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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Glossary and abbreviations
 Summary and recommendations
 Program description
 Analysis of proposal














Title: Research and experimental farm development
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080672/00001
 Material Information
Title: Research and experimental farm development University Center for Agriculture, Dschang
Physical Description: vi, 31 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sites, John W
Publisher: University Center for Agriculture,
University Center for Agriculture
Place of Publication: Dschang Cameroon
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural education -- Cameroon -- Dschang   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Cameroon -- Dschang   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Cameroon
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: John W. Sites.
General Note: "May 23, 1980."
General Note: At head of title: Technical paper.
General Note: Grateful acknowledgement is made for the help of Joseph Djoukam, Francoia Murzong and Francoia Kemajou in the preparation of this technical paper.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080672
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 171022670

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Glossary and abbreviations
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Summary and recommendations
        Page 1
    Program description
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Analysis of proposal
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text








TECHNICAL PAPER


RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL FARM DEVELOPMENT







UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR AGRICULTURE -- DSCHANG











John W. Sites



May 23, 1980











Grateful acknowledgement is made for the help of Mr. Joseph Djoukam, Director
of ITA, Mr. Francoia Murzong, Chief of Service at the General Directorate, and
Dr. Francoia Kemajou, Head of the Department of Rural Economics, University
Center for Agriculture, Dschang, in the preparation of this technical paper.









TABLE OF CONTENTS



GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS. .......... ... . . . . .iv

I. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS. . . . . . . . . 1

II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . .. 2

A. The Role of Research in Agricultural Education
at University Center, Dschang. . . .. . . . . 3

1. The Use of Research in Developing New Information. 3
2. The Use of Research as a Teaching Tool .. . . 4
3. The Use of Research by Agricultural Extension. . . 4
4. Agricultural Research Components.in the GURC ... .... 6
5. How Agricultural Research Helps the Small Farmer .... 7
6. Agricultural Research and the Cameroonian Woman .. .. 8
7. Summary of the Present Situation . . . . . . 8

B. Experimental Farms of the University Center. . . . . 9

1. Administration of the Farm System. . . . . . 9
2. Experimental Farm, University Center, Dschang. . .11
3. Experimental Plant Farm, Bansoa. . .. . . . .13
4. Experimental Animal Farm, Djouttitsa .. ....... 15

III. ANALYSIS OF PROPOSAL . . . . . . . . . . 18

A. Administrative Organization and Feasibility .. ... . .18

B. Implementation Plan . . ... .. . . . .. .. 22

C. Evaluation and Monitoring. . . . . . . . 24

D. Technical Feasibility... . . .... ..... . 24

1. Links between Research and Teaching. . . . . .. 24
2. Links between Research and Extension . . . . .. 25
3. Links between Research at UCA and the Institutes
of DGRST . . . . . . . . . . 26
4. Links between Research and Experimental Farm Systems .26

E. Training Requirements for Recommended Personnel. . . . 26

F. Special Training Programs. . . . . ... . . ... 28

G. Response to P.I.D. Cable 059182, March 12, 1979.. . 29










Page


H. Cost Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .

I. P,P.T. Network Chart . . . . . . .

ANNEXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annex A. FARM INFRASTRUCTURES REQUESTED . . . . . . .

Annex B. FARM INFRASTRUCTURES RECOMMENDED . . . . . .

Annex C. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE . . . . . . . .

Annex D. PERSONNEL NEEDS, USAID . . . . . . . .

Annex E. PERSONNEL NEEDS, CAMEROON . ... . . . . .

Annex F. FACILITY NEEDS, DSCHANG FARM . . . . . . .

Annex G. FACILITY NEEDS, BANSOA FARM . . . . . . .

Annex H. FACILITY NEEDS, DJOUTTITSA FARM . . . . . .

Annex I. EQUIPMENT NEEDS . . . . . .. . . . .

Annex J. LIVESTOCK NEEDS . . . . . . . . . .

Annex K. REFERENCES CONSULTED IN PREPARATION OF
PROJECT PAPER . . . ... . . . . . .









GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS


CAMSUCO Cameroon Sugar Company Inc.

CDC Cameroon Development Corp.

CENEEMA Center for Studies and Experimentation of
Mechanized Agriculture

CFZV Centre de Formation Zoolectinique et VetErinaire
de Maroua Ministry of Livestock

CNFC Centre National de Formation Cooperatives
d'Ebolowa Ministry of Agriculture

CNA Collbge National d'Agriculture de Bambili -
Ministry of Agriculture

CRA Colleges Regionaux d'Agriculture Ministry
of Agriculture

DGRST National Office for Scientific and Technical
Research Main government agency responsible
for research

EEF Ecole des Eaux et Forets de Mbalmayo Ministry
of Agriculture

ENSA Ecole Nationale Superieure Highest school of
agriculture One of the major components of
the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang

ETA Ecole Techniques d'Agriculture Ministry of
Agriculture

FONADER National Fund for Rural Development

GURC Government of the United Republic of Cameroon

HEVECAM Cameroon Rubber Development Society

IRA (DGRST) Institute de la Recherche Agronomique
Institute of Agronomic Research A branch of DGRST

IRAF (DGRST) Institute of Agriculture and Forestry Research

IRTISS Institute of Technological, Industrial and
Geological Research









- Institute of Zoological Research


ITA Institute des. Techniques Agricoles A lower
school, beyond secondary, for agricultural
training at two levels, Agricultural Engineers
-and Agricultural Technicians.- A component of
the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang

MIDEVIV Food Crop Development Authority

MINEP. Ministry of Economy and Planning

MOA Ministry of Agriculture -.The Government Ministry
which is responsible for agricultural and rural
development programs and for secondary agricultural
education and training

MOE -Ministry of Education The Government Ministry
responsible for Cameroonian education.

MOL Ministry of Livestock The Government Ministry
responsible for animal production and health and
for secondary education in these fields

NCC -The National Cooperative College of Bamenda

NWCA North West Cooperative Association

OCE Cameroon Banana Organization

SCT Cameroon Tobacco Society

SEMRY Society for Expansion and Modernization of Rice
Cultivation in Yagouda

SOCOODER/ Cooperative Societies for Rural Development/Cooper-
SOCOOPED active Societies for Savings and Development

SODECOTON Society for Development of Cotton

SODECAO Society for Development of Cocoa

SOCAPALM Cameroon Palm Development Society

SODEBLE Society for Development of Wheat Cultivation in
North Cameroon

SODEPA Society for the Development of Animal Production


IRZ (DGRST)









SODENKAM Society for the Development of the Yabassi/Bafang
Area

SODERIM Society for Development of Rice, Mbo Plain

SOCUCAM Cameroon Sugar Production Society

UCA University Center for Agriculture, Dschang

UCCAO Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives of
the West

UNVDA Upper Nun Valley Development Authority

WADA Wum Area Development Authority

ZAPI Integrated Zone of Priority Action








TECHNICAL PAPER


RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL FARM DEVELOPMENT

UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR AGRICULTURE, DSCHANG

John W. Sites



I. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This is a technical paper covering agricultural research and the experimen-
tal farm system as a function to be developed at the new University Center for
Agriculture, Dschang, Cameroon. This is a part of the recommendations of a
seven-member team, six from the University of Florida and one from Florida A
and M University, covering the areas of administration, building and construc-
tion, curriculum evaluation and instructional programs, rural engineering and
social soundness. In an effort to improve and expand the professional training
being offered in Cameroon, the Government has decided to create four new uni-
versity centers, each specializing in a professional area; agriculture is the
special area for the University at Dschang.

Each member of the team has had many years of experience in his area of
specialization but none was considered an expert on Cameroon, so the early
portion of our duty was spent in visitation with counterparts, faculty, students,
government officials, parastatals, cooperatives, businesses and other users of
the products of an agricultural university.

This paper is concerned with ways to implement research at UCA and to make
it a meaningful part of the school's educational program. Reviewing the pre-
vious research program revealed that although some research is taking place, it
is extremely limited, diverse and undirected. Causes of the low research activ-
ity were judged to be due to the following:

1) Most available resources are going into the teaching program;

2) An insufficient number of teachers for the number of students
and number of courses being taught;

3) Teaching schedules which permit little time for research;

4) Inadequate laboratory facilities and equipment;

5) No organized, well operating, experimental farms;

6) No budgeted funds for research activities; and

7) No directed program of research activities.

All of the above factors contribute to the low productivity of research at the
present time.










If research is to become a really significant part of the agricultural
educational process at UCA, it will be necessary to adopt policies and pro-
cedures which encourage the development of this function. Before anything
will happen favorably there must be a positive attitude about the need for
research by the administration and the faculty at UCA. Following an acknowl-
edgement of research as a bonafide educational function, then comes a willing-
ness to budget funds to support these activities. It will be a substantial
budget but it carries the probability of a high return on the investment. To
help achieve these ambitions specific recommendations are made as follows:

1) To include a thirty percent time assignment to research and
extension for each faculty member and to have it so stated
in the faculty job description.

2) To increase faculty position numbers by thirty percent to
provide time for research and extension activities.

3) To provide for an experimental farm system to assist in
carrying out the research program.

4) To provide laboratories and equipment necessary for the
conduct of research operations.

5) To adopt a procedure for identifying appropriate research
goals for the institution which will contribute to and
support national development goals of GURC. Each faculty
member may then develop research projects which make a
specific contribution to these goals.

6) To evaluate faculty annually on research contributions in
proportion to their research responsibility.

7) To provide an identifiable.and accessible media for publi-
cation of research results.

8) To appoint a Director of Research and Extension who shall
have the responsibility for forming a research project
system through the departmental structure to the individual
faculty member that all research expenditures by the univer-
sity may be coordinated and directed to contribute to iden-
tified institutional research goals.

9) To develop a research function which will assist teaching
and extension to deliver research results to the ultimate
users, the small farmer, the Cameroonian woman and the
agricultural industries of Cameroon.

1Ill,. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This section of the report describes the program from the viewpoint of the
importance and contribution which a relevant research program can make to the
University Center, Dschang, and which a properly planned, executed and well










managed experimental farm system may contribute. It is evident that an entirely
new and different philosophy must be developed at the University Center, Dschang,
with respect to the need and importance of an active and viable research program
if research is going to be a meaningful part of the faculty responsibility and
of student training.

Research can be the medium through which the teaching program of the Uni-
versity Center, both ITA and ENSA, can become alive and meaningful to students
for it can bring to their attention both problems and solutions which are rele-
vant to progress and growth of agriculture in Cameroon.

Research can be meaningful to the faculty for it can provide the outlet for
their imagination and vision and a vehicle through which they may grow in pro-
fessional stature and academic advancement.

This is the description of a new dimension in education at the University
Center, Dschang, which presently seems to exist mostly as words or as a misty
futuristic program which hasn't become real because of the pressure of many
students, too few faculty and insufficient financial support, facilities,
equipment and other resources.

A. The Nole of Research in Agricultural Education at University Center,
Dschang.

In discussing agricultural research with members of the faculty and of
the administration at both ENSA and ITA there was general agreement that research
is a major component of faculty responsibility. In practice however, very little
research is taking place at either institution. It was found difficult to get a
very clear picture of the amount of research presently taking place for the re-
search being done is scattered and rather fragmented; one faculty member indi-
cated "he did not know exactly how a research project at ENSA got started." The
faculty indicated they had a difficult time getting their research results pub-
lished. Everyone with whom the problem of research was discussed indicated a
difficulty in finding either time or resources to put into a research program
of their own and this will continue until mechanisms are initiated to correct
it and the philosophy concerning the importance and usefulness is changed. Re-
search can fill the catalytic role of making what the professor teaches become
a real life presentation enriched by his own experiences from his own research.
Thus through research, teaching is improved, new knowledge is developed and the
fundamental foundation upon which a useful and meaningful outreach and extension
program is made possible. The role of research at this new national agricultural
university is an important one. Some of the reasons why it is felt to be so
important are developed in the succeeding sections of the paper.

1. The Use of Research in Developing New Information

Research is the primary tool through which new information is
developed. It need not be spectacular such as the development of hybrid corn.
It may simply bring to light an improved practice, a superior cultivar or a
technique for labor conservation in a small segment of a specific environment;
wherever the application is valid it is nonetheless important and worthwhile.









However insignificant any one research contribution may be, it makes informa-
tion available for use by all that was not previously known.

2. The Use of Research as a Teaching Tool

In discussions which the University of Florida team has had with
students at ENSA and at ITA it has been surprising to learn that the instruc-
tion has been presented without textbooks or laboratory manuals and not infre-
quently by the instructors just reading to the class from the textbook.

Numerous conferences were held by members with user agencies such
as the MOA, MOL, DGRST, Cooperatives and others. Usually we heard that graduates
of the UCA lack practical training and are unable to perform adequately in their
job assignment without one or two years job training by the receiving agency.
This deficiency indicates that the students are not being adequately trained
in laboratory and field techniques.

An active, viable research program by the professor would eliminate
much of this problem. When professors carry on research programs in the area
of their specialty they are immediately brought to face problems of "how-to,"
"when-to," and "why-to." Soon they become knowledgeable about the industries
and agencies with which their disciplines are associated. Their teaching from
this point on is improved for they are able to illustrate textbook theory with
examples drawn from their own research. Almost without exception, research has
a synergistic affect upon the teaching and training of students.

3. Use of Research by Agricultural Extension

Major responsibility for agricultural extension in Cameroon lies
with the Ministry of Agriculture. Because of this, the participation of UCA
in.extension activities will always be somewhat limited in scope and in activity.
However, as the national agricultural institution for Cameroon, it has an obli-
gation to participate in and perform certain extension functions. It is to be
hoped that with time and development of the UCA that it will be in a position
to play a more important extension role.

Presently such extension activities as are performed by UCA, are
limited to the Department of Education and Rural Sociology of ENSA. This is
unfortunate and should be changed. Extension or outreach must be a part of
the function of each participating department of UCA and each member of the
faculty must understand that, in addition to responsibilities for teaching and
research, they also have a responsibility for extension. The cycle is not com-
plicated; research must first generate the information, it may then be taught
to students and finally it must be passed on to industry.or some other viable
user. Although this illustration suffers from over-simplification it nonethe-
less illustrates the basic cycle which should exist between research, teaching
and extension at UCA if this University is to fulfill its function as the
national school for agricultural education in Cameroon.

Since research must first generate the knowledge to be used by
extension, a close relationship must exist between the two. This, of course,







-5-


does not mean all research information must be generated by the research func-
tion at UCA. It should select good information from wherever it exists and
develop a simple and effective means of getting it into the hands and minds
of the users.

At .least two types of extension activities would seem especially
appropriate for UCA, as follows:

a. In-service training: It is to be hoped that following the
recommendations of this report a closer working relationship will develop
between UCA, ENSA, ITA, CHA, ETA, EEF, CRA, ENFC, NCC, Ecole de Faune, CFZV,
FONADER, SODECOTON, SODECAO, SODERIM, SEMRY, SCT, SODENKAM, UNVDA, WADA, ZAPI,
MIDEVIV, SODEPA, CDC, OCE, SOSUCAM, HEVECAM, CAMSUCO, JOCAPALM, SODEBLE, NWCA,
UCCAO and SOCOOPER/SOCOOPED. All of these many agencies and organizations
represent UCA's ultimate extension clientele. Within them is represented
their ultimate audience and, as UCA grows in knowledge and expertise, it may
serve these organizations in many different ways. In-service training is one
way in which the UCA, working with the parent organizations, may develop short
courses and other agenda whereby personnel of the respective organization may
come to UCA for specialized training, retraining or training in new programs
at whatever level is appropriate for the technology to be presented and the
audience involved. These are activities with tremendous potential and are
limited only by the faculty's time and ability to generate and organize
meaningful programs and the resources necessary to present them.

b. Continuing education: A continuing educational program at
work with different age groups and through different communications media is
still another form of extension which UCA will want to develop. A studio for
the preparation and presenting of short, packaged programs on new technology,
growing techniques, use of fertilizers, pest control and other topics should
be seriously considered for UCA. It can be a unique way of presenting new
information, for example: Since the Cameroonian woman is the producer of
much of the family food supply, she represents a very large diverse audience
which today receives few educational services adapted to her needs. A further
complication is the need for presentation of information in several languages.
However, since most families do have radios, the UCA should have facilities
for preparing short radio programs presenting the latest and best information
available on farming practices and home management in whatever dialects are
required to reach the audiences intended. This could be a tremendously im-
portant tool in improving rural education; not only could it be effective,
but it would be relatively inexpensive.

The UCA should also have the use of an offset press facility,
so that the latest research information could be published and, through these
releases by the UCA to the Provincial. Delegates (who in turn would provide
this information to the Post Extension personnel), it could then get to the
user at the farm family level. This necessitates a close working relation-
ship between UCA and MOA personnel.










4. Agricultural Research Components in the GURC

The primary responsibility for the conduct of agricultural research
in Cameroon is the General d'Elegation for Science, Technology and Research
(DGRST). !t was created by law in 1965, but was not fully operational until
June 1974,1 It took control of the preexisting French and British research
structures located throughout the country. DGRST is an autonomous legal and
financial entity under the supervision of the Office of the Prime Minister.
It is mainly financed by GURC, but some of its research programs receive fi-
nancial support from foreign and international operations.

The general purpose of DGRST is to build up scientific and technical
infrastructures which can respond to developmental needs of the country. Its
objectives as stated in Decree No. 76/11C of March 16, 1978, are as follows:

a. To orientate, coordinate and control research throughout the
United Republic of Cameroon.

b. To encourage and facilitate scientific and technical research
to promote the economic and social development of the nation.

. To assure the execution of research and, insofar as possible
in its own laboratories, to collect data, formulate scientific documentation
and publish the results of research.

d. In the name of the Government, to assure liaison with foreign
and international scientific bodies.

e. To provide training of researchers and technicians needed to
accomplish its mission, in cooperation with appropriate ministerial departments.

f. To register technical processes by means of patents and licenses
filed with appropriate organizations for the account of the United Republic of
Cameroon, as well as to negotiate them with a view to their exploitation.

By the 1976 decree, DGRST (at that time called ONAREST) was reduced
to five institutes, only two and parts of two others are of primary interest to
agricultural research. These are as follows:

a. Institute of Agriculture and Forestry Research (IRAF). It is
composed of four sub-centers:

a-l. The Center of Perennial Crops, Ekona
a-2. The Center of Food Crops and Fruits, Njombe



1
A study of the Development of the University Center for Agriculture at Dschang,
Cameroon, September 1979. U.S. Agency for International Development.










a-3. The Center of Textiles and Food Crops, Maroua
a-4. The Center of Forestry Research, Douala

b. The Institute of Zoological Research (IRZ). It is composed
of two sub-groups:

b-1. The Zoological Research Center, Wakwa
b-2. The Research Stations, Bambui and Makon

c. The Institute of Technological, Industrial and Geological
Research (IRTISS):

c-l. The Center for Soil and Sub-Soil Research, Garoua
(other sub-units do not deal with subjects of special
concern to agriculture)
c-2. The Center for Studies and Experimentation of Mechan-
ized Agriculture.

d. The Institute of Human Sciences (ISH)

l:,Although DGRST is officially responsible for research outside, it
should be recognized that bits and pieces of agricultural research are also being
done by various units of the MOA, MOL, the parastatals, the Development Societies
and the plantations, and that these groups, working alone and in cooperation with
commercial and industrial companies, are constantly testing, evaluating, trying
and demonstrating different concepts, devices and materials. All of this is
uncoordinated but should nonetheless be encouraged for whatever light it may
shed upon the many unsolved problems of agricultural importance in Cameroon.

5. How Agricultural Research Helps the Small Farmer

President Ahidjo, in his recent address outlining his program for
the next five years, proposed expenditures for a better life for rural Cameroon-
ian people. Agriculture and livestock are recognized as high priority sectors
in the allocation of these funds, and roughly some thirty-five percent of agri-
culture and.livestock expenditures should benefit the small farmer. He will,
of course, accrue benefits wherever they occur in the agricultural sector over /
time, however the most critical factors are the time lags which occur in getting
useful information which is developed put into practice by the small farmers.
Here exists an excellent opportunity for UCA to help extend needed agricultural
education. As the national agricultural University, information emanating from
it should ultimately reach the whole Republic. However, its sphere of influence
will be greatest in Southwest, Northwest, West, Littoral and Central South
Provinces. These provinces include 3,324,000 of the agricultural population
and 60.3% of the agricultural households. This is a unique position for the
UCA and points to the considerable influence which it could have when active
research and extension programs can be developed.

Agricultural research, as an integral part of the educational pro-
gram at UCA, would enable the faculty, graduate students and upper class students
to look into every facet of Cameroonian agriculture to develop solutions to









problems beneficial to agriculture at all levels. This, added to the benefits
of a close working relationship with DGRST, MOA and MOL (yet to be developed),
will provide the extension component of UCA with the best sources of research
information from GURC. With the development of an extension component at UCA
and the improvement of their capability in reaching the small farm households
through radio, demonstration, family participation, publications and other
devices, the small farmer can become a part of the educational system of GURC
which should improve his position in society, both economically and socially.

6. Agricultural Research and the Cameroonian Woman

As in most human societies, the Cameroonian woman plays a unique
and important role. It is estimated that there are 962,000 Cameroonian women
actively engaged in agricultural production and 90.5% of these are classed as
rural residents.1 Although women provide some support in cash crop production,
their dominate role is in producing food crops and in most of their working
hours they are so engaged. As the above statistics point out, the Cameroonian
women must be considered a dominant audience for agricultural research and edu-
cation. Unfortunately to date too little has been done to improve their knowl-
edge or to develop technologies in agricultural production specially adapted
to their needs.

Statistics indicate the average farm size to be 1.59 hectare and
the average family size farm to be 5.2 hectares? They also indicate almost
no dispersion of agricultural technology since ninety-seven percent use hoes
for working the soil while only three percent use ploughs, and these are limited
entirely to the North Province. Family farms in Cameroon are small by United
States standards, but considering 1.59 hectare (3.9 acres) as the average farm
size, this is a sizeable area to attend completely by hand and must represent
many hours of backbreaking labor. In spite of this, under the Cameroonian
culture systems, the women prefer agricultural pursuits, or perhaps are forced
into them and have no choice. In any event, agricultural pursuits provide her
a form of independence and some input into family decision-making which she
might otherwise not have. She represents a large and very unique audience
for agricultural information which is presently not being well serviced and
is crying for attention. The opportunities here are tremendous and the bene-
fits should be great.

7. Summary of the Present Situation

Although the discussion under the previous items I through 6 would
seem to justify the need for an active research program, it does not exist.
The present low research activity at UCA is influenced by several factors.
There are thirty-three Cameroonian faculty listed at present and seven of
these are now out of the country studying for Master's degrees. In addition,
there are five ENSA and three upper ITA faculty who are involved in Ph.D.



Bryson, Judy E., "Women in Economic Development," USAID contract No. ROO 76/8,
1979.
Cameroonian Agricultural Census 1972-1976.










programs. It is apparent from these statistics that the remaining teachers
have such a heavy student load that there is very little faculty time avail-
able for research. Added to this unfortunate situation are also the restraints
of insufficient laboratories and equipment and no organized operating experi-
mental farm system. Further, a review of the 1979-1980 Budget document reveals
no budgeted funds for research projects. These are the unfortunate conditions
which characterize the research climate at UCA at this time.

B. Experimental Farms of the University Center

Three sites were suggested for use as experimental farms; the locations
were Dschang, Bansoa and Djouttitsa. The farm at Dschang will be used as a
teaching farm, for smaller plot work with plants and for research and produc-
tion evaluation of animals. The farm at Bansoa will be used as an experimental
farm for crop production of all kinds, while the Djouttitsa farm will be used
for ruminant animal work.

An extensive justification for experimental farms hardly seems necessary 2
in view of the very significant role they have played in the development of
agriculture in the United States. The "Land-Grant Act" provided land to each
State which could be sold or otherwise used to secure funds for the building
of a State university. In every State, some lands were set aside for use in
agricultural research and usually were designated as the State Agricultural
Experiment Station. These farms were used to test and verify new ideas, eval-
uate new technology, develop and increase improved plant and animal selections,
learn methods of disease and insect control and for many other uses. They have
been invaluable to the development of agriculture in the United States. There
is no reason why, under proper management, they cannot serve just as useful a
function in Cameroon.

Experience has shown that such farms should be tools for securing re-
search information and that they should not be just large farming operations;
when this happens the primary objective becomes one of making money and not one
of securing agricultural research data. Some revenue will, of course, be gener-
ated on every experimental farm, but a really effective, properly managed ex-
perimental farm will almost never be self-supporting. Revenues from these farm-
ing operations, when they occur, may be used to operate the farm, the University,
or be put into the national general treasury. In any case there should be an
adequate system developed for the use of such funds by the University adminis-
tration and they should be properly budgeted and accounted for.

Each experimental farm should be laid out on a grid system with permanent
markers at each of the four corners of each grid so that precise land assignments
may be made to participating departments and so that a permanent record of crops
produced and soil amendments used may be maintained.

1. Administration of the Farm System

Since these will be units which must deal with all departments of
the University on a fair and equitable basis regarding use of the land, facil-
ities and commodities, it is recommended that the entire operation of the farm







-10-


system be under the general direction of a Superintendent of Experimental
Farms, or some other appropriate title. The duties and responsibilities of
this position should be as follows:

a. To be responsible to the Director of Research and Extension
and to plan, supervise and give general direction and coordination to all
experimental farm operations.

b. To give supervision, direction and training to the Farm
Manager at Bansoa.

c. To prepare and present to the Director of Research and Ex-
tension each year a proposed budget covering the operations of Dschang, Bansoa
and Djouttitsa experimental farms.

d. To work with Department Heads to facilitate research at the
departmental level so that land ar.d other facilities will be available and
useable for the research function.

.e. To be responsible for maintaining or having maintained an ade-
quate permanent record system at each of the three experimental farms ischang,
Bansoa and Djouttitsa of all operations and soil amendments.

f. To be the Farm Manager for the Experimental Farm, Dschang and
Djouttitsa, as well as Director of Farm Operations.

g. To prepare an annual report to the Director :of Research and
Extension on the financial and operational functions of each of the three ex-
perimental farms.

h. To annually evaluate the performance of the Farm Manager at
the Bansoa farm to be filed.in.the Office of the Director General. I ,.

i. It is recommended that this position, if possible, be filled
by a Cameroonian with a Master of Science or equivalent degree.

The following discusses each farm individually. Building requests
to be considered for each farm were prepared previously by personnel of UCA.
These requests are shown in Annex A, as a separate list for each farm. The
specific farm buildings being recommended are listed individually by farm in
Annex B.

The position taken with regard to much of the farm equipment is that
this shall be a Cameroonian input and is not provided for by USAID. One of the
major resources which Cameroon has is labor; therefore, it is felt that this re-
source should be developed as fully as possible in the experimental farm opera-
tions. With petroleum resources dwindling and becoming more and more expensive,
the effective use of hand labor and small tools requiring minimum petroleum energy
inputs becomes very important. One of the major objectives of research of the
proposed Department of Rural Engineering should be to help devise equipment of
this nature. For these reasons, only major equipment items and minimum vehicle
needs are recommended.







-11-


2. Experimental Farm, University Center, Dschang

a. Location

The site in question for this unit is part of approximately
200 hectaresdesignated for the location of the buildings for upper ITA (for
which the building contract has already been let) and for ENSA. Apparently
additional land is available if needed. No boundary commitment could be
obtained except that "whatever land that was needed could be provided." It
is suggested that specific boundaries be selected and periphery fences be
established. This will eliminate site claims which are certain to occur once
building activities for the University start. "Rental" or "squatter" agricul-
tural activities are already evident on the site at this time. The site lies
just to the south of the Centre Climatique and is well located with respect to
lower ITA and other University Center buildings which exist. It is suggested
that once the boundaries of the new site are established, a contour and soil
classification map of the site should be made and placed in the Office of the
Superintendent of Experimental Farms as a permanent record for any future need.

b. Planning the farm

After permanent boundaries are established, a site for the
location of the various buildings should be selected. Insofar as possible,
the buildings should be located on land convenient to the rest of the farm
and on the land least suitable for agricultural production. Farm and livestock
buildings should be located sufficiently far away from dormitories, classrooms
and other central campus buildings so as not to be offensive due to odors,
noise or other reasons.

The Farm Manager should be employed early so that he may help
with the planning of the buildings and development of the farm. All personnel
working on the farm should be directly responsible to him or his designated
supervisor.

After completion of the buildings, or earlier if needed, a
maintenance mechanic should be hired to be responsible for maintaining all
equipment and buildings, operation of a farm machine shop and other similar
duties.

Within the permanent boundaries, the entire farm should be
contour mapped and gridded into blocks five hectares (2.5 x 2) square. These
should be numbered and permanently marked on each of the four corners. The
Farm Manager shall be responsible for keeping an accurate record of all activ-
ities taking place within each block.

All buildings and facilities should be operational by 1983.

c. Development of the farm

The building program requested for this farm is shown in Annex
A, while those being recommended are shown in Annex B. Essentially it calls







-12-


for a swine, dairy, poultry, rabbit and goat operation and deals with both pro-
duction and research functions. This farm will be located close enough to the
Campus.so that it may serve as the major teaching farm for animal husbandry and
management. Sufficient land is also available so that small plot crops produc-
tion can also be developed over time if this proves to be desirable, however
the Bansoa farm is considered the primary crops research experimental farm.

Slopes are sufficiently steep on the site that all crops should i i
be planted on the contour with strip cropping or terraces. 1 /

d. Operating the farm

The plan calls for most of the farm buildings to be completed
by 1982 and, for the most part, the farm should be operational by 1983. It
always takes longer than expected to get facilities, water lines, electricity
and other services completely operational and functional.

This plan does not call for stocking for this is felt to be a
Cameroonian responsibility. It should be understood that stocking will be with
best adapted breeds as considered by the Zootechny Department and by DGRST,
Division of Zootechny.

No provision is made for storage or maintenance of equipment or
for the securing of major or minor equipment, this was not requested and will
be the responsibility of GURC.

Maintenance of buildings and equipment, roads., fencing, drainage,
contour terracing and other necessary features is a major responsibility and
must be programed as an integral part of the farm operation. This is an ele-
ment which seems to be sadly lacking at ENSA and to some extent at ITA under
the present management.

e. Use of the experimental farm

This farm is to be used as a teaching and research facility for
the University Center for Agriculture, Dschang, and for the teaching, evaluation
and development of plant and livestock technology. It should be available to
all departments of the University and most especially to the faculty, graduate
students and advanced undergraduate students for research production and evalu-
ation of programs. A part of the ENSA and ITA student training programs should
be to provide help in caring for the animals and experimental plots on the farm.
The major criticism of students to reach the Florida team has been their lack
of practical experience. Most employing agencies have said it requires two
years to train students after they arrive on the job. A well coordinated and
managed student assistance program on the experimental farms could go a long
way toward correcting this defect. The faculty should make a special effort
to establish, by attitude and example, that this is not an elitest University,
that working with ones hands is honorable and that certain kinds of agricultural
training simply cannot be learned in any other way. In every way possible it
should be made to become a valuable teaching and research facility. It must be
recognized that it probably will not be self supporting and that whatever added



p / .







-13-


investment is required is worthwhile by providing both faculty and students
an opportunity to learn in a way that is not possible through any other medium.

3. Experimental Plant Farm, Bansoa

a. Location

The Bansoa farm is a farm of some 300 hectares that lies some
thirty-two kilometers northwest from the UCA campus. It would seem to be too
far from the campus to be considered a good teaching facility, but can certain-
ly become an excellent research farm. Soils are red silt loam, friable and
qui':e permeable. At present the cleared land is planted to maize which looks
good except for some slight deficiency patterns which were evident in certain
areas. The farm is to be considered a plant experimental farm and appears to
be uniquely suited for this purpose. It is located on a maintained road and
is quite accessible, even during the rainy season, except perhaps during very
unusual weather. On the present site there is one equipment building which is
being used as a grain drier. There is every reason to believe that this farm
will serve very well as a plant experimental farm and can be developed to per-
form a useful function. -

5. Planning the farm

The property at this time has no perimeter fences. Since no
livestock will be kept on the property, the lack of fencing is not serious.
It would be useful to establish exact property lines and, therefore, provision
is made for it.

The Farm Manager position should be filled early so that he
can take an active role in planning and developing the farm.

The proposal document designates this farm solely as a plant
production farm and it is felt that it may be so developed and serve a useful
role. It is recommended that it serves several functions as follows:

b-1. A portion of the farm is to be used for evaluating
production technology for field, fruit and vegetable .
crops. ,
b-2. Another area is to be designated for food crop ;i r^,l
evaluation using small farm production systems
and techniques.
b-3. A portion is to be used for seed plant increase
of desirable and improved strains and cultivars.

A maintenance mechanic should be hired early since the farm is
already being used, and the servicing and maintaining of equipment is already
a problem.

Within the boundaries of the farm, it should be mapped as to
soil type and classification, slope and contour, and gridded and numbered into
blocks of ten (5 x 2) hectares per block. These should be numbered with all







-14-


four corners marked with permanent markers. The Farm Manager shall be respon-
sible for keeping an accurate record of all activities taking place within each
block.

Inasmuch as the farm is in a somewhat isolated area, quarters
and housing will have to be provided for fifty families. In addition to per-
forming all the labor force, this group of fifty families will also serve in
the evaluation of new information and techniques in the family farm food pro- /
duction unit.

All buildings and facilities should be operational by the end
of 1982.

c. Development of the farm

The buildings program requested for this farm is shown in Annex
A, while those being recommended are shown in Annex B. Considerable acreage on
the farm has already been cleared and planted. Major farm implements and trac-
tors are already on the farm, having been used to put in the maize crop, and
no further provision is made for this kind of equipment.

There must be a close working relationship between the Superin-
tendent of Experimental Farms, the Farm Manager and the.Department Heads so that
all plantings made at this unit become part of a carefully worked out, well-
coordinated plan..
T C- f it
d. Operating the farm ..

This in many respects will be,4 simpler experimental farm oper-
ation than the one at Dschang. No livestock'are to be maintained and all opera-
tions will deal with plant product growth and management. This farm should be
fully operational by the end of 1982.

Provision is made for grain drying:facilities since this is
critical to a successful production operation for maize, peanuts and other crops
which may require storage. /: L>e-4 {(..x 7 -?,-..7 -

Maintenance of buildings, equipment, roads, drainage structures,
terraces, etc., will be a major responsibility for this unit and will need con-
stant attention by the maintenance mechanic and supervision by the Farm Manager.
It must be an integral part of the management program and must be budgeted to
be sure funds for proper maintenance are available.

The operations of this farm will be under the supervision of a
Farm Manager. He shall be expected to carry out all functions of the experimen-
tal farm operation as directed by the Superintendent of Experimental Farms who
will be his immediate superior.







-15-


e. Use of the farm

This farm will be used for the evaluation of production sys-
tems and technology in the production of maize, groundnuts, tobacco, yams,
cassava, soybeans, coffee, papaya, avocado, mango, banana, citrus, guava,
plantain, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, peppers, onions, cabbage and certain
other vegetable crops.

Since a labor force of fifty families will be required, hous-
ing will be provided. Since this group of families will be under experimental
farm management it presents a unique opportunity to conduct research on methods
and systems for improving family farm production of food crops. This has been
a difficult audience to reach because of communication problems. Since these
families are the labor force they offer an unusual opportunity for training
and instructing in new techniques, while using the traditional methods as
checks. This presents a unique research opportunity. Seventy-five hectares
of land should be used for this purpose and will-at the same time provide food
for the farm labor force.

The initiation of a program to evaluate breeding lines, selec-
tions and cultivars with improved production, fruit quality, disease and insect
resistance should be a major objective of the research conducted by the phyto-
techny unit. Once found, the increase and production of these improved selec-
tions presents a problem which must be handled with care, precision and purpose.
Training to develop the skills and techniques for handling these operations and
the equipment to facilitate them should be a goal of the phytotechny group.
Land should be made available to permit handling this important function when-
ever the research dictates the need.

Consideration should also be given to the setting up and opera-
tion of a seed foundation organization which can and should be handled by the
University. Training in this area can be considered as one of the areas which
can be included in the training-seminar program of the cooperating U.S. univer-
sity. Such a unit should be cooperatively planned with IRAF (DGRST) and with
USAID personnel of the National Cereals Research Project (P. No. 631-0013).
The production and handling of seed stocks coming out of research programs
demands special training, care and management. The National Cereals Research
Project will be developing numerous improved lines of crops, many of which
could be grown successfully at the Bansoa Experimental Farm once techniques and
equipment for production, harvesting, cleaning, storage and distribution are
acquired. This is an area which needs thought and consideration given to it
now, for if handled properly, the University can provide a real service to
Cameroon and can receive good revenue in return.

4. Experimental Animal Farm, Djouttitsa

a. Location

The Djouttitsa farm is located some fifteen kilometers north of
Dschang and contains about 130 hectares. Although it is located closer to the
campus of the University Center, Dschang, than Bansoa, the roads are steeper in







-16-


slope and during the rainy season it is not always accessible. It cannot be
considered a satisfactory classroom animal farm, but will make an excellent
animal research unit where visits are planned for the day or longer, when
roads are passable.

Some fencing exists on this unit but boundary fences should be
completely established with four strand barbed wire on the periphery of the
entire property. Cross fencing has also been provided for.

A soils and contour map of the farm should be completed as
soon as possible. Copies should be placed in the Office of the Superintendent
of Farm Operations so that this information will be available to the members
of the faculty.

b. Planning the farm

Because of the steepness of the slopes, much of the land on
this farm is considered best adapted only for ruminant animal production. Most
of the land is not really suitable for cultivation and should be in permanent
pasture, which, under good management practices, should be sufficient to main-
tain a herd of the size planned.

The infrastructure document calls for swine facilities. However,
swine are not considered feasible for this unit due to lack of feed availability
and transportation problems. No swine facilities are recommended.

Since swine will not be grown here, the swine butchery requested
is not recommended.

Facilities for an eighty cow dairy herd were requested. The
difficulty of transporting concentrate feeds and the lack of suitable land for
growing grains, as well as the problem of milk transportation would seem to
make dairy production at this unit a risky venture. Therefore, the dairy unit
requested is not recommended.

Interest has been expressed by members of the Zootechny Depart-
ment in establishing a breeding herd to develop a general purpose beef and dairy
animal for the Western Highlands. This concept was discussed with the Director
of the Institute of Zoological Research (DGRST) and the need for such research
was confirmed. It is recommended therefore, that this unit be developed to pro-
vide facilities for.research on a general purpose beef and dairy animal adapted
to the Western Highlands of Cameroon. It is recommended that the project be
developed in cooperation with personnel of the Institute of Zoological Research
since they have already made some initial crosses of Gudall X Holestein and
Red and White Fulani X Holestein. F-l crosses are very promising, but none
have yet come into lactation. This seems to be a very desirable project,
which could ultimately make a fine contribution to small farmers of the Western
Highlands and would be a project well suited to the characteristics of the land
in question. The development of the project plan should proceed immediately.







-17-


At least.for the present time, the Superintendent of Experi-
mental Farms will also serve as the Farm Manager for the Djouttitsa farm.
Since this position calls for special training in animal science and does not
involve a complicated farming operation, it is logical for him to supervise
this unit.

A maintenance mechanic position should also be considered for
this unit.

Within the boundaries of the unit, it should be contour mapped
and classified by soil classification, and gridded into blocks of ten (5 x 2)
hectares as well as topography will permit. These should be numbered with
each corner being marked with permanent markers. The map should be available
in the Office of the Superintendent of Farms. The Farm Manager shall be re-
sponsible for maintaining a permanent, accurate record of all activities
occurring within each block. All buildings and remodeling should be completed
by the end of 1982.

c. Developing the farm

The building program requested for this farm is shown in Annex
A, while tho-e being recommended are shown in Annex B. The peculiarities of
the land and the location have necessitated several changes in recommendations
over those requested and these are discussed in the planning section.

No provision is made for housing for the Farm Manager since a
nice house already exists on the unit.

d. Operating the farm

This farm should be operational by the end of 1982. Decisions
will have to be made concerning breeds to use.

Brown Swiss could well be one choice to cross with native
females to provide both beef and milking characteristics. Holestein semen
would also provide desirable qualities. A semen storage unit is being pro-
vided so that semen from proven sires will be available. These decisions
should be made by the project leaders in conference with IRZ. It is hoped
that this will develop as a national project to be participated in by both
UCA and DGRST.

Maintenance of buildings, equipment, roads, fences, drainage,
structures, terraces, etc., are a major responsibility for this unit and will
need constant attention by the maintenance mechanic and supervision by Farm
Managers. The farm at this time is not properly maintained. Maintenance
must be an integral part of the management program and must be budgeted to be
certain funds for proper maintenance are available.

An annual budget covering the operations of the farm should
be prepared under the direction of the Superintendent of Farm Operations. He
should work closely with the Head of the Department of Zootechny for technical
direction and guidance.







-18-


Due to the steepness of the slopes on this farm, special care
should be taken in all farm operations to prevent soil erosion. The land
should be kept in permanent pasture for the most part and management practices
adopted to protect and improve it.

e. Use of the farm

This farm will be used exclusively to develop an adapted and
improved beef/dairy animal for the Western Highlands of Cameroon. This is a
long-term project and one wherein UCA personnel of the Zootechny Department
and the Agronomy specialists of the Phytechny Department have a wonderful
opportunity to combine forces with DGRST and produce a breed of lasting impor-
tance and great utility for the farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon.
The unit will also be used by fifth year ENSA students as a training facility
for the Departments of Phytotechny and Zootechny.

No recommendations are made at this time to include goat re-
search at this farm. This is a project that should be considered later after
the facilities get more developed and the operation of the farm becomes better
organized. This animal is adapted to the conditions at Njouttitsa and is an
animal well suited to the small farm situation.

III. ANALYSIS OF PROPOSAL

A. Administrative Organization and Feasibility

The most direct and least complicated administration is usually the
best. Both administrative and functional relationships of agricultural educa-
tion in Cameroon would seem to be best served if agricultural teaching, research
and extension could all be administered through a single ministry. Having dis-
posed of this comment, it is well to explore more realistic alternatives and
try to make second best better. The administration of teaching, research and
extension at ENSA and ITA are presently effected through the Ministry of Educa-
tion. Nationally, however, research is administered through the Prime Minister's
Office while extension is nationally administered through the Ministry of Agri-
culture.. This not only.makes the administration difficult but it also tends to
weaken the linkages between-these three vital functions. What then may be done
to strengthen them? It is suggested that the administrative linkages between
UCA and the three ministries concerned be strengthened, as well as the func-
tional relationships between their personnel. The suggested administrative
organization is presented graphically in Figure 1. This calls for the partic-
ipation on the Board'of Governors of UCA, those people from the Prime Ministry
and from the Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock and Fisheries who are
actively concerned with research and extension. These are the major users
of the product produced by UCA and should be in a position to make inputs
into policy, curricula and other school activities.

The strengthening of functional relationships between personnel of
these Ministries and those of UCA will be discussed in the various sections
under "Technical Feasibility."





Figure 1



Suggested Administrative Linkages Between the Ministries Concerned with Agricultural
Education and the University Center for Agriculture Dschang


Suggested Composition of the Board of Governors


Director General UCA Chm.
Dept. Dir. General UCA
Dir. Higher Education MOE
Dir. Inst. of Research.Agr. & For.
(IRAF)
Dir. Zootechny Research (IRZ)
Dir. Inst. of Human Sciences (ISH)
Dir. of Agriculture MOA


8. Dir. of Agr. Education MOA
9. Dir. Animal Husbandry MOL
10. Representatives of Lectures and
teachers UCA
11. Persons named by Minister of
Education
12. Director of Research & Extension
13. Director of Academic Affairs







-20-


Changes in administration within the University Center for Agriculture
whicr it is felt could strengthen the role of research within UCA are presented
graphically in Figure 2. This shows the relationship between the new position
of Director of Research and Extension, Superintendent of Experimental Farms and
Farm Manager and the seven present departments of the university. The duties
of the Superintendent of Experimental Farms and the Farm Manager are described
under the section Il.B., "Experimental Farms of the University Center." A
description of the duties of Director of Research and Extension will follow;
however, the discussion will only be concerned with his duties as Director of
Research. Those for extension will be presented in the Technical Paper dealing
with the extension function.

Research and extension are two closely related, but separate and dis-
tinct, functions within a university. It is suggested that the counterpart
position be combined at this time as an expedient measure to getting these
two functions organized and operating at UCA. A separate Director for each
of the two functions should be appointed so that appropriate training in both
functions may develop from the beginning.

The principal duties and responsibilities of the Director of Research
should be:

1. To be administratively responsible to the Director General.

2. To chair an Executive Advisory Committee of Department Heads,
faculty, agricultural industry, small farmer and cooperating Ministry rep-
resentatives to develop end clearly state the research goals of the Univer-
sity.

3. To organize the research function through the departmental struc-
ture and generate research activities which will achieve the goals outlined
under No. 2 above.

4. To encourage and assist faculty and students in each department
to develop a research capability which will result in new information, new \
technology or improved commodity development.

5. To chair a committee called '"Research Committee" which shall re-
view and approve all "research projects, which when approved by the Research
Director, shall authorize the expenditure of university funds for research
on the project in question."

6. To keep an accurate and complete record of all research activities.
To encourage cooperative endeavors between departments and to report these
activities annually and completely to the Director General.

7. To prepare an annual budget covering the cost of all research
activities either through the cooperating departments or on a project by
project basis as determined by the university administration. Provision
should also be made for receiving, using and accounting for funds known as
"grants or donations" from sources outside the government such as commercial


,





Figure 2


Administrative and Organizational Structure
Suggested for Research and the Experimental Farm System


Exec.
Advisory
Comm.








PHYTOTECHNY ZOOTECHNY
CROPS LIVESTOCK


Direct Administrative
responsibility


---- Functional responsibility
but no direct admin.
responsibility


A,, New department not yet
authorized









RURAL RURAL CROP
ECONOMICS ENGINEERING PROTEl

_, ---IC L^ ---- .







-22-


companies, private donors, etc., so that these funds may be properly used and
correctly accounted for.

8. To encourage and assist in the development of research facilities
for the university through development of laboratories, the Experimental Farms
or whatever medium is considered appropriate and feasible.

9. To encourage and assist in the publication of research results
and delivery to the extension function as correctly and as expediently as
possible.

10. To evaluate each faculty member annually on the merits of their /
research contribution which information shall then be used in the assessment
of their salary level and promotion qualifications.

11. To set up training programs beginning in June 1982, for the Super-
intendent of Experimental Farms and for the Farm Manager for Bansoa so that
they may be trained in planning operations and management of the complete farm
system to be initiated at the UCA.

12. To do everything possible through agricultural research to promote
and improve zhe general level of agriculture for all the people of Cameroon. K

B. Implementation Plan

This section of the paper is concerned with ways to implement research
at UCA and make it a meaningful part of the school's educational program. The
faculty, the graduate school (when it is developed) and the fifth year ENSA
students are the primary targets of this program.

A review of previous research publications of ENSA indicates some
activity over the years but subject matter is diverse and fragmentary with
no evidence of an organized, well directed program.

1. Causes for Present Low Research Activity

There are many problems which contribute to the present situation.
Some of the more important ones are believed to be the following:

a. Most of the available resources are going into the teaching
program.

b. An insufficient number of teachers for the number of students
and number of subjects being taught.

c. Teaching schedules permit little or no.time for research.

d. Some courses taught by part-time teachers who have other
responsibilities and no time for research.







-23-


e. Inadequate and malfunctioning laboratory facilities and


equi parent.


f. No organized and well operated experimental farms.

g., No budgeted funds for research activities.

h. No directed program of research operations.

All of these problems contribute to the present paucity of active
research by the faculty but the pressure of many students and too few faculty
is paramount.

2. Steps to be Taken to Make Research a Meaningful Part of
the Educational Process of UCA

If research is to become a significant part of the agricultural
educational process at UCA, it will be necessary to adopt policies and proce-
dures which nourish and encourage the development of this process. These are
listed in the following:

a. The adoption of a positive attitude about the need for re-
search by the administration of UCA and its faculty including the adoption
of a thirty percent faculty time assignment to research and extension respon-
sibilities and to have it so stated in the faculty job description.

b. Increase faculty position numbers by thirty percent to provide
time for research and extension activities.

c. Provide for an Experimental Farm system to assist in carrying
out the research program.

d. Provide laboratories and other equipment in which to conduct
research operations.

e. Adopt a procedure for developing and identifying research
goals for the institution which will contribute to and support national de-
velopment goals for GURC. Each faculty memberr may then develop research
projects which make a..spec-fic contribution to these goals.

f. Evaluate faculty annually on research contributions in pro-
portion to their research responsibility.

g. Provide a recognized and more readily accessible media for
publication of research results.

h. Appoint a Director of Research and Extension who shall have
the responsibility of formalizing a research project system, down through the
departments to individual faculty members, so that all research expenditures
by the University may be coordinated and directed to contribute to identified
institutional research goals.


/
iI(










C. Evaluation and Monitoring

A routine annual evaluation should be made regarding all research
functions and activities beginning December, 1983. This should be done
through the Office of the Director of Research using all possible documenta-
tion from contractors, site visits and personal interviews to access progress
at all levels of the research function. USAID and the Director General should
be privy to this information.

At the end of the fourth year (December, 1986), an in-depth evaluation
should be made of the research function by USAID and Cameroonian outside per-
sonnel. Evaluations should focus on the quantity and quality of the faculty
research, accomplishments of the graduate student research program, the opera-
tion and functioning of the Experimental Farm system, the evaluation of faculty
and other personnel and the operation and accomplishments of the research
function as a whole. It is felt desirable to do this at this time since a
year would still remain before the Cameroonian take-over and areas requiring
assistance'could still be shored up before 1987. --

D. Technical Feasibility

The technical feasibility of a strong research program and an experi-
mental farm system attached to it is attested to by every Agricultural Experi-
ment Station system in every State of the United States. It works, and a
modification of it to fit the UCA can, over time, bring to Cameroon many of
the benefits which have helped the United States become the world leader in
agricultural production. Whether this will happen depends upon the willing-
ness of GURC, USAID and help from other countries to try to provide UCA the
kind of environment in which an agricultural research program can grow and
whether they are then willing to put sufficient resources into it to make
it possible. There is no question of a desirable cost benefit ratio. The
benefits from the discovery of hybrid corn alone has been estimated to be
more than sufficient to pay for all of the money ever spent on agricultural
research. At the University of Florida, the increased benefits to citrus
production derived from a single nutrition research project for citrus re-
sulted in increased revenue from a three year period alone to more than pay
for the entire cost of agricultural research there during its entire history.

In this paper the steps which need to be taken to create an environ-
ment in which this c-n begin to take place at UCA have been discussed. How-
ever, because the authority for the three primary functions for the National
University for Agriculture are so dispersed, some attention needs to be given
to ways of strengthening the linkages between them.

1. Links between Research and Teaching

a. When a professor is doing research in a subject he is teach-
ing, it enables him to teach from his own experiences as well as from a text,
and the teacher consequently becomes more convincing and the subject matter
more interesting. Research is a powerful catalyst to good teaching.


* s







-25-


b. Teaching materials may become out-of-date and not relevant to
current agriculture problems; this is a common fault of teaching. Research
helps the teacher keep in touch with current problems of the subject area and
the industry they are associated with and helps to keep the teaching current
and the material taught relevant to problems being faced,

c. Research should be a major constituent for training students
at the graduate level and facilities for this must be provided in the form of
laboratories and experimental farms.

d. Training of upper class undergraduate students at both ENSA
and ITA can and should be enriched through participation in research programs
under close supervision from their professors. This kind of study and partic-
ipation will take many forms but will certainly enrich the students)experience
and broaden their background and competence.

e. Since the need for assistance in the teaching program is so
critical (now and in the foreseeable future), the use of the more advanced
students as student assistants for the laboratory and the field (to work
closely under the supervision of their major professors) should be authorized
and encouraged;.such a procedure would be useful to the professor, allowing
him extra hands to do more research and would be useful to the student.

f. Provision should be made to permit the hiring of graduates of
ENSA and ITAas laboratory and field assistants. These should be subprofes-
sional positions to provide help to members of the faculty in carrying out
their.responsibilities in all three areas of research, teaching and extension.

2. Links between Research and Extension

a. The strongest tie between research and extension or outreach
lies in providing to extension the information for them to extend. This should
be provided by research from whatever source available and especially from the
several institutes of DGRST. Strengthening the ties between the faculty of UCA
and their counterparts in the Institutes of DGRST is an absolute must.

b. As research has the responsibility to supply extension with
current and recommended technology and techniques, so also extension must
assume the responsibility of feeding back to research the current problems for
which farmers and the agricultural industry are in need of answers. This is a
symbiotic relationship which works to the mutual benefit of both functions.

c. As the ties between research and DGRST need strengthening, so
also must those be strengthened between extension and MOA. One way this may
be done.is by providing services to MOA which have not previously been avail-
able. For example, extension could provide in-service training programs for
MOA personnel; in-depth programs especially tailored to meet their needs.







-26-


3. Links between Research at UCA and the Institutes of DGRST

Strengthening the relationships between these two governmental
agencies is critical. Since DGRST has the official responsibility for the
research operation within Cameroon, the Director of Research (new position
recommended in this paper) should formally advise the Directors of the inter-
ested Research Institutes of DGRST of each approved research project to be
conducted by faculty or graduate student of UCA. This should be done by
sending them a copy of the approved project statement. This information will
help keep them more fully informed about research activities at UCA. It will
also give them an opportunity to offer suggestions to the principal investi-
gator if they wish. It is hoped that they will in turn supply to the UCA
library, reference copies of their publications.

The faculty members of UCA are encouraged to confer at all levels
with.the researchers of DGRST during the development stage of project state-
ments. This will eliminate unnecessary duplication and make certain the
faculty member is aware of any work being done by DGRST personnel in the re-
search area in question.

If UCA publication of research information is not done through
DGRST, then DGRST should be provided copies by UCA for their information.

The following of the above rather simple steps should do much to
develop a closer working relationship between these two primary developers of
research information.

4. Links between Research and the Experimental Farm System

a. The need for experimental farm facilities is a direct out-
growth of the establishment of a research function within the University (UCA).
Its main function should be to provide a field laboratory whP r_ -ondtltQpis may
be controlled and regulated according to the needed experimentation. I t 0pro-
vTides tothe faculty member and students a FacTTty for securing nbiasd,
objective-research information whfi ch can be obtained in no other wa'yr he
management of the experimental farms must constantly strive to meet these
objectives by assisting each.faculty member or graduate student with their---. ,
approved research projects to the best of their ability. "I

b. The experimental farm system should first serve the needs of
research, seconda.ily it may produce commodities needed in the food services
area of the University to help in feeding its student body. This, however,
should be a secondary function.

E. Training Requirements for Recommended Personnel

The following lists the personnel recommended to be associated with
the research and experimental farm operations and indicatesthe approximate
level of training desired.





( t


-27-


U.S. AID


Personnel

Director of Research and
Extension Counterpart


-Superintendent of Experi-
mental Farms



Farm Manager



Maintenance Mechanic:
Dschang
Bansoa
Djouttitsa


Horticulturist Counterpart



Horticulturist Counterpart


Training

Ph.D. in discipline Experience in
research and/or extension administra-
tion Expatriate

Master of Science or equivalent degree
- Special training in Animal Science
and Rural Engineering if possible -
Cameroonian

Ing4nieur Agronome with fifth year spe-
cialization in Agronomy or other crops
area Cameroonian

Three positions of this nature are re-.
quired Should have experience with
all types of engines General knowledge
in building construction and maintenance
- Cameroonian


Master of Science
Vegetable Crops -
- Expatriate

Master of Science
Fruit Crops 15%
Expatriate


or Ph.D. Training in
15% research component


or Ph.D. Training in
research component -


Botany, Physiology, Ecology
- Counterpart


Plant Pathology Counterpart



Agricultural Engineering -
Counterpart

Agronomist Counterpart



Statistician Counterpart


Master of Science or Ph.D. Training in
Botany, Physiology and Ecology if possible
- 15% research component Expatriate

Master of Science or Ph.D. Training in
Plant Pathology 15% research component
- Expatriate

Master of Science Special training in
Agricultural Engineering

Master of Science or Ph.D. Training in
Agronomy 15% research component -
Expatriate

Master of Science Training in Statis-
tics 15% research component Expatriate


c 2


r/







-28-


Cameroonian1


Director of Research


Horticulturist


Horticulturist


Botany, Physiology, Ecology


Ing6nieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree

Ingenieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree.- Vegetable Crops
specialization

Ingenieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree.- Fruit Crops special-
ization.

Ingenieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree Botany specializa-
tion.


Plant Pathology


Ingenieur Agronome degree
of Science degree Plant
specialization


plus Master
Pathology


Agricultural Engineering


Agronomy


Statistician

Il
U ^ ^ '


Ingenieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree,- Agricultural Engi-
neering specialization

Ingenieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree Agronomy speciali-
zation

Ingenieur Agronome degree plus Master
of Science degree Statistical special-
ization,


F. Special Training Programs

Two special training programs are. recommended, both are short-term.
The design operation and management of dairy and meat processing plants re-
quire special skills and training. These may or may not be available within
the Animal Science Department at ENSA. If not, the following, program is
suggested. Mr. Djoukam, Director of ITA, indicates that Belgium will be pro-
viding a meat and dairy specialist as part of their contribution to the Zoo-
techny program. It is recommended, therefore, that he be requested to design




If not available with Master of Science degree it is understood they will be
sent for training in their specific area of specialization. These positions
are all fifteen percent research and all Cameroonian. Costing for these posi-
tions is included in Curricula report.


Personnel


Training





a I


-29-


the interior design of the dairy and meat processing units. Provision has been
made in costing of the building to provide for necessary equipment.

A second alternative is proposed: if the Belgium specialist does not
arrive, people from the contracting university in these two areas of speciali-
zation should be included on the short-course training program which is being
planned for the library and other laboratory and course offerings prior to
the opening and operation of those facilities. This is less desirable, since
the timing is a little late for proper planning of these units. The inclusion
of these two specialists in the training personnel has been included in the re-
search costing.

Also included on the short-course team will be a specialist in seed
handling and processing and with experience in seed foundation management.
This has been included in the short-term costing.

In addition to the short-course program, a special training program is
included for training the Superintendent of Experimental Farms. This would
include six months .of training within the contracting university's experimental
farm system. This training should take place in 1981 so that this person will
be properly trained to help with the planning of the three experimental farms
attached to the UCA and the building of farm structures, which is scheduled to
begin approximately March, 1982.

If the University of Florida is selected as the contracting university,
it has twenty-two outlying farms in addition to the main experimental farms at
Gainesville. The plan would have the trainee spend a couple of months on the
Gainesville campus and then visit three or four outlying farms for about one
month each. The association with, and the instruction from, the farm managers
in each of these situations should provide the best possible training for this
very specialized situation-

It is also expected that the Director of Research and Extension will
set up training sessions for the Superintendent of Experimental Farms and Farm
Manager to develop and organize the farm system for UCA and to plan the details
for management. This should be started as soon after the Director arrives as
possible.

G. Response to P.I.D. Cable 059182, March 12, 1979

Paragraph 1.

It is noted that no funds are earmarked for FY 1980. Therefore,
no expenditures are proposed for the research function during this period
except for the University of Florida Design Team.

Paragraph 2.


Construction is already underway for "upper ITA" sponsored by the


World Bank.




f, ;' '*


-30-


This paper addresses itself to the necessity of preventing the
development of an elitest institution, and the actual involvement of faculty
and senior and graduate students in research activities as recommended will
do much to prevent this happening.

The Florida team takes the position that the basic science courses
required during the first two years of the degree programs should be located
at UCA and not at the University of Yaound4. Reasons for this position are
given in the Technical Paper covering the "Curricula Evaluation and Instruc-
tional Program."

Paragraph 3.

The items in this paragraph that are pertinent to research are
items D, E and F.

Item D.- Concerns "relationships between the center and other
organizations and ministries." These are covered in the paper and ways are
suggested for developing closer and more meaningful relationships especially
for those who have research, extension and teaching responsibilities.

!tem E Concerns UCA's role in research and extension. Two tech-
nical papers address themselves to a detailed discussion and propose recommen-
dations on these issues.

Item F "The dynamics of how the center would link into the
process of assisting farmers and increasing food production," Both the Re-
search and the Extension Technical Papers address these issues.

Paragraph 4.

This paragraph addresses itself to the need for a "Center for
Sciences and Animal and Food Industries" planned for Ngaoundere. The GURC
would seem well advised to place this facility at Dschang because of the com-
mon courses being taught there and since this is a natural component of a
National University for Agriculture. This Research Technical Paper does not
address this issue since it is obviously a political, not a scientific issue.

Paragraph 5.

This paragraph is not concerned with agricultural research.

Paragraph 6.

This paragraph concerns the possible concentration of resources
to strengthening the curricula programs only if they are determined to be a
key factor. The research paper addresses the need for an active and viable
research function at UCA and the benefits to be derived from such a program
both to teaching and to extension programs as well as assistance to the farmers
and to improving their agricultural production capabilities.







-31-


Paragraph 7.

Not concerned with research or the Experimental Farms System.

Paragraph 8.

Concerns women's role and strategies. developed to improve their
life station and their food producing capabilities. -The Research Technical
Paper recognizes and analyzes their role and recognizes them as an audience
for research and extension support. It also contains recommendations for both
research and extension assistance to them.

Paragraph 9.

This paragraph addresses itself to the role which UCA might play
in coping with Cameroon's need for improved nutrition. This Research Techni-
cal Paper concerns itself with mechanisms for creating a research function at
UCA and-does not really address itself to many specific research programs.
These can only develop after a functional capability for research is estab-
lished and when this happens then it is appropriate to consider each specific
problem as human, animal and plant nutrition. In addition, USAID already has
a large project in operation dealing with nutrition in Cameroon.

Paragraph 10.

This paragraph does not address research on the experimental farm
problem to any real extent.

Paragraph 11.


This paragraph not concerned with agricultural research.




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