a train that carried
them to the station near where the bright waters meet." They spent
the night at a comfortable hotel in the neighborhood, and after visiting
the famous spot, returned to Dublin by the way they had come. Here
is Fred's account of their experiences:
"The spot is very pretty, but if any one comes here with his hopes
raised as high as they may be by Moore's verses, he is likely to be disap-
pointed. He will be forced to remember other lines of the poet, in which
he says, "Twas not the soft magic of streamlet or hill,' but 'the friends
of his bosom' who were there to meet him. Happily we were four
friends together, and so we did not lose much enjoyment.
"The famous meeting of the waters is formed by the junction of the
rivers Avonmore and A.-:-iil.e-. which together form the Avoca, just as






THE VALE OF AVOCA.


the Alleghany and the Monongahela form the Ohio. The' Sweet Vale
of Avoca' extends from the meeting-point to the town of Arklow, a dis-
tance of about seven miles. There are other valleys in the world, and
a good many of them too, that are just as attractive; but altogether we
think that the poet was justified in his work, when
due allowance is made for the license which is per-
mitted to men of genius. Where the two rivers
n ', iii. tiitri ni- ns form a little lake,

low bushes, and
the picture is
I fi framed in
n monuntains,
one forming
S' a background
I... in the distance,
S, -. iand the other
rising near at hand
o o "f"- ,,iti ... .-,:1 l i;th a rich forest. They
I ,.i .... til.: spot where Moore is
s n t h t ,i tdh i~:i- In te verses. In a note
.- ibe ., """1 ''.-m v- composed in 1807, but
1," hI ..- tinc .iln- ai i l o e. :- ,., \ that the rivers which
Iw-I I: II.- ,.- A "...1 N A.. a-, i -a they are really the
aiI.ueof .an. .ii uAil ,nL. p, ,n- ais e v.. t, as already stated.
SII, ,1 .1,- ,l ,S ,.it, ... Ir are in the neighbor-
l-....., i.. w, li.i n,,t .-I t th- mu. Ii. r._ ,ide told us there were
g.,hll- ,i i n iii- i eWi,- i,.. i n.- ,AIl ,i .. an d that they had
-o.. w i.l:., ,i .t .i.. it t .. lli in ..- .i very profitably. And
speaking of gold in Ireland, it is evident that '\ there were fine de-
posits of the precious metal known to the an- cient inhabitants.
Every few years there is a find' of gold ornaments of different kinds,
some of them of considerable weight, and all made of fine metal. There
was one that weighed thirty-six ounces, and another weighing twenty-
seven ounces and a trifle more. In the Wicklow mountains gold to the
value of many thousand pounds has been taken out, and it. was so fine
that the Dublin jewellers used to buy it of the peasants by giving weight
for weight in coin. The alloy in the coin gave them sufficient profit
on their purchases.
Many of the ornaments of gold and silver that have been found by
5"






70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

the peasantry have unfortunately gone into the melting-pot and been
lost to the world, but a goodly number have been preserved, and are
now in public or private collections. That the workers in these metals
were very skilful and quite equal to many of the jewellers of the present
day is very evident from the specimens that we have seen. Look at the
picture of one of these specimens known as the Tara Brooch, which is
made of bronze, silver, and gold, jewelled and enamelled, and then bear
in mind that it was made hundreds and hundreds of years ago. Look,
too, at the Cross of Cong, which is quite as old, and made in the same
way. If you ever go to Dublin don't fail to see the collection in the
Royal Irish Academy, and in Trinity College."
Having finished with Dublin and its neighborhood, our friends went
northward in the direction of Belfast. As they rode out of the capital
Fred remarked that they were leaving the largest Irish city, and would
henceforth be obliged to put up with smaller ones.
You're wrong there," said Frank, "this is not the largest Irish city
by a great deal."
"Certainly it is," was the reply, "look at the populations; let me
read them to you."
Thereupon Fred read the following, omitting the odd hundreds from
each statement:
"Dublin, '4-:,i..>; Belfast, 207,000; Cork, 78,000, and the rest of
the Irish cities are smaller still."
"You have forgotten New York," said Frank, with a smile. It
has more inhabitants of Irish birth or parentage than Dublin, and there-
fore may be called the largest Irish city, just as it may be called the
fifth German one."
Fred promptly acknowledged that he had been sold," to the great
amusement of Mrs. Bassett and Mary; the conversation was changed
to something else as soon as the laugh had subsided.
Soon after leaving Dublin the train passed a large building which
appeared to be a factory. Frank asked a gentleman who was in the
same compartment of the railway carriage what the building was.
"It's a woollen factory," was the reply. Most of the woollen in-
dustry of Ireland is in Dublin or its vicinity, but I'm sorry to say there
isn't a great deal of it. You probably visited Blarney on your arrival
in Ireland, if you came here from America, and must have seen the
factories there." Frank replied that they were at Blarney Castle, and
passed through the village, which appeared to be prosperous, though
they did not visit the factories there.







IRISH WOOLLEN INDUSTRIES.


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T IqE CROSS OF CONG.






72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

that the cloths from the factory were always in demand at prices
which gave an excellent return.
You must know," said he, that Ireland was for hundreds of years
burdened with many exactions that were calculated to destroy her indus-
tries. They began during the reign of Henry VIII. with an act of Par-
liament that forbade the impor-

England, and this was followed
during the time of Queen Eliza-
beth by a similar decree. Then
la, the Irish manufacturers sought
to introduce their goods into
foreign markets, and did so with
great success until, by a decree
of C('i.-t i-s I., Irish manufactur-
ers were forbidden to export to
foreign countries as well as to
England."
"What was the object of
that ?" Frank asked.
The object was to kill the
industry altogether, and force
the Irish to buy their goods in
England. Other enactments fol-
JOIIN GRUBB RICIIARDSON. lowed in the reign of William
III., and armed ships were sta-
tioned in and near all the Irish ports to enforce the requirements of the
law. The Irish woollen manufacture was completely ruined, and the
operatives were thrown into the greatest distress. Many of them emi-
grated to Germany and France, and others to America; the statistics
show that twenty thousand went to America and helped to build up
the weaving industry there. The restrictions were removed in 1780,
but in the mean time the industry had been so built up in England and
Scotland that it took some time for the Irish manufacturers to be able
to compete successfully. There was a revival of business in Ireland soon
after the removal of the restrictions, but it did not last long; manufac-
turing industry languished until the great famine in 1847, when it seemed
to have died out altogether, with the exception of the linen industry of
Belfast and its vicinity, the brewing and distilling interests of Cork and
Dublin, and the lace-making of Limerick."






LINEN FACTORIES.


The youths listened attentively to the recital of the manufacturing
troubles of Ireland, and Frank remarked that the men who had built
up the industries of the country in the face of so much difficulty were
deserving of much praise.
"Certainly they are," was the reply, and one of the most deserving
among them is Mr. Richardson, John Grubb Richardson, of Bessbrook,
in Armagh. His father went into the business in 1846, in a small way,
and ever since then the factory and its accessaries have been grow-
ing. It is one of the model establishments of the world," he continued;
"it has twenty-two thousand spindles, and a proportionate number of
looms; employs four thousand people, and has a town of five hundred
houses around the factories. This town is a model in its way, and it's a
great pity there are not more towns like it."
Why so?"
"Because it contains churches, schools, libraries, a savings-bank, and
a post-office, but not a drinking-shop, poor-house, police-station, pauper,
or policeman. Where is there
another place, of as many inhab-
itants, of which the same can be
said?"
Frank was unable to name
one, and Fred was in the same
quandary. Their informant then
went on to say that the Irish
manufacturers practically con-
trolled the linen trade of the
world. They have," said he,
" ,11,1,,0 spindles in their mills,
while the combined force of Eng-
land and Scotland is 337,000. -
They have -'-', I power-looms,
while England has 4000, and
their annual product is worth
12,000,000, or U.. 1i ,.-n-u n of
your money. They import large NICHOLAS MAHONY.
quantities of flax, notwithstand-
ing that Ireland is one of the best countries in the world for producing
that article."
There was a pause of a few minutes, and then Frank said he had
read somewhere that the people of Ireland were manufacturing textile






74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

fabrics and wearing them at a time when the inhabitants of Great
Britain were clad in skins, or went with very little covering upon their
bodies; in other words, the Irish were well advanced in industry while
the Britons were little better than savages.
Commissioner MacCarthy, of Dublin, is authority for the publication
of that statement, which is doubtless correct," said this gentleman. "It
was deduced from the Brehon Laws, the system of jurisprudence that
prevailed in Ireland from very early times. The brehons 'ni.l--i used
to make laws for the tribes to which they belonged, and their decisions
were pronounced in the open air, very much as judicial decisions are
now given in court. All through the Brehon Laws, there are references
to weaving, carding, dyeing, and other processes to which wool and flax
were subjected, which show that textile fabrics were then made. There
is a volume called the' Book of Rights,' which is said to date from the
time of St. Patrick (fifth century), which says that tribute to the kings
was paid in mantles, cloaks, tunics, and other articles of wool or linen,
and some of them were embroidered with gold or trimmed with fur.
"So you see," he continued, "we have a right to be proud of our
ancestors, and if we are backward in comparison with the rest of the
world, we think we know where to look for the reasons."
Then he dropped the topic of industries, and, as the train slowed up
at a station, he bade farewell to the travellers, but not, however, until
he had received their hearty thanks for his courtesy.
As our friends passed through County Down, Mary suggested that
they should visit the town of Downpatrick, which is a place celebrated
for its antiquity, and also for containing the grave of the patron saint
of Ireland. She had been conning the guide-book, while Frank and Fred
were storing their minds with information on other points, and thought
the grave of St. Patrick, and also the miraculous spring which is attrib-
uted to him, would be well worth seeing.
"Of course there's a legend about the 'sphin.," said Frank. "I
wonder what it can be ?"
"Here it is," replied Mary. "St. Patrick and St. Bridget were walk-
ing there, and the latter, feeling thirsty, asked where it was possible to
procure water. St. Patrick was carrying a staff, which he struck vio-
lently on the ground; immediately a stream of water gushed forth, and
has flowed ever since.
There's a church there," continued Mary, which stands on the site
of a very old one that was destroyed by Lord de Grey in 1538. He was
impeached for several crimes, and among others for the destruction of






A SKETCH OF BELFAST.


the church of St. Patrick at Down, and his impeachment resulted in the
loss of his head."
Frank thought it would hardly be worth while to delay their journey
to visit Downpatrick, and so they remained in the carriage as the train
reached the station nearest to it. They passed through Newry, which
has a considerable population and presents a prosperous appearance, but
they did not stop there; in fact they made no halt until reaching
Belfast, 112 miles from
Dublin, and a city of
whose importance we .,
are already aware. .
Here is Fred's note + -:

"Belfast is a very 7 .
attractive place in .
many respects; it
stands on both sides of .-
the Lagan River, and ',_'. .
they tell us that the ..f "W
flat portion of the city I if''
was reclaimed from a i
marsh exactly as was I.-' :
the case with Cork.'
Compared with Dublin, 4, '
in point of age, it is a l ji3
modern town, as Dub- .'
lin had become quite '
venerable before Bel- .
fast was thought of. ,
As late as 1586 it was 4'
so insignificant that it Y.; i
was not mentioned in "-
a list of the towns and
villages of the counties
of Down and Antrim. THE SHRINE OF ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
A map that was printed
in 1660 gives only five streets and five rows, which consisted of 150
houses; and in 1782 it had a population of 13,000, which was thought
by some to be an exaggeration.
"Its public buildings are handsome; it has fine bridges to enable us






76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

to go from one side of the river to the other, and its factories are a
prominent-feature in a country where there is so little manufacturing
industry as in Ireland. The prosperity of the city, and of much of the
surrounding country, comes from the linen manufacture and the work
connected with it. A great deal of embroidery is made in the north
part of Ireland-for the linen makers of Belfast, and it is sold in the


PIECE OF LACE-WORK, UNFINISHED.


market as Belfast work. In addition to linen factories, there are distil-
leries, breweries, flour-mills, ship-yards, and founderies, together with
other industries, which are, in the language of the auctioneers, 'too nu-
merous to mention.' The steamers of the White Star Line, running be-
tween New York and Liverpool, were.built at Belfast, and the people point
out the yards where they were constructed with a great deal of pride.






ORIGIN OF SHIP-BUILDING AT BELFAST.

"There is a funny story about the origin of ship-building at Belfast;
it is said to date from 1636, when an enterprising (1c.-iL'\ nI., of the
Presbyterian Church built a privateer for the purpose of preying upon
the commerce of the nations with whom England was at war. Priva-
teering was fashionable in those days, but it seems an odd sort of a
business for a preacher of the Gospel; but he made money at it, and
his neighbors went into the same enterprise, so that the building of
privateers established the ship-yards of Belfast. The work of building
wooden ships was kept up for two hundred years, and was quite an
industry until iron ships came into fashion. Then, as Belfast had no
iron or coal, and could not compete with the Scotch and English build-
ers, the business of ship-construction was stopped altogether.
"In 1853 some enterprising men started a yard for building iron
ships, and from that beginning the enterprise extended until a single
firm employs five thousand men regularly, and in some years many
more. Ships are built here for all parts of the world, and any New
Yorker who has crossed the Atlantic on one of the White Star steamers
knows what good work is turned out at Belfast.
"Of course we have been through one of the great linen factories,




















and seen how table-cloths, handkerchiefs, and a hundred other things of
j iV _, .

I '.,1 ,II





'"- ,-.l----

.:Iri- 1_-. -1 I 1. 1'1 II 1, PI I I I i -





POWER-LOOM FOR FANCY WEAVING.

and seen how table-cloths, handkerchiefs, and a hundred other things of
that class are produced. It wouldn't be interesting to tell about the
processes, at least not interesting to everybody, and so I'll let you refer
to any good encyclopedia if you want to know how the work is per-






78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
formed. That it is well performed, you may be convinced by looking
at the goods in any of the shops of Belfast, or, if you can't come here,
you may go into any good shop in your own country, and look at the
cambric handkerchiefs and other fabrics that come from this enterpris-
ing city of the north of Ireland.
"A gentleman, whom we met at the hotel, told us a good many


s t w i t / wil .




Si w a r r r J r, w



Sa i a .
.. .




'1 < i '~~ '''- ;'


., i . -. .
I,,, .-*- -








SUNDAY SCENE IN AN IRISH TILLAGE.

things that were interesting to us, and probably will be so to others.
He said Belfast claimed the honor of having started the temperance
movement on this side of the Atlantic, and added that the originator
of it was a Presbyterian clergyman, -ev. John Edgar, who sent out an
appeal in favor of temperance in August, 1829. -ie obtained the idea
from an American clergyman, Dr. Penny, who was visiting him, and






RELIGIOUS RIOTS-ORANGEMEN AND CATHOLICS.


told of the progress of temperance societies in the New World. Dr.
Edgar caught at the idea and issued the appeal, and this was followed
by others; the appeals resulted in the formation of temperance societies
in Ireland, and soon :it.-i '.-, 1., in Scotland and England. At the time
the movement began, it was estimated that the annual expenditure in
Ireland for strong drink was three guineas, or nearly sixteen dollars
for every family!
"Another thing that he said, but it was not by any means new to
us, was that Belfast was the seat of a great many quarrels of a religious
origin, and these quarrels had frequently resulted in bloodshed. There
is a much larger Protestant population here than in any other city of
Ireland, and the Protestants and Catholics do not get along harmoni-
ously. Some of the riots, growing out of the hostility of the religious
sects, have lasted for several days, causing a suspension of business, the
destruction of property, and the necessity of calling out. the military
forces to restore and preserve order.
"' Formerly it was the custom for the Orangemen and Catholics to
parade occasionally,' said the gentleman; and whenever either of them
did so, the other was pretty sure to attack the procession with a shower
of bricks and stones. Things came to such a pass that it was necessary
to prohibit all displays of the kind, and that was the reason for passing
the Act of Parliament known as the Party Processions Act. Belfast is
a slumbering volcano, and very little will serve to start a row at any
time; if anybody wants a fight he has only to put on a Catholic or an
Orangeman's badge, no matter which, and walk along any of the streets.
He'll have a row on hand before he has gone a single block.'
"We were willing to take his word for it, and did not make the
experiment. From all we could learn through other sources, he de-
scribed very accurately the religious sentiment of the city."




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