March 15, 1971.
MULTIPLE CROPPING PATTERNS FOR
THE RICE TRACT OF PUNJAB
Dr. Muhammad Manzoor Khan
A Report submitted to
The Rice Improvement Advisor
The Ford Foundation, West Pakistan
The Rice Botanist
Government Rice Farm, Kala Shah Kaku
q I .O 1
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
The author is an employee of the Ford Foundation, through the
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, in West Pakistan.
Before that he was a post-doctoral fellow in the multiple cropping
project of the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. He
obtained his degree of Doctor of Philosophy in soils from the University
of the Philippines in 1969. He graduated with his M.Sc. and B.Sc. degrees
in Soil Science from the West Pakistan Agricultural University, Lyallpur,
in 1963 and 1961 respectively.
At present, he is working as an Agronomist with the Ford Foundation
in western Pakistan. In addition to conducting regular experimental
research at the Government Rice Research Farm, Kala Shah Kaku using
multiple cropping techniques in rotation with rice, he is also attempting
to find out the possibilities of introducing multiple cropping techniques
in various other regions of Pakistan.
The term multiplee cropping" as is used in this report involves
diversified crop production and intensive land use techniques. In other
words () maximum possible number of crops, with(2) maximum possible yield,
on(3) a given piece-of land, in(4) a given year, or combination of(l) crop
rotations,(2) relay-interplanting and(3) mixed cropping.
The system has a definite scientific planned order in which crops
follow one an other, or the growing of two or several crops mixed to-
gether. The soil management techniques involve minimum tillage practices.
The crops are grown on beds in order to obtain an effective use of
fertilizer and an economic use of irrigation waters as both of these
ingredients are applied close to the rootzones.
.The.farm labor is equally distributed throughout the year and
there is no extreme demand for it at the times of planting or harvesting.
The produce offers less problems for marketing and storage as the gap
in the time between harvests of a crop is. decreased by having different
dates of plantings.
The farmer practicing multiple cropping are generally more secure
financially than those practicing single crop husbandry. Moreover, a
wider variety of crop produced on the farm ensures better..nutrition for
the farmer and the people in the.country..
LOCATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AREA
The area for conducting regular experimental research is located.
at the Government Rice Station, Kala Shah.Kaku which is situated near-
Lahore at 310N latitude.: The general soil variations in the area are very
.2- .- .
great.. It contains a greater. quantity of silt and has an impervious
sub--soil at 1-2 feet depth which runs very uneven. The .rainfall in
the area is less than 15 inches per annum. Temperature generally ranges
from its average minimum of 38.40F in December to itsaverage maximum
of 107 F in June. The main crop of rice is grown between early June and
late October.. The temperature in winter is too cold.to-raise a rice
Canal water is only available.. for the rice crop. The soils and
climatic conditions, however, permit one to raise several.other crops.
Normal crops of wheat, gram,.oilseed and pulses can be grown without
much difficulty with the extra w"te- available from tubewells. It is
fortunate that the temperature gradient in the month in.February, March
and April are close to that in the month of August, September and
October. Thus crops of corn. and soyabeans can be raised in this rice
tract in February planting instead.of August planting which is a rice
growing season in the rice tract.
MULTIPLE CROPPING PATTERNS
Rice is the main kharif season crop for this area and is generally
grown between early June and late October. The rest of the year is
available for growing several other crops with the extra irrigation water
available from tubewells.
Since the rice crop is planted on puddled soils and underflooded
conditions, the after-rice-soil is, generally a compact and structureless.
It creates drainage and aeration problems in addition to many other
nutritional disorders for upland crops. A few progressive farmers are
~X__1 I ____ __ _~__ ~~__ ~I_
managing to grow a crop of wheat, gram or some types of oilseeds, but
many others do not grow a second crop. Thus hundreds of thousands
potentially productive acres are burning up their organic matter content
in the direct sun shine, multiplying weed seeds, and are being robbed
off its valuable inorganic, plant food materials with no return. The
raising oilseeds and pulses is critically needed. Experiments have been
conducted at the rice farm to grow a variety of these crops in conjunction
with rice. A tentative set of rotations are given below. Some of these
rotations have proved successful. Others are being tested. The landmaster
tractor and its ancilliaries are employed for tilling operations and other
soil management practices. The general crop management practices do not
involve inputs other than those common with the farmers. The soil
management techniques used here, however, involve a new set of improved
techniques used in some other rice growing areas of the world.
A. 1 Rice gram corn Rice2
2 Rice mustard sunflower Rice
(Raya L-18 2
3 Rice mustard. corn Rice2
4 Ricel wheat sunflower Rice2
B. 5 Rice, ? soybean Rice2
6 Rice1 ? Mango
7 Ricel__ ? Mango
----- Sunflower Rice
In rotation No. 1, for example, 3 rows of rice were planted on
flat beds 2- feet wide with a ridge on both sides. (See sketch on next
page). The plant population of rice, on the bed was maintained in such
Rice ------ gram ------ corn ----- rice
(i). Three rows of riceI on flat beds:
(ii). Two rows of gram planted on ridges after rice harvest:
I" ~ ~ ~ C ?
(iii). Two rows of gram and. a shallow furrow
(v). Ridging up of corn after removing gram:
(vi). Planting rice2 after the harvest of corn:
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. .'V .:.-.;
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a way that the middle row had plant to plant spacing of 9 inches. The
other.two rows had plant to plant distance 6 inches.- The higher popu-
lation in the outer two rows will thus compensate for the missing row
due to the presence of a ridge, and the ridge space will, however,
produce a border effect. The field will have a normal plant population,
thus a normal yield can be obtained.
When rice, is harvested, the flat portion is still wet but the
ridges are well-drained and can be prepared.right away for planting
with gram, i.e. cultivate only the ridges, flatten them:so as.to plant-
two.rows of the gram 15 inches apart. When the flatt portion drains,
plough under the-.rice stubles using the rotovator blades and leave a
shallow furrow in the middle. When the.gram crop is 35-40 days old,
widen this furrow and use it, if desired, for irrigational purposes.
Gram will be ready for use as a green vegetable by the middle
of March (one may mature this crop if he likes). However, in case one
likes to harvest them green, then give a light irrigation in furrows
somewhere about the 28th of January and prepare then furrows for planting
with corn between 8th to 10th of February. The corn will grow with
gram. for almost 35-40 days.- Normally there would not be serious compe-
tition between corn and gram for sun light and other food nutrients at
this stage of growth.
When gram is harvested in the middle of March, the corn crop
will be ridged up later taking the extra soil from the beds where from
gram were removed. Thus the corn crop rows will be 3 feet apart. Main-
taining plant to plant space of 5 inches a normal plant population can be
obtained for corn as a grain crop. In case one wishes to harvest corn
cobs asfresh corn, maintain a plant to plant distance of 10 inches.
The corn crop is growing on the ridges which are 3 feet apart,
and are maintained even after the harvest of corn crop. The between
rows distance, which is 24 feet can be prepared and planted to rice2 as
the rice was planted. This rotation gives one rice, one crop of pulses
and one crop of corn in about 11 months.
In rotation No.2, for example, rice was harvested on November
8th.. It was flat sown on puddled soil as commonly done,by the farmers.
The rice field was cultivated, rotovated and leveled. Raised beds, 3
feet apart, with a furrow on both sides were prepared. (See sketch on
next page.) Two rows of Raya L-18, a variety of mustard, were seeded
on the top of the bed at a distance of 15 inches between rows. The seed
germinated in the residual soil moisture left after rice. The first
irrigation for Raya L-18 was made in the furrows when the crop was 25 days
old. Pods formation commenced in early February. When 50% of its pod
formation was completed, a light irrigation in furrow was again made.
Later, the furrow portions were cultivated, fertilized with all of its
phosphorus and potassium and. of its nitrogen and were planted one
half to corn and other half to sunflowers. Both corn and sunflower will
grow with. Raya mustard up to March 30,, i.e. the corn and sunflower will
grow with raya crop for about 40 to 45 days.
When the Raya crop is harvested, the corn and sunflower crops
will be.ridged. The other 1/2 of the nitrogen will be applied at this
time. Corn and sunflower will mature around May 30. After the harvest
of the crop the ridges will be maintained as such.. The between ridges
distance of 21 feet will be dry cultivated, fertilized flooded and
dita2 12i fe
Rice ------ Mustard ------ Sunflower ------ Rice
1 Raya L-18 2
(1). Three rows of rice planted on flat beds 3 feet apart:
(ii). Two rows of mustard planted on ridges after rice harvest:
(iii). One row of sunflower planted with mustard on February 20:
(iv). Ridging up sunflower after mustard harvest:
(v). Planting rice2 after the harvest of sunflower:
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planted to rice2 as in rotation No. 1. This rotation produces one rice
and two oilseed crops in about 11 months. Rotation No. 3, similarly
produces one rice, one oilseed, and one corn crop in 11 months. In rota-
tion No. 4, for example, rice was flat sown on puddled soil. After its
harvest the land was cultivated, rotovated and leveled. Raised beds were
prepared at a distance of 3 feet between beds. Three rows of wheat,
Mexi-Pak, were seeded on the top. When the wheat crop was 75-80 days old
and was nearing panicle initiation, a light irrigation was given in the
furrows in preparation for planting with sunflower. The sunflower crop
planted at this stage will remain with the wheat crop for 40-45 days.
When the wheat crop is harvested, the sunflower will be bedded.
The sunflower crop will mature on or around May 30. The ridges will be
maintained at the time of the harvest of the sunflower. The between
ridges portion which is about 21 feet will be prepared for planting to
rice2 as rice was planted in rotation No. 1. This rotation gives one
rice, one wheat and one oilseed crop in 11 months period.
Similar techniques have been used in rotations No. 5, 6, and 7.
These rotations are, however, incomplete and need to fit in some more
crops in future. See sketch on page 10 showing mung and corn, and mung
and sunflower growing together when planted at the same planting date.
ROTATION 4: Rice --.--- Wheat ------ Suflower: ------ Rice
(i). Three rows of rice are 3 feet apart on flat beds:
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(ii). Three tows of wheat are planted on raised beds after harvest of rice:
\ii.7n Ato \n i \s b e w
(ii) / Of__ J \__ o
(iii). One row of sunflower is planted in furrows between wheat on March 10:
iv Bedding back on the sunflower after the harvest fwheat
(iv). Bedding back on the sunflower after the harvest of wheat:
(v). Plant three rows of rice2 after the harvest of sunflower:
/ \V / \^/ \lr/ ___ ______Z-. 1/
ROTATION NO.. 6: Rice --7.--- ? ------ Mung ------ Rice
(1). Mung and corn planted at the same time but under different
land management techniques:
ROTATION NO. 7:
? ------ Mung ------ Rice
I..ui and sunflower planted at the same time in the same field
but under different soil management techniques:
->.. .. -t i
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Gram crop in rotation No. 1 has been harvested as green
(vegetable). It was variety C-612. The harvest produced 150 maunds of
green stalk per acre. The market rate of vegetable gram such as these
was 25 paisa per seer between March 10 and 20, the same gram was selling
in streets at rate of 36 paisa per seer. Using a conservative rate of 18
paisa per seer, the gross income amounts to Rs. 1,080 per acre which is
quite a profitable amount from a crop of five months duration, mostly
grown with residual moisture left after rice. The interplanted crop of
corn was one month old on March 10 when the gram was harvested. The
results of other rotations are not yet available. The field conditions of
these crops are excellent.