• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Session 1: Introduction to the...
 Session 2: Setting the workshop...
 Session 3: Determining correlates...
 Session 4: Introduction to gender...
 Session 5: Gender analysis - contextual...
 Session 6: Gender analysis - practical...
 Session 7: Implementation planning...
 Session 8: Implementation planning...
 Session 9: Determining inputs
 Session 10: Next steps - personal...
 Session 11: Workshop closing and...
 Appendix A: Flip charts
 Appendix B: Overheads
 Appendix C: Handouts, forms, and...
 Appendix D: Other agendas
 Appendix E: For session 3
 Appendix F: Supplemental flipcharts...














Group Title: Gender and sustainable development : : a training manual
Title: Gender and sustainable development
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080699/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender and sustainable development a training manual
Physical Description: 126 p : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: GENESYS Project
Futures Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Sustainable development -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Genesys.
General Note: "September 1994, Under the GENESYS Project for USAID/G/R&D/WID Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00."
General Note: "Genesys, a project of the Futures Group"--p. 4 of Cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080699
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31425207

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Session 1: Introduction to the workshop
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Session 2: Setting the workshop context
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Session 3: Determining correlates to USAID's priority areas
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Session 4: Introduction to gender analysis: WID's historical path in USAID
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Session 5: Gender analysis - contextual analysis of gender and social/economic issues
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Session 6: Gender analysis - practical applications
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Session 7: Implementation planning - part 1
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Session 8: Implementation planning - part 2
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Session 9: Determining inputs
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Session 10: Next steps - personal action plans
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Session 11: Workshop closing and feedback
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Appendix A: Flip charts
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Appendix B: Overheads
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Appendix C: Handouts, forms, and worksheets
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Appendix D: Other agendas
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Appendix E: For session 3
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Appendix F: Supplemental flipcharts and overheads
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
Full Text








Gender and Sustainable
Development:
A TrainingManual















USAD
United States Agency for
International Development
Office of Women in Development










Gender and Sustainable
Development:
A Training Manual


September 1994
Under the GENESYS Project for USAID/G/R&D/\AID
Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00














"USAID will pay special attention to the role of women. In
much of the world, women and girls are disproportionately
poor, ill, and exploited. Of necessity, the development process
must focus on their social, political, and economic
empowerment. We will integrate the needs and participation
of women into development programs and into the societal
changes those programs are designed to achieve. Women
represent an enormous source of untapped talent, especially
in developing nations. The success of women as workers,
food producers, health providers and teachers of their
children, as managers of natural resources, and as
participants in a democratic society is essential to
successful development. A development process that fails to
involve half of society is inherently unsustainable."
Strategies for Sustainable Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
March 1994























Acknowledgments


Any project that involves training demands a high performing
team. This manual is the result of the collaborative efforts of such
a team. Without the experience, concern, and commitment of the
team members, this manual would not have been possible. Rosalie
Huisinga Norem, of the U.S. Agency for International Development's
Office of Women in Development, developed the concepts and tools
for contextual gender analysis and was a tireless contributor. The
efforts of the Management Systems International staff, Edward J.
Comstock, Marina Fanning, Gloria Fauth, Joan Goodin, Drew Lent
and Dian Seslar Svendsen, each of whom made substantial
contributions to this work, were essential to its final completion.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL ............................................ ................ 1
HOW TO USE THE MANUAL ............................................................................ 2
Workshop Methodology ...................................... .................................... 3
Role of a Facilitator ................................................................................ 3
Workshop Set-Up ................................................................................... 5
Key Information and Use of Visual Aids.................................... ........... 5
Pre-Workshop Background Materials ....................................... ............ 6
Guidelines for Selecting Projects................................................ ............. 7
Adapting the Workshop ...................................... ................................... 8
SESSION I, INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP ............................................. 11
SESSION II, SETTING THE WORKSHOP CONTEXT............................................... 15
SESSION III, DETERMINING CORRELATES TO SAID'S PRIORITY AREAS ........ 25
SESSION IV, INTRODUCTION TO GENDER ANALYSIS:
WID'S HISTORICAL PATH IN USAID ................................................................ .. 27
SESSION V, GENDER ANALYSIS CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF
GENDER AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES................................................ 31
SESSION VI, GENDER ANALYSIS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS....................... 39
SESSION VII, IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING PART I..................................... 41
SESSION VIII, IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING PART II.................................. 49
SESSION IX, DETERMINING INPUTS................................................................. 51
SESSION X, NEXT STEPS: PERSONAL ACTION PLANS......................................... 53
SESSION XI, WORKSHOP CLOSING AND FEEDBACK........................................ 55
APPENDIXA, FLIP CHARTS .............................................................. .......... 57
APPENDIX B, OVERHEADS ....................................................................... 63
APPENDIX C, HANDOUTS, FORMS, AND WORKSHEETS.......................... ..... 73
APPENDIX D, OTHER AGENDAS ........................................................................ 99
APPENDIX E, 8 FOR SESSION III ..................................................................... 101
APPENDIX F, SUPPLEMENTAL FLIPCHARTS AND OVERHEADS ....................... 109








INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL


The publication of this training manual represents in part the 'lessons
learned" from the GENESYS Project's five years of experience in gender and
development training with the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID). Principal among these lessons is that gender and
development training best achieves its institutional capacity-building objectives
when it logically and deliberately links...
/ the strategic program goals and objectives of the organization
undergoing the training with its gender and development objectives;
J the purposes and objectives of the development projects that the
organization supports with a time-tested gender analysis method;
/ sound development planning processes with the organization's chosen
planning framework (e.g., the logical framework); and,
I proven and effective analytical techniques with planning,
implementing, monitoring and evaluating development programs and
projects (e.g., force field analysis).
The workshop described in this manual was designed for use in a series of
workshops conducted for USAID contractors in each of four priority areas:
Democracy and Governance, Environment, Economic Growth, and Population
and Health. These workshops aimed at increasing project success -- i.e.,
development characterized as effective, equitable, and sustainable -- by
incorporating gender analysis into development planning, and applying the
results of this analysis to the project cycle -- i.e., logical frameworks, work plans,
and monitoring and evaluation designs. Although written for USAID and its
counterparts, this manual illustrates the universality of the aforementioned
gender and development training principles and is meant to be a dynamic
document. We encourage our readers to "cut and paste" its contents to meet their
specific gender training needs.








HOW TO USE THE MANUAL
This manual provides detailed guidelines for conducting a 3 day workshop on
integrating gender analysis into project planning in the United States Agency for
International Development's (USAID) key areas of program concentration --
population and health, broad-based economic growth, environment, and
democracy. It may also be used for a one or two day workshop. It is a dynamic
tool, meant to be adapted and changed to fit the needs and experience of
development professionals and the projects being addressed. The manual has
been designed primarily for use by USAID program and project management
staff and counterparts (e.g., contractors, PVO/NGO personnel, and host country
government officials). While it can be used with groups of any size, 25-35 is an
ideal number of participants. The manual presumes that those conducting the
workshop have training and facilitating skills, as well as a grounding in gender
issues. Ideally, a skilled facilitator would co-train with a sectoral gender
specialist to insure coverage of the workshop's primary training demands --
facilitation, gender issues, and technical expertise.

Workshops based on this manual will increase participants' awareness of the
importance of considering gender in planning and implementing projects, and
provide a tool for conducting such analyses.

The training manual designers initially considered developing four manuals
--treating each of USAID's four key areas of program concentration separately;
but, as the manuals would share much common content, they decided to develop
this one "standard" manual and include guidelines and hints for adapting it to fit
each of the four'. The following ideas will help you to effectively use this manual
to plan and facilitate tailored workshops.

Pre-Training Design Checklist
/ Review the manual to see what is included.
/ Carefully read the workshop objectives on page 11.
/ Determine potential participants' needs related to gender and
[KEY AREA].
/ Collaborate with others to plan the workshop.
/ Determine whether a 3, 2, or 1 day workshop is feasible and
needed. (Consider experience of participants with gender issues,
particularly as they relate to this priority area; time available;
and participants' other responsibilities.)


SThe term [KEY AREA] is used throughout to indicate where trainers should insert references to program
concentration. A fifth key area, Human Capacity Building, had not been defined when the manual was
designed.








V Decide what sessions to include.
J Determine dates.
/ Identify appropriate facilities for holding workshop.
Proceed with logistics such as inviting participants.
J Select projects to be used as cases in the workshop.
/ Invite representatives of selected projects to prepare brief
presentations. Provide necessary guidelines.
As your overview of the manual will reveal, it provides detailed guidelines for
each session as well as information on:

WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY
ROLE OF A FACILITATOR
FACILITATION HINTS
WORKSHOP SET-UP
KEY INFORMATION AND USE OF VISUAL AIDS
PRE-WORKSHOP BACKGROUND MATERIALS
SELECTING PROJECTS
ADAPTING THE WORKSHOP


WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY
Following principles of "participation", the workshop combines information
presentation with experiential approaches to learning. Workshop designers have
opted for interaction over presentation in areas where participants have relevant
experience to contribute. Such a workshop approach will help to strengthen
participant ownership of these constructs, strategies, and methods.
The manual reflects an experiential learning model which enables
participants to draw heavily upon their own experience and expertise. This
model enables participants to experience that which is to be learned, reflect on
their learning, generalize, and apply the learning to other situations. This
approach to learning is used because research has shown it to be an effective
method for adult learning. Explain the experiential learning cycle to the
participants if necessary, and particularly if they are accustomed to less learner-
centered methods.

ROLE OF A FACILITATOR
A facilitator is not a lecturer. Rather, a facilitator helps to move along a
learning process whereby participants interact with each other, gain new







information, and build upon their experience. The facilitator at times presents
new information, but his or her key role is to help the group experience and learn
together. Explain the role of the facilitator to the group if this concept is new.

A good facilitator...
/ Keeps the group focused on task and process
/ Remains neutral
/ Is an informed guide helping the group to chart its course and
accomplish its goals
/ Listens more than talks
/ Encourages everyone to participate while remembering that
individuals participate in different ways. Some may talk only in small
groups, but are still participating. Others may wish to talk constantly
and may be contributing little
/ Protects members of the group from attack by others
J Helps keep group within time constraints
/ Energizes a group or slows it down, as needed
/ Recaps, occasionally, what has happened in the workshop and helps
group to make connections between the sessions

More Facilitation Hints...
Don't do the group's work. Learning is more effective and lasting if the
individuals and small groups discover on their own.
Spend sufficient time with each group during small group work to be
certain they have grasped the tasks and concepts supporting it.
Be alert to signs of confusion (asking neighbors questions, puzzled or
frustrated looks; resistance, etc.).
o If several individuals or groups are having trouble, review portions of
the workshop which are causing confusion.
Ask frequently if there are questions. Sometimes the session
specifically suggests asking if there are questions, but you should ask
even if the session doesn't specify doing so.
+ When you DO ask a question, allow group members time to think
before answering. To make sure you allow time, silently slowly count
to 10. Silence may seem uncomfortable, but is essential if you want
thoughtful answers. It also sends the message to group members that
you really ARE interested in their responses.








Don't feel you must be the expert. Remind the group and yourself that
you are a facilitator. Remind them (and perhaps yourself) of THEIR
expertise and experience. One way to do this is to toss questions back
to them. Such as, "That's an interesting question, Linda. What do you
think, Jacob?"
Take at least two 15-20 minute breaks, one in the afternoon and one in
the morning. Suggest short "stretch breaks" as needed.
Be flexible. This manual is intended to guide, not dictate. Times of the
sessions as well as depth and breadth of content should remain flexible.
If participants are already familiar with aspects of the workshop,
eliminate those aspects, or simply review them. Use your judgment,
too, and your perceptions of the group's energy, interest, and
comprehension to decide when to lengthen or shorten sessions.
Finally, relax and enjoy the workshop!

WORKSHOP SET-UP
If possible, avoid having chairs in rows and hold the workshop in a place
which allows participants to sit at several small tables; or in a horseshoe or semi-
circle arrangement. This will encourage interaction and ease group break-out
sessions.

The following materials should be supplied for all sessions. They are not
listed repeatedly under each session's MATERIALS section:
/ markers
Sflip chart pads
/ tape
/ flip chart easels (one for each prospective work group, if possible)
/ overhead projector (if using transparencies; the workshop can also be
done using only flip chart paper and markers)

KEY INFORMATION AND USE OF VISUAL AIDS
In most session guidelines, some information will be recommended for the
prepared flip chart (so that facilitators and participants can refer to it
throughout the workshop); whereas other prepared information may be posted on
flip chart paper OR presented in an overhead, according to the facilitator's style.
Throughout this manual, prepared flip charts are shown in portrait format, with
overheads in landscape. A packet of prepared flip chart masters is included as
Appendix A; overhead transparencies are included as Appendix B; and handouts,
forms and worksheets in Appendix C. The flip charts and overheads are meant








to convey the necessary information in the least amount of space. Therefore,
facilitators are encouraged to simplify and adapt them to their needs.

Within most session guidelines, some information is highlighted in bold
italics. This information is important for workshop content or process and
should be written on flip chart paper.

If group task instructions are written on flip chart paper, they can be posted
throughout the session for reference. Also, any visuals which integrate several
sessions or will be referred to throughout the workshop, such as "USAID's
Approach to Development" (Session II), "Contextual Analysis Summary Sheet"
(Session V), should also appear on flip charts so that they, too, can remain
posted.

PRE-WORKSHOP BACKGROUND MATERIALS
Prior to the workshop, each participant should receive the following
articles/papers with a suggestion that he/she read them in preparation for the
workshop. This will save time as session guidelines presume participants have
done some background reading.

For Workshops on ALL Key Areas
USAID. Strategies for Sustainable Development. Washington, DC:
USAID, (March 1994)
Atwood, J. Brian. Statement of Principles on Participatory
Development. Washington, DC: USAID, (November 1993)
USAID. Gender and Development. Office of Women in
Development. Washington, DC: USAID. (September 1994)
USAID. Implementation Guidelines.. Washington, DC: USAID,
(May 1994)
USAID. Addressing the Needs of Women and Girls: Highlights of
USAID's Approach. Office of Women in Development.
Washington, DC: USAID. (July 1994)
Democracy and Governance
Goodin, J. Democratic Revolution or Revolutionary Democracy?: A
review of current thinking. Washington, DC: USAID.
(November 1993)
USAID. Implementation Guidelines. Technical Annex C:
Democracy. Washington, DC: USAID. (July 1994)








Environment
USAID. Implementation Guidelines, Technical Annex B:
Environment. Washington, DC: USAID. (July 1994)
Economic Growth
USAID. Implementation Guidelines. Technical Annex D: Economic
Growth. Washington, DC: USAID. (July 1994)
Population and Health
USAID. Implementation Guidelines. Technical Annex A:
Population Health and Nutrition -- Enabling Informed
Choices and Effective Action. Washington, DC: USAID.
(July 1994)
These articles and papers are available upon request from:
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support and Research
SAID
Room 714, SA-18
Washington, D.C. 20523-1816
Telephone: 703-875-4668
Fax: 703-875-4633
If the facilitator is not familiar with USAID's [KEY AREA] strategy and
USAID's approach to gender and development, he/she should read these, and
additional materials, to provide sufficient background for facilitating the
workshop.

GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING PROJECTS
Participants will be applying their gender analysis learning to real projects
represented by the workshop participants. As such, it is crucial to the success of
the workshop that participants send ahead documentation for projects that are
currently part of their "in-basket" -- i.e., those they are working on regardless of
their stage in the project cycle. In the invitation letter to the workshop,
participants should be instructed to do this. Project papers, project logical
frameworks, annual work plans, relevant scopes of work, and monitoring and
evaluation designs are allimportant. Financial information, delicate as it is,
should be left at "home," but all other relevant information should be brought
along. If several participants are from the same project team, ask them to get
together before the workshop and decide what documentation they'll send, and
who will send it.








ADAPTING THE WORKSHOP
USAID's Four Priority Areas
Workshop sessions marked with a 3C require some adaptation, usually
minimal, to fit the priority area being addressed. As you are reading through an
activity in planning for your workshop, you will occasionally see [KEY AREA]
inserted in the text. This is a cue to insert the title of the program concentration
area you are addressing. Often, by substituting small changes in the wording, a
given activity can be used for any of the four workshops.

Alternative Agendas
The workshop, as presented in this manual, will take approximately 18-19
hours (depending on group size and experience), not including lunch and breaks,
or 2/2 to 3 days. The following suggested agenda may help you adapt the manual
to design a workshop which fits your participants' needs.

By excluding certain sessions, however, the workshop could be adapted to a
one or two day schedule. The shorter versions may not be as effective as the full
workshop, but circumstances such as time constraints or prior experience with
the topic may necessitate a shorter duration. Please see Appendix D for
examples of these schedules.
THREE DAY WORKSHOP


Day One:
Introduction to the Workshop


break


Setting the Context
Determining Correlates to USAID's Key Areas
Introduction to Gender Analysis:
WID's Historical Path in USAID
lunch


1 hours


1 hour
/2 hour

/2 hour


Gender Analysis:
Contextual Analysis of Gender
and Social and Economic Issues


Day Two:
Gender Analysis: Practical Applications
lunch


Implementation Planning: Part I


3 hours


3 hours


3-4 hours








Day Three:
Implementation Planning: Part II
Determining Inputs


Next Steps: Personal Action Plans
Workshop Closing and Feedback


lunch


12-2 hours
12 hours


1 hour
hour









SSESSION I

INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP

PURPOSE
To introduce participants to the workshop and each other and allow them
to express their expectations; review workshop goal, objectives and norms;
and set workshop agenda.
MATERIALS
Handouts: Workshop Objectives
Project Packets (relevant, condensed project information)
Prepared flip chart paper or transparencies (see Steps 7, 8, & 9)
PREPARATION
Duplicate handouts (one per participant)
Prepare newsprint or transparencies (see Steps 7, 8, & 9)
TIME
1 1/2 hours

FACILITATOR NOTE: Prior to the workshop, facilitators and workshop
organizers should select 2 or 3 projects which will be used instead of case
studies throughout the workshop. See GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING
PROJECTS on page 7 of this manual.

PROCESS
1. Welcome participants to the workshop and explain the purpose. Also
explain your role -- the role of the facilitator -- if necessary (see page 3).
2. Next, ask participants to think about two things. First, what
contributions they can make to the workshop in terms of their
interests, experience, and expertise. Ask, secondly, what they expect
from this workshop. Ask them to briefly note their thoughts on these
points. Allow 5 minutes.
3. Next, ask them to form pairs and interview one another about what
they have written. Explain that at the end of 10 minutes they will be
asked to give a 2-minute introduction of their partner stating one
special contribution their partner brings to the workshop and the
partner's expectations.








4. After 10 minutes, ask for volunteer pairs to introduce each other,
noting expectations on a flip chart (don't repeat expectations, just
denote with a check mark.) Keep this session moving quickly and
remind the group about time if individuals exceed 2 minutes.
5. Review and comment on expectations, noting the ones which may
reasonably be met through the workshop and those which will not.
Explain why/why not.
6. Use the group's expectations to introduce workshop objectives, pointing
out similarities. Explain that the objectives explain the WHY of this
workshop.


7. Objectives should be
posted (Flip chart #1)
so that participants
may refer to them
throughout the
workshop (and either
included in a
participant notebook
or distributed as a
handout).


At this point speak
briefly about the Objectives
learning methodology The workshop wi provide oppofue for
learning mehoanalysis-based training and experience in
used in the workshop planning. management and administration of
-- the HOW of the projects to...
workshop. Explain / improve parficidpa' undersaandi of he
that just as part of the eects of gnder erenes n the design
at t as and delivery of [KEY AREA] programs and
workshop content projects
focuses on the V enable participants to include gender-
importance of sensitive objectives in planning, managing
participation for and evaluating programs and project; and
sustainable produce work plans for implementing the
development, the objectives of their programs and projects
development, the ^^ ^^^--------,. ..,,,
workshop itself will be .m. Rdpchar #
as participatory as
possible, drawing
upon participants' experience. The workshop requires active
participation and working together in the "learning by doing" process.
Mention that experiential adult learning methodology will be used
throughout the workshop. Post and briefly explain the Experiential
Learning Model (see Overhead #1). Highlighting the importance of


Workshop
objectives


Goal
Develop technical skills to support the full
inegration of gender and women in
development concerns into [KEY AREA]
program and projects


Amft
W 1W








participant experience in'this model and how the workshop activities will
help to draw out and build upon such experience.



Experiential Learning Model


DO -.


generalhze describe
APPLY LOOK -


THINK i

n.i.x .wi Overhead # I

9. Post and explain the suggested norms (see Overhead #2) as operating
guidelines for the workshop:
Ask: Does everyone understand the norms? Does anyone wish to add
another? Is there consensus about following them?



WORKSHOP NORM9


*Attendance at all sessions
tart/end all sessions on time
*Active participation by all
*One person speaks at a time
*Mutual respect for others' ideas
*Have fun while working
*No smoking


eOE Wp. r Overhead # 2








10.Post the WORKSHOP LOGIC MAP (see Overhead #3), which provides
an overview of the workshop. Explain it with the following points:
/ Begin with a short overview of USAID's current policy, strategy
and thinking about [KEY AREA], building upon your pre-
workshop reading.
/ Next, we'll look at the history and current status of gender
analysis in development.




Workshop Logic Map




and Bender Prance
[KEY AREA] Ana.i.






Appfccion l recon mendafi covns to II
[K f AREA] projects J

UMAID OFo& of MWann h De=k >nwan
ah. "rm sp"ad Overhead # 3

SWe will use a practice case to learn about a gender analysis tool
for identifying gender issues and arriving at some conclusions
about them.
J Then we will explore your projects using the gender analysis tool
to draw conclusions and make recommendations about how to
integrate gender issues.
/ Finally, we will review aspects of the project and program
planning process in light of gender analysis.
/ The workshop will close with planning for next steps to help
ensure application of learning from this workshop in your
individual work situations.
11.Ask for and respond to questions.
12. Close the session.








SSESSION II
SETTING THE WORKSHOP CONTEXT

PURPOSE
To establish the conceptual and contextual framework for the workshop.
MATERIALS
Prepared flip chart paper or transparencies (see Steps 5, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, &
16)
PREPARATION
Prepare flip charts and/or transparencies
TIME
1 hour
PROCESS
1. Introduce the session by explaining purpose. Mention that the session
will build upon the pre-workshop background materials participants
were asked to read, and that participants seeking further background
for this session should refer to that reading.
Explain that the session will provide information and opportunity for
reflection on gender as a key construct related to USAID's strategies for
sustainable and participatory development.
2. Ask participants to think about their roles as related to USAID, and
ask themselves how they can be change agents in terms of
incorporating gender as a key construct into USAID's [KEY AREA]
efforts? Ask them to note their thoughts.
Then ask them to briefly discuss their ideas with a neighbor. (Allow 5
minutes for reflection and discussion)

FACILITATOR NOTE: This brief activity can serve as an informal pretestt" to
help gauge the effectiveness of the workshop. If so, this same question
should be asked at the end of the workshop to see if participants have
changed their perceptions of themselves as change agents.
3. After 5 minutes, ask if someone will comment on her/his role as a
change agent. After a few have commented, point out that there are
many ways that USAID staff and cooperators can be effective change
agents and that such energy is needed, particularly to meet challenges
which may arise related to USAID's four key program areas of








Democracy and Governance,
The Environment,
Economic Growth, and
Population and Health

4. Next, ask participants to list threats or challenges to these areas, based
on their experience and knowledge. Note responses on a flipchart. Add
some of the following, if not mentioned by participants:
X continuing poverty
X unsustainable economic growth
X hunger and malnutrition
X population growth
X rapid urbanization
X disease
X environmental degradation
X absence of democracy
5. Explain that as USAID
approaches development
assistance in the four Approaching
key areas, the Agency
has adopted strategies Development
which will help to
respond to these ustainable
challenges. Develen.
t te in tion o integrated Approaches
Post the information on iPartnerships and Methods
Flipchart #2. (Keep J /D emc
flipchart paper posted ED ~,nment
throughout workshop for Economic Growth
participants to refer to.) Population and Health
Also post three blank pieces
of flipchart paper
containing the following INCREASED
headings: Partnerships, PARTICIPATION
Sustainable
Development, Integrated
Approaches and More
Methods. Empowered Women
6. Point out that USAID's
strategy for ""'M" Flpchat # 2








development employs certain methodologies:
/ sustainable development,
/ partnerships, and
/ integrated approaches and methods.
Ask participants to first consider the strategy of SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT. Post the following on flipchart or overhead and
read:
USAID sees sustainable development as permanently enhancing
the capacity of a society to improve the quality of life.
Ask them what they think would characterize such sustainable
development? (Record their responses on the appropriately titled
flipchart, without repeating what participants have already
mentioned.)
Add the following points, if not mentioned:
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is characterized by economic
and social growth that..
/ does not exhaust the resources of a host country
V respects and safeguards the economic, cultural, or natural
environment
$ creates many incomes and chains of enterprises; and
$ builds indigenous institutions that involve and empower
the citizenry
$ is defined by attitude and outlook, as well as tangible
achievements
/ requires participation
7. Ask participants what the construct of PARTNERSHIPS IN
DEVELOPMENT means to them. Record their responses on flipchart
paper.
Add the following if not mentioned by participants:
PARTNERSHIPS...
$ begin with collaboration between donors and host nations
$ are strengthened by donor coordination
$ are reinforced by PVOs, NGOs, universities, professional
and academic groups and training organizations








.J utilize strengths of multilateral development banks and
international financial institutions
/ help to form the basis for ownership and participation of
women as well as men which is the foundation of sustainable
development
/ require local participation, build local capacity, and
empower women as well as men
8. Finally, explain that USAID will be using INTEGRATED
APPROACHES AND METHODS to address the totality of development
problems confronting development partners. Ask participants what
some of these approaches and methods might be.
Add the following if participants do not mention:
/ cooperate closely with host governments, local
communities and other donors
V consider how social, economic, political, and cultural
factors combine to impede development and identify root
causes and remedies that will address them
/ minimize projects that operate without regard for other
development programs or larger objectives
/ integrate the needs and participation of women into
development programs and into the societal changes those
programs are designed to achieve
/ establish a paradigm of full participation, local
involvement, and empowerment
Explain, and show on Overhead #4, or flipchart:


9. Mention that part of
USAID's strategy also
includes changes in
the way it evaluates
the success of
projects. Increasingly
USAID will be
focusing on
monitoring and
evaluating how
projects affect
people's lives --
requiring a more
open-ended and
demanding


Measuring Results


* The success of foreign assistance is determined by
its impact on developing nations
* USAID will ask how projects actually affect the way
people live. This demanding process...
Swill ask how projects and programs achieve discrete,
agreed objectives
*will focus on distinguishing self-sustaining
accomplishments from ephemeral ones
4 obligates people to work as a team in designing,
implementing, and evaluating projects and programs
demands communication and cooperation, especially with
the citizens of developing countries


Overhead # 4


lr OEM&" p.o t


4 OWIU6 A13111,








monitoring and evaluation process.
10. Point to PARTICIPATION on the chart from Step 5 and remind the
group that all three aspects of strategy (partnerships, sustainable
development, and integrated approaches and methods) as well as the
changing approaches to measuring results require PARTICIPATION.
/ Point out that participation describes both the KINDS OF
RESULTS DESIRED, and the WAYS SAID MUST NURTURE
THOSE RESULTS.
11.Post Overhead #5 (or post on flipchart) the following Guiding Principles
of Participatory Development.



Participatory Development:
Guiding Principles







7 sfreamlne our procedures
6 use gender analysis and PRA
5 empower the poor
4 accourntabitfy to the end user
3 cast widely for expertise
support indigenous cormunifies and organizations
I islen fo fhe voices of the people, al the people
uaDD Ofoe of WmaIn hl Dhlopma
Mh. OEssr".- Overhead # 5


Refer participants to the pre-workshop reading, "Statement of Principles
on Participatory Development" and briefly explain the posted chart using
the following points:

/ Participation builds from the ground, or local, level. This chart
illustrates the principles which underlie USAID's approach to
increasing participation, and thus strengthening the development
process.
/ Explain the 10 principles using the following points:
1. consult with affected populations seeking their representation








2. seek to understand what is already happening while still
supporting new ideas; recognize local priorities while
honoring USAID's priorities
3. consult more widely with experts as well as with
organizations representing various interests
4. develop mechanisms for hearing more directly from affected
populations
5. support and strengthen capacity of poor to sustain the
development process
6. overcome the tendency of projects to benefit only local elites
7. allow local reality, rather than procedures, to drive programs
8. focus on results experienced by real people rather than
merely tracking material inputs to projects and adherence to
procedures
9. practice a respectful partnership with indigenous and U.S. or
international private voluntary organizations
10. take measures necessary to equip USAID to make good on
above principles
12. Highlight points 6 and 10 which specifically mandate addressing
women and gender analysis. (Other points strongly imply that women
need to be included more as contributors to, beneficiaries of, and
participants in the development process -- and these, too, can be
highlighted.)
-* Point 6: To overcome the tendency of projects to benefit only
local elites, we will use gender analysis and techniques for data
collection and consensus building such as participatory rural
appraisal (PRA).
-* Point 10: We will take the measures necessary to equip
ourselves to make good on these principles... We will strengthen
relevant skills and aptitudes in our staff and contractors -- stronger
language and cultural skills, skills in discerning social processes,
gender analysis and other techniques to enhance participation.
Note that through these principles the Agency is specifically indicating
a need for gender analysis for staff and contractors. Therefore this
workshop responds to the mandate inherent in both points 6 and 10.
13.Refer back to the chart in Step 5 and, using a brightly colored marker,
highlight the [KEY AREA] reminding the group that this workshop will
focus on technical skills needed to support the full integration of gender
and WID concerns into [KEY AREA] programs and projects.








Point out that the [KEY AREA] calls for...
*. USAID to focus its experience, skills, and resources explicitly
to...
*: (Democracy and Governance)... help promote and consolidate
democracy.
*: (Environment)... reduce long-term threats to the global
environment and promote sustainable economic growth by
addressing environmental and economic practices.
(Economic Growth)... encourage broad-based economic growth.
-*: (Population and Health)... stabilize world population growth and
protect human health.
Also point out that USAID is supporting this priority because it sees...
(Democracy and Governance)... democracy as desirable as an end
in itself, and because it is critical in promoting sustainable
development.
(Environment)... that environmental problems increasingly
threaten the economic and political interests of the U.S. and the
world at large.
S(Economic Growth)... that economic stagnation affects many
areas of sustainable development by feeding political instability;
causing environmental degradation; and contributing to poor
health, high population, and perpetual lack of food security.
*: (Population and Health)...that rapid population growth and poor
health exacerbate those conditions which play critical roles in
keeping nations poor.
14. Refer back to the chart from Step 5 and point out that the participation
of women as well as men is essential for [KEY AREA], as well as for the
three aspects of USAID's strategy for development assistance --
partnerships, sustainable development, and integrated approaches and
methods.

FACILITATOR'S NOTE: Steps 15 & 16 pertain to democracy and governance
and cannot be easily transformed. See Appendix E for substitutions to use
with workshops related to gender and economic growth, the environment, and
population and health.








15.Post Overhead #6, or use flipchart:
Ask participants to reflect upon their own experiences and note the
impediments they are aware of to this path of promoting democratic
societies. (5 minutes).



The SAID Path

SAII sustainable democracies share certain
fundamental characteristics: respect for human and
civil rights, peaceful competition for political power,
free and fair elections, respect for the rule of law,
accountable government and an environment that
encourages participation by all seeors of the
population.

Buf. there are


fo the development of these characteriefics

.oIaie.,Pi Overhead # 6


Ask for some ideas. Note responses on flipchart. Add some of the
following if not mentioned:
/ corruption
$ absent or weak intermediary institutions
$ disenfranchisement of women, indigenous peoples, and
minorities
V ethnic divisiveness
V hypernationalism
V absence of national charters
V tainted electoral politics
/ non-existent or weak political parties
V human rights abuses
V misperceptions about democracies
V lack of experience









J over-centralization
J human rights abuses


Highlight the disenfranchisement of women, indigenous
peoples, and minorities and how attending to gender
concerns and issues can help ease this constraint.

16.Finally, show Flipchart #3 (or overhead) of activities and actions
USAID will support under this priority.


17.In closing this part
of the activity,
briefly refer to or
review the key
pieces of posted
flipchart (from
Steps 5-16). Ask for
and respond to
questions.
18.Link to next session
by explaining that
we will be building
upon this overview
of USAID's strategy
and priorities for
development
assistance by
examining some of
the correlates
related to [KEY
AREA] projects.
19. Close the session.


Democracy


U9AID will support...
* constitutional mechanism
* democratically elected legislatures
* legal systems
* local government entities
* credible and effective elections
* local, national, regional, and international
organizations that protect human rights
* trade unions, professional associations, women's
groups, educational entities, and a wide rarge of
indigenous NOOs
* political parties and other national mechanisms of
political expression
* independent media outlets
* improved civil-military relations
* institutions and organizations that increase
government responsiveness and accountability
+ educational efforts for children and adults


Flipchart # 3


uAD OnMo d WP rr Do
It1wflMmepK.wl


AwAsft'
waft-am A
WIVIWW









SSESSION III

DETERMINING CORRELATES TO SAID'S
PRIORITY AREAS

PURPOSE:
To determine priorities among correlates related to [KEY AREA] projects.
MATERIALS:
Set of correlates, one per participant (see Appendix C, Handouts #1 #4,
for sets)
PREPARATION:
Make copies of "Correlates to [KEY AREA]" (one per participant) -- cut into
strips, creating a set. Bind with a rubber band or paper clip. Make one
set per participant.
TIME:
30 minutes
PROCESS:
1. Open session by explaining purpose and linking it to the previous
session on setting the context.
2. Distribute the correlates handout and ask each person to individually
review the strips, eliminating those correlates from the set which, in
their opinion, are the least relevant to achieving their [KEY AREA]
objectives.
Allow 5 minutes for this task.
3. Next, explain that participants will be working in small groups to agree
on the 6 most relevant correlates for achieving their [KEY AREA]
objectives.
Divide participants into groups of 5-6. Explain that they will have 20
minutes to reach consensus on their task of deciding the 6 most
relevant correlates.
Distribute a long piece of tape to which they can attach their correlates,
once they have agreed on the 6 most significant.
4. After 20 minutes, ask each group to post and explain their list, and
why they decided as they did. Each report should be 5 minutes or less.
After each has presented, ask for others to comment.








Also ask the groups what was easy or hard about the task of arriving at
consensus, and why.
5. Close this session by pointing out the importance of checking with
those who are involved in a project and those who will be affected by its
outcomes, as well as those with whom we will be working. We must
constantly check our assumptions.
Point out that the gender analysis tool which we will be learning to use
in this workshop provides a framework for asking some important
questions (checking our assumptions) regarding gender in [KEY AREA]
projects.









SSESSION IV
INTRODUCTION TO GENDER ANALYSIS: WID'S
HISTORICAL PATH IN SAID

PURPOSE
To illustrate how gender and development and gender analysis have
evolved out of WID.
MATERIALS
Prepared newsprint (see Step 3)
Transparencies.(see Step 3)
Handouts (see PREPARATION)
PREPARATION
Prepare flip charts
Assemble transparencies
Copy Handouts (or refer to handouts in participant manual)
Gender and Development Definitions, Appendix C, Handout #5
USAID and Gender: Key Dates, Appendix C, Handout #6
*- Features of Current Legislation, Appendix C, Handout #7
TIME
30 minutes
PROCESS
1. Introduce session by mentioning that earlier sessions focused on
USAID priorities to help develop the context for the workshop. Recall
particularly the sessions focusing on [KEY AREA]. Explain that this
session, too, focuses on context, but in terms of gender.
Explain that this session will briefly review the history of WID within
SAID.
2. Begin by asking participants to write down what comes to mind when
they think about the term "WID." (Allow 2-3 minutes)
Next, ask them to write down what comes to mind with the term
"gender." (allow 2-3 minutes)
Record their responses on a piece of flip chart paper with two columns.










3. Post the following definitions and description of gender and
development, Flipcharts #4 #7.


a.wrmr .


FRpeliat #5


The Gender Dimension
of Development



Is about both hat men and women do
Looks at th impact of development on both men
and women, and their impact on development
SSeeks to se that both men and women
pwtcipate and benefit equally &m development
Reoognizs that women may be involved in
development, but may not necessarily benefit
Seeks to understand the root causes of gender
hequaxty ad addresses isef to these aues
Emphasis gender relationships and focuses on
the reduction of dsparities
Enphasims equatly of benefit and control
R ognizes the need to look at equity of impact
Not conceed wth women per e. but ith
sod construction of gender and agnmnt of
special riigh roles. rezsponsi es and
expecaions to women and men
Addresses the inter-reltionship between gender
roles access to and oontol of resources and

S* pcht # 7
lorb.~e~F~o~X


Women in

Development


"The essence of a Women in
Development approach is to ascertain
what women actually want and do
within a society and provide them
with opportunities and skills and
resources to enhance that
participation.... [T]he WID strategy
rests on creating more rational and
evenhanded planning which takes into
account the sex vision of labor, fair
returns for labor, and the equitable
infusion of new opportunities and
resources to all members of a given
community."
Kathleen Staudt
Women, Foreign Assistance and Advocacy
Administration


Tl. "MM P"


Fpohart # 4


Gender and
Development


"I understand the concept of gender to
be a system of socially ascribed roles
and relationships between men and
women, which are determined not by
biology but by the social, political and
economic context. Gender roles are
learned and they can change over
time. It is the analysis of these roles
and relationships which shows the
imbalances in power, wealth and
workload between women and men,
and it is this analysis which may then
lead to the possijirafs andneoessio y
of change."
.Jon Sd


T). Vm se


Fipchart 6


WID and GAD:
What's the Difference

Athough the critical distinction between sex
and gender is well known, the further
distinction between Women in Development
(WID) and Gender and Development (GAD) is
less clear.
WID
The WID approaches based on the
underling rationale that development
processes would proceed much better if
women were fuly inorprated nto them
(instead of being left to use their time
unprodutively').
GAD
In contrast, the GAD approach mainains that
to focus on women in isolation is to Ignore
the real problem, which remains their
subordinate status to men.
aoi,. OJ. Ma
.indrp nd..Ad.t.-&








4. Explain that these definitions are not the final word, but represent
current thinking about WID and GENDER. With the participants,
compare the group-generated ideas about WID and GENDER with
these definitions.
Look for similarities and differences. Comment on these.

FACILITATOR NOTE: The flipcharts above could be given as handouts.

5. Refer participants to handouts on "USAID and Gender: Key Dates"
and "Features of Current Legislation" and point out that USAID has
taken a progressively more inclusive view and developed more active
strategies to insure that gender is included in all aspects of
development work.
6. Close this session and make a transition to the next by explaining that
because the concept of gender focuses on the socially defined
characteristics of men and women in particular situations in terms of
the tasks they do and the results of these tasks, it has required a new
way of looking at the world. This "lens" is GENDER ANALYSIS.








3 SESSION V
GENDER ANALYSIS CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF
GENDER AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES

PURPOSE
To introduce and practice a gender analysis tool.
MATERIALS
Set of contextual gender analysis worksheets (see Appendix C, Handouts
#8 -#15)
Tips for Conducting Contextual Gender Analysis (see Appendix C,
Handout #16)
Flip charts or transparencies (see Steps 5,6, & 8)
Pre-workshop reading: Gender and Development
PREPARATION
Make copies of the contextual gender analysis worksheets (one set per
participant)
Make copies of Tips for Conducting Contextual Gender Analysis (one per
participant)
Prepare flip charts
Prepare transparencies (if used)
Prepare a wall chart-size version of the contextual gender analysis
summary sheet (Appendix C, Handout #8) by posting four sheets of flip
chart paper on the wall prior to the session. Place it where it can easily be
seen by all participants.
Make flip chart-sized copy of the model of Contextual Analysis of Gender
and Social and Economic Issues (see Step 8, Overhead #9)
Case study (Babundadzi, available on request from the USAID Office of
Women in Development). Ideally, the case should be provided to
participants in their pre-workshop reading packet. If this is not possible,
it can be read over the lunch break.
TIME
3 hours (This is a long session, so be sure to take one or two breaks where
they best fit or as needed.)
PROCESS
1. Introduce the session by explaining the purpose.








Building on the previous session, remind participants that GENDER
ANALYSIS...
I has become commonly accepted to analyze roles and to apply
that analysis to decisions about programs, policies and
projects.
/ IS NOT a specific technology, but is a way of looking at the
world
J IS a lens that brings into focus the roles, resources, and
responsibilities of WOMEN and MEN within the system
under analysis.
Gender analysis and the tools which have been developed to do such an
analysis provide valuable input to planning for sustainable
development.
2. ASK the group: Accepting that gender analysis is important...
WHEN, in the project cycle, should we analyze gender differences in
roles, constraints, and opportunities?
Respond to participants' responses -- note on flip chart if you wish --
helping them to see the importance of such analysis...
At ALL phases of the project cycle in planning, implementation,
and monitoring and evaluation.
If they haven't listed the following, point out that examples of when to
use in [KEY AREA] projects would include:
J documents such as requests for proposals, scopes of work,
indefinite quantity contracts, training, monitoring and
evaluation plans, and annual work plans
3. ASK: WHERE in development programming, should such analysis
occur?
Again, respond to their comments helping them to see that such
analysis should occur at...
the country, sector, program, and project levels of activity.
Point out that with [KEY AREA]
J Gender should be included as a key construct in the core
analytical and strategic planning stages of all [KEY AREA]
undertakings.
/ A cross-section of local women and women's groups should be
included in all stages of design, implementation, and
evaluation of those undertakings.









4. ASK: WHY do we need the data which gender analysis can provide?
Respond to their ideas and add the following points if they do not
include them:
J challenge assumptions
J describe the current situation
/ plan accordingly
/ monitor
J make adaptations
J evaluate
Again, specifically in terms of [KEY AREA], point out the following
consequences if gender is excluded from the analysis and resulting
program:
/ women will inevitably be omitted from mainstream project
and program activity
/ women will end up being ignored or relegated to an "add-on"
activity
J because projects and programs don't take advantage of
women's participation and contributions, development will
suffer
5. In summary response to the question "Why?" -- post Overhead #7:




Why Bother?

"For the simple reason that it makes sense.
Development projects that ignore 50
percent of the economically active
population will not lead to development,
much less equitable development."
SMohin MaIhora
Why Bo,~ Wih VhW Oende Isue?


"For the even simpler reason that it is the
right thing to do."
Me and many others

"o ancm.d,. Overhead # 7










6. Post Overhead #8, and close this background part of the session by
pointing out the importance of:


Gender Dimensions of
Development How?


Use
training, technical assistance, communications, and research
to influence...


UMo vo4 olw b. hnkp
TmtXnns".d


I
7. Explain that with this background on WHEN, WHAT, WHY, and HOW
of gender analysis, we will now look at gender analysis in relation to
particular development objectives and learn to use a new gender
analysis tool.
8. Post Overhead #9: Contextual Analysis of Gender and Social and
Economic Issues.


m. mm. Overhead #9


Overhead # 8


Contexfual Analysis of Gender
and social and Economic
Issues


Constraints to and opportunities for gender equ~ in the development prooess
exist in a omnext of multiple levels of social and economic ustenms. Analysis of
these oonstraintk and opportunities must oour at al levels of that oontext h
order to defne feasible steps toward change.


uNro ow.f.e- i. D-WdcM
Va.n mwsa P"l


Overhead # 9


AWAffikh,








Explain that constraints and opportunities to gender equity in the
development process exist in a context of levels of social and
economic systems.
Point out that when examining an equity problem -- whether related to
gender, age, race, residence or other factors, it is helpful to think about
which specific issues are related to different levels of the system.
Explain that contextual analysis is designed to identify and address
those specific issues and to determine which types of action or
intervention, based on a program or project purpose, can best lead to
change.
Explain that analysis of constraints and opportunities for action must
be analyzed in the context of such levels and that some--ie., the family,
household, small groups, etc. -- are becoming increasingly complex as
societies change.
Refer to the pre-workshop reading, Gender and Development, for
further detail.
9. Explain the different levels of an equity problem related to gender, age,
ethnicity, or race using the following points.
While explaining, refer to the wall chart and point out how each
component relates to it.
*: CULTURAL COMPONENT. is dynamic, changes slowly over
time, and is usually not a direct intervention target
*: POLITICAL COMPONENT: may have vested interest in status
quo, and often does not represent all stakeholders
*: LEGAL/JURIDICAL COMPONENT is important in policy
analysis and can be targeted in policy dialogue, also may be a focus
of legal system reform
*:* INSTITUTIONAL COMPONENT. frequently controls access to
resources, usually implements policy, and can be an intervention
target
*:* COMMUNITY COMPONENT is often a local gatekeeper for
resources, influences cultural changes, and is an important target
for collecting and disseminating information
*:* SMALL GROUP COMPONENT: changes configuration due to
function, is often an important entry point for development activity,
is also an important target for collecting and disseminating
TRUE information, and can identify and implement intervention
OF -. HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY: are important in gender role
ALL analysis, are dynamic and multi-dimensional, are important target
LEVELS for collecting and disseminating information, and acts in context of
other levels of systems








10. Referring to the chart explain that, for example, differences in
educational opportunities based on gender can be examined at each of
the levels in the framework:
V e.g., CULTURAL traditions may see education for boys as
part of a rite of passage to adulthood or support the belief that
too much education makes a girl less marriageable. We might
make these assumptions at the cultural level, but are they valid
and what information is needed to test the hypothesis?
/ The same questions about assumptions should be asked at
each of the system's levels.
J e.g., INSTITUTIONAL level assumptions might result from
assumptions about the unwillingness of families to send their
girls to school. But a testing of those assumptions might uncover
information showing that "not sending girls to school" is not the
problem, per se, but that the perception (and perhaps
experience) of families is that girls attending school are at
physical risk. The constraint to change then perhaps becomes
"unsafe schools with inadequate security for girls," rather than
people's attitudes regarding the education of females. This
understanding makes a big difference in defining opportunities
for change and specific steps for action.
11. Explain that the contextual analysis approach is not designed to
suggest that interventions can or should be made at all levels. It is,
however, designed to expand thinking about types of opportunities for
change and to bring more specificity to the identification of action steps
at various levels. If a primary issue is at the institutional level, and
actions are taken only at the community or household level, change will
be limited.
Similarly, interventions can be introduced at an institutional level, but
if solutions to a problem require a change in behavior at the household
level, the success of those interventions will be minimal at best.
By analyzing an equity problem at each level, constraints and
opportunities can be addressed and interventions can be more carefully
pinpointed.
Post Overhead #10 and explain that these issues should be explored at
each level, and will help project staff to decide at which levels actions
should be taken.












Contextual Analysis


Exploring the multiple levels of social and
economic systems is key. Gender analysis looks
at:
Issues at the cultural. poltioal. legal/jurdioal. institutonal.
community. mall group, and family and household levels:
this helps us to clarify components of an equity problem
related to gender. age. ethnicty. or raoe
identify assumptions that exst about the problem
test those assumptions
specify change needed to achieve development objectives
articulate pecifio constraints to charge
define opportunities for change
develop specific steps for action

it.DEmiM..di Overhead # 10


12.Explain that the tool subjects each level of social and economic systems
to the investigations indicated by the column headings -- issues,
assumptions, changes needed, constraints, and actions.
To involve participants, ask them for examples of what could go in the
boxes on the chart -- beginning with issues, then on to assumptions,
change, opportunities and constraints, and specific steps for action.
Explain that this is a summary chart of worksheets designed for each
of the contextual levels.
In explaining the chart, point out that not all cells in the analysis apply
to all levels of systems. It is also evident that, for a given issue,
immediate action can be initiated at some, but not all, levels.

FACILITATOR NOTE: A break might be needed here.

13.Explain that now, working in small groups, participants will work in
greater detail with the contextual analysis tool.
Explain that each group will be working at a different analysis level
(i.e., cultural, political, legal/judicial, and so on) with the short case
study provided.

FACILITATOP NOTE: Instead of using the Babundadzi case study, you may
supply one. Or, if participants are all familiar with a large local project, they
may use objectives from that project to complete this activity.








Post and explain the following group task instructions:


/ Focus first on issues and assumptions which the
project makes.
f Continue working down the levels through Changes
Needed to Achieve Development Objectives.
/ Be prepared to post on flip chart and report out on
your results after 30 minutes.
(Refer to page 8 of pre-workshop reading, Gender and
Development, and the handout Tips for Conducting
Contextual Gender Analysis for specific aspects to
consider during analysis.)
14. Form work groups of an equal or similar size (at tables, or otherwise).
Distribute worksheet packets and designate one level per table. Also
distribute, one to each participant, Tips for Conducting Contextual
Gender Analysis.
15.After 30 minutes, ask each group to present, limiting presentations to
10 minutes per group.
As they present, summarize their analysis and link their work to the
wall chart.
16. Close this session.









wsSESSION VI

GENDER ANALYSIS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

PURPOSE
To practice using gender analysis on an actual project.
MATERIALS
Project Packets
Set of contextual gender analysis worksheets (see Appendix C, Handouts
#8- #15)
Tips for Conducting Contextual Gender Analysis (see Appendix C,
Handout #16)
PREPARATION
Prepare project packets (Project documentation should be sent in advance
by the participants, organized by project, labeled with the project title, and
set out for participants to select.)
Make copies of the contextual gender analysis worksheets (one set per
participant)
TIME
3 1/2 hours
PROCESS
1. Explain the purpose of the session and remind participants that they
will be working in their project groups for most of today.
2. Explain that projects have been selected to use as "case studies"
throughout the remainder of the workshop. Participants will gain a
better understanding of the tools and information to come if they are
able to ground their learning in real projects.
Explain that some people will be giving short presentations on these
projects. Following the presentations, participants will select the one
project on which they would like to work for the remainder of the
workshop.
4. Ask persons presenting projects to make their presentations at this
time (5-7 minutes each).
5. When the presentations have been completed, ask participants to form
small groups of no more than 5 persons by selecting a project. Have
each project presenter stand so that the teams can form by standing
near that individual. If the groups are relatively evenly distributed,








have them sit together at a table. It is not advisable to have groups of
less that 3 persons, as the work will be more difficult to do.
6. Explain that, as in the previous exercise, the groups will be working
with the contextual gender analysis tool. But this time, they will be
working with a real project and will also be working with all levels, to
the extent that they can and time allows.
Participants should pick up and review their project packets.
Then, as before, they should begin with issues and assumptions,
working their way through changes needed to meet the development
objective, opportunities for, and constraints to achieving those changes,
and finally to specific actions to accomplish the changes. Handout #16,
given to participants during Session V, provides several useful tips for
conducting the analysis.
They will have 22 hours to complete their worksheets, report back to
the others, and engage in a plenary discussion of results. Once again,
they should develop a summarized/abbreviated form of their matrix on
a piece of flip chart paper.
7. After 1/ hours, ask each group to report out on their progress. They
have 5 minutes to report out.
After each has presented, allow 5 minutes for questions from the
others.
After all have presented, open a discussion with the following
questions:
/ In what ways was this exercise helpful?
J What was difficult about it?
/ Why?
How can such a tool strengthen [KEY AREA] projects?
8. Close this session.









SESSION VII
IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING PART I

PURPOSE
To provide participants with practical tools for implementation planning,
particularly for determining outcomes, and practice in using them with
projects.
MATERIALS
Flipcharts or transparencies (see Steps 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 10)
Definitions for Project Planning and Performance Monitoring (see
Appendix C, Handout #17)
Project Amendment Worksheet (see Appendix C, Handout #18)
PREPARATION
Prepare flip charts or transparencies (Steps 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 10)
Make copies of Definitions for Project Planing and Performance
Monitoring (one per participant)
Make copies of Project Amendment Worksheet (one per participant)
TIME
3-4 hours
PROCESS
1. Introduce the session by explaining the purpose. Mention that this
session involves a shift in focus from the analysis of gender concerns to
the language of implementation planning.
Remind the group that gender analysis provides input for planning.
The Contextual Analysis Tool which we have been using so far provides
valuable input for determining project outputs. In fact, gender analysis
often changes outputs.
For that reason, this session will focus broadly on planning, but
specifically on determining and writing project outputs.








2. Post Overhead #11 depicting "Actions" to ACTION.
Explain that out of analysis comes the framework for project planning
and implementation. The objectives describe desired outcomes;
followed by activities and
"Actions" to resources leading to
N1,111 accomplishment of
ACTI[ON objectives. Performance
measurement indicators
outline how progress will
be measured.
3. We may need to
clarify terms. Explain
oooteh. .' .t a that the language of
AtnalytkpiI- Measuremeo m
Appk"om planning is sometimes
confusing -- for example,
\AoHes & how do we know the
S""""" difference between a goal
Dacm-. '-- ov.hmd #n and an objective.

Suggest that we agree on some basic definitions.
Distribute and review Handout #17: Definitions for Project Planning
and Performance Monitoring.
4. Mention that there is often confusion related to objectives. Post and
explain the following Overhead #12:


Nature of Objectives

*What they are...
*.expected accomplishments
.projected achievements
intended targets
*What they are not...
*assignments
*:.tasks
**acfivities


UMDboHoF hiinkDwml Onuoverhead # 12
n~oifi-ip)-'uvmea C









5. Post and explain Overhead #13', Hierarchy Of Expectations, to show the inter-
relationship of inputs, outputs, purpose, and goal:


Hierarchy of

Expectations


inpu Oupufs Purpose \al

How What Why \ he
Spedrito reulj Wha we hope / Greaer
AchiI4 to b produod by to achi...t Whe
receuwCes Wabi. put. pr/oht



IF -.. THEN
(Cause) (Effect)


UmD o- d oWs. h D.kpd
flinU~a Pwtbmh~I


Overhead # 13


6. Post Overhead #14 and use it as an example to help explain the IF-THEN
relationships:


Uam- OUF o We.. in D.-"m"M
7V.WWE"B.fdoat


11. cmsa P, Overhead #14


Making a Project's If-Then Relationship
Explicit improves the Project


THEN Goal:
Increase rural household incomes
SPurpose:
Improve agricultural production of small-scale farmers
in the NW Region
Output:
A. Credit invested by small-scale farmers In productive
agricultural activities Increased
B. Appropriate technoloies (AT) adopted bj small-scale farmers
Input (activities & resources :
A. B.
Develop Irnesament guides idernify AT
Develop trinirg uoumrrlum Develop AT instrutoonal
Train FLfs to extend investment materials
IF advice to small-scale farmers Train extension service In
AT promotion


Overhead # 14


AW JEW-,

WWW'









FACILITATOR NOTE: For the following, substitute an appropriate example for
each of the four priority areas. The examples should reflect gender
considerations.

7. Explain that this part of the session will be building upon the previous
one where they began to apply the contextual analysis tool to their own
project.
Explain that in order to determine if an objective has been achieved, we
must create an objectively verifiable indicator (OVI).
Post and explain Flipchart #8:




Performance

Measurement


Objectively Verifiable Indicators...
.are condlions rhat signal success
Force us to clarify what we mean by our
objectives
S.provide an objective basis for monitoring
and evaluating
:have the follwing four atfributees
SPlausible
meaur what is n a project (not
what is ejy)
/ mnrei diargs aibutbl4 to the project
Independent
/ don't use indoetore at one lel to wmure
sucoes at anolar
< Targeted
p Level ot adlverNanrwifm t Ib spedfialy
defined
phow mudh? (guantijy)
Showwel? (gualityj
P by whan? (tim.)
< Objectively Verifiable

ihucadpse kD. Flipchart # 8


Explain that a good indicator is PLAUSIBLE if it measures what is
IMPORTANT (not necessarily what is easy); and measures changes
ATTRIBUTABLE to project.








EXAMPLE:
Objective: Credit invested by small-scale farmers in
productive agricultural activities increased
/ Bad OVI: Number of loans made
/ Better OVI: Ratio of credit value repaid to credit value loaned
/ Assumptions:
1. returns to credit invested in productive agricultural
activity will result in higher ratios
2. unanticipated externalities (e.g., drought) don't intervene
Explain that a good indicator is INDEPENDENT if it measures success
at one level. That is, don't use indicators at one level to measure
success at another.
Explain that to be TARGETED, specific levels of achievement must be
specifically defined, showing QQT (Quantity, quality, and time.).
Explain the 4-step process to create objectively verifiable indicators
(OVIs)
J identify indicator (ask for example from group or use one
below)
E.g., ratio of credit value repaid to credit value loaned
/ determine quantity
*. E.g., ratio of credit value repaid to credit value loaned
increases by 20%
/ set quality
E.g., ratio of credit value repaid to credit value loaned
by formal lending institutions increases by 20%
J specify time
E.g., ratio of credit value repaid to credit value loaned
by formal lending institutions increases by 20% within
2 years from date of project start up
ASK IF THERE ARE QUESTIONS? Respond.
8. Post Overhead #15, Project Planning and Implementation Framework,
and explain its various aspects. Then distribute the Project
Amendment Worksheet.


















THEN









IF


Project Planning and
Implementation Framework


Project Expecfation Indcators Means of Verifcation

cal: Wh s the owe ll meson Wh. Indh tor w il gl Spedlio sace of dok# and method
for h project? To what naol ohievemen of fh gia~? of obtfdng t.
or rngiond progwnm objeovte v
the project onkfibuts?
PRpoe: Brielly *et wht the Deoribe the condilon or situation WMht Wr the ypes end sourmo of
projef ks upqeoted to soNhew, If which wil a*i when th project skleno to be used ir verifni the
completed msuooa fuly nd on oahieves It tated purpose Le., ondtion or solution.
schedule. ,wd-o-f.dojeot stMh .
Outputs Wat "r te 4h major kende What we h sIpeio indiatrs Whet 1we ls peolo souros of
of reult th can be pected for aeoh of the planned output data for each of the indiotors, and
from good management of the Le., how much of wht, for whom how um th d"ta goibg to be
inputs? by when? obtained?
Irputs: Whart r he ky a*oovlthM Fore h e8tegry orf nputs., Spe ify ourc dooument (e.g.,
Mad mrour? identity the quantity anor doar rmords, report).
Ialu, by yue (budget).


I uUD Offi of Whan h De.sd-k iI
n1.oi.W.m,i. Overhead # 15


Explain that participants will be working in project groups to first
identify outputs (30 minutes). Suggest that each group make a
flipchart size Project Amendment Worksheet which they can fill out as
we work through the next couple of sessions.

Suggest that their project outputs should reflect the information and
insight they have gained from working through the Contextual
Analysis of Gender and Social and Economic Issues.

FACILITATOR NOTE: If the project is large and multi-dimensional, they may
wish to focus only on one component.

9. After 30 minutes, have each group report briefly (5 minutes) on their
expected outcomes.

10. Next, post and explain the following group task instructions:

/ For each output identified, develop at least one
indicator.

Prepare to report on Purpose, Goals, Objectives
(Outputs), and Indicators

/ Groups will have the remainder of the day to work on
the task. Each group should be prepared to make a 20
minute (maximum) report in the morning.

Ask for and respond to questions.









FACILITATOR NOTE: Is important that you move from group to group offering
support and giving assistance where needed. Be certain that the objectives
are stated correctly. Remind groups to select a reporter and to prepare flip
charts for presenting their reports.


11. Close this session.








SESSION VIII

IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING PART II

PURPOSE
To present and discuss reports on outputs and indicators.
MATERIALS
None
PREPARATION
None
TIME
112-2 hours (depending on number of small groups reporting out)
PROCESS
1. Explain the purpose of the session.
Explain that each group will have 20 minutes to report out on their
progress. Explain that after each group presents, there will be a brief (10
minute) period for asking questions. After all have presented, there will
be a longer discussion.
2. Ask each group to present, using a summary of their group's work on
flip chart paper.
3. After all have presented, begin a discussion with the following
questions:
/ What was helpful about this process?
/ What was most difficult?
J What have you learned that you will be able to apply in your
own project situations?
Other questions or comments?
4. Close this session.








SESSION IX

DETERMINING INPUTS

PURPOSE
To identify project inputs needed to create the desired outputs (objectives).
MATERIALS
Force Field Analysis Worksheet (see Appendix C, Handout #19)
PREPARATION
Make copies of the Force Field Analysis Worksheet (one per participant)
TIME
1 hours
PROCESS
1. Introduce the session by explaining that the only box still empty on
their Project Amendment Worksheet is INPUTS.
Explain that they will work in project groups to look back over the
workshop and what they have included in their Contextual Analysis
worksheets and Project Amendment Worksheets to determine what is
needed to achieve desired outputs.
2. A useful planning tool which will help to identify inputs is force field
analysis. Explain that this technique was developed to help
individuals or groups to do a more complete analysis of a problem
situation so that the solutions selected might have a higher probability
of success.
Distribute and explain the Force Field Analysis Worksheet. Explain
that...
I any change has both supporting and restraining forces.
I these forces exist within one's self, in others, and in the
organizations involved.
I resources -- available and needed -- must be identified and
strengthened in order to bring about desired change.
3. Explain that FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS is helpful in the planning
process because the RESOURCES become the INPUTS to the project.
4. Explain that groups will have 45 minutes to conduct a FORCE FIELD
ANALYSIS on one or more project objectives to identify project
INPUTS.








Each group should note their inputs on flip chart paper (or on their flip-
chart size Project Amendment Worksheet) and prepare for a 5-minute
report.
5. After 45 minutes, ask each group to report out.
After all are finished, begin a discussion with the following questions:
1 What do the inputs have in common?
Will they help to achieve desired outputs?
What categories of inputs are evident?
Are significant inputs missing?
V How has this last piece been helpful?
Was it difficult? Why or why not?
6. Close this session.









SESSION X
NEXT STEPS: PERSONAL ACTION PLANS

PURPOSE
To develop a personal action plan for applying learning from this
workshop.
MATERIALS
Next Steps Plan Worksheet (see Appendix C, Handout #20)
PREPARATION
Make copies of the Next Steps Plan Worksheet (one per participant)
TIME
1 hour
PROCESS
1. Explain that during this session participants will create a "next steps"
plan for themselves so that when they return to their workplace they
will be ready to take action to implement their learning from this
workshop.
2. Distribute and explain the Next Steps Plan Worksheet. Suggest that
each person complete the worksheet then find a partner to discuss it
with. (Tell them to just look around and find someone else who is
finished.) Explain that they will have 30 minutes to complete and
discuss their work plans.
After all have finished, ask for volunteers to share some of the actions
which they plan to take upon return to the workplace. (Don't force anyone
to speak, and all need not give an example. A few contributions will
suffice).
3. Close this session.








SSESSION XI

WORKSHOP CLOSING AND FEEDBACK

PURPOSE
To provide closure for the workshop and have participants offer feedback
on the experience.
MATERIALS
Feedback Form, (see Appendix C, Handout #21)
PREPARATION
Make copies of the Feedback Form (one per participant)
TIME
30-45 minutes
PROCESS
1. Suggest that in order to sustain their energy and skill in using their
learning from the workshop, participants may wish to meet
periodically. For example, the sponsoring organization could suggest a
regular "brown-bag" lunch or some other method to reinforce continued
support and interaction.
2. Ask participants to think back to the morning of the first day when
they were asked what they could do as change agents to strengthen
gender considerations in their [KEY AREA] projects.
Ask them to once again ask themselves that question and note their
responses now, at the end of the workshop (5 minutes).
After 5 minutes ask for some of the ideas people have noted, and note
these on the flip chart. Add the following if they don't come up with
them:
$ act as a catalyst
1 present alternatives
J educate
raise questions
Ask participants how their responses now differ from those at the
beginning.
3. Next, ask each participant to take a few minutes to reflect on the
workshop and to identify one important thing they learned that they








believe will be useful to them in their day-to-day work. Have each
person state this in the plenary session.
4. Tell participants that evaluating this work is very important to you as
facilitator, that you will use their comments to continuously update and
improve the workshop. Distribute the evaluation form and give
participants time to complete it and turn it in to you.
5. Thank participants for their hard work, acknowledge any additional
helpers you used before and during the workshop. Close with a simple
farewell and the offer of continuing support in their efforts.






APPENDIX A


Flip Charts














Workshop

objectives


Goal
Develop technical skills to support the full
integration of gender and women in
development concerns into [KEY AREA]
programs and projects

Objectives
The workshop will provide opportunities for
analysi-based training and experience in
planning. management and administration of
projects to...
/ improve participants' understanding of the
effects of gender differences on lhe design
and delivery of [KEY AREA] programs and
projects
/ enable participants to include gender-
sensitive objectives in planning, managing
and evaluating programs and projects: and
/ produce work plans for implementing the
objectives of their programs and projects


Approaching
Development

SBustealnable \ -
e pDevelopment'
Integrated Approaches
iparfnerships) and Methoda i
./ Democracyg .
Erironment
Economic Growth
Population and Health



INCREASED


LOND O6Ro d W. ,W inD4 -
U G~r~PtEM Pqd IpM


Flipchart # 1


OM















Democracy


Women in

Development


UMAID will support...
* constitutional mechanisms
* democratically elected legislatures
* legal systems
* local government entities
* credible and effective elections
* local, national, regional, and international
organizations that protect human rights
* trade unions, professional association, women's
groups, educational entities, and a wide range of
Indigenous NGOs
* political parties and other national mechanisms of
political expression
* Independent media outlets
* Improved civil-military relations
* Institutions and organizations that Increase
government responsiveness and accountability
* educational efforts for children and adults


"The essence of a Women in
Development approach is to ascertain
what women actually want and do
within a society and provide them
with opportunities and skills and
resources to enhance that
participation.... [T]he WID strategy
rests on creating more rational and
evenhanded planning which takes into
account the sex division of labor, fair
returns for labor, and the equitable
infusion of new opportunities and
resources to all members of a given
community."
Kathleen Staudt
Women, Foreign Assistance and Advocacy
Administration


URMD oi od Woo. h, Dood
o. OEW81M Pd


IMAIO 0.o- dW h D-.bimi
.onMFia#lp r


Fipchart # 3


Ripcharf # 4


4VW%


s~b~















WID and GAD:
What's the Difference

Although the critical cdlinction between sex
and gender is well known, the further
ditinction between Women in Development
(WID) and Gender and Development (GAD) is
less clear.
WID
The WID approach...is based on the
underlying rationale that development
processes would proceed much better if
women were fuly incorporated into them
(instead of being left to use their time
'unproductively').
GAD
In contrast. the GAD approach maintains that
to focus on women in isolation is to ignore
the real problem, which remains their
subordinate status to men.
Carolin O.N. Moer
ODndar yiag aad dwdoment


Gender and
Development


"I understand the concept of gender to
be a system of socially ascribed roles
and relationships between men and
women, which are determined not by
biology but by the social, political and
economic context. Gender roles are
learned and they can change over
time. It is the analysis of these roles
and relationships which shows the
imbalances in power, wealth and
workload between women and men,
and it is this analysis which may then
lead to the possibili'es and necessity
of change."
Jan Seed


IM OcENM rPnJaql#


LUBMD Ot-Oe d Wanm Dwdp.n
U OEIEMrPM|ql


Fliphart # 5


Fpchart # 6


.Ifif ldm ftk.















The Gender Dimension
of Development


Performance

Measurement


* Is about both what men and women do
* Looks at the Impact of development on both men
and women, and their impact on development
* 8eeks to see that both men and women
participate and benefit equally from development
* Recognizes that women may be involved in
development, but may not necessarily benefit
* 8eeks to understand the root causes of gender
inequality and addresses itself to these causes
* Emphasizes gender relationships and focuses on
the reduction of disparities
* Emphasizes equality of benefit and control
* Recognizes the need to look at equity of impact
* Not concerned with women per se, but with
social construction of gender and assignment of
specific rights, roles, responsibilities and
expectations to women and men
* Addresses the Inter-relationship between gender
roles, access to and control of resources and
power


* Objectively Verifiable Indicators...
Sare conditions that signal success
force us to clarify what we mean by oa
objectives
Provide an objective basis for monitoring
and evaluating
+ have the following four atffibutes:
0 Plausible
SrNeeu.r what I infant a prqo.o (not
whis aJ)
meacur chir afufHtbutabl to t. prqeoot
Independent
P dl't ua Indlctort *m IMlev to m.auma
*uasc lnofWrt
0Targeted
P Levels or aewt rmrt be spedfio.ajly
Show mu~h? (guantHy)
how wll (Vu.Jy)
Sby whcnvl (Imfk)
Objectively Verifiable


URMD OMe od Weon 6h Dudopwle
n~mPansP~O.0,


UBMD OFrboe Wbn, hDi~d-ipm
il.E.mpamy..


Flipchart # 8


Flipchart # 7


ft%







APPENDIX B


Overheads

Facilitator's Note: The following overheads have been duplicated two-to-a-
page In an effort to conserve paper. Each should be enlarged x2 when copied
on transparency film for use on an overhead projector.











Experiential Learning


generalize
- APPLY -


exeince
DO -






reflect
- THINK -


USM QMM oF WWWA kNDh.A&V
it. romw "P.


tiMID Uh~. ~ h, b..s&m~I Overhead #2


nh. Ean "-d


Model


deecribe
- LOOK -


Overhead # 1


WORKSHOP NORM9


*Attendance at all sessions
*Qtart/end all sessions on time
*Active participation by all
*One person speaks at a time
*Mutual respect for others' ideas
*Have fun while working
*No smoking


Overhead # 2


. . . . AN N L!,t,












Workshop Logic Map



SAID
and I Gndes Proue








Appilfcala onf deommndab ns to n
fK Y AREA) pmject U
EIuD oroe d | De | Exppore






Recmmmed c COverhead #















i As impact on developing nations
SUDAID will ask how projects acfuall affect the wag
people live. This demanding process...
+will ask how project and program acheve discete.
agreed objeOverhead #ve
wilThe fosuccess on foein asshisncg se is detainiermined b
accompact shmeon from ephemeral ones
obligaes people work as a ending in designings...
implemenfirg, and evaluating projects and programs
4* demands communication and cooperation, especially with
the citizens of developing countries


TVoEWWMP".>4 Overhead # 4









Participatory Development:
Guiding Principles






6 uce gender anars l and PRA
5 empower the poor
ac4 e overtime i to than e uend oer




fatu lu o, o Overhead # 5









The UMAID Path

C All sustainable democracies share certain
fundamental charaeferisfics: respect for human and
civil rights, peaceful competition for political power,
free and fair elections, respect for the rule of law,
accountable government and an environment that
encourages participation by all sectors of the
population.

But, there are


to the development of these characteristic

u .oE Mow. d Overhead # 6
























































11~ ~uY9 p~ Overhead #8


Why Bother?

"For the simple reason that it makes sense.
Development projects that ignore 50
percent of the economically active
population will not lead to development,
much less equitable development."
kMohin Malhotra
Why Bot WHthi Thai Gendw Issue?


"For the even simpler reason that it is the
right thing to do."
u Me and many others

u so f wan Overhead # 7
nxarcmanfM.o Overhead # 7


Gender Dimensions of
Development How?


Use
training, technical assistance, communications, and research
to influence...


uWlo of t kMann h OuapMnd"
TV. Mo ",j.a


Overhead # 8


AR ANft,,,









Contextual Analysis of Gender
and Social and Economic
Issues


Gender Analysts
Gender Analysi~s


Constraints to and opportunities for gender equity in the development process
exist in a context of multiple levels of soal and economic systems. Analysis of
these constraints and opportunities must our at all levels of that context in
order to defne feasible steps toward change.


USMID oCff e d Wno n h D-
b. OrmiEWM P.


Overhead # 9


Contextual Analysis


* Exploring the multiple levels of social and
economic systems is key. Gender analysis looks
at:
o issues at the cultural, political, IlegaVjuridical, Institutional,
community, small group, and family and household levels:
this helped us to clarify components of an equity problem
related to gender, age, ethnicity, or race
Identify assumptions that exist about the problem
4 test those assumptions
specify charge needed to achieve development objectives
4: articulate specific constraints to charge
4 define opportunities for change
develop specific steps for action


Overhead # 10


uuO ORie do Mn D-kalop-
Tue arsm PrM)d


p~P~i~~


AM 40111tb

ww'W








"Actions" to

ACTION[


Overhead # 11


OE- Obny .a


Nature of Objectives


*What they are...
expected accomplishments
S.projected achievements
*:intended targets
*What they are not...
*-assignments
efasks
:activities



.,odcmrn*4.. Overhead # 12


,AED6 'mmmm.-
Apmor*, AIMMEM941-












Hierarchy of

Expectations


Goal

The
Greater
Why


: THEN
(Effect)


Umo Cabe oF iwto- hDo-lI4
ha.GEWrnP rs


I(use)
(Cause)


Making a Project's if-Then Relationship
Explicit Improves the Project


Overhead # 13


Goal:
SIncrease rural household incomes
Purpose:
Improve agricultural production of small-scale farmers
In the NW Region
Output:
A. Credit invested by small-scale farmers in productive
agricultural activities increased
B. Apopiafe technologies (AT) adopted bu small-ale farmers
t i S_


IIuT n aullvies rvaorwwcJ*
A.
Develop investment guides
Develop trairrn curriculum
Train Ri's to extend investment
advice to rnall-eoale farmers


B.
Identify AT
Develop AT Instructional
materials
Train exlenoion service in
AT promotion


UN~ cwfto. vi VdmSn bi D~4'v.~I Overhead #14


u5 Cro.f .aMn .h .P
ft.WOEM P,,.d


ARIANft-


IB


Overhead # 14


AM~ Alhk-















Project Planning and i,

Implementation Framework



Projeo Epectafione Indicalors Means of VenBcafior

Odl: What Is the orall ason What idoalomr wll signal Speifio emwo* of data and mehod
tor he projteo? To what nioanal umhi nt of the oal? of obaing H .
or regional program objective wi
the project contibute?
Pwpose: Biefly sate wha the Describ the oandioan or ftlution Wht re Ith lpe oed aowr o of
project Is epeoKed to achieve, it which ill dt when the project idmno to be used in vrildng the
oompleed mioos sfuly and an achie I. S.d purpo L.. oon lan or situation.
schedule. end-of-project stOtua.
Outputs: What we the major hind Whet are b speollio i ndioaors Wha mte pecilio sources of
of reejut can be epeoed for eth of th planned outpus data for each of th Mndoors, and
from good managemen of he La., how much of what, for whom, how e th data going to be
inputs? by when? obtained?
Inputs: What re the key aotiMie Fore ach oatga of inputs. sp ly aouro documents (e.g.,
and resources? identify he quanly a or dolr records, sports).
value, by year budgett).


urno Wosf oF woamn h DWklXnw
T.e O.V .eci.J


Overhead # 15


THEN






APPENDIX C

Handouts, Forms, and
Worksheets









Correlates to Democratic
Governance


/ economic development
/ social changes and improvements (e.g., declining
infant mortality
/ corruption
/ religious tradition
/ tribalism, racism, ethnocentrism
/ education
/ civil society (i.e., private sector institutions such
as trade unions, business associations, civic and
women's organizations, youth groups and
cooperatives)
/ history of democracy
/ acceptance by the citizenry of a set of rules
which are predictable, widely accepted, and
considered authoritative (rule of law)
/ viable political parties
/ free, open, and fair elections
/ civilian control of the military
/ freedom of expression


UgAID Office of Women in Development
The GENEMY8 Project Handout # 1









Correlates to

Economic Growth


/ appropriate policy environment
/ strong economic and political institutions (good
governance)
/ export incentives
/ inefficient import substitution and unwarranted
protection
/ investment and savings
/ appropriate production technologies
/ education and health services
/ technical and business skills
I healthy market economy and financial markets
/ market-oriented pricing and trading policies
/ access to inputs, including land
/ favorable labor conditions and worker rights
/ infrastructure, including storage and transport
/ privatization of state-owned enterprises
/ support for microenterprises and small businesses



USAID Office of Women in Development H #
The OENEY Project Handout # 2








Correlates to

Environment


/ favorable policy framework
/ environmental laws and regulations
/ agricultural and land-use practices
/ soil and water conservation
/ resource management practices
/ clean air and wafer
/ protection of biodiversity
/ resource depletion
/ public institutions that monitor and facilitate
sustainable use of resources
I greenhouse gas emissions
/ renewable energy technologies
/ exploitation of forests, wetlands, coastal zones,
and other ecosystems






USAID Office of Women in Development
The GENEY8 Project Handout # 3







Correlates to
Population and HI
Health

/ favorable policy environment
/ fertility rates
/ infant, child and maternal mortality
/ family planning and health services
/ gender gaps in education
/ OTDs, including HIV/AID9
/ immunization programs, particularly for infants
and children
/ disease control and nutrition programs
/ social marketing of contraceptives and public
education campaigns
/ empowerment of women








USAID Office of Women in Development
The GEN8Y8 Project Handout # 4







Gender and

Development



Is about both what men and women do
Looks at the impact of development on both men
and women, and their impact on development
geeks to see that both men and women
participate and benefit equally from development
+ Recognizes that women may be involved in
development, but may not necessarily benefit
geeks to understand the root causes of gender
inequality and addresses itself to these causes
Emphasizes gender relationships and focuses on
the reduction of disparities
Emphasizes equality of benefit and control
Recognizes the need to look at equity of impact
Not concerned with women per se, but with
social construction of gender and assignment of
specific rights, roles, responsibilities and
expectations to women and men
Addresses the inter-relationship between gender
roles, access to and control of resources and
power
U9AID Ofice of Women in Development
The GENEMY8 Project Handout # 5







U9AID and Gender:
Key Dafes

+1973 Percy Amendment to Foreign
Assistance Act established a
mandate
+1974 Established U9AID's Office of
Women in Development
+1987 Two evaluations showed:
*.*Limited Progress: considerable work
was needed
**As a result Congress funded an
earmark for training, technical
assistance, new programs
+1988 New Legislation sustained
the mandate
+1993 New Administration increases
support...
UAID Oflice of Women in Developmenf
LThe GENMe Pj Handouf # 6e







Features of

Current

Legislation

Incorporate women as beneficiaries of and contributors
to development activities at the level proportionate to
their participation in the sector or to their representation
in the total population, which ever proportion is higher.
Ensure that A.I.D.'s documents explicitly describe
strategies to involve women, identify benefits and
impediments to women's participation in development,
and establish benchmarks to measure women's
participation in and benefits from development.
Collect sex-disaggregated data in all its research and
data gathering activities.
Increase training opportunities for women from all
regions and make necessary provision in its training
programs for addressing the specific needs of women.
Include in project and program evaluations an
assessment of the extent to which women are being
integrated into the development process and the impact
of such project or program on enhancing the self-
reliance of women and improving their incomes.
Incorporate to the maximum extent possible the active
participation of local women and local women's
organizations in all programs, projects, and activities
carried out by A.I.D. or ifs contractors.



U9AID Offie of Women in Developmen
The GENEBY8 Project Handout # 7






Summary Sheet for the Contextual Analysis of Gender Issues

Context Issue of Gender. Assumptions Change Needed Opportunities Recommended
Age. Ethnicity or Existing About to Achieve for and Actions
Race Issue & How to Development Constraints to
Test These Objectives Change


Cultural


Political


Legal/Juridical


Institutional


Community


Small Groups


Family/
Household


Handout #8




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #9


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Cultural Component Social Economic


Issues at the cultural level



Assumptions about the problem



Information to test assumptions



Change needed to achieve development
objectives


Specific constraints to change



Specific opportunities for change



Specific steps for action


- - - - - - 7


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem, August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #10


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Political Component Social Economic

Issues at the political level



Assumptions about the problem



Information to test assumptions


---- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- ------------------------------------------- - - -
Change needed to achieve development
objectives


Specific constraints to change


---- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- ----------------------------- c------------ - - --
Specific opportunities for change


Specific steps for action
Specific steps for action


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem, August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #11


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Legal/juridical Component Social Economic

Issues at the legal/juridical level



Assumptions about the problem



Information to test assumptions


---- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- ------------------------------------------- - - -
Change needed to achieve development
objectives


Specific constraints to change


---- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- ------------------------------- ----------- - - -
Specific opportunities for change



Specific steps for action
Specific steps for action


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem, August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #12


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Institutional Component Social Economic


Issues at the institutional level




Assumptions about the problem




Information to test assumptions




Change needed to achieve development
objectives


Specific constraints to change




Specific opportunities for change




Specific steps for action


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem, August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID


-------------------------------




-------------------------------




-------------------------------




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #13


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Community Component Social Economic

Issues at the community level



Assumptions about the problem



Information to test assumptions



Change needed to achieve development
objectives


Specific constraints to change


Specific opportunities for change
Specific opportunities for change


Specific steps for action


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem, August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #14


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Small Group Component Social Economic

Issues at the small group level



Assumptions about the problem


Information to test assumptions



Change needed to achieve development
objectives


Specific constraints to change



Specific opportunities for change



Specific steps for action


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem, August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID


I '




Contextual Gender Analysis Worksheet
Handout #15


Basic Gender, Age, Ethnicity or Race Equity Issue

Family and Household Social Economic
Component

Issues at the family and household level


-- -- -- -4 --- -- ------------ - - -
Assumptions about the problem


---- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- ------------------------------------------- - - -
Information to test assumptions


----------------------------------------------------------- -----------4--------------------
Change needed to achieve development
objectives
---- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- ----------------------------- c-- ---------- - - -
Specific constraints to change


---- --- --- --- --- --- --- ------------------------------------------- - - -
Specific opportunities for change



Specific steps for action
Specific steps for action


Prepared by Rosalie Huisinga Norem,.August 1993
Office of Women in Development, USAID










Tips for Conducting

Contextual Gender Analysis


Here are six tips for conducting
contextual gender analysis in the
;r planning of development activities.
The purpose of the analysis is to offer
a deeper understanding of the context
in which development activities occur,
=" to the extent that any changes
necessary to achieve development
objectives are uncovered.


1#l


Be careful that you don't let the grid's different
levels (e.g., cultural, political, legal/juridical)
drive your analysis: i.e., you don't have to fill in
all of the boxes, only those which apply.


Context


Issue


Cultural
Political
Legal/
Juridical
Institutional
c Community
Small Group
Family/
Household


Assumptions


Change


The first step is to
examine the issue to
determine its different
components. Then
situate these
components at the
levels) where they
occur and refine the
specific aspects of the
issue.
........................................... ; ....................................


The analysis should be driven by
the gender issues you identify as
possibly hindering the
achievement of your project's
development objectives. The
issues which you enter on your
grid should come from this
understanding, not concocted to
correspond to a certain level on
the grid. In other words, don't
feel compelled to fill in all the
boxes of the grid.

Some contextual levels (i.e.,
rows on the grid) may be left


UgAID Offie of Women in Development
The GENEBY8 Project


Handout # 16








blank because there may not be a gender issue on this level relevant to your project's
objectives. This is O.K.! Usually, the more legitimate blanks on the grid, the fewer
actions will be required to achieve your project's objectives.

This should be viewed as a reductive analysis that will help you to identify those few
subsequent actions that are necessary and sufficient to instigate the desired change.
You are not developing an exhaustive list of all gender issues and actions possible, as
many of these would either not be relevant to meeting the project's objectives or within
the manageable interest of the project to treat.


14i


The same gender issue may be reflected on
more than one contextual level, suggesting
several actions necessary and sufficient to
instigate the desired change.


For example, in an agriculture production project in sub-Sarahan Africa which targets
small scale farmers (most of whom are women) for increased credit and extension
services, women's lack of access to credit may be both a legal/juridical issue (wherein
laws relegating women to the status of legal minors may prevent them from applying for
credit) and an institutional issue (wherein formal credit institutions don't have the skills
to appropriately extend credit to women). The former might suggest actions at the
policy dialogue level to change legislation; the latter suggesting actions to build financial
institution capacity to extend loans to women.


With issues that are multi-faceted or complex,
as in the example given, you might begin by
brainstorming facets of the issue before filling
in the grid. Reviewing your brainstorm list, you
can then further define these facets and assign
them to their appropriate levels.

There is considerable economy in working
completely through the first column, to
establish all the facets of an issue, before
moving on to assumptions and the remaining
columns. Your analysis becomes more
definitive, and redundancies are avoided.


Conte x
Cultural
Political
Legal/
Juridical
Institutional


Issue
work
here
...............


Asstmptions


Community
Small Group
Family/
Household over
............. ............ ............. ............ ............ ........................................... .


UPAID OFlice of Women in Development
The GENE8Y8 Project


Handout # 16, Page 2












Your analysis will be less effective if you enter
suppositions or vague information.


Context I
Context Is-n


Cultural women don't men't cdit,
need access to pass ton o
Credit women
.. .................... .......... > ................ i .
Political
Legal/
Juridical
Institutional formal lending
institutions do
not lend to *
women
Community
Sm all Grou........................ ...........................
Small Group


If you find that you don't
have enough information to
fill in parts of the contextual
analysis matrix, or are
unsure of an entry, it may
be more useful to forulate a
question to be answered
later when more data are
available.

Your first attempt at
contextual analysis may
identify more questions than
answers; this is one of the
values of the analysis.


Exploring assumptions helps to clarify the root
causes of the issue under consideration.


Context


Cultural


Issue


Assumptions


Change


women don't men get credit,
need access to pass it on to
credit women


Uncovering the assumptions (i.e., root causes) about the issue may be the hardest part of
the analysis. However, this is a VERY important step! Without this information you risk
jumping from the issue to the desired change without sufficient clarity as to why the issue
persists.
:... ..... I ....... ........................................................ ................. ........... .. ...................... ... ......................
Institutional formal lending normall lending translate o
institution 4o institutions' credit
Understanding the assumptions not lend credit applications
that "explain" the ise at eh women applications in into local
that "explain" the issue at each |
national dialects
socio-economic level of the language, most
contextual analysis will help you women don't
to identify more incisive desired know
changes.


USAID Office of Women in Development
The GENE8Y9 Project


Handout # 16, Page 3


Assumptions


14









0 #


If you expect to show measurable progress towards meeting your objectives within
the life span of your development activity, you should consider only those actions
that are manageable, realistic, and sufficient to show appreciable change.


Remember, the purpose of this
analysis is to identify\


USAID Office of Women in Development
The GENE8Y Project


Handout # 16, Page 4


Identifying significant constraints to desired
change is important before considering the
actions you would take to achieve change.
Constraints such as "limited
resources" and "traditions" are
often deadends, meaning that
no project actions to
CH G counteract or neutralize them
tb Jare possible. If is important to
be realistic about these when
considering the degree to which
you can mitigate the constraints
to your desired changes.




The actions that you identify should readily
lend themselves to being included as output
objectives in your development strategy.


#6





















A project is the sum of all the actions taken by
organization in pursuit of a given purpose.


The higher order and longer term objective to
the organization's project contributes.


The highest level objective on which an organi
project activities can be expected to have a me
impact during the life-of-project. A purpose is:
/ within the manageable interest of the
organization
/ focus is on results, not action
/ can be measured by performance indica
/ time bound
/ specific


Project Outputs The major accomplishments for which an orga
is willing to assume direct responsibility in its
to achieve the project purpose. They have the
attributes as the purpose.

Project Inputs The activities and resources provided to produ
project outputs that in turn contribute to achie
the project purpose.

Performance Measurement Criteria for determining and/or assessing prog
Indicators the attainment of project outputs.


Performance Monitoring
System


An institutionalized system for collecting and
reporting program performance data on a peri
(usually annual) basis.


U8AID Office of Women in Development
The GENE8Y8 Project


Handout # 17


Definitions for Project Planning and
Performance Monitoring


Project


Goal


Purpose


.....................................................................................................................................


.....................................................................................................................................






N


Project Amendment Worksheet
Project:


Project Expectations Indicators Means of Verification

Goal:



Purpose: End-of-Project Status:




Outputs:



Inputs:


USAID Office of Women in Development
The GENEsY8 Project


Handout # 18


THEN








Force Field Analysis

Worksheet


PO91TIVE
FORCES


NEGATIVE FORCES


USAID Office of Women in Development
The GENEYS Project


Handout # 19


Resources required to meet the expected objective:




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