Title: Multiple cropping patterns for the rice tract of Punjab, West Pakistan
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080690/00001
 Material Information
Title: Multiple cropping patterns for the rice tract of Punjab, West Pakistan
Physical Description: 11 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Khan, M. Manzoor
Ford Foundation
Publisher: The Ford Foundation, West Pakistan
Place of Publication: Punjab, Pakistan
Publication Date: 1971
Subject: Multiple cropping -- Pakistan -- Punjab   ( lcsh )
Rice -- Pakistan -- Punjab   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Pakistan
Statement of Responsibility: by Muhammad Manzoor Khan.
General Note: "A report submitted to The Rice Improvement Advisor, The Ford Foundation, West Pakistan and The Rice Botanist, Goverment Rice Farm, Kala Shah Kaku, West Pakistan."
General Note: "March 15, 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080690
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 163575733

Full Text

March 15, 1971.



Dr. Muhammad Manzoor Khan

A Report submitted to

The Rice Improvement Advisor
The Ford Foundation, West Pakistan


The Rice Botanist
Government Rice Farm, Kala Shah Kaku
West Pakistan

q I .O 1


The author is an employee of the Ford Foundation, through the

International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, in West Pakistan.

Before that he was a post-doctoral fellow in the multiple cropping

project of the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. He

obtained his degree of Doctor of Philosophy in soils from the University

of the Philippines in 1969. He graduated with his M.Sc. and B.Sc. degrees

in Soil Science from the West Pakistan Agricultural University, Lyallpur,

in 1963 and 1961 respectively.

At present, he is working as an Agronomist with the Ford Foundation

in western Pakistan. In addition to conducting regular experimental

research at the Government Rice Research Farm, Kala Shah Kaku using

multiple cropping techniques in rotation with rice, he is also attempting

to find out the possibilities of introducing multiple cropping techniques

in various other regions of Pakistan.


The term multiplee cropping" as is used in this report involves

diversified crop production and intensive land use techniques. In other

words () maximum possible number of crops, with(2) maximum possible yield,

on(3) a given piece-of land, in(4) a given year, or combination of(l) crop

rotations,(2) relay-interplanting and(3) mixed cropping.

The system has a definite scientific planned order in which crops

follow one an other, or the growing of two or several crops mixed to-

gether. The soil management techniques involve minimum tillage practices.

The crops are grown on beds in order to obtain an effective use of

fertilizer and an economic use of irrigation waters as both of these

ingredients are applied close to the rootzones.

.The.farm labor is equally distributed throughout the year and

there is no extreme demand for it at the times of planting or harvesting.

The produce offers less problems for marketing and storage as the gap

in the time between harvests of a crop is. decreased by having different

dates of plantings.

The farmer practicing multiple cropping are generally more secure

financially than those practicing single crop husbandry. Moreover, a

wider variety of crop produced on the farm ensures better..nutrition for

the farmer and the people in the.country..


The area for conducting regular experimental research is located.

at the Government Rice Station, Kala Shah.Kaku which is situated near-

Lahore at 310N latitude.: The general soil variations in the area are very

.2- .- .

great.. It contains a greater. quantity of silt and has an impervious

sub--soil at 1-2 feet depth which runs very uneven. The .rainfall in

the area is less than 15 inches per annum. Temperature generally ranges

from its average minimum of 38.40F in December to itsaverage maximum
of 107 F in June. The main crop of rice is grown between early June and

late October.. The temperature in winter is too cold.to-raise a rice


Canal water is only available.. for the rice crop. The soils and

climatic conditions, however, permit one to raise several.other crops.

Normal crops of wheat, gram,.oilseed and pulses can be grown without

much difficulty with the extra w"te- available from tubewells. It is

fortunate that the temperature gradient in the month in.February, March

and April are close to that in the month of August, September and

October. Thus crops of corn. and soyabeans can be raised in this rice

tract in February planting instead.of August planting which is a rice

growing season in the rice tract.


Rice is the main kharif season crop for this area and is generally

grown between early June and late October. The rest of the year is

available for growing several other crops with the extra irrigation water

available from tubewells.

Since the rice crop is planted on puddled soils and underflooded

conditions, the after-rice-soil is, generally a compact and structureless.

It creates drainage and aeration problems in addition to many other

nutritional disorders for upland crops. A few progressive farmers are

~X__1 I ____ __ _~__ ~~__ ~I_

3 -

managing to grow a crop of wheat, gram or some types of oilseeds, but

many others do not grow a second crop. Thus hundreds of thousands

potentially productive acres are burning up their organic matter content

in the direct sun shine, multiplying weed seeds, and are being robbed

off its valuable inorganic, plant food materials with no return. The

raising oilseeds and pulses is critically needed. Experiments have been

conducted at the rice farm to grow a variety of these crops in conjunction

with rice. A tentative set of rotations are given below. Some of these

rotations have proved successful. Others are being tested. The landmaster

tractor and its ancilliaries are employed for tilling operations and other

soil management practices. The general crop management practices do not

involve inputs other than those common with the farmers. The soil

management techniques used here, however, involve a new set of improved

techniques used in some other rice growing areas of the world.

A. 1 Rice gram corn Rice2

2 Rice mustard sunflower Rice
(Raya L-18 2

3 Rice mustard. corn Rice2
(Raya L-18)

4 Ricel wheat sunflower Rice2

B. 5 Rice, ? soybean Rice2

6 Rice1 ? Mango
----Corn Rice2

7 Ricel__ ? Mango
----- Sunflower Rice

In rotation No. 1, for example, 3 rows of rice were planted on

flat beds 2- feet wide with a ridge on both sides. (See sketch on next

page). The plant population of rice, on the bed was maintained in such



Rice ------ gram ------ corn ----- rice
1 2

(i). Three rows of riceI on flat beds:


3 feet

(ii). Two rows of gram planted on ridges after rice harvest:

.t '
I" ~ ~ ~ C ?

(iii). Two rows of gram and. a shallow furrow


(v). Ridging up of corn after removing gram:


(vi). Planting rice2 after the harvest of corn:

'TI T" \ w/ \ \ / j \ / /

'dl '.~,'


. .'V .:.-.;


- 5 -

a way that the middle row had plant to plant spacing of 9 inches. The

other.two rows had plant to plant distance 6 inches.- The higher popu-

lation in the outer two rows will thus compensate for the missing row

due to the presence of a ridge, and the ridge space will, however,

produce a border effect. The field will have a normal plant population,

thus a normal yield can be obtained.

When rice, is harvested, the flat portion is still wet but the

ridges are well-drained and can be prepared.right away for planting

with gram, i.e. cultivate only the ridges, flatten them:so as.to plant-

two.rows of the gram 15 inches apart. When the flatt portion drains,

plough under the-.rice stubles using the rotovator blades and leave a

shallow furrow in the middle. When the.gram crop is 35-40 days old,

widen this furrow and use it, if desired, for irrigational purposes.

Gram will be ready for use as a green vegetable by the middle

of March (one may mature this crop if he likes). However, in case one

likes to harvest them green, then give a light irrigation in furrows

somewhere about the 28th of January and prepare then furrows for planting

with corn between 8th to 10th of February. The corn will grow with

gram. for almost 35-40 days.- Normally there would not be serious compe-

tition between corn and gram for sun light and other food nutrients at

this stage of growth.

When gram is harvested in the middle of March, the corn crop

will be ridged up later taking the extra soil from the beds where from

gram were removed. Thus the corn crop rows will be 3 feet apart. Main-

taining plant to plant space of 5 inches a normal plant population can be

obtained for corn as a grain crop. In case one wishes to harvest corn


cobs asfresh corn, maintain a plant to plant distance of 10 inches.

The corn crop is growing on the ridges which are 3 feet apart,

and are maintained even after the harvest of corn crop. The between

rows distance, which is 24 feet can be prepared and planted to rice2 as

the rice was planted. This rotation gives one rice, one crop of pulses

and one crop of corn in about 11 months.

In rotation No.2, for example, rice was harvested on November

8th.. It was flat sown on puddled soil as commonly done,by the farmers.

The rice field was cultivated, rotovated and leveled. Raised beds, 3

feet apart, with a furrow on both sides were prepared. (See sketch on

next page.) Two rows of Raya L-18, a variety of mustard, were seeded

on the top of the bed at a distance of 15 inches between rows. The seed

germinated in the residual soil moisture left after rice. The first

irrigation for Raya L-18 was made in the furrows when the crop was 25 days

old. Pods formation commenced in early February. When 50% of its pod

formation was completed, a light irrigation in furrow was again made.

Later, the furrow portions were cultivated, fertilized with all of its

phosphorus and potassium and. of its nitrogen and were planted one

half to corn and other half to sunflowers. Both corn and sunflower will

grow with. Raya mustard up to March 30,, i.e. the corn and sunflower will

grow with raya crop for about 40 to 45 days.

When the Raya crop is harvested, the corn and sunflower crops

will be.ridged. The other 1/2 of the nitrogen will be applied at this

time. Corn and sunflower will mature around May 30. After the harvest

of the crop the ridges will be maintained as such.. The between ridges

distance of 21 feet will be dry cultivated, fertilized flooded and
dita2 12i fe

__ ___




Rice ------ Mustard ------ Sunflower ------ Rice
1 Raya L-18 2

(1). Three rows of rice planted on flat beds 3 feet apart:

(ii). Two rows of mustard planted on ridges after rice harvest:

/ -:

(iii). One row of sunflower planted with mustard on February 20:

>~- ,-

(iv). Ridging up sunflower after mustard harvest:

(v). Planting rice2 after the harvest of sunflower:

\1I/ \i-, /' \b' \ i _7\i/


- 8 -

planted to rice2 as in rotation No. 1. This rotation produces one rice

and two oilseed crops in about 11 months. Rotation No. 3, similarly

produces one rice, one oilseed, and one corn crop in 11 months. In rota-

tion No. 4, for example, rice was flat sown on puddled soil. After its

harvest the land was cultivated, rotovated and leveled. Raised beds were

prepared at a distance of 3 feet between beds. Three rows of wheat,

Mexi-Pak, were seeded on the top. When the wheat crop was 75-80 days old

and was nearing panicle initiation, a light irrigation was given in the

furrows in preparation for planting with sunflower. The sunflower crop

planted at this stage will remain with the wheat crop for 40-45 days.

When the wheat crop is harvested, the sunflower will be bedded.

The sunflower crop will mature on or around May 30. The ridges will be

maintained at the time of the harvest of the sunflower. The between

ridges portion which is about 21 feet will be prepared for planting to

rice2 as rice was planted in rotation No. 1. This rotation gives one

rice, one wheat and one oilseed crop in 11 months period.

Similar techniques have been used in rotations No. 5, 6, and 7.

These rotations are, however, incomplete and need to fit in some more

crops in future. See sketch on page 10 showing mung and corn, and mung

and sunflower growing together when planted at the same planting date.



ROTATION 4: Rice --.--- Wheat ------ Suflower: ------ Rice

(i). Three rows of rice are 3 feet apart on flat beds:

... ._ ___ _.L.- '" % -H il -I I / '" """ ,.. I .. / ,.,

(ii). Three tows of wheat are planted on raised beds after harvest of rice:

\ii.7n Ato \n i \s b e w
(ii) / Of__ J \__ o

(iii). One row of sunflower is planted in furrows between wheat on March 10:

iv Bedding back on the sunflower after the harvest fwheat
(iv). Bedding back on the sunflower after the harvest of wheat:


/" _____i

(v). Plant three rows of rice2 after the harvest of sunflower:

/ \V / \^/ \lr/ ___ ______Z-. 1/


10 -

ROTATION NO.. 6: Rice --7.--- ? ------ Mung ------ Rice

(1). Mung and corn planted at the same time but under different
land management techniques:

146 -l



Rice ------

? ------ Mung ------ Rice

I..ui and sunflower planted at the same time in the same field
but under different soil management techniques:

->.. .. -t i
'C s%^



11 -


Gram crop in rotation No. 1 has been harvested as green

(vegetable). It was variety C-612. The harvest produced 150 maunds of

green stalk per acre. The market rate of vegetable gram such as these

was 25 paisa per seer between March 10 and 20, the same gram was selling

in streets at rate of 36 paisa per seer. Using a conservative rate of 18

paisa per seer, the gross income amounts to Rs. 1,080 per acre which is

quite a profitable amount from a crop of five months duration, mostly

grown with residual moisture left after rice. The interplanted crop of

corn was one month old on March 10 when the gram was harvested. The

results of other rotations are not yet available. The field conditions of

these crops are excellent.


__ _

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