• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Summary and recommendations
 Description of present situati...
 Contribution of curricula to increased...
 Analysis of curricula
 Constraints on effective teach...
 Corrective measures to improve...
 Maintenance of proficiency of UCAD...
 Responses to pid issues
 Annexes














Title: Curricula evaluation and instructional programs technical paper for development of the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang, Cameroon
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080673/00001
 Material Information
Title: Curricula evaluation and instructional programs technical paper for development of the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang, Cameroon
Physical Description: v, 44 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Blue, William G ( William Guard ), 1923-
Publisher: Soil Science Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Soil Science Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural education -- Cameroon -- Dschang   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Cameroon -- Dschang   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Cameroon
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by William G. Blue.
General Note: "May 1980."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080673
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 171235029

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
    Summary and recommendations
        Page 1
    Description of present situation
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Contribution of curricula to increased agricultural production and quality of rural life
        Page 6
    Analysis of curricula
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Constraints on effective teaching
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Corrective measures to improve instructional programs
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Maintenance of proficiency of UCAD graduates
        Page 18
    Responses to pid issues
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Annexes
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text









CURRICULA EVALUATION AND INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS

TECHNICAL PAPER



for development of the



UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR AGRICULTURE

DSCHANG, CAMEROON





by


William G. Blue, Professor

Soil Science Department

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida 32611


May 1980










TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

.. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . .. . ... . . I

II. DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT SITUATION. . . . . ... . .. 2

A' Agricultural Personnel Requirements in Cameroon
and SItodent Training Capacity . . . . . . . 2

B. Background and Selection of Students. .3

C. Physical Facilities . . . . . . . . 5

D. Degree Programs of University . . . . . . ... 5

E. The Instructional Calendar. . . . . . . . . 5

III. CONTRIBUTION OF CURRICULA TO INCREASED AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF RURAL LIFE. . . . . ... ... 6

IV. ANALYSIS OF CURRICULA . . . . . . . . . . 6

A. Courses of Study. . .. .. .. . . . . . .. 6

1. Courses for Degree Programs . . . . . . . 6
2. Courses for Areas of Specialization it the
Engineer of Agronomy Program . . . . .... 8

B. Problems with Effective Presentation of Courses . . . 8

1. Lectures . . . . . . .... . . . .. 8
2. Laboratory and Field Work . . . . . .... 9
3. Teaching Methodology. . . . . . . . . 9
4. Evaluation of Student Progress. . . . . . .. 9
5. Course Scheduling . . . . .. . . . . 9

C. Potential for Common Courses for ENSA and Upper ITA
Graduates . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

V. CONSTRAINTS ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING ... . . . . . 10

A. Educational Philosophy. . . . .... .. . 10

B. Organization and Adminisstration of Courses. . . . ... 10

C. Personnel . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 10







Page

1. Inadequate Faculty Numbers . . . . . . . 11
2. Lack of Faculty Understanding of Need for
Teaching Resources . . . . . . . . . 11
3. Teaching Assistants. . . . . . .... . .. . 11
4. Work Schedules . . . ... . . . . . 12

D. Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . 12

VI. CORRECTIVE MEASURES TO IMPROVE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS ..... 13

A. Construction of Adequate Facilities at Dschang . . . 13

B. Equipment Supply . . . . . . . . . . 13

C. Increased Faculty Numbers. .. . . . . . . 14

1. Advanced Technical Training. . . . . . . 14
2. Supplemental Training . . . . . .. . . 15

D. Teaching Assistants to Increase Effectiveness of Faculty 15

E. Development of Common Courses for First Three Years of
ENSA-Upper ITA . . . . . . . . .. . . 15

F. Syllabus Preparation for Course and Curricula Evaluation 15.

G. Increased Faculty Research and Extension Activities... 16

H. Commentary on Computational Capability for UCAD. . .... .17

VII. MAINTENANCE OF PROFICIENCY OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES . .. 18

A. Effect of Instructional Techniques on Maintenance of
Graduate Proficiency . . . . . . . . . 18

B. Short Courses . . . . . ... . . . . . 18

VIII. RESPONSES TO PfD ISSUES . . . . . . . . ... 18

A. Detailed Curricula . . . . . . . . .... 18

B. Background and Educational Levels of Entering Students 19

C. Placement of Graduates . ... . . . . . . 19

D. Necessity for the Animal.Science Program at UCAD . .,. 19

E. Human Nutrition. . . .. ... . . .. .. .. 19








Page

TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21

ANNEXES:

A. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN . . . . . . . .... . 40

B. RATIONALE FOR RECOMMENDED ACTIVITIES RELATED TO
IMPROVEMENT OF UCAD INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS. . . ... 42

C. PPT NETWORK CHART . . . . . . . .... . 45

D. PLAN FOR EXPENDITURE OF FUNDS FOR UCAD DEVELOPMENT. . .

E. PROPOSED COMMON COURSES FOR THE ENSA-UPPER ITA PROGRAMS

F. PROPOSED SUPPORT CONTRIBUTIONS BY AND FOR THE UCAD AND
ITA ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS . . . . . . . .









LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

I. ENSA CURRICULUM, FIRST YEAR . . . . . . .

2 ENSA CURRICULUM, SECOND YEAR . . . . . . . .

3 ENSA CURRICULUM, THIRD YEAR . . . . . . . .

4 ENSA CURRICULUM, FOURTH YEAR . . . . . . . .

5 ENSA CURRICULUM FIFTH YEAR (PLANT PRODUCTION OPTION) . .

6 ENSA CURRICULUM, FIFTH YEAR (ANIMAL PRODUCTION OPTION)

7 ENSA CURRICULUM, FIFTH YEAR (ECONOMICS AND EXTENSION
OPTION) . . . . .. . . . . . .

8 UPPER ITA CURRICULUM, FIRST YEAR . . . . . . .

9 UPPER ITA CURRICULUM, SECOND YEAR . . . . . .

10 UPPER ITA CURRICULUM, SECOND YEAR (PLANT PRODUCTION AND
ANIMAL PRODUCTION OPTIONS) . . . . . . . .

11 UPPER ITA CURRICULUM,. SECOND YEAR (MANAGEMENT AND COOP-
ERATIVES OPTION) . . . . . . . . . .

12 UPPER ITA CURRICULUM, THIRD YEAR (COMMON COURSES AND
ANIMAL PRODUCTION OPTION) . . . . .. . .

13 UPPER ITA CURRICULUM, THIRD YEAR (ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND
MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVES OPTION) . . . . . .

14 LOWER ITA CURRICULUM, FIRST YEAR . . . . . . .

15 LOWER ITA CURRICULUM, SECOND YEAR. . . . . . .

16 LOWER ITA CURRICULUM, THIRD YEAR . . . . . . .







CURRICULA EVALUATION AND INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS


FOR DEVELOPMENT OF

THE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR AGRICULTURE, DSCHANG

CAMEROON



I. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

We have studied the overall aspects of curricula for the three instruc-
tional programs at the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang, Cameroon
(UCAD) by consulting with various Cameroonian governmental agencies, UCAD
administrators, faculty and students, and by reading various documents includ-
ing student handbooks and the Cornell Report. We have found the curricula to
be generally adequate, but in need of some rearrangement of course sequences,
some consolidation and several deletions. Theoretical and practical work were
intended to be fairly well balanced, but constraints in terms of infrastructure
and its location, limited permanent and part-time faculty, lack of textbooks
and reference books and the general lack of equipment have necessitated lec-
tures as the dominant form of instruction, with student memorization from
notes as the primary learning technique. While the UCAD administration and
faculty are very young-as a group, we believe that their concept of agricul-
tural training at the university level is much better than they are able to
execute under the present constraints. As the infrastructure and equipment
for instruction are put in place, it will be incumbent upon UCAD administra-
tion and faculty, and United States university counterpart, to insist on a
balance of theoretical and practical studies in keeping with the goal of
developing agricultural scientists and technicians who can catalyze the
various segments of Cameroonian agriculture.

To improve instructional programs and ensure relevancy to Cameroonian
needs, the following recommendations are made:

1. The UCAD administrations should begin at the earliest possible time
to employ more permanent faculty, particularly in the agricultural and basic
sciences, to permit more effective instruction and more viable research and
extension activities by faculty.

2. The UCAD should establish priorities for advanced training of faculty
and requests should be made through appropriate channels for funds for acceler-
ation of this program. We would prefer to have training activities that are
financed by USAID centered in the United States to counterbalance philosophies
espoused by faculty trained in other foreign universities. Training programs
financed by other countries will probably be conducted in those countries.

3. The UCAD should supply land for development of infrastructure for the
National Higher School of Agriculture (ENSA) adjacent to the facility to be
constructed for the Cycle of Engineers of Agricultural Work instructional program,


-1-










4. The UCAD administration should make a decision concerning the feasi-
bility o.f combining the initial three years of the ENSA-Upper ITA programs
with common courses for the group, followed by student selection for the re-
maining two years of the Engineer of Agronomy program.

5. The United States AID should supply funds in combination with the
Belgian government for construction of ENSA facilities at Dschang; for essen-
tial structures and equipment for the research-demonstration farms at Dschang,
Bansoa and Djouttitsa for development of a library and other supporting serv-
ices on the UCAD campus; for advanced graduate training of UCAD faculty; for
equipment for the Department of Agriculture, Rural Economics and Basic Sci-
ences; for employment of short-term and long-term advisors and counterparts
as required for continued development of the UCAD; and for coordination of
the overall program with respect to UCAD.

6. The United States university should coordinate and supply advanced
training for Cameroonian faculty, advise on purchase of equipment and library
development, supply a librarian for library development and training of Cam-
eroonian librarians, supply five Ph.D. degree scientist-teachers in Plant
Sciences as long-term counterparts (two years or more) for Cameroonian fac-
ulty, a statistician-computer specialist for one year and short-term advisors
and consultants for curricula evaluation and for special short courses.


II. DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT SITUATION

An effective educational program requires physical facilities, a trained
and dedicated faculty and the proper selection and sequence of courses based
on the backgrounds of students and their projected post-graduation duties
and responsibilities. In our evaluation of the curricula, we have studied
the three educational programs at the University Center for Agriculture,
Dschang (UCAD), even though our primary responsibility was for the National
Higher School for Agronomy (ENSA). In the evaluation, extensive use was
made of interviews with governmental officials, university faculty and stu-
dents, various governmental and university documents and the report, "Agri-
cultural Manpower Needs Assessment and Implications for Participatory De-
velopment of the University Center for Agriculture at Dschang, Cameroon,"
prepared by the Rural Development Committee of Cornell University, Ithaca,
New York, in cooperation with faculty of the National Higher School of
Agronomy (ENSA) under the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang (UCAD).

A. Agricultural Personnel Requirement in Cameroon and Student
Training Capacity

All of the students enrolled in the three educational programs under
UCAD are on full scholarship through the Ministry of Education (MOE). Civil
servants in all ministries of the United Republic of Cameroon (URC) are clas-
sified into four major categories (Cornell Report, page 35). These are. cadres
A, B, C and D, from the highest to the lowest classification, respectively.
Cadre A is subdivided into A2 and Al levels.











Employees in the A2 cadre of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) are
called "Engineer of Agronomy," "Engineer of Water, Forests and Wildlife" and
"Engineer of Rural Engineering" levels, which are the training levels pro-
vided by ENSA. The Cornell Report, after a thorough analysis, estimated
manpower requirements within Cameroon through 1985 in this category at 584
persons. The UCAD is the only institution in Cameroon which trains people
at this level.

Employees in the Al cadre require the diploma of "Engineer of Agri-
cultural Work," which is the training supplied through the Cycle of Engineers
program in the Institute of Agricultural Techniques (Upper ITA), a division
of UCAD. The Cornell Report estimate of persons needed for this classifica-
tion through 1985 was 630. This is also the only educational program in
Cameroon for this level of training.

There was no estimate of requirements for personnel in the B cadre
of the MOA. This cadre is staffed by people who hold the diploma of "Agri-
cultural Technician" from the Cycle of Technicians (Lower ITA) training
program, also under the Institute of Agricultural Techniques, However,
persons with this level of training will work more closely with the rural
population than persons with the two higher degrees, and more of them will
be required. A training facility for Agricultural Technicians at Bambili
is called the National College for Agriculture. It is primarily for Anglo-
phone Cameroonians. Other training facilities at this level are at Mbalmayo
and Garoua; facilities at Ebolowa and Maroua are expected to open in 1980
(Cornell Report, page 20).

The ENSA program currently has an annual enrollment of fifty students.
Because of the relatively young age of most MOA employees and UCAD faculty and
the number of projected positions for new employees, the Cornell Report (page
46) recommended enlarging annual acceptance to seventy students in this pro-
gram. Both the Upper and Lower ITA programs accept approximately one hundred
persons per year, and the school at Bambili will soon have capacity for twenty-
five graduates per year. There was no recommendation for increased enrollment
in these programs.

B. Background and Selection of Students

Entrance into each of the three UCAD instructional programs is by
examination though there are other background requirements. In order to
compete. in the examination for entrance into the five-year program of train-
ing for the Engineer of Agronomy and Engineer of Water, Forests and Wildlife
degrees (ENSA), and the three-year program for Engineer of Agricultural Work
(Upper ITA), students must have the baccalaureate degree (BAC) from Franco-
phone schools or the General Certificate of Education, Advanced Level (GCE A/L)
degree from Anglophone schools. These are science-oriented, primary, secon-
dary and post-secondary school- programs. The BAC degree represents thirteen
years of schooling and the GCE A/L represents fourteen years (Cornell Report,
Fig. 1, page 18). Students would normally complete these programs at ages
nineteen or twenty.










The competitive examination is held annually for 50 places in ENSA
and 100 places in Upper ITA. Recently there have been 2,000 candidates, so
the programs and selection are highly competitive. Students take the exami-
nation at a variety of age levels; some take one or more years of science
courses at the University of Yaounde before taking the ENSA-Upper ITA
examination. The Cornell Report indicated ENSA students ages as follows:


Number and Average Age of ENSA Students

Class Number of Age Ranges Average
Students Ages

1 54 19-23 23

2 52 20-36 24

3 48 22-31 25

4 38 20-29 26

After Cornell Report, Table 4, page 27, September 1979.


Since the Cornell Report (page 27) indicated that only five of 192
students had any previous work experience, there is probably lengthy prepara-
tion and repeated competition in the entrance examination on the part of many
students. However, since almost half of the students listed their father's
occupation as farmer (Cornell Report, Table 5, page 27), many of them should
have had some experience with agricultural production systems. Students
selected annually for the ENSA program represent only 2.5% of those taking
the examination and those selected for Upper ITA represent an additional 5%.
Thus, only 7.5% of those who take the annual examination are selected for the
two academic programs. Score on the entrance examination is the primary
criterion for student selection, but there is apparently some effort made
to establish a provincial balance. However, all of the students should be
able to excel in science and agricultural courses during the first three
years of the ENSA-Upper ITA programs.

Students selected for the Lower ITA program,which results in the
diploma of "Agricultural Technician," must have completed the Brevet of
Studies of the First Cycle (BEPC) in Francophone schools, 10-year program,
or have obtained the General Certificate of Education, Ordinary Level (GCE
O/L) in Anglophone schools, a 12-year program. Entrance is also by exa:- -
nation. These students will normally be younger than ENSA-Upper ITA students.







-5-


C. Physical Facilities

Buildings for the National Higher School of Agronomy (ENSA) are
presently located at Nkolbisson near Yaound6. ENSA was formerly a part of
the University of Yaound6 but was transferred to UCAD by governmental decree
in 1978. An important objective of this project design-team study is related
to be construction of new facilities in Dschang; funds will be derived from
the Belgium government and USAID if the project is approved. Upper ITA is
currently sharing facilities at Dschang which were constructed with Russian
aid. There are presently 558 students at Dschang; 258 are in the Lower ITA
program and 300 are in the Upper ITA program. New facilities will be con-
structed soon for the Upper ITA program under an agreement with the World
Bank. ENSA facilities will be constructed adjacent to Upper ITA facilities.
Hopefully, the teaching and social blocks (cafeteria, library and auditorium)
will be common facilities for both programs.

D. Degree Programs at the University Center for Agriculture

There are three levels of instruction under two sub-administrative
units under UCAD which, in turn, is under the Ministry of Education (MOE).
The first sub-administrative unit is ENSA. The first graduation in the
present five-year program will occur in 1980. Graduates will have the
title "Engineer of Agronomy" or "Engineer of Water, Forests and Wildlife."

The second sub-administrative unit is the Institute of Agricultural
Techniques (ITA). There are two instructional programs in ITA. Students
from the higher level program receive the diploma of "Engineer of Agricul-
tural Work" and those from the lower level program receive the diploma of
"Agricultural Technician."

E. The Instructional Calendar

The school year begins on about October 15; it is divided into
segments as follows:

October 15 December 20 Instructional period

January 7 March 21 Instructional period

April 20 June 1.5 Instructional period

July 1 July 15 Final examinations

July 28 October 15 Vacation

Students spend part of the period from March 21 to April 20 in
field work and may use part of the vacation period for field study. Stu-
dents in the final year of the five-year ENSA programs work on their
thesis research and thesis preparation from February through June.











III. CONTRIBUTION OF CURRICULA TO INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
AND QUALITY OF RURAL LIFE

If agricultural education programs are organized at the proper level,
there is no question that graduates from these programs can contribute
greatly to increased agricultural production and quality of life for rural
people. Examples of this are abundant in the United States, Europe, Australia,
New Zealand and other areas. Basic science and mathematics courses must be
taught. However, agricultural courses should include information about the
local situation; in this case, Cameroon. To do this, production problems
must be identified and research must be accomplished which will supply data
for teaching and extension. University faculty teaching schedules should
be sufficiently small that research is encouraged, in fact, it should be
mandated by some technique. Students should not be required to learn by
rote memory, but'should be taught basic principles and their application
to practical problems which must be identified. University faculty could
also be catalysts for research by other agencies such as the Institute of
Agricultural Research (IRA). Finally, there must be an effort made to ex-
tend the information to the rural population for their use. It is our
belief that well-trained agricultural scientists and technicians will be
able to function effectively in their assigned positions. Their partici-
pation will result in increased agricultural production and improved rural
life.


IV. ANALYSIS OF CURRICULA

A. Courses of Study

The purpose of the UCAD instructional programs is to educate and
train scientists and technicians for teaching, research, extension and ad-
ministration of agricultural programs as they exist in Cameroon today and
into the future. Most higher level positions in the institute for Agricul-
tural Research (IRA) and professors at ENSA-Upper ITA require the Engineer
degree (ENSA). Administrative as well as technical skills are required of
those in the MOA and research agencies; UCAD faculty, to be most effective,
will require graduate training. Preparation for graduate study in high-
quality agricultural universities must include comprehensive courses in
basic and agricultural sciences; yet, much practical work must be included
since many ENSA graduates will not attempt further formal training. Gradu-
ates from Upper ITA will have an immediate and continuous need to apply
knowledge for solution of practical problems.

1. Courses for Degree Programs

Because of the great variety of potential responsibilities of
ENSA graduates, the curriculum must be heavily weighted toward sciences
during the beginning years. This, in fact, is the present situation
(Tables I through 7). However, we would prefer a mixture of science and











III. CONTRIBUTION OF CURRICULA TO INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
AND QUALITY OF RURAL LIFE

If agricultural education programs are organized at the proper level,
there is no question that graduates from these programs can contribute
greatly to increased agricultural production and quality of life for rural
people. Examples of this are abundant in the United States, Europe, Australia,
New Zealand and other areas. Basic science and mathematics courses must be
taught. However, agricultural courses should include information about the
local situation; in this case, Cameroon. To do this, production problems
must be identified and research must be accomplished which will supply data
for teaching and extension. University faculty teaching schedules should
be sufficiently small that research is encouraged, in fact, it should be
mandated by some technique. Students should not be required to learn by
rote memory, but'should be taught basic principles and their application
to practical problems which must be identified. University faculty could
also be catalysts for research by other agencies such as the Institute of
Agricultural Research (IRA). Finally, there must be an effort made to ex-
tend the information to the rural population for their use. It is our
belief that well-trained agricultural scientists and technicians will be
able to function effectively in their assigned positions. Their partici-
pation will result in increased agricultural production and improved rural
life.


IV. ANALYSIS OF CURRICULA

A. Courses of Study

The purpose of the UCAD instructional programs is to educate and
train scientists and technicians for teaching, research, extension and ad-
ministration of agricultural programs as they exist in Cameroon today and
into the future. Most higher level positions in the institute for Agricul-
tural Research (IRA) and professors at ENSA-Upper ITA require the Engineer
degree (ENSA). Administrative as well as technical skills are required of
those in the MOA and research agencies; UCAD faculty, to be most effective,
will require graduate training. Preparation for graduate study in high-
quality agricultural universities must include comprehensive courses in
basic and agricultural sciences; yet, much practical work must be included
since many ENSA graduates will not attempt further formal training. Gradu-
ates from Upper ITA will have an immediate and continuous need to apply
knowledge for solution of practical problems.

1. Courses for Degree Programs

Because of the great variety of potential responsibilities of
ENSA graduates, the curriculum must be heavily weighted toward sciences
during the beginning years. This, in fact, is the present situation
(Tables I through 7). However, we would prefer a mixture of science and











agricultural courses through the first two years so that the student can
begin to see the relationship between basic sciences and agricultural sci-
ences at an earlier date. For example, there are no agricultural courses
given during the first year. Yet, statistics, which is the application of
mathematics to numerical data (in this case agricultural data), is taught.
At this point, the student will have little concept of the type of data for
which statistics could be used. Perhaps Statistics, Mechanical Drawing Tech-
niques and Agricultural Geography and Geomorphology could be delayed from
the first year with substitution of General Agronomy, General Animal Science
and General Economics from the third and second years, respectively. Soil
Science: Conservation and Restoration, and Agricultural Geography and Geo-
morphology could be placed in the second year. The third year has a large
number of course titles; but close scrutiny of course titles and outlines
indicates that three courses in Rural Engineering could be combined under
the title of Rural Engineering. There are Rural Construction, Electrical
Techniques and Internal Combustion Engines. Likewise, Rural Legislation,
for which no syllabus was available, could be included under the Agricul-
tural Economics title. Laboratory and field work associated with many of
these courses is inadequate because of space, equipment and professorial
shortages.

The curriculum for the "Cycle of Agricultural Work Engineer"
(Upper ITA) includes many sciences and agricultural subjects (Tables 8
through 13). It is and was intended to be a more practical educational
program than the ENSA program. Again, the statistics courses would be
more meaningful if delayed until the second year.

There are a large number of courses and many are taught for a
small number of hours. Some of these could be combined. For example, there
are multiple courses in Statistics, Fertilizers, Agricultural Economics and
Engineering.

For Upper ITA,.directed and practical work is specified (Tables
8 through 13). It seems to be in reasonable balance with theoretical mater-
ial taught in lectures. However, severe shortages of space, equipment and
faculty have reduc- this important part of the Upper ITA program to almost
zero.

The Lower ITA program was designed largely for extension and
lower level management personnel. The same basic subjects are taught as in
the other two programs (Tables 14 through 16). They are obviously taught
at a much lower level than Upper ITA and ENSA courses since the students
are younger and have less academic background. The statistics course
taught in the second year of this program might better be eliminated. The
syllabus indicated the analysis of rather complicated experimental designs.
We doubt that professionals at this level will have use for this material.
A more simple course which considers the establishment and evaluation of
demonstration plots would be more appropriate. Laboratory and practical
activities are indicated to be almost equally divided with lectures. The
immediate problem in this program is space and equipment because they are










sharing their facility with a larger number of Upper ITA students. We had
less information on Lower ITA faculty than for the other two levels of in-
struction, but teaching loads appeared to be heavy. Many ENSA-Upper ITA
professors also teach in the Lower ITA program.

Two points should be made relative to language training. First,
there should be an examination given early in the program to determine the
students ability in both French and English. Those who do not meet a mini-
mum standard should be given remedial training. This training could be
managed through lectures and tapes in a self-teaching language laboratory;
the laboratory could also be used to enhance the language capability of
faculty prior to foreign graduate study. The second point is that persons
from all levels of UCAD training will need to write and speak. There are
no formal courses in these areas although some writing is done in the Edu-
cational Psychology course.

A course entitled Creative Writing, at appropriate levels,
should be included during the first year of instructional programs.

2. Courses for Areas of Specialization in the Engineer of
Agronomy Program

Areas of specialization are Plant Production, Animal Production
and Rural Economy and Extension. A specialization in Rural Engineering is
proposed. The data available to us in the Student Handbook, ENSA, 1975-76,
were not specific. This was prepared for the first group of students selected
for the five-year program. Course titles indicated that the background courses
through the fourth year are reasonable. Some field work occurs during the
first four years; apparently the student is permitted to choose locations
which will give him some insight into his chosen area.

The fifth year is reserved for specialization. Formal classes
are held from about October 15 to February 15, at which time the student
leaves ENSA to do field work for his required thesis. Courses consist of
advanced agricultural subjects in the specialization area and seminars re-
lated to development of projects and practical work. These courses are
presently under review.

B. Problems with Effective Presentation of Courses

1. Lectures

We will probably all agree that lectures, at least in some
courses and at some locations, are not as well done as they might be. There
does not appear to be adequate time for proper preparation, and it is fre-
quently necessary to try to explain subjects verbally which might be better
demonstrated by laboratory or field practice and observation. Also, there
are few textbooks and limited reference books for profound investigation of
a subject. There is a substantial requirement for memorization in testing
which we would prefer to have eliminated.










2. Laboratory and Field Work

Laboratory and field work appeared to be in good balance with
lectures in the printed curricula. However, adequate facilities are not
available and these areas cannot be properly handled at present. It appeared
that the intentions of UCAD faculty and administration were better than their
capacities to execute this part of the program.

3. Teaching Methodology

The lecture is the primary means of instruction. This appar-
ently is the traditional system; change is discouraged by shortage of labor-
atory and field facilities, and the inconveniences of their locations. For
many courses, e.g., Chemistry, Biology and Agricultural Sciences, the lecture
is not an adequate vehicle for instruction knowledge, without the ability to
apply it, is of little value. It is also doubtful if there is sufficient
material related to Cameroon included in applied courses. Data for many
applied subjects appeared to be in short supply. This is additional reason
for faculty to be engaged in research and extension activities, and for
increased emphasis on a variety of publication channels.

4. Evaluation of Student Progress

Student achievement is based on a point score of 20 for each
course. One-half (10 points) is given for short-periodic examinations and
one-half for the final examinations. When laboratory and field work are
involved, some credit is given, but we have not be able to verify the per-
centage of the final grade. It likely varies with the course and professor,
and the actual time involved in laboratory and field work.

5. Course Scheduling

We would prefer to have courses taught on a period basis (quar-
terly) as we do in the United States, instead of through the entire school
year. In this manner, the student can concentrate more on individual courses,
and build his knowledge on the basis of previous courses. Short examinations
could be given in the normal manner with the final examination given at the
end of a particular period. The school calendar is already segmented to
accommodate this system, i.e., classes are held from October 15 to December
20, January 7 to March 20 and April 21 through June. At least the same
number of courses could be taken during the school year. It may not be
possible to initiate this change immediately because of the shortage of
permanent faculty and the unreliable availability of part-time instructors,
but we believe it should be a long-term goal.

C. Potential for Common Courses for ENSA and Upper ITA Graduates

We realize that activities of graduates of ENSA and Upper ITA pro-
grams will be substantially different. However, many of the course titles
shown for the three years of study for the Upper ITA and the first three







-10-


years of the ENSA program are similar. Because of the serious shortage of
faculty now and for the next five to ten years, we think both programs
could be handled with common courses through the first three years. We
would like some agricultural courses taught in an earlier part of the ENSA
program; this would be compatible with needs of Upper ITA students. A few
courses, e.g., Cellular Biology, could be eliminated since they will not be
of great value except to those who will eventually do graduate work and to
those who may teach or do basic research. Basic research is a low priority
for Cameroonian scientists at the moment. Those courses may be taken as a
part of the requirements during graduate programs. Instead of teaching two
groups of 100 and 50 students each, a common lecture would include 150 stu-
dents or two groups of 75 students; the instructional material would be the
same. Students should be divided into smaller groups for laboratory and
field studies. The two groups of students represent the top 7.5% of those
who take the competitive entrance examination. All should be able to func-
tion satisfactorily in these courses. All students who are selected for
the ENSA and Upper ITA could be required to complete the Engineer of Agri-
cultural Work (Upper ITA) program. Following receipt of this diploma,
students can be selected on the basis of past dedication and performance
to continue onto the Engineer of Agronomy degree. Thi-s does not appear
to be unworkable or objectionable. In fact, graduates from the two levels
would probably function more compatibly following graduation than they will
under the present system.


V. CONSTRAINTS ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING

Teaching, research and extension, all of which are historic activities
in United States agricultural colleges and universities, require an adequate
number of properly trained faculty, support personnel, buildings to house
offices, laboratories and other teaching and research equipment, transpor-
tation and communication facilities. None of these appears to be in ade-
quate supply in Cameroon at the present time.

A. Educational Philosophy

The traditional system of education and student testing is heavily
oriented toward memorization with less emphasis on application of knowledge
to the solution of problems compared to the educational philosophy in the
United States. This system is currently being used extensively in UCAD
instructional programs. This is probably a result, in part, of faculty
backgrounds; but other factors which encourage or perhaps necessitate the
use of this technique are lack of textbooks and limited availability of
reference books, laboratories, field facilities, etc.

B. Organization and Administration of Courses

Organization and administration of courses are in an extremely
transitory period. The curricula for ENSA and Upper ITA students were de-
veloped and published in 1975 and 1977, respectively, at the beginning of
the current training programs. They have subsequently been written in more








-ll-


detail. The contents of most courses appeared reasonable, but the use of
part-time teachers and the necessity for travel between Yaound6 and Dschang
have caused much disruption in teaching schedules. The university adminis-
tration has probably done reasonably well under very severe constraints of
limited, transient faculty and limited equipment.

C. Personnel

1. Inadequate Faculty Numbers

There are permanent faculty at ENSA and ITA, most of whom teach
in both divisions. This is extremely difficult at present because of campus
separation. There are also part-time faculty, i.e., those who are employed
by other agencies but who have expertise not available within the permanent
faculty. Faculty'with whom we have spoken average more than 200 hours of
teaching per year and most of the instruction is done by lecturing; some
teach more than 300 hours. With administrative duties, class preparation,
examination grading, student counseling, etc., faculty members have little
time for research and extension. In addition, with relatively poor transpor-
tati.;, within the country. and spasmodic availability of permanent and part-
time faculty,the instructional program can only be described as disrupted.
Students at Upper ITA are given a schedule on Saturday for the following
week. If a teacher for a particular subject is available, he may present
as many as 30 or 40 hours of class work within a two-week period. A
specific example was a mathematics course which was delayed for a year
and finally taught for something on the order of six hours per day for
two or three weeks. This type of scheduling.does not give the students
time to solve problems and to discuss the subject among themselves. The
number of permanent faculty with adequate training in the variety of sub-
jects in the curricula is a major constraint.

Furthermore, many faculty are absent on advanced training pro-
grams which places additional strain on those remaining. This problem will
continue through the foreseeable future.

2. Lack of Faculty Understanding of Needs for Teaching Resources

It may not be fair to comment on this aspect of faculty pro-
ficiency because of the lack of equipment. However, pressure from the
faculty on the administration might cause the diversion of funds for teach-
ing equipment. Textbooks are used sparingly. Reference books are limited
and are apparently housed in faculty or departmental libraries rather than
a central library. Thus, there is little outside reading other than class
notes. Visual aids, other than the blackboard, are rarely used.

3. Teaching Assistants

Inadequate faculty numbers can be compensated for to some
extent by well-supervised teaching and research assistants. In United
States universities, extensive use is made of laboratory assistants and







-12-


advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Compensation is through salary
for any not on assistantships or scholarships; recognized academic credit
(Supervised Teaching) is provided for those on assistantships and scholar-
ships. Personnel of this type do not presently exist in UCAD. Laboratory
assistants have very low levels of training and are only capable of carrying
out rote laboratory procedures. There are no formal courses in Supervised
Research, Supervised Teaching or Special Problems which would require stu-
dent participation in teaching research.

4. Work Schedules

An item of concern to us is the work schedules of faculty and
students. Educational programs in the United States universities extend
continuously from 7:30 or 8:00 a.m. through 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. and frequently
into the evening. Student schedules extend through the day with various
open periods depending on numbers of courses and hours taken and involvement
in class laboratories; many students also find it necessary to work part-time
to help meet expenses. Libraries are open during the evening until 11:00 p.m.,
and during weekends for study, assigned manuscript preparation, etc.

In Cameroon, classes are apparently suspended during the period
from 12:30 to 2:30 p.m. This is obviously inefficient use of facilities and
time. Lack of privacy in dormitories, poor lighting and lack of library
space and books apparently discourage study other than for memorization
activities during evenings and weekends. These constraints prevent student
involvement in teaching and research programs and also deny students oppor-
tunities for practical experiences.

D. Facilities

The UCAD and its three levels of instructional programs are in a
difficult, transitional period from the standpoint of buildings and equip-
ment. The ENSA instructional program is conducted at Nkolbisson near
Yaound6 and the Lower and Upper ITA programs at Dschang, some 200 miles
distant. Transportation between the locations is via two relatively poor
roads, by airplane and road or by biweekly direct air flight. ENSA stu-
dents must presently go to the University of Yaound6 (UY) for laboratory
study, but the availability of UY facilities occurs only when their students
are not using them. The situation is very unsatisfactory.

There are no textbooks, few reference books for supplemental read-
ing, few written materials distributed to students and no place for students
to study. The present situation, particularly at Upper ITA, is that students
memorize their notes by rote. Students of Upper ITA indicated that they had
been taught through visual aids (transparencies) on only one occasion through
two years of study. Projection equipment was in extremely short supply and
most of the existing equipment was inoperable. Equipment for production of
teaching materials was also not abundant. Funds and vehicles for transporta-
tion of students for field exercises was also in limited supply. In short,







-13-


few of the physical materials which we in the United States use to stimulate
learning and to provide practical experience are presently available to stu-
dents in UCAD instructional programs.


VI. CORRECTIVE MEASURES TO IMPROVE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS

A. Construction of Adequate Facilities at Dschang

Separation of the ENSA and ITA sub-administrative units of UCAD
is presently a major problem for both since it is necessary for teachers to
commute over a long distance with inadequate transportation. Also, it is
not possible to use any common facilities. This problem will be partially
solved with the impending construction of the Upper ITA facility with support
from the World Bank. If the UCAD is to function as a satisfactory agricul-
tural university, ENSA facilities must be constructed on the same campus.
If they are constructed as conceived, physical facilities for UCAD will be
satisfactory for many years. We must add a word a caution concerning infra-
structure maintenance; a maintenance budget and program will be necessary
to prevent excessively rapid deterioration of buildings and equipment. We
would also recommend a grounds maintenance group to maintain an aesthetical
pleasing campus. Facilities and maintenance at the present ENSA location
were a disappointment. Students should be involved in maintaining cleanli-
ness of buildings and grounds.

It appears that the space requested by the Cameroonians in their
Program of Infrastructure Development, January, 1979, is reasonable for an
enrollment of 300 or so students with the probability of some graduate stu-
dents in the future. The availability of some land for research and demon-
strations at Dschang and at the Bansoa farm within a few miles should en-
courage a variety of field studies for and by students.

B. Equipment Supply

A major problem with the instructional programs of UCAD has been
the lack of equipment of all kinds. Certainly a primary reason for this has
been a shortage of funds, but low appreciation for the importance of labora-
tory and field equipment, library, visual aids and other teaching materials
on the part of the faculty and administration may have contributed.

This shortage of equipment should be rectified by contributions
from the Belgium government for the Departments of Plant Protection, Soil
Science and Animal Science. If the current study and project are approved,
USAID will be requested to supply equipment for teaching and research in
the Departments of Agriculture (Plant Sciences), Rural Economy, Rural Educa-
tion and Extension, Rural Engineering and Basic Sciences, and the three
teaching-research-demonstrational farms in and near Dschang. Transportation
equipment, especially for the area around Dschang, will also be requested.
Additional funds will be needed for maintenance of equipment and vehicles.
There will be requests for a large number of vehicles; maintenance costs








-14-


will be high because of poor roads. To insure adequate transportation with-
in budgetary means, a motor pool and check-out system will be needed.

C. Increased Faculty Numbers

There are presently thirty-three Cameroonian faculty listed for ENSA
and ten for Upper ITA. There are nine expatriate faculty listed for ENSA
and six for Upper ITA. However, there are seven additional ENSA faculty
out of the country studying for Master of Science degrees. Also, there are
five Upper ITA faculty who are involved in Ph.D. programs and who are doing
some research for dissertations.

ENSA employs approximately forty part-time faculty for mathematics,
science and specialized agricultural courses. Instructional hours scheduled
for ENSA students are 3900 and for Upper ITA student, 3550 hours. ENSA-
Upper ITA faculty also teach in the Lower ITA program. In addition, there
are many peripheral duties such as examination and report grading and counsel-
ing. It is impossible to calculate the number of hours taught per faculty
member but it is large. Faculty members are also very transient due to
participation in degree-.training programs. It is obvious that number of
Cameroonian faculty must be increased and particularly if laboratory and
field work for students is to become important in the instructional program.

Dr. Jean Ongla, Secretary General of UCAD, has prepared a report
(Cornell Report, page 38 and appendix F) which indicated the need for forty-
four new faculty for UCAD. This list included twelve for the Department of
Agriculture, eight for the Department of Rural Education, six for the Depart-
ment of Rural Economics, seven for the Department of Rural Engineering, six
for the Department of Plant Protection, three for the Department of Soil
Science and three for the Department of Animal Science. Faculty in some
departments have indicated that these numbers are insufficient. We were
not able to obtain any commitment on the actual hiring sequence of these
new faculty members.

1. Advanced Technical Training

Most of the new faculty should have additional advanced train-
ing within a short time of being hired. There are at least nine of the
existing faculty who should begin Ph.D. degree programs at an early date.
Faculty are required to have the MS degree for permanent status as Assistant
Professor, and the Ph.D. degree or equivalent for promotion to Associate
Professor. Work on advanced degrees by Cameroonian faculty is a highly
desirable goal, but it must be coordinated with arrival of expatriate
faculty so that faculty members are available to work with their counter-
parts.

In view of the shortage of UCAD permanent faculty at present
and into the foreseeable future, we recommend that the current policies for
hiring and promotion of UCAD faculty be set aside; the UCAD administration
should hire faculty with the Engineer of Agronomy degree. These people







-15-


could then be sent for training in the United States or elsewhere for the
Master of Science degree. The MS degree can be obtained in two years; the
Ph.D. degree program usually requires three years beyond the MS degree.
This appears to be the only way to obtain sufficient faculty to continue
advanced foreign training programs, to teach the courses currently offered
and to act as counterparts to expatriate university faculty. The present
tendency toward hiring faculty with the MS degree and the requirement for
the Ph.D. for promotion should be long-term objectives as they are presently
in established United States universities, but these policies cannot be
satisfactorily implemented at present.

2. Supplemental Training

To insure that courses are well organized and closely related
to the educational objectives of each UCAD instructional unit, a short
course on syllabus preparation should be conducted for all faculty. A
second short course should be conducted by a United States specialist on
mass communication, audio-visuals and visual aid preparation and use. An
additional short course for faculty should be held on library use following
construction of the library and the accumulation of reference materials.

D. Teaching Assistants to Increase Effectiveness of Faculty

We believe that there should be more use of teaching assistants
especially in light of inadequate faculty members. Some measure must be
found to retain Upper ITA graduates as laboratory and field assistants.
ENSA graduates should be retained as teaching assistants and as potential
faculty members.

E. Development of Common Courses for First Three Years of
ENSA-Upper ITA

The use of common courses for ENSA-Upper ITA students during the
first three years will be a radical change from the present philosophy, but
it should permit improved instruction and a significant saving of funds.
Certain classes are already large and increased size of lecture classes
should not be a major problem. Smaller discussion groups are highly desir-
able, but these smaller groups are needed in the present program. The most
radical change would be that there would be only one program during the
first three years for a given group of students. This would probably be
beneficial because it would maintain competition for a longer period;
separation of students might be done more intelligently after three years
in the program.

F. Syllabus Preparation for Course and Curricula Evaluation

Following the decision regarding common courses for ENSA-Upper ITA,
and regardless of the decision, a detailed syllabus should be prepared for
each proposed common and specialization course. These should be translated
into French and English.







-16-


InRnediately following preparation of syllabi for courses, appropri-
ate area specialists (perhaps departmental chairpersons from a United States
university) should be brought to Cameroon for detailed analysis of courses
and the curricula, including areas of specialization.

Because of concern expressed by officials within the MOA, the
parastatals and the cooperatives relative to specific need for their per-
sonnel to have management skills, the specialization in Rural Economics
and Extension will be discussed in some detail. Officials in these organ-
izations indicated that ENSA and ITA students are not sufficiently trained
in the need-ed skills (Cornell Report, page 44).

Presently the Department of Agricultural Economics is re-evaluating
the courses and their contents. This is an opportunity to incorporate man-
agement into the'courses offered in the department. The Upper ITA courses
provide substantial opportunity for training in management techniques.
There are three courses in the common first two years--Farm Accounts and
Management, Principles of Agricultural Credit and Investment Decisions,
which could easily have management sections that relate to the subjects
they cover. The Agricultural Economics option in the third year provides
the student with an opportunity to develop substantial management skills.
Four courses could include management--Project Elaboration and Analysis,
Marketing, Cooperatives, and Agricultural Credit.

The ENSA curriculum does not offer as much potential for adding
management training. The common courses include two that could cover man-
agement--Farm Accounts and Management, 60 hours, and Marketing, Credit and
Cooperatives I, 40 hours.. Management sections in these two courses could
at best give the non-agricultural economics option student only minimal
training. The Agricultural Economics option students would have two more
courses which could include some management--Elaboration and Analysis of
Agricultural Projects, 70 hours, and Marketing, Credit and Cooperatives II,
30 hours. The Department should analyze carefully the ENSA program and
attempt to include training which would raise the graduates' management
skills to acceptable levels. It is recommended that the contracting uni-
versity provide a specialist in management for up to three months during
the first year. His job will be to analyze courses and merge in management
techniques which deal with decision-making, personnel management, accounting
and finance.

G. Increased Faculty Research and Extension Activities

If the instructional programs at UCAD are to have maximum impact
on the rural poor and women farmers who make significant contributions to
food production in Cameroon, appropriate information about Cameroon should
be included in courses as examples when these data are available. Further-
more, maintenance of faculty interest throughout a career is enhanced by
viable research and/or extension activities, we believe the establishment
of a National Agricultural Research Society ef Cameroon should be encouraged.







-17-


An annual meeting should be held for presentation of reports, and a procee'd-
ings should be published. Reports could be presented on all areas of agri-
cultural sciences, including extension activities. Outstanding long-term
examples of this type of activity on a state basis are the Florida Horticul-
tural Society and the Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida. Proceedings
of these societies can be obtained from the Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences, University of Florida.

H. Commentary on Computational Capability for UCAD

Both ENSA and ITA offer courses in mathematics, statistics, sciences,
rural economics and rural engineering that involve complicated calculations.
Similarly, the faculty's research and the students' stage work require numer-
ical calculations. The UCAD will need computational capabilities.

The UCAD has recommended that a donor agency provide funding and
technical assistance for creation of a computations laboratory. They re-
quested a building, equipment, a computer, an expatriate Ph.D. statistician,
training for a Cameroonian and support funds for five years. (For details
see pages 60-63,"Program of Infrastructure Development," January, 1979.)

Ultimately the UCAD will have need for such a facility, but during
the next three to four years, it is difficult to see how they could make
efficient use of an elaborate computing laboratory. Because of the tempor-
ary location of ENSA, the heavy teaching loads and the small amount of re-
search being conducted, it is unlikely that the computational load will be
large. A computer is costly initially and costly to operate and maintain.
If the work load is low, the computer will be greatly underutilized and
scarce financial resources will be lost to other valuable teaching uses.
Several specific recommendations follow:

1. Space should be provided in the buildings for a computations
laboratory (see the Technical Report on Buildings). The space would house
the staff and computations space for students.

2. The UCAD should fill the present statistician position and
also hire a technician to man the computations laboratory.

3. Electronic calculators, including programable calculators
with tape output and statistical capabilities, should be provided for teach-
ing and research purposes.

4. For individuals who are presently conducting research that re-
quires computer level computations, time should be purchased from either
the Presidency (IBM 370) or from a commercial firm (BIOA) in Yaound6 or
Douala.

If source programs are not available at the commercial unit, the
researcher will have to provide them. The researcher would be best advised
to purchase (or rent) a source program from an organization that has thor-
oughly verified and validated the program. There are a number of statistical







-18-


packages that have been thoroughly "debugged." Likewise, there are mathe-
matical programming packages (primarily linear programming) that are avail-
able.

5. Upon completion of the buildings and when a counterpart statis-
tician is at UCAD, the contracting university will provide a statistician
experienced in agricultural research and knowledgable about computer hard-
ware. He will analyze the UCAD's computational load and make recommendations
about the kind of computational hardware needed. It is expected nine to
twelve months will be sufficient time to complete his work.


VII. MAINTENANCE OF PROFICIENCY OF UCAD GRADUATES

Agricultural research is proceeding so rapidly on a worldwide basis
that scientists can become obsolete within ten to fifteen years. Steps
must be taken to help insure that university graduates keep current with
scientific developments.

A. Effect of Instructional Techniques on Maintenance of
Graduate Proficiency

The current situation at UCAD necessitates instruction by lecture
with little benefit of textbooks, reference material, visual aids or labora-
tory and field exercises. Graduates take with them only what they remember
and rudimentary notes. These will need reinforcement if difficult problems
are to be solved. Funds requested for infrastructure and supporting equip-
ment are justified not only for aid in transferring knowledge in the instruc-
tional programs, but for demonstrating to students the importance of these
materials in maintaining scientific currency.

B. Short Courses

UCAD facilities should be used for a variety of short courses to
impart new technical knowledge, instructional techniques and other pertinent
information to employees in agriculturally-oriented governmental and private
agencies.


VIII. RESPONSES TO PID ISSUES

A. Detailed Curricula

Course titles are included in Tables 1 through 16 of this technical
paper. Course contents are shown in Student Handbooks for ENSA (1976-1976)
and for ITA (1977). Course contents generally seem reasonable. A few
suggested changes were made relative to sequence of courses to develop an
earlier interest in agriculture and its relationship to other sciences,
and in amalgamation of courses to reduce fragmentation. A review of course







-18-


packages that have been thoroughly "debugged." Likewise, there are mathe-
matical programming packages (primarily linear programming) that are avail-
able.

5. Upon completion of the buildings and when a counterpart statis-
tician is at UCAD, the contracting university will provide a statistician
experienced in agricultural research and knowledgable about computer hard-
ware. He will analyze the UCAD's computational load and make recommendations
about the kind of computational hardware needed. It is expected nine to
twelve months will be sufficient time to complete his work.


VII. MAINTENANCE OF PROFICIENCY OF UCAD GRADUATES

Agricultural research is proceeding so rapidly on a worldwide basis
that scientists can become obsolete within ten to fifteen years. Steps
must be taken to help insure that university graduates keep current with
scientific developments.

A. Effect of Instructional Techniques on Maintenance of
Graduate Proficiency

The current situation at UCAD necessitates instruction by lecture
with little benefit of textbooks, reference material, visual aids or labora-
tory and field exercises. Graduates take with them only what they remember
and rudimentary notes. These will need reinforcement if difficult problems
are to be solved. Funds requested for infrastructure and supporting equip-
ment are justified not only for aid in transferring knowledge in the instruc-
tional programs, but for demonstrating to students the importance of these
materials in maintaining scientific currency.

B. Short Courses

UCAD facilities should be used for a variety of short courses to
impart new technical knowledge, instructional techniques and other pertinent
information to employees in agriculturally-oriented governmental and private
agencies.


VIII. RESPONSES TO PID ISSUES

A. Detailed Curricula

Course titles are included in Tables 1 through 16 of this technical
paper. Course contents are shown in Student Handbooks for ENSA (1976-1976)
and for ITA (1977). Course contents generally seem reasonable. A few
suggested changes were made relative to sequence of courses to develop an
earlier interest in agriculture and its relationship to other sciences,
and in amalgamation of courses to reduce fragmentation. A review of course






-19-


contents and course sequences will be justified at a later date by special-
is:s in each major field following the preparation of detailed syllabi.

B. Background and Educational Levels of Entering Students

This important item has been discussed thoroughly in item 11-B of
this technical paper and in the Cornell Report. We think student background
is generally adequate for the level of courses taught.

C. Placement of Graduates

Students are all on scholarships provided by the MOE and, in effect,
are employees of the MOA. Following graduation they are given employment in
the MOA or are transferred through the MOA to other agencies including the
IRA, parastatals -and UCAD. Projected needs are sufficient for employment of
expected graduates for at least the next five to ten years.

D. Necessity for Animal Science Program at UCAD

In our judgment, animal science facilities must be established and
maintained at the UCAD if the UCAD is to have an effective agricultural
training program. In fact, we see no need for another major animal science
training program in Cameroon, although branch stations may be desirable to
service different climatic conditions in the country and different ethnic
groups.

The Cycle of Technicians and Cycle of Engineer of Agricultural
Work under ITA are essential practical programs at two distinctly differ-
ent levels, but both must supply personnel who are capable of working with
both plants and animals as requested by governmental agencies and by the
rural clientele. The ENSA program is intended to be more technical than
the ITA programs but all agricultural scientists and administrators should
have some background in both plant and animal sciences. Moreover, it is
the present responsibility of both programs to supply personnel with com-
petence in plant and animal production. Therefore, animal science courses
and various classes of animals must be maintained at Dschang. Since this
is the situation, and the Dschang area is suitable for most, if not all,
types of animal production, UCAD could be developed as the primary animal
science training facility and program with substantial financial saving on
the part of the Cameroonian government.

E. Human Nutrition

The question of the impact of the actual and envisioned curricula
of UCAD on human nutrition is important. Whether all nutritional effort
should be at UCAD or in an additional institution is beyond the scope of
this study. However, there is no question that current courses in the
various UCAD instructional programs will influence the nutritional status
of Cameroonian people. There are many courses including Chemistry,








-20-


Agricultural Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Plant Nutrition, Plant Composition,
Animal Digestive Mechanisms and Feeds and Human Nutrition, which will make
institutional graduates aware of food requirements for proper human nutrition.
As graduates from UCAD instructional programs take their places in the various
governmental agencies which deal with nutritional problems, they will be able
to interact with problems intelligently and effectively. Furthermore, there
are direct linkages with nutrition through our proposed emphasis on research
and extension; effective research and extension activities in the various de-
partments must result in improved plant varieties and cultural practices for
higher plant yields, improved food storage, improved marketing and pricing
practices and the extension of nutritional education.







ANNEX A


IMPLEMENTATION PLAN



Assistance in development of the University Center for Agriculture,
Dschang, is certainly a worthwhile project. Development of an effective
agricultural education institution is mandatory for a country of Cameroon's
size and population and with the obvious problems which exist. A primary
problem for maximum project effectiveness will be its implementation. To
carry out the project effectively, UCAD administration, USAID and the partic-
ipating United States university must each make their contributions in the
proper sequence. Contributions of each participating agency are listed as
follows:

UCAD

1. Supply land for construction of the ENSA facility at Dschang, and
in such location that ENSA can function with Upper ITA.

2. Supply farms in the vicinity of Dschang for research-demonstration
activities by students, and for eventual distribution of information
to the farming population.

3. Employ additional permanent faculty for agricultural and basic
sciences according to established priorities.

4. Seek support for advanced study by faculty immediately and continu-
ously through developmental phases of the UCAD.

5. Develop a viable maintenance program for infrastructure at UCAD.

6. Continue the present educational programs with development of
course syllabi and adjustment of course contents and sequences.

7. Make a decision relative to the ENSA-Upper ITA programs with re-
spect to common courses for all students through the first three
years.

SAID

1. Supply funds in coordination with the Cameroon and Belgian govern-
ments for construction of the ENSA facility.

2. Supply funds for development of the Dschang, Bansoa and Djouttitsa
research-demonstration farms.

3. Supply funds for supporting equipment including laboratory equip-
ment, farm equipment, visual aid facilities and books and periodi-
cals in coordination with the Belgian government.


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4. Supply funds for United States university faculty travel and main-
tenance in Cameroon for short courses, evaluation programs and for
advisory activities related to establishment, operation, teaching,
research and extension responsibilities of the UCAD faculty and
students.

5. Coordinate all activities of UCAD and United States university
administrations and faculties.

United States University

1. Advise UCAD and USAID officials on infrastructure development of
UCAD, and on equipment for laboratories, farms, communication
center and library.

2. Supply short-term consultants for curricula and general progress
evaluation, for short courses presentation of syllabus and visual
aid preparation and use, and for curricula evaluation.

3. Supply longer-term experienced, Ph.D. counterparts for UCAD faculty
in areas including General Agronomy, Fruit Crops, Vegetable Crops,
Botany and Genetics-Plant Breeding as required by the UCAD adminis-
tration in the brochure, "Program of Infrastructure Development
for UCAD," January, 1979, and as tentatively agreed to by members
of the project design team.

4. Supply longer-term counterparts in library and computer sciences
and other areas by agreement among UCAD,USAID and the participating
United States university.







ANNEX B


RATIONALE FOR SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES RELATED TO

IMPROVEMENT OF UCAD INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS



1. Employment of New Faculty

Dr. Jean Ongla, Secretary General, UCAD, in his 1979 faculty analysis,
indicated that UCAD needed forty-four new faculty, some for each of the
seven existing departments. In addition, there must be a Department of
Basic Sciences in UCAD, especially after ENSA is relocated in Dschang, to
teach courses in Mathematics, Chemistry, Zoology, Educational Psychology,
Microbiology and Geology. Ten new faculty positions initially for Basic
Sciences seem reasonable. Total suggested new Cameroonian faculty for
academic instruction is fifty-four. New agricultural personnel will also
be expected to involve themselves in research and extension as the situa-
tion requires.

We have suggested that the present trend for the MS degree for new
faculty before hiring and the requirement for the Ph.D. or equivalent
degree for promotion be set aside temporarily, and that persons with the
Engineer of Agronomy-or equivalent degree be hired. The MS degree will be
the primary level of graduate training. The sequence of hiring should be
according to departmental deficits from projected full staffing. Priority
should be given to the Departments of Agriculture, Rural Economics, Rural
Education, Rural Engineering, Plant Protection and Basic Sciences. The
ideal situation would be to hire these persons immediately; since this
probably is not possible, we suggest that hiring be done on the basis of
a minimum of fourteen positions per year over the next four years. Salary
is calculated at $8,000 per year; these must be increased as higher degrees
are obtained.

2. Employment of Teaching Assistants

We have suggested that teaching-research assistants be employed to re-
duce faculty teaching loads and to assist with research. Ideally, these
persons would hold the diploma of Agricultural Work or higher. The long-
term goal should be to have one teaching-research assistant per active
faculty member. We have no specific recommendation for hiring persons
for these positions, but strongly suggest that the UCAD administration
consider this simultaneously with employment of new faculty.

3. Foreign Graduate Training for Faculty

We were not able to obtain information on priorities for graduate stu-
dent training. Since we have suggested the MS degree as the immediate goal,
training programs to this level will dominate. We have considered that


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there are some of the present faculty with only the Engineer of Agronomy
degree, and that we have suggested fifty-four new faculty with this degree.
A reasonable number of faculty for training to the MS degree level in United
States universities is thirty over the next five years. Some opportunity
for advanced training should be afforded those who presently hold the MS
degree; we suggest that the number of faculty for the Ph.D. degree be
limited to seven, one for each existing department.

Candidates for training to the MS degree level should be distributed
among all departments, but should include counterparts for the five United
States university plant scientists recommended in item 4 of this Annex.

Foreign graduate training must be coordinated in such a manner that the
instructional programs are not impaired, and that Cameroonian faculty will
be available to work with expatriate counterparts.

4. United States University Faculty Counterparts

Five United States university faculty are suggested as counterparts for
faculty in the Department of Agriculture (Plant Science). These persons
will assist and advise in teaching and teaching methodology, student thesis
research and thesis preparation and mission-oriented research and extension
in the Plant Sciences. They will represent specializations in General Agron-
omy, Fruit Crops, Vegetable Crops, Botany and Genetics-Plant Breeding. They
are also listed in the Technical Papers on Research and Extension. We esti-
mate that 70% of their time will be devoted to teaching activities and 30%
to research-extension. They should be in Cameroon during the five-year
contract period. A computer specialist is suggested for a one-year period
following completion of ENSA facilities.

5. Equipment for the Departments of Agriculture, Rural Economics and
Basic Sciences

The only equipment requested expressly for teaching was in the Depart-
ments of Agriculture, Rural Economics and Basic Sciences. The Belgian
government will supply equipment for the Departments of Plant Protection,
Soil Science and Animal Science; equipment for the Departments of Rural
Education and Rural Engineering will be included in separate technical
papers for these specializations. Office and laboratory furniture for all
departments is included in the Building and Construction Report. Cost of
equipment for the Department of Agriculture is $174,600 (see attached
table).

The Department of Rural Economics will need typewriters and calculators;
cost is estimated at $20,000. The Department of Basic Sciences will need
wet laboratories for Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Qualitative
and Quantative Analysis, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Zoology, and dry
laboratories for Geology and Physics. Botany and Plant Physiology labora-
tories should be taught in the Department of Agriculture. Cost of the








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Basic Sciences laboratory equipment is estimated at $250,000. Types and
amounts of equipment and supplies are to be determined at a later date,
but this allowance should cover costs.

6. Textbooks and Reference Books

It is important that students have textbooks and reference books for
outside study. It may be prohibitively expensive to purchase texts for
each student and it is not clear whether students will be able to purchase
them. Textbooks are not presently used. It is proposed that textbooks be
purchased for each course at the ratio of one for each ten stud-;,-ts; these
should be placed on reserve in the library. Assuming common courses for the
first three years of the ENSA-Upper ITA program, there are approximately 100
courses and 170 students; textbooks are estimated at $30 each. Replacement
cost for damaged and out-of-date books will likely by 25% of the original
costs per year.

Reference books are badly needed, but these will be considered in the
Technical Report on Library.

7. Operating Costs through Five Years

The UCAD a ninistration in its report "Infrastructure Development for
UCAD," requested continuing support for the Department of Agriculture at
$8,800 per year. We do not believe this is sufficient for instructional
programs, and extra funds will be needed for faculty research-extension
activities. We think operating costs for a relatively modest program will
be $25,000 per year for the Department of Agriculture, $10,000 per year
for the Department of Rural Economics and $25,000 per year for the Depart-
ment of Basic Sciences.

8. United States University Faculty for Short Courses

There will be a need for short-term United States university faculty
for three reviews and short courses associated with instructional programs.
It is recommended that six departmental chairmen come as a group to Cameroon
within a year of the contract signing and following syllabus preparation for
each course. They will review courses with Cameroonian faculty and, cooper-
atively, develop courses and course sequences for degree programs. This will
be a one-month assignment. An additional specialist should come to Cameroon
at the appropriate time of opening of the new ENSA facility to teach a course
to faculty in communications, including visual aid preparation and use. This
will be for a one-month period. A management specialist is also recommended
for a three-month period to revise courses in the Department of Rural Eco-
nomics to introduce decision-making, personnel management, accounting and
science.




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