Title: Palawija
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080659/00001
 Material Information
Title: Palawija on-farm research program, 1984-1986
Alternate Title: Malang Research Institute for Food Crops (MARIF), East Java, Indonesia
Physical Description: 18 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Malang
Publisher: Malang Research Institute for Food Crops (MARIF)
Place of Publication: East Java, Indonesia
Publication Date: 1986?
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Indonesia
 Notes
Summary: Summarizes the work conducted by MARIF in on-farm research of palawija crops (non-rice food crops).
Statement of Responsibility: Malang Research Institute for Food Crops (MARIF).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080659
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 153267228

Full Text











Malang Research Institute for Food Crops
(MARIF)
East Java, Indonesia
Palawija
On-Farm Research Program
1984 1986












Objective:

Develop practical recommendations that:

* Can be easily adopted by farmers
* Increase farm productivity and income









Characteristics of MARIF On-Farm Research


1. Focus on important problems
2. Conducting on-farm research under representative conditions
3. Focus on defined groups of farmers
4. Farming systems perspective
5. Near-term solutions
6. Participation of farmers and extension service
7. Interdisciplinary cooperation
8. Exchange of information between on-farm and on-station
research










The On-Farm Research Process


National Policy


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)


Diagnosis
Planning
Experimentation
Assessment
Recommendations


Research Stations












Selected Farming System

1-3) Intensive use of small land base
4) Young volcanic soils
5) Land type: tegal
(rainfed upland)
6) Altitude = 400-700 m above sea level









Selected Farming System
(MALANG)

1) Farm size = 0.90 ha

2) Enterprises:
Crops
Livestock
Home garden

3) Cropping pattern:
Maize maize
Upland rice maize



























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- .,
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Province -'' '




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. .. ....East Java -
. ''.- Province
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Indian Ocean


~_








Malang District: The Study Area


Indian Ocean








Diagnosis: Factors Affecting Productivity in Maize


Low nitrogen
fertilizer
efficiency



Local varieties with
(possibly) low
yield potential


Low seed quality and
low germination


Insect problems


Plant population
overplanting












search Focus:

Maize is the focus because
It is important in the farming system
MARIF's mandate is limited to palawija crops

Attention is paid to interactions between maize ar
other enterprises.






Diagnosis: Insect problems


Insect problems
(shootfly, white grub)
reduce yield


Late plantings


'14


Sawah rice competes for labor at maize
planting time (rainy season maize)


Late planting of rainy season
maize affects planting date
of post-rainy season maize


Upland rice in rainy season
delays post-rainy season maize


Excessive water delays activities
for post-rainy season maize


No insecticides
used on maize





No experience
with insecticides
on maize


vH


i


I-








Evidence: InsectProblems


Problem:

Solution:


Findings:


Plants injured by insects during early growth

Crop protection (Carbofuran)
(earlier planting not feasible)

1) Incidence of shootfly up to 80%
2) Carbofuran at seeding increases yield
by 800-1000 kg/ha (superimposed on
the farmers' practice)


Breakeven yield increase only 50
kg/ha












Diagnosis: Plant Population Management


Compensation for
expected insect
damage


Overplanting reduces yields
(interplant competition)



Poor seed
quality



Farmers' seed
storage practices


Farmers' seed
selection practices


Fodder needs
for livestock*


* Not supported by research results.


MMO













Evidence: Plant Population Management


Problem:

Solution:


Overplanting, high seed rate, lowharvested density

* First, solve insect problem.
* Then, lower seed rate and do not thin.










Evidence: Plant Population Management


Variable

Planted density

Thinning

Harvested density

Yield response


Cost of change


Farmer Alternative

150,000 90,000

Continuous None

45,000 65,000

400 500
kg/ha

none










Diagnosis: Fertilizer Management


N applied late


Overplanting
and interplant
competition


Soils deficient in P, K
and other nutrients


_ jh


Some farmers do
not use manure
on maize


Farmers do not
apply P and K
(never tried)


.1


Do not own
draft animal


Need manure for
high value crops


Lack of information
on how to apply N
without burning
the seeds at seeding


Low fertilizer
efficiency
reduces yields
and increases
costs


i


I








Evidence: Fertilizer Management*


Variable Farmer Alternative

Total N (kg/ha) 162 92

Timing at first first planting
application weeding

Total P (kg/ha 0 92

Yield response 800 1500 kg/ha

Breakeven yield 55 kg/ha
change

* Assumes previous adoption of insect control
and improved density.









Evidence From Verifications


Treatment Cycle 3


Farmers' practice


Farmers' practice plus
improved insect control and
density

(2) plus improved fertilizer
management


2.2 t/hO

3.2 t/ha



4.4 t/ha


2)


3)








Activities of the MARIF OFR-'Team, First Study
Area, 1984-1986

Subject Cycle
12 3 4 5


On-Farm Trials
Exploratory
Variety
Fertilizer
Crop protection
Seed
Farmers observation
Verification

Survey
Exploratory
Maize production
Seed storage
Shootfly

Other Activities
Pot experiments
Soil Analysis
Farmer/extension


*
* *e


* *


*
*


*


* *


- S -


*


* *n


-- ,, ,,


-I -




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