• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of figures
 List of case studies
 Section 1: Introduction
 Section 2: Gender issues and the...
 Section 3: Integration of gender...
 Section 4: Project implementation...
 Section 5: Tools for analysis
 Appendix A: Obtaining documents...
 Bibliography














Title: Gender issues in agriculture and natural resource management guidelines for project design
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080654/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender issues in agriculture and natural resource management guidelines for project design
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Russo, Sandra
Bremer-Fox, Jennifer
Poats, Susan
Graig, Laurene
Spring, Anita
Publisher: Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development,
Publication Date: 1988
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080654
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 155842316

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
    List of figures
        Section 1
        Section 2
        Section 3
    List of case studies
        Section
    Section 1: Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
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        Page 4
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    Section 2: Gender issues and the A.I.D. project cycle
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    Section 3: Integration of gender issues into the design of agricultural projects
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    Section 4: Project implementation and evaluation
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    Section 5: Tools for analysis
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    Appendix A: Obtaining documents and information from A.I.D. and WID
        Page 143
    Bibliography
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
Full Text





Gender Issues in Agriculture
and Natural Resource Management
Guidelines for Project Design


By
Sandra Russo
Jennifer Bremer-Fox
Susan Poats
Laurene Graig


with
Anita Spring

Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc.


Prepared for
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development


June 1988









Gender Issues in Agriculture
and Natural Resource Management
Guidelines for Project Design


By
Sandra Russo
Jennifer Bremer-Fox
Susan Poats
Laurene Graig


with
Anita Spring

Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc.



Prepared for
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development


June 1988







TABLE OF CONTENTS


Section Page

SECTION 1 Introduction 1

1.1 A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy 2
1.2 Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management 3
1.3 Organization of the Manual 6

SECTION 2 Gender Issues and the AI.D. Project Cycle 7

2.1 Gender Analysis 7
2.2 Incorporating Gender Concerns into the CDSS
and Action Plan 8
2.2.1 Review of Economic Performance 13
2.2.2 The Mission Assistance Strategy 14
2.2.3 The Mission Portfolio Strategy 15
2.2.4 Incorporating Gender into an Action Plan 17

2.3 Incorporating Gender into A.I.D. Projects 18
2.3.1 Types of A.I.D. WID Projects 18
2.3.2 Targeting Resources to Women 21

2.4 Project Design 22
2.4.1 Project Identification Document 22
2.4.2 Project Paper 23

2.5 Project Implementation 24
2.6 Project Evaluation 24
2.7 Incorporating Gender into Non-Project Assistance 25
2.7.1 Is Gender an Issue in Non-Project Assistance? 25
2.7.2 Policy Reform 26
2.7.3 Budget Support 28
2.7.4 Other Programs 29
SECTION 3 Integration of Gender Issues into the Design
of Agricultural Projects 31
3.1 Agricultural Project Design Issues 31
3.2 Gender Analysis in the Project Paper 33
3.2.1 The Social Soundness Analysis 33
3.2.2 The Technical Analysis 38
3.2.3 The Economic Analysis 38






TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)
Section Pare

3.3 Incorporating Gender Concerns into
Individual Project Components 40
3.4 Sectoral Projects 43
3.5 Access and Control Factors and the Implications
for Field Level Projects 43
3.5.1 Land 43
3.5.2 Capital 50
3.5.3 Labor 54
3.5.4 Credit 59
3.5.5 Education 61
3.5.6 Products and Production 68
3.5.7 Livestock Systems 70
3.5.8 Agroforestry and Natural Resource Management 72
3.5.9 Additional Components of Agricultural Projects 75

3.6 Activities Common to Sectoral and Field Level Projects 75
3.7 Monitoring and Evaluation Systems 88
SECTION 4 Project Implementation and Evaluation 93

4.1 Implementation 93

4.1.1 Selection of Institutions, Technical
Expertise, and Delivery Services 94
4.1.2 Monitoring 97

4.2 Evaluation 97
4.2.1 Gender-disaggregated Indicators 100
4.2.2 Overall Indicators of Women's Participation 101
4.2.3 Specific Techniqes for Evaluating Women's
Participation in Agricultural Development 102
4.3 Revision of Current Projects 105
4.4 Adaptation of Existing Projects 106
SECTION 5 Tools for Analysis 109

5.1 Tools for Diagnosis and Analysis 109
5.1.1 Intra-household Dynamics and
the Farming Systems Calendar 109
5.1.2 Spatial Mapping 122
5.1.3 Informal Surveys 123
5.1.4 Community Interviews 127
5.1.5 Consumption-Focused Surveys 128
5.1.6 Household Record Keeping 129
5.1.7 Purposive Sampling 129








TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)

Section

5.1.8 The Policy Inventory Technique 133
5.1.9 Elements of a Policy Inventory 135
5.1.10 Uses of the Policy Inventory 137
5.1.11 Inventory Format 140

5.2 Conclusion 140
APPENDIX A. Obtaining Documents and Information from A.I.D. and WID
BIBLIOGRAPHY






LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page

1. From Gender Blindness to Gender Adaptation:
Useful Definitions 9

2. Steps in the Gender Analysis Process 10

3. Incorporating Gender Concerns in the CDSS 12

4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Three Types
of Women's Projects 19
5. Issues and Answers for Gender Concerns in
Non-Project Assistance 27
6. Patterns of Gender Responsibilities 32

7. What Should be Included in the Design Team
Scope of Work to Address Gender Issues? 34
8. Incorporating Gender Concerns into Project Design:
Issues and Answers 35
9. Addressing Gender Issues in the Project Paper 37

10. Gender Issues to be Addressed in the Project
Technical Analysis 39
11. Gender Issues to be Addressed in the Project
Economic Analysis 41
12. Main Types of Agricultural Projects and
Project. Components 42
13. Designing Policy Analysis and Reform Components
in Agricultural Projects 44
14. Designing Data Collection and Planning Components
in Agricultural Projects 45
15. Designing Agricultural Education Components
in Agricultural Projects 46
16. Designing Land Reform and Tenure Components
in Agricultural Projects 52
17. Rural Women's Work Time 55

18. Comparison of Time Allocations to Rural Activities,
By Gender 57
19. Designing Credit Components in Agricultural Projects 62






LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)
Figure Page

20. Designing Research Components in Agricultural Projects 65

21. Designing Research Components in Agricultural Projects 66

22. Designing Farmer Organization Components
in Agricultural Projects 67
23. Constraints Women Face in Livestock Projects 73

24. Designing Resource Management and Conservation Components
in Agricultural Projects 76
25. Designing Irrigation Infrastructure and Management
Components in Agricultural Projects 77
26. Designing Irrigation Infrastructure and Management
Components in Agricultural Projects 78
27. Designing Components to Provide Other Services to Farmers
in Agricultural Projects 79
28. Designing Input Supply System Components
in Agricultural Projects 80
29. Designing Marketing Components in Agricultural Projects 81

30. Designing Storage and Processing Components
in Agricultural Projects 82
31. Designing Technical Assistance Components
in Agricultural Projects 83
32. Designing In-country Training Components
in Agricultural Projects 84
33. Designing Long-term Training Components
in Agricultural Projects 85
34. Designing Management Development Components
in Agricultural Projects 86
35. Designing Components to Improve Physical Facilities
in Agricultural Projects 87
36. Ensuring Gender Adaptation in Agricultural Projects:
Project Officer Responsibilities for Project
Monitoring and Implementation 98
37. Sampling Strategies 99






LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)
Figure Page

38. Framework for Evaluating the Distribution
of Project Benefits 103
39. Possible Strategies for Taking into Consideration
the Linkages Between Women's Roles in
Production and Consumption 130
40. Summary of Differential Policy Impacts on Women
in the Agricultural Sector 138
41. Elements of a Policy Inventory. The Inventory Matrix 141






LIST OF CASE STUDIES


Case Study

1. Incorporation of Women and Gender Analysis in
a Rice-Based Farming Systems Project in
the Philippines
2. Increasing Women's Involvement in Agribusiness

3. Incorporating Gender as a Variable in
Agricultural Research in Ecuador
4. Integration of Farmers' Criteria in Bean Variety Testing

5. Dairy Goat Production -- Women's Projects vs.
Integrated Projects
6. A Successful Project Adaptation to Gender Concerns






SECTION 1


Introduction

Women in development (WID) has become an increasingly important
development issue in recent years. It has long been known that when projects
are appropriately planned and adapted to reflect local conditions, the projects
are more likely to achieve their objectives. Understanding gender variables is
key to understanding human variables. When development fails to reach
women, both in absolute terms and relative to men, the development activities
often fail to achieve all their aims. Boserup argued that:

economic and social development unavoidably entails the
disintegration of the division of labour among the two
sexes... with modernization of agriculture and migration to
towns, a new sex pattern of productive work must
emerge... The obvious danger...is that in the course of this
transition, women will be deprived of their productive
functions and the whole process of growth will be
retarded.(5)

There is strong interaction between the design and management of an
agricultural project and the delivery of agricultural resources to women.
Efficiently designed and managed projects are better able to deliver resources
to women, and projects that deliver appropriate resources to women are
generally more successful projects.(10) Both equity and efficiency goals are
met when women are included in the development process, and when they are
not included, the effect on the overall economy can be significant. Comment-
ing on factors contributing to the food crisis in Africa, Spring noted that the

exclusion of women from new technologies and capital
schemes has negatively affected women's productivity, and
this reduced productivity is a major contributor to the
current food crisis in Africa.(52)

This manual is written for A.I.D. project design officers, mission staff,
and design team members to assist them in designing projects that integrate
women into the agricultural development process. Such integration has been
mandated by A.I.D. policy and the Percy Amendment. However, there is








sometimes difficulty in translating a mandate into concrete strategies for
implementation.


This manual is not meant to be a scholarly reference book on gender
issues in agriculture and natural resource management, but a workbook to be
used in project design. It provides an introduction to gender issues, a survey
of recent findings from A.I.D. projects, and guidelines for the integration of
gender issues into project design.



1.1 A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy

The policy of A.I.D. on women in development derives from the Percy
Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act, which directs that the United
States government's bilateral assistance programs should be administered

so as to give particular attention to those programs,
projects and activities which tend to integrate women into
the national economies of foreign countries, thus
improving their status and assisting the total development
effort.(7)

In 1982, A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy Paper stressed that
gender roles constitute a key variable in the socioeconomic condition of any
country -- one that can be decisive in the success or failure of development
plans. Women often face different constraints than men. Failure to include
women in the development process has consistently led to failure in achieving
project goals. The issue is an economic one:

misunderstanding of gender differences, leading to
inadequate planning and design of projects, results in
diminished returns on investment.(2)









1.2 Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

The roles that women play in agricultural production and natural resource
management are critical to the economies of developing countries, yet the
value of these roles has often been ignored or overlooked. Several factors
contribute to women's invisibility. Women are usually self-employed or
employed in family enterprises rather than wage earners; they work seasonally
rather than year-round; they tend to be underemployed rather than formally
unemployed; and they engage in fluid patterns of diverse and shifting economic
activities.(13) There is rarely a clear-cut distinction between domestic
production for household consumption and for economic agricultural activities,
between economically active and inactive persons, or between agricultural and
non-agricultural tasks.

Women are the majority of the world's food producers. Recent United
Nations estimates indicate that women provide 60 to 80 percent of the
agricultural labor in Africa and Asia and 40 percent in Latin America.(33)
National statistics on women's roles in agricultural production vary widely, yet
analyses by several agencies indicate that women participate in the entire food
system to a much greater degree than routinely reported. Women participate
in the food system as producers, distributors, processors, stores, and
marketers. They are involved in every type of agricultural activity, putting in
as many or more hours than men. They participate in the entire range of
crop production activities from land clearing and preparation through harvest-
ing and processing. They take care of all classes of livestock, process
products for home consumption and the market, manage natural resources
through their use of fuel and water and their crop and animal responsibilities,
and market their products at local, regional, and national levels. Women and
men also have different spheres of knowledge, which may not overlap at all.
In any area of the world, not all women are equally involved in agricultural
production at a specific time nor does each woman have the same role
throughout her lifetime. Nevertheless, it is a given that women's contributions
are important and vital to the rural economy.








Despite women's significant contributions to agricultural production and to
rural households, there is substantial evidence that women have less access to
land, capital, credit, technology, and training than men in the same system.
The constraints that women face in gaining access to all of these resources
significantly reduce the productivity of both the rural sector and the national
economy. Some researchers, in fact, believe that until women's agricultural
participation is given its due or is equitably targeted, food crop production
may remain at current stagnant levels.

Effective project design must identify barriers to women's access to new
technologies and resources. Steps must be taken

to ensure that the new technologies and resources which
are part of development in the agricultural sector actually
reach women. There has been little evidence of "trickle
across," in fact, resources allocated to "the farm
household" typically reach men rather than women.(2)

Women are principal economic actors in the agricultural sectors of most
developing countries. The economic and financial return on A.I.D. investment
in developing countries is heightened by including women as both participants
and beneficiaries.

The difference between participants and beneficiaries of project activities
needs to be clarified. Participants are those people who actually participate in
a project; they could be involved in agricultural training, construction of
drainage ditches, fertilizer experimentation, or reforestation plantings.
Participants, by and large, for many reasons described later in the manual,
tend to be male. Beneficiaries are those people who benefit from the project's
activities. It must not be assumed that benefits accrue equally to all members
of a household, especially when the assumption is that men's involvement will
reach their families (lack of "trickle across" cited above). Children are very
rarely participants, with the possible exception of education programs in the
schools. Children are more likely to be direct beneficiaries when development
activities include their mothers.






5
Development activities in the past have focused on women's reproductive,
health care, and nurturing roles. While women will always have these roles,
they are concurrent with their roles as agricultural producers in most
developing countries. Development activities must take into account the
multiple roles of women. A.I.D.'s policy paper summarizes the key elements
of development activities as follows:

1. The gender- and age-linked division of labor by crop and
ethnic group must be fully comprehended as a basis for all
project planning.

2. Male and female differentials in access to and control of
key productive resources must be understood and planned
for in projects. These resources include land, capital,
labor, credit, information, seeds, tools, fertilizers, water,
and fuel.

3. The specific farming responsibilities which are uniquely
and particularly assigned to female members of the
household or society must receive an appropriate share of
attention in project identification, design, and implementa-
tion. These responsibilities may include "women's
animals," "women's crops," weeding, transporting,
marketing, preserving, processing, and storage.

4. Explicit strategies to address gender-role aspects of
farming must be built into all projects in which outreach
to farmers is attempted (extension, training, research).
In particular, integrated services to address females'
multiple responsibilities in farm households are required.
These responsibilities would include human nutrition/
health, animal nutrition/health, farm management, family
resource management, and time/labor-saving technologies.

Incorporating these concerns into the design of a project is not an easy
task, especially for those who do not have experience with gender issues.
Until recently there were no good role models or projects for designers to
follow, nor were there data from which to operate. It has been demonstrated
that failure to include a gender focus in a project and failure to integrate








women throughout the entire project process is associated with lower levels of
project success.

An extensive review conducted by the Center for Development Informa-
tion and Evaluation (CDIE) examined more than 100 A.I.D. projects. In
agricultural projects, attention to gender issues can affect the

Elimination of bottlenecks to production
Successful transfer of technology
Willingness to adopt new practices



1.3 Organization of the Manual

This manual will provide methods, guidelines, and examples that will
facilitate the integration of women into agricultural development projects.
Section 2 examines the methods of incorporating gender issues into the
various stages of the A.I.D. project cycle. The integration of gender issues
into the design of agricultural projects is discussed in Section 3. Section 4
focuses on the integration of gender concerns into project implementation and
evaluation. Tools that can be used for gender analysis and diagnosis are
presented in Section 5.






SECTION 2


Gender Issues and the A.I.D. Project Cycle



This manual presents guidelines for the integration of women into
agricultural development projects. Although the manual is not intended to
provide in-depth guidance on every phase of the A.I.D. project cycle, this
section will provide suggestions as to where and when gender issues should be
addressed in the CDSS, Action Plans, project design, implementation, evalua-
tion, non-project assistance, and other areas.



2.1 Gender Analysis

The Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) review
referred to in Section 1 developed 10 helpful steps (shown in Figure 2) to be
followed in the gender analysis process. The questions posed in these steps
may seem difficult or even impossible to answer given the short period of time
in which most design teams normally operate. Yet many of the answers are
available through the WID office, in the country profiles, from secondary
sources of data, from local staff, and, obviously, through interviews with
farmers of both sexes. This list of questions is not meant as a checklist in
which each question must be answered before moving on to the next. Nor is
it suggested that the design team conduct in-depth baseline surveys to try to
answer all of the questions. A rapid appraisal of the proposed project areas
by a gender-focused team may be sufficient to answer the more obvious
questions such as who will undertake particular activities, and with what
degree of access and control. Modification of project design can be made if
gender analysis indicates such changes are necessary.









Packaging Information: Experience of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) used an
innovative approach to synthesize existing information on women in agriculture
for several of the countries where their program scientists were engaged in
collaborative projects. WID specialists reviewed the available literature and
prepared concise resource guides that included an overview of women's roles in
production, implications for projects, a list of women's organizations pertinent
to agriculture, and a selected, annotated bibliography. Scientists with little or
no gender sensitivity or experience were able to use these in their project
designs and implementations.(18, 27)



2.2 Incorporating Gender Concerns
into the CDSS and Action Plan

The integration of women into the development process both as produc-
tive actors and as beneficiaries continues to be a major priority as reflected in
A.I.D. guidance on strategy and program development (i.e., CDSS and Action
Plan guidance) which contains numerous references to WID concerns. Complete
information and analysis of gender issues can be used to strengthen the CDSS
and the Action Plan. The CDSS typically includes three basic sections:


1. Analysis: A review of recent economic performance in the
country, including macroeconomic policy changes, structural
adjustment, and growth, as well as growth performance of the
major sectors, to identify the main constraints on national
development

2. Strategy. A discussion of the mission's strategy for overcoming
these constraints, laying out a set of goals or targets relevant
to the mission's proposed strategy

3. Resources: A review of the mission's strategy for overcoming
these constraints, emphasizing the relationship between the
proposed strategy and the planned mix of assistance vehicles

Specific gender-relevant information can be provided within each of these
three sections of the CDSS (summarized in Figure 3). The following discussion
of methods for integrating gender issues into the CDSS is based on the recent
CDSS of an African country. To illustrate common issues and possible
approaches, the country will not be identified.










FIGURE 1.
FROM GENDER BLINDNESS TO GENDER ADAPTATION: USEFUL DEFINITIONS


Women versus gender:




Gender blindness:





Gender focused:



Gender analysis:




Gender adaptation:


Gender is a broader concept that includes concern
with women's roles and responsibilities in relation to
those of men. Emphasis on "women" can both isolate
women and obscure differences among women.

The inability to perceive that there are different
gender roles and responsibilities; the perception that
farmers and technology are male (or neuter); and the
failure to realize that project activities can have
different effects on men and women.

The focus is on gender beyond the perceived
traditional roles; the setting is understood in terms
of gender-based patterns of behavior.

The analysis of the intersection of male and female
roles and responsibilities with project goals,
strategies, and outcomes at any stage of the project
cycle.

Going beyond women's projects and targeting
resources for women to the gender adaptation of
project activities and services.








FIGURE 2.

STEPS IN THE GENDER ANALYSIS PROCESS


Step 1: Clarify gender roles and their implications for project strategies.

The starting point should be to clarify the project strategy. For example,
what does the project propose to do to improve agriculture? What activities
will be affected by project interventions? What is the existing division of
labor in these activities? How do these activities fit in with the total pattern
of household productive and domestic activities? What innovations are being
proposed? What are their behavioral implications for different household
members?

Step 2: Analyze eligibility to receive project inputs.

Start by examining what inputs the project intends to provide, and identify
which household member should receive them, in light of the existing division
of labor. For example, if livestock is women's responsibility and grain is
men's, inputs for livestock should go to women and inputs for grain to men.
If women are responsible for an activity slated for project intervention, can
they qualify to receive inputs in their own name? What are the prerequisites
for eligibility, and how many households in the target group can meet those
criteria?

Step 3: Define prerequisites for participation in project activities.

In light of the division of labor, which household member should participate in
activities such as soil conservation, water user groups, training, and extension?
Even if there is no formal discrimination against women, how will the location
and timing of activities affect their participation? Does the proportion of
women in the pool of. eligible participants match the division of labor?

Step 4: Examine outreach capabilities of institutions and delivery systems.

If analysis of the division of labor shows that an activity slated for project
intervention is women's responsibility among smallholders, to what extent do
existing institutions and delivery systems have direct contact with female
smallholders, or with any women?

Step 5: Assess the appropriateness of proposed technical packages.

Are the technical packages applicable to all households or only to those with
certain types of resources, such as irrigated land, several head of cattle, or a
labor surplus? How many households in the target group have the right kind
of land? How many, given the gender-typing of tasks and male migration, can
meet the additional labor requirements? How many can raise the necessary
cash? What implications do gender differences have for the spread of
technical innovations to poor households?








FIGURE 2. (Cont.)


Step 6: Examine the distribution of benefits and its effect on incentives.

Given the gender division of labor and the control over income from different
crops by men and women in some regions, what interest would women have in
intensifying production? Do the direct returns to women outweigh the
additional effort? If the project affects marketing, are women likely to lose
an independent source of income?

Step 7: Consider the reliability of feedback mechanisms.

If women play a major role in project-related activities such as farming
vegetables, how will the project find out whether the proposed technical
innovations are acceptable to them? What provisions are made for local
women and men's participation in selecting and testing technologies and in
evaluating results? Do monitoring and reporting systems distinguish male and
female participants?

Step 8: Anticipate probable changes in the roles and status of women.

How will the project affect women's access to and control over land, labor,
capital, and expertise? Will women's workload increase or decrease? What
will happen to their independent income, to their control of crops and the
income from their sale, or to their voice in household decision making on
expenditures and other issues?

Step 9: Link changes in the roles and status of women with the expected
project impact.

How will changes in women's access to and control of land and productive
resources affect food availability? How will changes in women's ability to
earn an independent income affect household cash flow? How will it affect
their ability to provide for their families? How will changes in women's
workload affect such things as child care and family nutrition?

Step 10: Identify adaptations needed.

Using the previous steps as a guide, specify what changes are needed in
institutions, delivery systems, technical packages, and feedback mechanisms to
overcome the barriers to women's access to project inputs and their ability
and incentive to participate.








FIGURE 3.

INCORPORATING GENDER CONCERNS INTO THE CDSS


Assessment of Recent Performance

* Discuss how policies have affected low-resource groups including women.

* Discuss how the failure to reach women and other low-resource farmers
has affected both government and donor project success.


Definition of Mission Assistance Strategy

n Identify strategy areas where women's participation is important.

* Describe how women's participation will contribute to implementing the
strategy.

* Describe how women will benefit.


Description of Mission's Project Portfolio

* Identify projects in subsectors where women are important.

* Summarize actions taken or planned to ensure that women will parti-
cipate.

* Identify the impact of failing to reach women on project and strategy'
success.










2.2.1 Review of Economic Performance

Recent A.I.D. guidance cables have stressed the importance of addressing
women in development concerns in this first section of the CDSS. Women and
girls should be addressed not only as potential beneficiaries of development
progress, but also as participants in projects. The analysis section should
identify the development problems the country is facing with an emphasis on
the conditions and problems of the poor, including the position of women in
society. Impediments to women and an assessment of women's participation,
i.e., a description of the role of women in small farmer productivity, should be
included. This section should include adequate statistical data, disaggregated
by gender wherever possible.

The country CDSS provides a thorough discussion of the recent develop-
ments in the agricultural sector, both in the text and in the accompanying
annexes, and discusses the impact of ongoing reforms. The description in the
CDSS notes that rural areas are no longer self-sufficient in food, despite large
investments in improving support services to agriculture.

Given the importance of women's labor and women-managed plots to
production of cereals for rural consumption, it is appropriate to ask whether
the treatment of this issue in the CDSS could have been strengthened by
considering whether development efforts in the sector have failed in part
because they have not reached women farmers. The appropriate question from
the gender perspective is:

Are current policies or economic conditions a major
barrier to more rapid growth or higher income in sectors
where women's activities are concentrated, in this case
food production?

According to a study conducted in .the country, past policies have indeed
discouraged food production by women. For example, policies that subsidize
peanut production for the export market have increased demands for women's








labor on cash crop plots. Moreover, the policies have channeled assistance to
the rural sector through institutions that generally do not provide inputs,
credit, or technical advice to women. The study also found that development
of private sector channels, encouraged by economic reforms, was beginning to
make an improvement in women's access to inputs, but that the transition was
far from complete.

In response to these issues, the CDSS discussion could be strengthened by
examining whether low-resource food producers, including women, had been
able to benefit from economic reforms, and if not, what additional steps would
be needed to bring reform to their level.



2.2.2 The Mission Assistance Strategy

The strategy section of the CDSS should describe how each of the
proposed problem-specific strategies will address women's and girls' issues
effectively. This section should specify which groups in the population are
expected to make progress toward the benchmarks, specifically addressing the
impact on demographic categories such as the poor and women.


The assistance strategy for the agricultural sector of the country, for
example, emphasizes improvements in grain marketing, promotion of income-
generating activities, and support to forestry activities such as village
woodlots. The appropriate gender question relative to these emphases is:

What roles do women play in the sectors and sub-sectors
identified by A.I.D. as priorities for assistance?


The study mentioned above indicated that women in the country are
taking a leading role in establishing private sector grain trading systems, that
they constitute the majority of participants in such important income-genera-
ting activities as vegetable production and fish processing, and that their
responsibility for firewood supply suggests that they would be the most logical
targets for efforts to establish village woodlots.









By recognizing the importance of women in A.I.D.'s priority subsectors,
the CDSS could both demonstrate the mission's understanding of those aspects
of the local economy that it seeks to influence and pave the way for the
design of project activities that respond to gender differences in roles and
resources.



2.2.3 The Mission Portfolio Strategy


The CDSS discussion of the mission portfolio of the country emphasizes
the role of women in family planning and rural health activities, but overlooks
their productive activities in the agricultural sector. Two questions from the
gender perspective are appropriate to this part of the CDSS:

Which projects will directly affect women's economic
activities and how will they affect women as well as men?
How will women's activities and women's capacity to
respond to new opportunities affect the success of A.I.D.'s
strategy?

With regard to the first question, it is evident that several projects in
the portfolio will affect activities that women participate in, particularly grain
production and input markets. A.I.D.'s main project in the country is designed
to promote the development of privately organized farmers' groups for
purchasing inputs and to assist private sector input distribution channels with
credit and technical advice.


In this case, the treatment of gender issues in the CDSS could be
strengthened by

Recognizing that women in the country frequently form
women's farmers groups for the cultivation of millet and
other crops.
Committing the mission to promote favorable conditions
for the formation of women's groups as well as men's
groups to participate in project programs.









Recognizing that women are already taking an active role
in establishing private marketing systems, but that their
ability to benefit from new opportunities will be limited
by barriers to credit for women, and indeed for all small
entrepreneurs, in the existing credit system. Although a
detailed discussion of access to credit lies outside the
scope of a CDSS, the document could identify access to
credit as a target for A.I.D. policy or program assistance.

With regard to the second question, how failure to reach women will
affect project success, the CDSS sets a target of 5 percent annual growth in
millet production from the use of improved seed and fertilizer. Women
produce a significant portion of the millet, in addition to working on family
plots; therefore, women are likely to be responsible for applying fertilizer on
the majority of millet plots and for making decisions regarding fertilizer
purchase on their own plots. In many countries, the percentage of national
millet production deriving from women's plots is not known, but a study
conducted in Burkina Faso estimated that Burkina women produce 13 percent
of the nation's dryland food grains on their own plots.(23)

The CDSS discussion of a 5 percent target and the feasibility of reaching
it could be strengthened by

Recognizing that low-resource farmers, including women,
do not now have access to fertilizer for grain production

N Including a discussion of how mission projects will ensure
that these farmers have access to fertilizer and knowledge
of its use in the future

This discussion illustrates the ways in which an understanding of women's
participation in African agriculture could be used to improve the development
of A.I.D. strategies for the agricultural sector and how this understanding
could be reflected in the CDSS. The information needed to gain this
understanding unfortunately may not exist in many countries. An important
task in developing an agricultural strategy to meet women's needs is therefore
to identify the information needs and describe how the mission proposes to
meet these needs. The annual action plan provides an appropriate forum for








reporting on and updating the mission's understanding of gender roles in
agriculture; the action plan is discussed in more detail below.



2.2.4 Incorporating Gender into an Action Plan


An action plan is basically a scaled-down version of a CDSS; it em-
phasizes mission actions to be taken during the coming year to further the
strategy developed in the CDSS. Because the action plan emphasizes project
and program development and implementation, the incorporation of gender
issues into the action plan should be based on an examination of how
modifications in the project and program assistance strategies will affect the
program's impact on women, either negatively or positively.


In the case of the African country reviewed above, for example, a delay
in implementing reforms in the agricultural input system would be expected to
lead to a delay in improving access to inputs for women. This delay should be
identified in the action plan as part of the discussion of reform implementa-
tion.

The action plan should also discuss progress in implementing the gender
strategy identified in the CDSS. If the CDSS laid out a strategy for assessing
project impacts on women through the collection of gender-disaggregated data,
for example, the action plan would be an appropriate place for an update on
mission information on gender and a discussion of how this information affects
project implementation.

If mainstream projects were identified as expected sources of benefits for
women farmers or entrepreneurs, the action plan should include an assessment
of whether women are participating in these activities. In order to generate
this information, of course, projects must include the collection of gender-
disaggregated data in their baseline and monitoring systems.









2.3 Incorporating Gender into A.I.D. Projects

2.3.1 Types of A.I.D. WID Projects

A.I.D. funds a wide variety of agricultural development projects, ranging
from larger, all-encompassing projects (integrated rural development, institution
building, or policy and planning) to smaller, more specific ones (fertilizer
credit programs, introduction of a new crop or animal, or cookstove techno-
logy). Since the 1970s, A.I.D. has attempted to integrate its women in
development mandate into its agricultural projects. Three types of projects
have been developed to include women in the development process: women-
only projects, projects with women's components, and mainstream projects that
integrate women into their programs. The advantages and disadvantages of
these types are summarized in Figure 4.

A project review conducted by the Center for Development Information
and Evaluation (CDIE) examined more than 100 A.I.D. projects that included
the terms 'women,' 'female,' or 'gender' in project documents.(7) The review
determined that A.I.D. uses three basic approaches to incorporate women into
their projects: women-only projects, a women's component within a project,
and an integrated project. Each of these approaches has advantages that
depend on the details of the site and project. There is no single best method
to incorporate women into a project, but integrated projects have usually been
the most successful.

Women-only projects are designed to deal explicitly with women. They
have the advantage of being highly visible, but their budgets are usually small,
they receive low government priority, and they are more often seen as
welfare-oriented than as production-oriented. When located in ministries of
social welfare, private voluntary organizations, or women's bureaus, their
impact is very low. For example, several small projects designed by the Africa
Bureau to assist African women had little publicity, low levels of funding, slow
implementation, poor direction (women received handicrafts training rather
than the agricultural assistance they requested), little interaction with









FIGURE 4.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF THREE TYPES OF WOMEN'S PROJECTS


Advantages


Type of Project

WID-Specific










"Women's









Integrated


Disadvantages


Women receive all of the project's
resources and benefits. Benefi-
ciaries may acquire leadership
skills and greater self-confidence
in gender-segregated environment.
Skills training in nontraditional
areas may be much easier without
male competition.


The project as a whole enjoys more
resources and higher priority than
WID-specific projects, which can
benefit the WID component. Women
are ensured of receiving at least
a part of the project's resources.
Women can 'catch up' to men through
WID components.

Women can take full advantage of
the resources and high priority that
integrated projects receive. If
women form a large proportion of
the pool of eligibles, their
will probably be high, even without
detailed attention given WID issues.


These projects tend to be small scale and underfunded.
Implementing agencies often lack technical expertise
in raising productivity or income. WID-specific
income-generating projects rarely take marketability
of goods or services into account and thus fail to
generate income. Women beneficiaries may be required
to contribute their time and labor with no compensation.
Women may become further marginalized or isolated from
mainstream development.

The WID component usually receives far less funding
and priority than do the other components. These
components have tended to respond to women's social
roles rather than their economic roles; for this reason,
domestic activities may be emphasized to the exclusion
of any others. Awareness of the importance of gender in
the project's other components may be missing.


Unless information on women's activities and time use is
introduced at the design stage, these projects may
inadvertently exclude women through choices of promotion
mechanism, location and timing of project resources,
etc. If women form only a small proportion of'the pool
of eligibles, they may not be included in the project.
Women may be competing with men for scarce project
resources and lose out because of their lack of
experience in integrated group settings and their
relatively low status in the family and community.








presumed beneficiaries, and indications that project personnel had limited WID
training. Evaluators gave poor to mediocre ratings for the 12 projects actually
implemented under this program.(19) Successful women-only projects are those
implemented by powerful institutions such as ministries of agriculture, labor,
and education or credit banks rather than by women's bureaus or PVOs. In
general, women-only projects were more successful in delivering training than
in raising production or generating income.(7) The most effective use of a
women-only project is to train women in additional, new, or non-traditional
skills or to train WID personnel, including training in WID issues for WID
positions.

A women's component is a women-oriented part, often a distinctly
separate part, of a larger project. Again, projects with women's components
typically have a small budget. They may be tacked on to a larger project and
seen as a token gesture to WID mandates, and they may not receive adequate
technical support from the larger project. One disadvantage of a women's
component is the tendency to emphasize women's domestic roles and overlook
their economic roles. For example, the Mixed Farming and Natural Resource
Management Project in The Gambia introduced maize as a cash crop and had a
women's component that taught women how to prepare and cook maize but not
how to produce it. Another example can be drawn from a resource conserva-
tion project in Nepal that focused on women's domestic roles cookstovess,
kitchen gardens, and sewing) while ignoring their significant inputs into
resource conservation activities including reforestation, watershed management,
and soil conservation.(19)

A second disadvantage of women's component projects is that a women's
component may be implemented in isolation from the rest of the project and
may lack input from technical staff on the project. In the CAEP Project in
the Eastern Caribbean region, having a women's component diverted attention
from gender issues in the main project, which was designed to improve
agricultural extension. During the second phase, the project dropped the
women's component. Integration of the women's component into the rest of
the project led to a higher success rate.






21


An integrated project, as defined by A.I.D., is any mainstream project
that integrates women without a women-only design or a women's component.
Gender-sensitive projects have both gender analysis and gender adaptation.
Gender analysis is the analysis of the intersection of male and female roles
and responsibilities with project goals, strategies, and outcomes at any stage of
the project cycle. Gender analysis begins with the design phase of a project
and ideally extends throughout the life of the project. Gender analysis alone
is not sufficient; women must actually participate in and benefit from the
project. The process of gender analysis is described in the next section.

The CDIE review found that gender-sensitive design correlates with
achievement of objectives, and that failure to achieve objectives can often be
traced to gender-blind design. Integrated programs also minimize two major
risks:

The likelihood that the project will translate their
productive goals into a welfare approach to women
The risk that the project will further marginalize women
from access to resources by creating mechanisms that
separate them from mainstream activities(6)

Of the three project types, gender-sensitive mainstream projects appear
to be the most effective .way.of promoting and utilizing women's contribu-
tions.(7) When women's participation is high, especially through direct
involvement of women farmers, projects are more likely to achieve their
objectives. Still, there are some situations in which the most effective way of
reaching women is through women-only or women's component projects. The
disadvantages mentioned above should be kept in mind when the decision is
made to use one of these types of projects.



2.3.2 Targeting Resources to Women

Targeting, or earmarking, a portion of project inputs for women or
establishing quotas for women's participation in project activities is one
approach that can be used to reach women. However, targeting may not work








when technical and institutional constraints on female participation remain.
For example, funds may be set aside for extension work with village women,
but the work frequently focuses on women's domestic tasks rather than on
agricultural production. If a quota is set for females to participate in training
and the quota is not met because of a lack of qualified women, it may be
more effective to hold those slots open than to let men have them. Targeting
resources to women improves the probability that they will receive them, but
it does not guarantee access unless the procedure is monitored.



2.4 Project Design

The two principal project design documents are described briefly in the
following sections.



2.4.1 Project Identification Document

The Project Identification Document (PID) presents a short, concise
proposal for a project. Impetus for developing a PID can come from any
source. It outlines the description, rationale, and estimated cost for a new
project; it should reflect both A.I.D. and host country development strategies.
The PID describes the perceived problems and presents ways in which the
project will address the problems.

Development projects need to be responsive to the social, economic, and
political factors of their environment. As pointed out in A.I.D.'s Handbook 3,
consideration of these factors, including the definition and examination of
project participants and intended beneficiaries, is expected to begin with the
earliest stages of project identification.(1) It should continue throughout
project development so that relevant knowledge about beneficiary populations
can be applied to the project design, and so that future feasibility and
implementation problems can be minimized.








In identifying problems and constraints, and in explaining how the
project will contribute to the overall goal of the attainment of basic human
needs, the PID should show the differential impact of development on women
and men. In describing the characteristics of the beneficiaries, direct and
indirect, care must be taken to delineate gender differences. What are the
factors that will facilitate or constrain the progress of the project and are
these factors gender-related?



2.4.2 Project Paper

After a PID has been approved by A.I.D./Washington, the mission in
collaboration with host country counterparts prepares the Project Paper (PP).
The PP presents the rationale, a thorough analysis, and the plan, schedule,
cost estimate, and recommendations for the new project along with other
supporting documents. The PP summarizes the analyses carried out during
project development and represents the final proposed design.

The thoroughness of these analyses (discussed in detail in Section 3)
greatly influences the progress of a project -- whether it runs smoothly or is
weighted down with innumerable design flaws. Ample evidence exists to show
that gender issues must be properly addressed and fully integrated into project
design for project development to be successful.

The PP should establish criteria against which the project's performance
and success in reaching and benefitting women can be evaluated. It should
outline WID-related activities to be accomplished, and set target dates and
goals to indicate that activities are achieved. Since women represent half of
the population and often more than half of the farmers in many developing
countries, half of the beneficiaries and participants of A.I.D.-funded projects
should be women. Finally, the PP must be flexible enough to allow for
necessary adjustments to the changing situations of women.









2.5 Project Implementation

Implementation of a project entails putting the project design into effect
or operation. Implementation of A.I.D.'s WID policy consists principally of
ensuring that women share in the new resources and higher returns for their
labor for activities in which they engage. To do this effectively, it is
necessary to understand the gender roles and responsibilities within local
systems.(10) Gender-related concerns that occur during project implementation
include

Programs that do not have an adverse effect on women's
control of and access to resources

Women's access to training

Projects that do not promote technologies and practices that
conflict with women's needs or require resources they do not
have

This mandate to give women access to the project should come from the PP,
but projects can be adapted so that they will reach women. These concerns
are discussed more fully in Section 4.3.



2.6 Project Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation systems must be built in during the design
phase so that it will be possible to monitor and report the project's progress
in integrating women as soon as implementation begins. A separate analysis of
the project's progress in reaching women is essential. Adequate monitoring of
women's participation may require that data be more detailed than that usually
collected for mission reports. Methods of monitoring women's progress are
discussed more fully in Section 3.6.


The evaluation will have to ascertain if there has been any awareness of
women in development issues in project design and implementation. If








baseline data are not adequate or disaggregated by gender, provision must be
made to update the baseline data on women's activities and their access to and
control over resources. If women have not been targeted or included in
project benefits, the evaluation should discuss this problem and indicate
methods of addressing it. Evaluations should include not only hard, quantita-
tive indicators but also qualitative assessments of changes that have taken
place as a result of the project.



2.7 Incorporating Gender into Non-Project Assistance

2.7.1 Is Gender an Issue in Non-Project Assistance?

Gender concerns have rarely been addressed in non-project assistance, but
the increased emphasis being placed on these concerns argues for including
them in such assistance programs when appropriate. In general, gender
concerns should be examined in the design of non-project assistance programs
that address either policy reform or budget support for the agricultural sector.
If appropriate, measures to address these concerns should be incorporated into
the program. Gender concerns are generally not an issue in other types of
program assistance, such as commodity import or food aid programs directed
primarily to balance-of-payments support, but the relevance of gender concerns
should be confirmed for each case.

Two basic questions must be asked to determine whether gender concerns
are relevant to specific policy reform and budget support programs:

To what extent do women participate in activities likely to be
affected directly or indirectly by the program?
To what extent is the impact on women likely to differ
significantly from that of others in the sector, given gender
differences in roles, resources, and other factors?

The next two sections discuss how to answer these questions for policy-
focused and budget support programs. Basic issues and answers with respect
to gender in non-project assistance are summarized in Figure 5.









2.7.2 Policy Reform

Programs to support policy reform generally target macroeconomic and
agricultural policies that are believed to restrain growth in the agricultural
sector and reduce rural incomes. Because women farmers generate a signi-
ficant portion of total production in most countries and because they are
among the poorest farmers, special consideration of how policies and policy
reform affect them is consistent with A.I.D.'s aims.

Even though policies are by definition implemented throughout the
economy, they do not by any means affect all farmers (all traders, etc.) in the
same way. Differences among farmers in access to and control over resources,
in social and economic constraints, and in other factors intervene to cause
differences in policy impacts among farmers. Women farmers, for example, are
likely to sell a smaller proportion of the food crops they produce, on average,
than do men farmers (because of their responsibilities to supply family food,
the generally smaller size of their holdings, and so forth). Consequently,
policy interventions affecting food crops that work through the market (e.g.,
mandatory deliveries at a fixed price) can affect women and men farmers
differently.

Budget support programs differ greatly with respect to the specificity of
budget categories identified for support. Where support is being provided for
the government agricultural sector program as a whole (or with very limited
specification of line items or agencies), and where the process does not permit
A.I.D. to influence the allocation of resources, it will be difficult to tie gender
concerns into the program. Where support is being provided for specific
programs (A.I.D.-funded projects), agencies (extension), or line items (training),
explicit inclusion of gender concerns should be examined closely by the mission
during program design.

The way in which policies are implemented can also lead to differential
impacts within the agricultural sector. For example, budgetary considerations
often force governments to limit the supply of subsidized inputs, such as








FIGURE 5.
ISSUES AND ANSWERS FOR GENDER CONCERNS IN NON-PROJECT ASSISTANCE


1. When are gender concerns an issue in non-project assistance?

Gender concerns may be an issue in non-project assistance in either
of two situations: (1) if the program supports policy reforms that
are likely to have a significant impact on activities in which women
participate, and gender-based differences in roles and resources
cause this impact to differ from the effect on others in the sector;
and (2) if the program supports government activities in the
agricultural sector for which women are or could be target
beneficiaries or which will affect women in the sector directly or
indirectly.

2. Why would the effect of policy reforms differ by gender?

The impact of policy reforms may differ by gender if there are
significant gender-based differences in roles and access to resources
in those parts of the agricultural sector affected by the policy
reform. If women grow food crops while men grow cash crops, for
example, policies affecting the relative profitability of these two
activities will have differential impacts. If women have less access
to formal credit than men, policy reforms affecting formal credit
may affect women differently from men.

3. Why is gender an issue in budget support to agriculture?

A.I.D. budget support is generally aimed at encouraging activities
identified as important in achieving sectoral goals such as increased
rural incomes, improved nutrition, etc. Women's contributions to the
agricultural sector are important determinants of whether these goals
are reached, yet women farmers generally benefit less than men
farmers from government services such as extension and support to
cooperatives, and assistance to women often receives low priority in
the allocation of funds, because of under-estimation of the impor-
tance of their role. Funding to improve government outreach to
women farmers therefore may be expected to increase the effective-
ness of government agricultural support programs.

4. Should A.I.D. emphasize support to women farmers if the host
government is unreceptive?

This decision depends on two factors: (1) the priority assigned to
gender concerns in the mission's total development strategy; and (2)
the effect on achievement of the program's goals if gender concerns
are not addressed effectively. It may be more productive to
emphasize the negative impact on production and rural incomes of
failing to extend program benefits to women, than to emphasize
equity concerns or WID issues.








fertilizer. The result is frequently that larger farmers, those belonging to
government-organized groups, and those growing priority crops (e.g., export
crops) have better access to subsidized inputs, even if official policy calls for
all farmers to benefit. Women farmers generally do not fall into these groups,
and therefore are less likely to benefit from fertilizer subsidies.

As these examples illustrate, gender-based differences in policy impacts --
and in the impact of reforms -- derive from fundamental gender-based
differences in roles and resources within the agricultural sector, not from rent
discrimination. Although decision makers may be unaware of these differences,
they can greatly influence the outcome of reforms. Consideration of such
differences is therefore important in the design and monitoring of policy
reform programs.



2.7.3 Budget Support

Women farmers and small entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector have
traditionally had less access than other farmers to government services. This
situation is due to a combination of factors:

1. The low priority assigned to women farmers by many host
governments .-

2. The difficulty of reaching women farmers, who are often
illiterate, may not speak the official language, and are
less likely to belong to formal groups such as govern-
ment-sponsored cooperatives

3. Government emphasis on cash and export crops less likely
to be grown by women

4. Limited information on effective measures (e.g., the design
of credit programs) to reach women

5. Poor understanding of the role of women in agricultural
decision making and in the rural household (leading to an
assumption that it is sufficient to reach male heads of
household)








The low priority placed on women's agricultural activities coupled with
budget limitations on agricultural activities have often reduced the resources
allocated to reaching women to a level well below that consistent with their
importance in agricultural production (particularly food production) and
resource management. In other words, many situations exist where a realloca-
tion of resources to increase extension and other support to women farmers
would increase the total effectiveness of such programs, even where women
may be more costly to reach per person.

Targeting increased expenditures to women farmers and traders should
therefore be considered as a potential component of A.I.D. budget support
programs. Targeting may take the form of increased funding for specific
women-oriented units in the appropriate ministry (e.g., Agriculture), allocation
of part of the funds to units in other ministries (e.g., Social Services) that
provide services to women farmers, or inclusion of increased funding for
women-oriented activities in the list of activities to be supported (and
monitored) under the program.



2.7.4 Other Programs

Particularly in large-scale assistance programs, non-project assistance may
also be chosen as the mode of implementation for other types of assistance,
such as participant training. In such cases, attention to gender differences is
appropriate, following the same criteria as outlined below for similar activities.

The design of a participant training program, for example, should examine
measures to increase the participation of women. These may include measures
such as the following:

Working with host government officials to identify women with
suitable backgrounds for long-term overseas training
Expanding the program to include non-degree or bachelor's
degree training to permit more women to participate, par-
ticularly where social restrictions limit long-term travel by






30

women or where the number of women with appropriate
undergraduate degrees is limited

Financing in-country degree or non-degree training to facilitate
participation by women
Identifying women in the private sector (e.g., private traders)
who may be able to benefit from training in agricultural or
business skills, particularly if there are insufficient suitable
candidates in government positions






SECTION 3


Integration of Gender Issues into the Design of Agricultural Projects



3.1 Agricultural Project Design Issues

All A.I.D. projects share a common set of goals, which are usually stated
as improving the social and economic well-being of small farm households by
increasing production, raising incomes, reducing malnutrition, conserving
natural resources, and improving the quality of life. Each project also has its
immediate goals, e.g., introduction of a new crop variety, improved livestock
production, reforestation. Gender analysis can be used to provide insight into
the ways of achieving both short- and long-term goals. It goes without
saying that the baseline situation needs to be understood before a project can
be designed. Every project operates within a specific geographic, economic,
cultural, and social environment as well as in a broader political one. Gender
roles and responsibilities vary widely between and within countries but they
can be or already are documented.

As discussed in Section 1, the importance of gender in agricultural
production goes beyond the equity issue. It is an economic issue. Throughout
the world, women's work and contribution to the economy has been under-
estimated. Dixon's survey (13) of 82 developing countries indicated that
women represent 46 percent of the agricultural labor force in sub-Saharan
Africa, 45 percent in Asia, 40 percent in the Caribbean, and 31 percent in
North Africa and the Near East. It is important to understand not only who
is doing the work but who is making the decisions about cropping patterns,
seed selection, use of purchased inputs and family labor, and crop disposal.(10)
It is also important to know who is implementing the decisions, with what
resources and at what level of skills. Five patterns of gender responsibilities
can be observed: separate crops, separate fields, separate tasks, shared tasks,
and women-managed farms (see Figure 6).








FIGURE 6.
PATTERNS OF GENDER RESPONSIBILITIES


1. Separate crops. Men and women are responsible for
production and disposal of different crops. Women are
often responsible for the livestock, vegetables, and tree
crops near their dwellings.

2. Separate fields. Women and men produce the same crops,
but in different fields. This pattern is common in West
Africa, where private fields are part of a larger system in
which both men and women also contribute their labor to
communal fields. In such cases, there may be three
interlocking systems: fields worked by each wife, fields
worked by the husband, and fields worked by the extended
family.

3. Separate tasks. In this pattern, some or all of the tasks
within a cropping cycle are assigned by gender. For
example, rice transplanting is often carried out by women,
plowing by men.

4. Shared tasks. In this pattern, which overlaps other
patterns, men and women undertake the same tasks on the
same crops. In some systems, most tasks are shared; in
others, only labor-intensive tasks, such as weeding and
harvesting, are shared.

5. Women-managed farms. There are two types of women-
managed farms, de facto and de jure. In de facto
systems, men work away from the farm for days, months,
or even years, leaving the women to manage the farm.
De jure women-managed farms are those in which the
women may be widowed, divorced, abandoned, or never
married. De jure systems appear to be increasing
worldwide. They tend to be among the poorest farming
households, yet many people depend on them for survival.








Most farms display mixed patterns of responsibility and control, combining
production cycles in which one gender is primarily responsible with those in
which responsibility is shared or interlaced. In these systems, resources such
as land and animals may be pooled or not, and the income streams resulting
from the use of these resources also may be pooled or not. Household
decision-making patterns are complex, subtle, and not well understood. They
differ from system to system, and differences arise to a large degree from the
gender patterns of resource control, as well as the division of labor.
Knowledge of local gender patterns of resource control, management respon-
sibility, and labor is crucial because they have important effects on project
implementation and the attainment of project goals.(10) The main issues to be
considered during the design stage are presented in Figures 7 and 8.



3.2 Gender Analysis in the Project Paper

In general, project design and analysis are concurrent activities. Analysis
tests the feasibility and effectiveness of the design, possibly leading to
modifications, which are then re-analyzed. Gender analysis should be an
integral part of all aspects of the project paper, as shown in Figure 9. The
incorporation of gender into the social soundness analysis, the technical
analysis, and the economic analysis is discussed below.



3.2.1 The Social Soundness Analysis

As discussed in detail in A.I.D. Handbook 3, the Social Soundness Analysis
is used to shape the design, to strengthen and provide information to other
analyses, and to confirm the socio-cultural feasibility of the overall activity.
Six aspects are normally addressed as part of the social soundness analysis,
and gender can play a very important role in all six areas:

Socio-cultural context: The socio-cultural context of the
project areas should be examined in relation to the wider
social, economic, and political environment.








FIGURE 7.
WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE DESIGN TEAM SCOPE OF WORK
TO ADDRESS GENDER ISSUES?


Basic Design Issues for All Projects

Project Background and Problem Statement: Analyze the extent to which gender
differences and the role of women in the agricultural sector affect the basic problem
(e.g., inadequate transmission of technologies to farmers).

Project Strategy and Feasibility Analyses: Identify the extent to which effective
incorporation of gender concerns (e.g., reaching both men and women farmers with new
technologies) will be necessary for project success. What is the impact on the project of
failing to incorporate such concerns effectively?

Choice of Host Country Institutions: Determine the effectiveness of the primary
implementing institutions (e.g., the extension service) in addressing gender concerns and
identify measures needed to improve their performance in this area.

Project Budget and Financial and Implementation Plans: Include the cost of measures
necessary to reach women farmers or otherwise address gender concerns effectively.
Describe measures to ensure that gender concerns are adequately addressed in the
selection of the technical assistance team, participant training programs, and project
activities.

Design Issues for Sector-Level Projects

Project Background and Problem Statement: Describe the extent to which sectoral
institutions are currently addressing gender concerns (e.g., in collection of data on the
agricultural sector) and determine the impact of their performance in this area on overall
effectiveness.

Project Activities (Outputs): Identify activities necessary to improve institutional
performance in addressing gender concerns (e.g., gender disaggregation of farm manage-
ment data) and include such activities in project input planning.

Design Issues for Field-Level Projects

Project Background and Problem Statement: Determine the role of women in agricultural
activities in the project area relevant to the project's focus (e.g., women's role in
poultry management if this is a poultry project); analyze gender differences in con-
straints, problems, and resources at the farm level (e.g., differences in credit access,
technologies used, and economic strategies).

Project Activities (Outputs and Inputs): Identify measures necessary to reach women
effectively and include such activities in project input planning; if sufficient information
to design such measures is not available during design, specify additional data needed,
how it will be gathered during project implementation, and how findings will be
incorporated.









FIGURE 8.
INCORPORATING GENDER CONCERNS INTO PROJECT DESIGN:
ISSUES AND ANSWERS


1. Is it necessary to have a women-in-development specialist on the team?

No, not if gender concerns are adequately covered in the design team's scope of
work. A WID specialist may be necessary on design teams for projects with a
heavy field orientation, where information on women's roles in the project area is
scarce, in order to ensure that team resources and expertise are sufficient to
collect information, analyze constraints and opportunities, and identify appropriate
design actions despite data limitations.


2. Should responsibility for addressing gender concerns be given to the design
team member responsible for the social soundness analysis?

No, responsibility for addressing gender concerns should usually be assigned to the
team leader. Discussion of gender issues in the social soundness analysis rarely
constitutes an adequate approach to addressing gender concerns. These should be
reflected in the design of the project's activities, in the implementation plan, and
where necessary, in the budget.


3. What if the host government counterpart institution is indifferent or even
hostile to gender issues?

The primary reason for incorporating gender concerns into A.I.D. projects is to
increase project effectiveness. Host government participation in the project design
team and project negotiations should be used as opportunities to help decision
makers understand the-need to address gender concerns (e.g., reaching women as
well as men farmers with improved technologies) in order to achieve the project's
purpose.

4. Is it necessary to have a "WID component" to address gender issues
effectively?

No, on the contrary, experience indicates that integrating efforts to reach women
farmers and entrepreneurs into the project's central activities is generally more
effective than a separate effort directed at women.








Beneficiaries: The direct and indirect beneficiaries of project
activities must be identified. The method by which men's and
women's needs for planned activities have been determined and
how project activities will lead to benefits must be discussed.
A description of the characteristics of the participants
(including education, land ownership, surplus labor) necessary
to benefit from a proposed project activity must be elaborated.
Intra-household benefit distribution must be addressed, as well
as whether any particular category of participants is likely to
be affected adversely.
Participation: The extent to which beneficiary participation
has been achieved during project development must be assessed,
as well as the opportunities for, and means by which,
beneficiary participation has been built into project implemen-
tation and evaluation plans. An assessment of ways for
structuring incentives and thus ensuring motivation among
local men and women should be included.
Socio-cultural feasibility: The obstacles that may arise from
intra-family, local, and national level socioeconomic forces that
influence decision-making processes of participants and
beneficiaries should be reviewed.
Impact: Project impact should be addressed from several
perspectives, including the probability that there will be an
equitable distribution of benefits among all affected groups,
including women.
Issues: Social issues that have a particular bearing on the
success of the project should be addressed. This may result
in the identification of other. types of information to be
gathered during initial implementation phases; a review of
project monitoring and feedback systems in view of their
capacity to identify problems of a socio-cultural nature;
consideration of intra-family or local decision making, and
resource distribution mechanisms.

The Social Soundness Analysis should therefore provide answers to
questions such as:

What are the gender roles in the society?

How do they intersect with project goals and activities?

What are the target groups, given the division of labor
and gender roles?








FIGURE 9.
ADDRESSING GENDER ISSUES IN THE PROJECT PAPER


Project Paper Section

Introduction and Problem
Statement





Project Strategy and
Rationale


Project Description







Project Implementation
Plan










Project Analyses


Treatment of Gender Concerns

Briefly identifies role of women in agricultural,
livestock, and resource management activities to
be addressed by the project and relates their
role to the problem that the project will tackle
(e.g., role of women in grain storage in a
project to reduce post-harvest losses).

Discusses how incorporating women in project
activities will assist in solving the problems
identified.

Describes how project activities will involve
women farmers and traders, relates their
involvement to achievement of the project's
purpose, and describes how project inputs have
been adjusted to ensure women's participation
(e.g., inclusion of gender expertise on the
technical assistance team).

Financial Plan explicitly identifies costs
associated with reaching women (e.g., special
training programs for women, additional
technical assistance).
Implementation Plan includes benchmarks for
developing and implementing activities to reach
women, as appropriate, and discusses respon-
sibilities for addressing gender issues (A.I.D.,
host government, and contractor).
Evaluation Plan describes how project data
collection and evaluation activities will generate
and make use of gender-disaggregated data.

Technical Analysis discusses applicability of
project approach and project-supported
technologies to women's activities in the
agricultural sector.
Economic Analysis identifies costs and benefits
to women and Sensitivity Analysis reviews
impact on project returns of failing to
incorporate women in project activities.
Social Soundness Analysis discusses social
constraints on involving women and how they
are addressed in the project design.
Institutional Analysis describes capabilities of
implementing institutions to reach women in
their target groups, and discusses measures to
enhance this capability.









How will the target groups be reached by existing
institutions?
Is the proposed technology appropriate to the needs and
resources of the target groups?
How can delivery systems and technical packages be
adapted for gender differences?



3.2.2 The Technical Analysis

The technical analysis, meant to examine the technical feasibility of a
project, depends on the nature of the project. It often overlaps with the
economic analysis and social analysis. Although it may be argued that
"technical" is a gender-neutral term, it is unlikely that there is any technical
aspect of a project that does not affect people. For example, if construction
of physical facilities is the only project element, the question to be asked is
"Who will be using these facilities?" If it is a school, is it coed, for boys, for
girls, for adult education? A school that does not provide separate facilities
for girls and women will automatically exclude them in many cultures. If the
technical package includes the provision of seeds, what are the eligibility
requirements for receiving seeds? Technical problems do not have other
solutions besides purely technical _ones. Gender analysis of the technical
aspects will indicate potential problem areas. A list of gender issues to be
addressed in the technical analysis section is presented in Figure 10.



3.2.3 The Economic Analysis

The economic analysis determines whether a project is a worthwhile
investment for the country and usually compares real benefits with real costs.
A.I.D. does not have a specific methodology for economic analyses since the
application of even standard methodologies varies in different sectors and
projects. Regardless of the methodology chosen to conduct the economic
analyses, the information gathered (e.g., wages, income distribution) should be
disaggregated by gender and the effects of the proposed project on women







FIGURE 10.
GENDER ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED IN THE
PROJECT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS


Issues Related to Technical Feasibility and Appropriateness of Overall Approach

1. What barriers to reaching or including women in project activities are
present in the project's technical environment (for example, higher
illiteracy or lower education among women farmers)?

2. What technical measures are incorporated in the project design to
overcome these barriers and what is their expected effectiveness?

3. What will be the impact on project success if women do not participate
in project activities?

4. Will the technical assistance team include gender expertise?

5. Will women have access to proiect-funded facilities, e.g., has the proposed
design and location of training facilities been adjusted to make them
consistent with local norms for women's participation?

Issues Related to Productive Technologies to be Disseminated or Developed

1. Does sufficient information exist regarding women's participation in the
agricultural sector to determine how project-supported technologies are
likely to affect women? If not, how does the project design ensure that
this information will be made available during implementation in order to
ensure that the project is technically relevant to women as well as men
in the agricultural sector?

2. Do project-supported technologies favor high-resource or low-resource
farmers (including women)?

3. Are the technologies applicable to women's productive activities (e.g., for
a seed multiplication project, will seeds for women's crops be produced)?

4. Does the technology increase demand for women's labor or displace
women from existing sources of income? If the technologies will require
a change in labor patterns, what measures are included in the project to
ensure that women are adequately compensated and are able to make the
change in their labor patterns required to adjust to project-supported
technologies?

5. Does the technology require inputs and/or expertise that women farmers
do not have? If so, how will the project ensure that women farmers gain
access to inputs and expertise needed to apply project-supported
technologies?

6. How will women be informed about project-supported technologies and
what measures are included in the project to ensure that this process is
effective?







should be considered. Gender issues to be addressed in the economic analysis
section of the Project Paper are summarized in Figure 11.



3.3 Incorporating Gender Concerns
into Individual Project Components

Nearly all of the agricultural projects financed by A.I.D. can be categori-
zed into two groups, based on whether or not they involve direct contact with
farmers on a regular basis:

Those that operate primarily at the sectoral level, such as
policy analysis and data collection projects and most
institution-building projects
Those that operate primarily at the field level, such as farming
systems research projects or extension projects

Although it is difficult to develop a comprehensive but manageable list of all
the components that may be included in an agricultural project, an attempt in
this direction is included in Figure 12. Both approaches may be combined in a
single project, such as a research institution-building project that combines
field-level research with staff training and other components directed at the
research institution. This distinction is useful in considering how to integrate
gender concerns into agricultural projects because very different approaches
are required depending on whether direct farmer contact will or will-not be a
major feature of project activities.

Another important distinction to be made is that women and men do not
have equal access to or control over resources in most of the world, either
legally or culturally. Having an awareness of the losses that occur because of
women's unequal access to resources and the consequences for women's
participation in economic activity should lead to more effective project designs.
The access and control factors such as land, labor, capital, credit, and
education are used in conjunction with the main types of A.I.D. agricultural
projects to guide this presentation of agricultural project design issues.








FIGURE 11.
GENDER ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED IN THE PROJECT
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS



1. Benefits to Women Participants in the Project: What benefits will the
project provide to women farmers, entrepreneurs, and others who
participate in the project? Can these benefits be quantified? How
significant are these benefits relative to other current sources of income
(e.g., percentage increase in total income, or farm income, expected from
participation in project activities)?

2. Economic Feasibility of Participating in the Project: Will participation in
the project require economic resources, such as land or capital, that
women do not have? If so, how has the project design been adjusted to
ensure that women are able to participate? Will participation in project
activities be economically attractive to women, compared to alternative
uses of their time and financial resources? Will participation be as
attractive for women farmers (entrepreneurs, etc.) as for men in these
same groups? Is participation in project activities riskier or costlier for
women than for men and, if so, how has the project design been adjusted
to balance this difference?

3. Other Impacts on Women in the Agricultural Sector: Will the project
create new economic opportunities for women? Will it displace women
from functions they currently perform? Will the project increase women's
productivity in the agricultural sector? Will the project increase the
earnings of women in the agricultural sector? Will the project increase
the demand for women's labor and, if so, does it appear that women will
receive appropriate compensation for their additional inputs? Will the
project increase the earning potential or profitability of those who
compete with women (e.g., .large-scale male and corporate poultry
producers versus small-scale women producers) in ways that reduce the
competitiveness of women-managed activities?

4. Impact on Net Project Benefits of Women's Participation in the Project:
How would project benefits and economic return be affected if women did
not participate as expected, either directly as decision-makers or as
members of participating families (e.g., how would project benefits be
reduced if women do not provide increased labor for family production)?
What additional costs (e.g., additional staff) are associated with reaching
women and what is the expected return on these costs?

5. Distribution of Project Benefits: Will women in the agricultural sector
participate in the project in proportion to their participation in the
economic activities and subsectors targeted by the project (e.g., poultry
production, credit use)? Will benefits to women participants average
more or less than benefits to men participants? How does the mechanism
for providing benefits to women differ from that for men (e.g., will
women benefit primarily as wage earners in processing plants while men
benefit as producers of the goods processed)? What proportion of total
project benefits are expected to accrue to women?









FIGURE 12.
MAIN TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS



Sectoral Projects

* Policy analysis and reform
Data collection and
planning
* Agricultural education


AND PROJECT COMPONENTS



Field-Level Projects

Research
Extension
Infrastructure
Irrigation
Credit
Other services (e.g.,
market information)
x Input supply systems
(e.g., seed, trees)
Marketing
Storage and processing
Land reform and tenure
Resource management and
conservation
Farmer organization


Activities Common to Both Tvoes


* Technical assistance
* In-country training
* Long-term training
* Management development
* Improvement of physical facilities










The remainder of this section presents design issues and possible solutions
with reference to each of these project components. Neither the issues nor
the solutions shown are comprehensive; rather they represent a point of
departure for those designing projects with these (and other) components. The
specific questions to be asked during the design and the answers identified
must be tailored to each project's situation.

Incorporation of the solutions identified may or may not require a
reallocation of the project's budget for effective implementation.. In the
majority of cases, however, a serious effort to incorporate women into
agricultural projects will have implications for the project budget. Where
additional expenditures are required (inclusion of social scientists on the
technical assistance team, outreach to women's organizations, organization of
additional field days for women farmers), these expenditures should be allowed
for in the project budget.



3.4 Sectoral Projects

Figures 13 through 15 present issues and solutions that may be en-
countered during the design of sectoral projects in the areas of policy analysis
and reform; data collection and planning; and agricultural education.



3.5 Access and Control Factors and the
Implications for Field Level Projects



3.5.1 Land

Women's access to land varies widely throughout the world, yet land is a
crucial component in agricultural production for both men and women.
Ownership, use of the land (usufruct), and control are determined by tradition
or by law, or some combination of the two. The control of and access to land










FIGURE 13.
DESIGNING POLICY ANALYSIS AND REFORM COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

- Women farmers often differ from men in their roles and resources within
the agricultural sector: what they grow, how they grow it, and what use
they make of the crop. Will the analysis of current policies and
alternative reforms examine potential differences in policy impact by
gender?

- Are women farmers more or less likely to grow and market crops targeted
for government assistance?

,- Are women farmers more or less likely to grow and market crops that are
taxed by the government?

.- Are women farmers more or less likely to participate in programs such as
government-subsidized credit, provision of inputs, etc.?

> Will the analysis of alternative reforms examine and disaggregate effects
on different groups within society, including women-headed households, or
will it focus only at the macro-economic level?

- Will the analysis examine indirect impacts of possible reforms on such
factors relevant to women as demand for and return to family labor,
profitability of traditional crops (especially food crops), relative return to
livestock and crop-growing activities, small-scale marketing, etc.?

Does sufficient information on womenfs participation in the agricultural
sector exist to examine this issue in policy analyses?


Solutions

S Design analytic activities to examine disaggregated impacts as well as
aggregate impacts.

S Include analysis of women's role in the agricultural sector in the
proposed analytic agenda if existing data are inadequate.








FIGURE 14.
DESIGNING DATA COLLECTION AND PLANNING COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

>- Is data collection at the farm household level currently disaggregated by
gender to distinguish women-headed from men-headed farm households?

Given the local social structure, does the proposed definition of the "farm
household" as the unit of analysis reflect women's roles as producers and
managers or is a smaller unit of analysis appropriate?

Does farm-level data collection currently disaggregate between men's and
women's agricultural activities within the household, in terms of their
farm size, crop mix, input use, sales behavior, etc.?

- Can male enumerators collect data from women farmers or must informa-
tion collected directly from women farmers be collected by women or
through intermediaries?

- Will the project include improved understanding of the contribution of
women to the agricultural sector among the sectoral issues to receive
project assistance?

- Will data collection and planning include activities traditionally managed
by women in this society (e.g., poultry, vegetable production, local
marketing)?

- Will participation by women in project activities (e.g., identification of
employees for training) be monitored?


Solutions

* Train women enumerators as well as male enumerators.

* Disaggregate household-level farm management data by gender.

* Collect data directly from women farmers as well as men.

* Include women's as well as men's activities in data collection.

* Design the analysis and planning of activities to highlight women's
participation in the agricultural sector to improve decision-maker
understanding of gender issues.









FIGURE 15.
DESIGNING AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS

Issues

>- What percentage of the current student population is female?

- What percentage of the population from which students are drawn (e.g.,
graduates of secondary technical schools) are women?

> Does training cover traditional, low-resource technologies used by women
farmers (and low-income men farmers) or does it assume a high-input
orientation?

> Do formal entry requirements make it difficult for women to qualify (e.g.,
literacy, knowledge of official language, requirement to own land)?

> Are future extension agents and other field-level personnel receive
training in post-harvest operations, such as on-farm storage, traditionally
handled by women?

> Will a special effort be made to identify and encourage women applicants?

> Are requirements (e.g., secondary school degree) that may inhibit women's
participation really required for adequate job performance?

> Where qualified women applicants are lacking, can special programs be
designed to provide training to women to make them qualified?

Solutions

* Monitor women's participation in training and, where it is inadequate,
identify and remove limiting factors.

Eliminate entry requirements that are not job-relevant.

Add part-time or other non-degree training for women candidates who
cannot meet formal requirements.

Include low-resource technologies, traditional crops, and livestock in the
curriculum.

Include on-farm post-harvest management in the curriculum.








within a country, culture, ethnic group, village, and household are variables
that must be known in order to understand women's roles in agriculture, their
incentives for production and modernization, and their ability to produce and
modernize. Agricultural projects planned without an understanding of the land
tenure system frequently overlook, ignore, or discourage women's participation.

Land tenure systems vary by region. The first design point is how land
is acquired for use (inherited, jointly held by a group or village, held by the
state) and what the status of women is in the acquisition process. Is land
passed from mother to daughter or from father to son? Do men only have
usufruct rights, or can women own or purchase land themselves? If only men
have access rights, how do women get access and can they retain control of
those fields once they start using them? Women often lose out when land
tenure systems change from usufruct to state-controlled, because in most
countries men have been the recipients of land rights. This also occurs in
resettlement schemes, that tend to favor men over women as the "primary"
farmers and recipients of aid. The assumptions appear to be that heads of
households are always men, and that they will organize family members
equitably.

The effects of privatization of land and commercialization of agriculture
are important because they tend to decrease women's access to land. Land
adjudication in Kenya, for example, ignored female farmers, their traditional
usufruct and managerial rights, and their rights to the sale of produce.(432)
In Kenya and in many other countries, having title to land is essential to gain
access to agricultural services, credit, loans, and technical assistance, and to
join producer cooperatives. When women's access to services is cut off or
restricted, their productivity and efficiency as farmers declines, as does their
incentive. If women and men traditionally farm separate fields and have
separate crops, giving access only to men reduces women's productivity.











Switching from subsistence crops to cash crops (commercialization of
agriculture) can also cause women to lose access to land. As land goes into
production for cash crops, women may be forced to farm more marginal land
or may not be able to farm at all. For example, in the traditional swamp rice
production systems of West Africa, women produced rice for home consumption,
selling any surplus for cash to meet family food and other needs. As project
after project introduced irrigation, double cropping, and new rice varieties to
men, women lost control and access to the productive swamplands. Women
now have to produce their families' food crops on more marginal, less
productive land and are expected to assist their husbands with the new cash
crop.


Land Ownership and Food Production


Henn (24) compared the productivity of Tanzanian Haya women who were
landowners with other Haya women who farmed but did not own their land.
Landowners displayed impressive entrepreneurial and agricultural skills, had a
higher standard of living, grew and earned income from cash crops, and hired
male laborers. Women farmers who did not own land did not follow this
pattern. The ability of women farmers to produce and earn income if given
the necessary access to land is well documented. As Henn argues, "the
improvement and expansion of the traditional women's food sector is likely to
be both the cheapest and most reliable method of increasing domestic food
supply."









Case Study 1: Incorporation of Women and Gender Analysis in a Rice-Based
Farming Systems Project in The Philippines

The IRRI-sponsored Asian Rice Farming Systems Network (ARFSN)
operates a project to improve existing farming systems by integrating suitable
crop and animal production technologies. The project is developing ways of
increasing the utilization of crop by-products and residues for animal feed
through crop-livestock research. The Women in Rice Farming Systems (WIRFS)
effort aims to institutionalize women's concerns within the research and
extension agencies dealing with rice farming systems. WIRFS used a stepwise
approach to integrate women and gender issues into the crop-livestock project.

WIRFS representatives began by being observers in a project site
workshop. This allowed them to learn about the goals and nature of the
project without being responsible for any actions initially. They discovered
that despite a multidisciplinary project team, no social scientists participated,
and existing socioeconomic profiles for the area did not include information on
the participation of women. WIRFS initiated several diagnostic surveys to
identify farming practices and decision making by gender, complemented by a
three-day visit after the surveys to observe activities first-hand.

WIRFS found a gender division of labor in rice production; women are
responsible for pulling seedlings but not for transplanting, as is true in other
provinces. Women sell products and by-products. For mungbeans, cowpeas,
and vegetables, women harvest, thresh, and make marketing decisions. Men
are responsible for large animals (cattle, carabao) but women help with
feeding, gathering forage, cleaning shelters and animals, herding, and collecting
and disposing wastes. Swine and poultry are women's responsibilities. Women
process glutinous rice, a major income-generating activity that consumes much
fuel and labor. Available agricultural training is gender-specific with courses
on farming for men and on nutrition and food preservation for women. No
training existed for vegetable, production, swine or poultry production, or rice
processing. Women do not have access to formal credit since they are not
formally organized and do not have collateral such as land titles.

WIRFS provided this information to the ARFSN team and was asked to
participate in a workshop to design future research. As a result, several
changes occurred in the research agenda. The use of mungbean residue for
fodder in rice-mungbean cropping patterns was introduced, and women were
included in demonstrations on how to use the fodder, and how to use better
pest management techniques in mungbean production. The focus of research
shifted from large livestock only to include swine and poultry. Women were
invited to attend research meetings and a special class was held to consider
women's participation in crop and livestock activities. A female livestock
nutritionist was engaged to explain the nutritive values of different crop
residues and fodders to women. Varietal and processing research on glutinous
rice was initiated to improve production as a source of income for women.

Gradual inclusion of WIRFS team members in the project and provision of
useful analysis of farm production constraints by gender facilitated the
incorporation of women's concerns into the research and extension efforts and
led to a broader understanding of the farming systems of the area.
[Adapted from Thelma Paris (39)]








Although single and married women's access to and control of land may
be hampered by land ownership patterns, the position of divorced, separated,
or abandoned women is even worse. Women whose husbands have migrated
may also face the same constraints if all of the land is in their husbands'
names. Frequently, these women have extremely limited or no access to land
from which to feed themselves and their families, much less produce some
income. The reduction or restriction of women's access to land, and thus to
services, needlessly constrains food production.



3.5.2 Capital

In all societies, women have primary responsibility for child care and for
feeding the family. "Feeding the family" may range from preparing the meals
using purchased food to actually producing and processing the food. The
former is typical of urban women, the latter more typical for rural women.
Even when rural women grow their own food, they still need money to
purchase items such as salt or clothing or to pay school fees. Access to or
lack of cash is an important constraint on women's ability to invest in
agriculture, whether to purchase inputs, to hire labor, or to invest in labor-
saving technology. Household demands may consume all of the cash a woman
has, assuming she has any at all. Women's lack of cash or capital and the
difficulty they have in generating cash or capital seriously hinder their ability
to improve their agricultural productivity.

One development approach to assist women has been income-generating
projects. These projects focus on handicrafts, sewing, tailoring, and other
domestic activities or on small-scale agricultural production such as vegetable
gardening. The first problem usually encountered is that rural women have
very little leisure time. Second, the market for the handicrafts or vegetables
is generally very limited because of distance from urban areas, the tendency
to flood the market with the same products at the same time, and transporta-
tion problems. Third, if the new project requires inputs and does not provide
easy access to credit, then most women cannot participate. Fourth, if the
project seems profitable, men tend to step in. There is some evidence, for








example, that because of increased prices, men are producing food crops in
areas where those crops are scarce. Finally, there has been a disheartening
tendency for income-generating projects to be designed and implemented before
consulting with the presumed beneficiaries and participants, i.e., women.

Women may be culturally constrained from earning income. In parts of
Asia (e.g., India, Bangladesh) having "idle" women in the family confers a high
status. Women may be forced to hide their income-earning activities by
working only in their homes or in homes of friends or by working early in the
morning and late at night. Despite the surreptitiousness of their labor, low-
income women work as many hours for wages as men. In Latin America, rural
women are usually seen as being only housewives and not taking part in any
income-earning activities. That these activities may be hidden from both the
husbands and the interviewers does not mean they do not occur. Women are
often able to produce surplus of some sort from their kitchen gardens, or from
gathering wild foods, or eggs from chickens, giving them the proverbial "egg
money."


Agricultural wage labor is another way for women to earn income.
Constraints that may prevent women from participating in this type of activity
are child care and other domestic responsibilities. Solutions to this problem
include providing child care, allowing children to accompany their mothers to
work, having flexible hours so women can work part-time, and paying by the
task, piece, or kilo, again, so women can work part of the day.


In many instances, especially in Asia, women laborers are hired for the
lowest paying jobs, on a temporary basis, or with few benefits and amenities
such as food, breaks, or even sanitary facilities. Women have less occupational
mobility than men (witness the high rates of male out-migration) and may not
be able to switch from low-skill rural to higher skill, higher pay urban or
semi-urban positions; thus, women are forced to accept the less than ideal
wage labor situations.







FIGURE 16.
DESIGNING LAND REFORM AND TENURE COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

> How do women gain access to land under current, informal tenure systems
(e.g., through their husbands, their families, or directly)?

> Do current tenure laws allow women to hold title in their own names?

> How do widowhood or divorce affect women's access to land under the
current and proposed systems?

> Will the proposed tenure reform or titling result in land title being
assigned only to male heads of households?

> Do women need the permission of male relatives to sell or rent land?

>- Will land registration fees be low enough so that women are able to
register land for title?

> Does a minimum size limit exist for formal titling that limits women's
participation in the system?

> Will the adjudication process make it easy for women to participate when
ownership is disputed?

> Will formalization of title reduce access to land by low-resource women
farmers (as has happened in some cases) and, if there is a danger of this
happening, how can it be avoided?

Will an explicit effort be made to inform women farmers as well as men
of the new procedures?

Solutions

Undertake a thorough analysis of traditional land tenure and land access
systems before making changes in the formal system and consider how the
two systems will interact after the reform.

Monitor impact of land reform and tenure reform on women's access to
land and provide for redesign and adjustment during implementation.

Revise tenure laws to give greater security to women, regardless of
marital status.

Provide titles to both men and women, not just heads of household.

Eliminate minimum size restrictions for formal titling.

Lower fees and simplify procedures for formal titling.






53


Agriculture is the major provider of employment and income in developing
countries. In Asia, agricultural growth has come from technical progress and
intensification. In Africa, growth has come mainly from extension of the area
under cultivation. Despite the differences in structural growth, overall
employment in agriculture has not grown significantly in either continent.(32)

The nature of many African cultures discourages women's migration for
labor. Women must be able to mobilize factors of production in agriculture
and to have access to agricultural technologies. Although African women
generally have the right to income from their own production, their control of
this income is constrained by their responsibilities to feed the household.

In Latin America, by contrast, women do migrate to the urban areas for
wage labor, especially in the service sector. Although their income may be
low, it is much more under their control. Studies show that few wives
surrender control of all earned income to husbands.(4) For example, in the
ALCOSA project (see Case Study 2), a fourth category of women were those
who were employed by the agribusiness firm in the processing plant. These
women worked such long shifts (12-16 hours per day for six-day weeks, eight
to nine months per year) at the minimum wage that they earned 150-300
percent of the average female wage. They wanted to continue to work
indefinitely, regardless of any husband or children acquired. They retained
control of their income. Not a single woman reported giving all of it to her
husband. Women reported that their earnings brought enhanced independence,
self-esteem, and decision-making power.(4)

Women devote a higher proportion of their earnings to household needs
wherever they have the structural obligation to act as food providers or are
placed in the situation of being the providers of last resort. Their spending
of income is contingent on their control of income. Control of income is
associated with greater decision-making power.(4)

The lessons from these studies provide impetus to project designers to
consider both men and women in their income-generating plans. Who works?








What is the gender division of labor and time? Who benefits? What is the
gender division of resources and returns? This information needs to be
gathered about men and women, and used with the other factors discussed in
this section.



3.5.3 Labor

Women work longer hours than men in developing countries, low-income
women work longer hours than better-off women, and rural women work longer
hours than urban women (see Figure 17). Not only do low-income rural women
work unusually long hours, but they also face competing demands for agricul-
tural activities and domestic/household activities. In Figure 17, if processing
of food were added to the hours spent in agricultural production as is
sometimes done, the hours spent would be much higher. Hours spent on food
processing alone in these studies ranged from 2.1 to 4.4.(33) Age does not
reduce women's working hours relative to men's either. Girls as young as
seven worked 5.3 hours compared with 0.7 hours for boys in a study in Burkina
Faso.(37) The same study examined the amount of time spent by women and
men on rural activities (see Figure 18). Women had only 1.3 hours of free
time in the first 14 waking hours. The project (UNESCO/UNDP Project for
Equal Access of Women and Girls to Education) therefore emphasized the
introduction of technologies to lighten the food-processing and portage tasks.

Gender-linked labor constraints include male migration, intensification of
women's workload, women's domestic responsibilities, and conflicts between
project activities and women's role in farming.

Male out-migration from rural areas results in de facto women-headed
households, which now form on average 20-25 percent of all rural households
except in strongly Islamic societies. In some countries, such as Lesotho, the
number of female-headed households may be as high as 70 percent. Shortage
of male labor for land preparation can cause serious bottlenecks for produc-
tion, such as delays in planting and lower yields. Women may have access to
other men's labor, animal draft power, or the labor of other women if they






FIGURE 17. RURAL WOMEN'S WORK TIMEa


Agricultural Total Agricultural production
production" work as percentage of total
Country (hrs/day) (hrs/day) (work time)

Tanzania 2.3 11.0 21
Burkina Faso 3.0 9.8 31
Burkina Fasoc 4.5 9.0 50
Central African
Republic 3.3 13.3 25
Zambia 10.0 15.0 67
Kenya 3.7 8.6 43
Tanzania 5.0 9.8 51
Senegal 3.5 8.7 40

Philippines 2.0 10.3 19
Philippinesc 1.9 9.0 21
Philippinesc 4.4 13.3 33
Malaysia 1.8 11.8 15
Indonesia 1.6 12.3 13
Nepal 3.8 11.5 33
Nepalc 6.8 12.1 56
Nepalc 3.3 10.4 32
Bangladesh 4.7 11.7 40
Pakistan 5.5 7.6 24

Perud 1.8 7.6 24

a. Compiled from three tables containing studies on rural women's work
time, Leslie (21).
b. Not food processing.
c. Represents different studies.
d. Dualistic agriculture in Latin America and cultural definitions of
"housewife" make it difficult to gather data on women's tasks.








can arrange payment in cash, in kind, or through exchange. If women do not
have access to other labor, they will have difficulty participating in any
project that requires more labor from them.

The intensification of women's workloads occurs not only because of male
migration but often because new technologies increase women's labor while
decreasing men's. The increase in women's labor in weeding because of the
introduction of animal traction has already been mentioned. When agriculture
is commercialized, men may mobilize women's labor for cash cropping but
women still have the responsibility for subsistence crop production. In Latin
America, women may spend more hours in food preparation for hired labor as
cash cropping increases. In contrast, African women will decrease their time
spent in food processing and preparation during busy seasons.(33) There are
many instances of the introduction of a new grain or pulse crop that required
women to spend much more time on processing; they ultimately rejected the
crop. Women will not accept intensification of their workload unless they
receive some benefit from the intensification, i.e., control of the income or
product.

Worldwide, women assume primary responsibility for child care and
housework. These responsibilities prevent them from participating fully in
agricultural production. In the Mahaweli Ganga Irrigation Project (Sri Lanka),
lack of extended family networks for child care hampered women's availability
for work on the irrigation allotments. Fetching water is almost always a task
allotted to women and children; it can consume a significant portion of their
waking hours, again limiting the time they can spend on agriculture. Nieves'
desk review of water supply and sanitation projects found that reducing time
spent carrying water did not increase time spent in production unless income-
earning opportunities existed or were introduced.

IFPRI case studies indicate that women's labor on crops varies greatly
and appears to be a function of the role of the crop in the household economy
as related to women's role and the gender division of crops.(29) Gender
division of labor describes the allocation of tasks and responsibilities to men
and women in a particular situation.(46) The division of labor is determined





















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Case Study 2: Increasing Women's Involvement in Agribusiness

The ALCOSA Agribusiness Employment/Investment Promotion project in
Guatemala had the goal of improving the standard of living and stimulating
the economy in rural areas by expansion of private agribusiness investments.
Villagers in the area produced labor-intensive broccoli, cauliflower, and
snowpeas on contract for the agribusiness firm. Several areas were involved,
but three of the villages can be used as cause-effect models of what happens
when women's involvement in a project ranges from low to high.

In Village 1, women neither worked in the fields nor received benefits,
and the project was floundering because of lack of labor. In Village 2, women
were pulled into two to three days per week of field work when the husbands
became contract farmers. This meant the women had to cut down on their
market vending, which eliminated their only independently controlled source of
income. Checks from the firm were made out to the husband only. Project
results were intermediate.

In Village 3, a cooperative had been formed where women worked as
partners, rather than helpers, in the fields. Either spouse could deliver
produce and get paid in cash. Women cut down on their market vending in
favor of more field work. The average farmer in Village 3 had lower costs,
higher yields, higher quality produce, and higher net income per unit of land
compared with the other villages. Other factors contributed to this success
story but the fact that women provided more labor (three to four days per
week) and received at least some direct benefits certainly appears critical.


[Blumberg (4)]








not by the physical differences between the sexes, but by the social definitions
of proper relations between men and women. There is some indication that
these divisions are becoming more flexible with agricultural intensification.

Project designers should examine the gender division of labor. Is it rigid
or flexible? Are there tasks that only women do or only men do? Will
improved technology increase women's labor requirements? A useful instrument
for answering these questions is the agricultural calendar. Use of this
calendar is described in Section 5.



3.5.4 Credit


Women's access to or lack of credit causes the same problems as their
limited access to and control of cash. Without cash or credit, women are
hard-pressed to purchase the inputs needed to improve their agricultural
production.


Formal access to credit is often a barrier women cannot cross. The
focus of lending is on larger firms, not micro enterprises, and on male-
dominated sectors, not female-dominated sectors. Women generally have
smaller enterprises and need smaller amounts of capital. A notable exception
are the women traders of West Africa who operate regionally. The minimum
size of loans is often greater than women need. Banks are often unwilling to
service smaller loans because of overhead costs. Collateral requirements (land,
houses, other assets) prevent women's applications for credit as few women
own land, houses, vehicles, or other types of acceptable collateral.

There are also hidden costs to borrowing. Few banks operate in rural
areas, so women must take time off to travel to the bank or credit outlet both
to apply for the loan and to repay the loan. Rural women who may be
illiterate and untraveled may be afraid to confront such formal institutions as
a bank or credit outlet, especially when the loan officer is male. The entire
process can be extremely daunting.








Instead, many women prefer informal credit transactions for a variety of
reasons. Called contribution clubs, savings clubs, lending groups, women's
clubs, or cooperatives, they are readily accessible to a rural woman because
they are usually in her village and are composed of people she knows. These
clubs operate differently but have similar characteristics. Women are able to
borrow small amounts and pay back the loan in small amounts, sometimes in
kind rather than cash. An example would be obtaining a loan of cash to
purchase seed or fertilizer and repaying with seed, or a loan of cash to
purchase a cow and repaying with the first calf.


When terms of lending are conducive, women will constitute a high
proportion of loan recipients. When lending terms are adverse, few women will
receive loans, regardless of efforts to target them. Thus gender analysis and
adaptation of eligibility criteria and delivery systems are the keys to increas-
ing women's participation in credit programs and to the productive activities
that those programs support.


The following features can be incorporated into project design:

Several repayment options, allowing a choice of repaying
the loan in frequent small payments or fewer larger
payments, depending on the expected income stream of the
borrower. Although flexible repayment schemes may be
costly to administer, they tend to reduce the rate of
default on loans dramatically.

Reduced collateral requirements through heavier reliance
on the repayment capacity of the borrower or by
broadening the concept of collateral to encompass security
for a loan through group lending or guarantees by
members of the borrower's community. Group lending will
also help reduce projects' unit costs of lending. When
physical collateral is required, it should not be restricted
to formal titles to land and business registrations, but
should include jewelry and other resources available to
women.
Use of information and credit distribution channels to
which women have access. Large banks, agricultural
cooperatives, and extension services have not been
successful in distributing either information about credit
or actual credit funds to the vast majority of women
who need credit. Thus, credit projects should make








information and funds available at the marketplace,
through religious groups, small savings associations, and
grassroots organizations that tend to be more aware of
and responsive to the economic roles of women.
[taken from Lycette (35)]



3.5.5 Education

Education of women and girls has been called one of the best investments
a country can make in its future growth and welfare. Developing countries
have become more willing to accept the importance of education but females
are still denied access to education by competing household and child care
responsibilities, parents' negative attitudes toward educating daughters,
shortage of schools and distance from schools, shortage of female teachers to
provide both encouragement and role models, early marriage age, and lack of
provisions to allow girls to re-enter school once they have dropped out.(2)

Education through training and agricultural extension is one of the most
used ways to introduce new technologies and information in development
programs. Training can be either formal or informal. Formal training is
either short-term, leading to a certificate or diploma, or long-term, leading to
an academic degree or equivalent. Informal training, often gained through
practical experience, may have less ceremony but not necessarily less value.

Formal long-term training in agricultural projects is usually perceived as
the post-secondary school education of host country counterparts in a formal
institution, often outside that country. The fact that the percentage of
illiterate women in the world has not changed in 30 years makes it reasonable
to assume that the number of women eligible for post-secondary education is
low. Minett (38) estimated that out of 500 girls starting primary school,
fewer than 2.4 would eventually be trained in agriculture. On the other hand,
project staff should not accept statements that no eligible women exist.
Projects must make efforts to identify and encourage women to apply for
agricultural training. Training funds should be set aside and held for women.
Formal training for the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. may not and should not be the








FIGURE 19.
DESIGNING CREDIT COMPONENTS IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS

Issues

>- To what extent do women have access to formal credit in cash and
inputs?

> To what extent do women currently make use of informal credit, and how
do services compare to those in the formal system (interest rate, waiting
time, location and other requirements)?

0- Do formal credit requirements restrict women's access by requiring, for
example, title to land, literacy, or club membership?

>- Is credit equally available for women's and men's income-generating
activities?

> Can women receive credit as individuals or only as group members?

>o Are the rules different for men (e.g., do loans to women require
husband's approval, but not the other way around?)

>0 Is credit available to small women traders; if so, under what conditions?

- Does access to credit require travel beyond the village?

> Is credit available for production for home consumption and, if not, would
such credit be feasible?

Is the husband's permission required for women to gain access to credit?

>0 Are loans made in the name of the individual or the head of household
(if different)?

>- If loans are made to multiple family members, is liability limited to loans
in one's own name?

Solutions

Design credit programs so that land collateral is not required.

Organize group lending or other semi-formal intermediation systems to
permit low-income women to participate.

Simplify credit application procedures and locate the credit service as
close to the user as possible.

Use interest rates to allocate credit, not other artificial systems such as
through crop targets.

Make loans on an individual, not household, basis.

Channel credit to women through informal as well as formal systems.


62






63


only answer. Short courses of a week to a few months are often held at
universities and international agricultural research centers. Eligibility require-
ments for these courses are usually minimal. The International Livestock
Center for Africa (ILCA), for example, will even provide specialized individual
training for national agricultural research staff if the student is proposed by a
sponsor, at no cost to the student or sponsor. These short courses may be
more informal but provide immediate, practical training for professional staff.

The type of education described above is essentially unavailable to the
average rural woman for many reasons. Instead, training more commonly takes
the form of courses held at a center, in the village, or in the field. This
training can be conducted by agricultural extension agents, donor agencies,
project staff, or trained local people.

It has been demonstrated repeatedly that men are the primary recipients
of training in new technologies. Most current agricultural training uses the
male farmer's perspective. Adult literacy classes, for example, deal with men's
farming problems and women's child-care and nutrition problems, which,
although they are important, are not enough to improve agricultural produc-
tion. In addition, the focus of training often has been on non-food cash crops
rather than food crops.

An innovative approach taken in several countries has been to train a
small number of women from several villages, and then have them provide
training to the women in their villages, either in their homes or in the field.
This is an excellent mechanism to avoid social and cultural constraints faced
by rural women farmers, while at the same time possibly encouraging these
trainers to obtain further education. It must be noted that much of this
training of trainers is done in local languages and does not necessarily require
literacy.

The problems in reaching women farmers and adapting a project's
training, extension, and delivery services have been discussed earlier. The
salient points from that discussion are that the training must be relevant to









Case Study 3: Incorporating Gender as a Variable
in Agricultural Research in Ecuador

It is often presumed in Latin America that women do not play an active
role in farm production. Through its smallholder production research program
(PIP), the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP) in
Ecuador has discovered that the reality of smallholder farming systems dictates
that gender be included among the key variables considered in the development
and dissemination of agricultural innovations. Several examples from PIP
activities illustrate how sensitivity to gender helped benefit smallholders.

In many areas, males are typically absent from the household because of
temporary or seasonal migration for wage labor. Men return on holidays that
coincide with planting times but may be absent for most of the agricultural
cycle. If research teams interview only males about farming practices, the
men will "forget" the answers to some agricultural practices because the
women are responsible for them. Good research techniques require that both
men and women be interviewed; in practice, this is difficult when research
teams are composed only of men. Women are reluctant to speak freely with
men, especially in groups, or may be discouraged by their husbands from
participating in discussions when their husbands are present. In Indian comm-
unities, women may not be able to communicate effectively in Spanish with
researchers. A PIP solution has been to hire and train female paraprofessional
interviewers who can talk to women about their work and thereby obtain
information about production, storage, and consumption practices. Male and
female multidisciplinary teams are used to obtain information about the
production system in order to design appropriate research activities.

Gender is important in the selection of farmers for on-farm trials. In
some households men are often absent; if only men participate in the
negotiations, researchers are likely to find on subsequent visits that the men
are absent, and the women may-throw them off the farm. INIAP researchers
now negotiate with both members of a couple whenever appropriate. Develop-
ment of INIAP 101 maize demonstrates the importance of input from women.
Plant breeders had been concerned about tillering and regarded multiple shoots
as a negative characteristic. However, women tending animals regarded the
shoots positively because they provided additional stover. Breeders abandoned
tillering as a problem to focus on.

INIAP used to invite only men to attend field days and to participate in
tours to observe trials. As the PIP program worked with smallholders,
technicians realized that it would be desirable to incorporate women.
However, when attending, women would separate themselves from men and
would not participate. Language was one problem. INIAP incorporated a
Quechua/Spanish speaker with a megaphone into the presentation. This
technician served as translator and broker between the community and the
researchers, facilitating both feedback and technology transfer. These
examples demonstrate the principle that changes in agricultural technology
must be directed towards the individual who will actually use and adopt the
innovation.
[Adapted from Garrett and Espinosa (22)]








FIGURE 20.
DESIGNING RESEARCH COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

O- Will on-farm trials, if any, include women as well as men cooperators?

b- What is the role of women in the production of the crops (livestock
activities, etc.) selected for research?

'- Will research consider the economic and technical feasibility of proposed
solutions for farmers with limited resources and access to inputs as well
as for high resource farmers?

- Will analysis of the impact on the demand for and return to family labor
be examined in comparing alternative technologies?

> Will women as well as men farmers be asked to evaluate proposed
technologies (e.g., improved varieties)?

> Will a special effort be made to ensure that women farmers participate in
field days and other technology dissemination activities?

- Will social scientists be represented among national researchers on the
research team?

Will social scientists be represented on the technical assistance team?


Solutions

S Include women farmers in surveys or other initial work to define the
research agenda.

S Include social scientists on the national research team and the expatriate
technical assistance team.

* Disaggregate analysis of proposed technologies to examine their feasibility
for low-resource farmers, such as women, as well as high resource
farmers.

* Include efforts to develop technologies suitable for low-resource farmers
as well as high-input technologies.

* Include women farmers in on-farm trials.

* Conduct separate field days for women with local language translation, if
necessary, or incorporate specific efforts to ensure women's participation
in general field days and other dissemination efforts.

Conduct research on traditional food crops, traditional livestock varieties,
and other agricultural activities managed by women as well as men.








FIGURE 21.
DESIGNING EXTENSION COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

*- What percentage of the current extension staff is female?

S Do local social standards make it difficult for men extension agents to
communicate directly with women farmers?

'0- Are resources provided to women extension agents (e.g., transportation
allowances, vehicles, housing) to allow them to function in the field?

0 Is the current extension program designed to encourage participation of
women farmers (location of demonstrations, timing of field.days, etc.)?

>- What percentage of the extension agents' time is spent with male as
opposed to female farmers?

S Does the extension program design primarily target heads of household?

0- What is the relative emphasis on traditional food crops, cash crops,
livestock production, etc., in the current extension program, and does this
emphasis correspond to their importance to women as well as men
farmers?

>0 In what form will the extension message be provided (written, oral, etc.)?


Solutions

* Use group-oriented extension methods to facilitate participation by-women
where one-to-one contact between men and women is not unacceptable.

" Organize separate field days and other dissemination activities for women
to encourage them to participate actively.

* Monitor the program's success in reaching women, including their
participation in extension programs and their adoption of recommenda-
tions, to identify and solve problems early.

" Include training in reaching women farmers and farm wives in training
programs for both men and women agents.
" Provide additional travel or housing resources for women agents to enable
them to function effectively in the field, despite social constraints.

* Include traditional products in the extension program in proportion to
their importance in the village economy.
* Include post-harvest management and other on-farm activities that are
women's responsibility in the extension program.






67


FIGURE 22.
DESIGNING FARMER ORGANIZATION COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues


S What is the current participation of women in farmers' organizations of
the type to be assisted by the project?

S Is membership limited to heads of household, may both male and female
farmers from the same household belong, or may single, widowed and
divorced female farmers also belong?

- Are there membership requirements (e.g., land ownership) .that may inhibit
membership by women?

> What informal organizations currently exist that might be brought into
the program, whether or not they are oriented towards agriculture (e.g.,
savings clubs), and what is the role of women in these groups?

> Will the groups' activities be focused on particular products or activities
(e.g., marketing of grain) and, if so, what are the roles of women in
these areas?

- Will the groups build on or replace women's current role in the agricul-
tural economy?

'- What special efforts or design features are needed to encourage women to
join the groups and participate actively?


Solutions

* Allow multiple memberships in a single family.

* Where women currently perform a given function (e.g., vegetable
marketing), direct organizational activities to women rather than men
farmers.
* Incorporate traditional women's groups, as well as government-sponsored
groups into the program.

" If cultural norms prevent women and men from belonging to the same
group, organize separate women's groups but ensure that participation and
benefits are equal.








the needs of women and accessible to them. A final point illustrates why
adapting to the gender of project participants is important for introducing new
technology to the poor. Emphasis on "specialist" or "contact" farmers has two
major flaws:

These farmers are generally better off and more willing to
invest in new technology, thus leading to development of
technology that is beyond the means of the rural poor.

Because these farmers are almost always male, the
education and training they receive is probably not passed
on to female farmers.



3.5.6 Products and Production

Historically, agricultural development projects have focused on cash crops
or cattle production, assuming perhaps that more cash in the system would
improve the standard of living. Women do not necessarily have access to or
control of cash crops or cattle. Their motivation to provide unpaid family
labor is closely linked to their ability to control the product's disposal and
earnings from its sale. Cash coming into the system into men's hands may not
filter through to women and households; for example, there is not necessarily
a positive connection between increases in aggregate household income and
improvements in children's nutritional status. Gender variables intervene in
the production process at every step in critical ways which all interact:

Planning for gender factors in production -- including
access to and control of resources, labor constraints, and
incentives -- is particularly useful for development and
successful transfer of technology.

Planning for differential male and female income sources
is particularly useful for efforts to raise the standard of
living of the poor.

Planning for gender roles in consumption, including whose
income is used to buy food, can be crucial for ensuring
that higher incomes result in better nutrition and family
well-being.







69


Case Study 4: Integration of Farmers' Criteria in Bean Variety Testing

CIAT and IFDC are working in Colombia to develop appropriate bean
varieties and fertilizers for small farm systems. A participatory research
approach is used to provide more specific information to breeders earlier in
the project cycle and to minimize non-adoption.

Farms in the area are small and family operated, growing coffee and
cassava as cash crops; most farmers produce some beans for sale in urban
markets. Preferred beans grown for the urban market are large, opaque, and
red. Initial on-farm interviews indicated that men were responsible for crop
production while women were responsible for processing and household
activities. Two management systems exist typical and innovative. Typical
management involves low inputs to disease and pest control and high fertilizer
application; innovative management involves higher inputs to pest control
including labor, use of higher producing varieties, and desire to lower fertilizer
costs.

Breeders had 10 varieties available for on-farm testing and had ranked
them for presumed farmer preference. Farmers were then asked to rank the
varieties. Four of the varieties are listed below:

Bean variety Grain size and color Breeders rank Farmers rank
A-36 Medium, red opaque 1 3
A-486 Large, pink opaque 2 2
AFR-205 Large, purple mottled 3 1
BAT-1297 Very small, red opaque 10 6

When women were included in the interview and were asked to rank the
beans, it was found that BAT-1297 was preferred and could be ranked as high
as third because women preferred the variety for its better cooking qualities.
Notably, it would swell considerably, providing more food from fewer beans.

After on-farm testing of the ten varieties under typical and innovative
management systems, only two varieties, one of them BAT-1297, showed
significant response to fertilizer under typical management. The analysis of
the exploratory trials indicated that the four best varieties were BAT-1297,
A-36, A-486, and PVAD-1261. A simple partial cost-benefit analysis showed
BAT-1297 to be the most profitable variety. Male farmers still chose A-36 and
A-486 as their top-ranked varieties.

More in-depth interviews with the women elicited that women had more
input into agricultural production than previously thought. Women's evaluation
of the ten varieties placed three varieties, including BAT-1297, above A-36.
Given the results of the agronomic evaluation from-the exploratory trial and
these two sets of preferences, researchers decided to continue work on both
the larger beans and the very small beans since both have a place in these
farming systems.


[Ashby (3)]









3.5.7 Livestock Systems

Women's ownership and control of livestock and their products varies. It
should not be assumed that women only care for small stock, that dairying is a
woman's specialty, or that only men are involved in cattle or camel production.
Project planners cannot assume, for example, that cattle are the sole respon-
sibility of men, because women will undoubtedly have responsibilities for
milking, food processing, or young or ill animal care. In some African
societies, herd management is turned over to a hired herder because cattle
owners, who are traditional crop farmers, cannot herd and farm at the same
time. In a project to improve cattle production, then, who should be
contacted -- the herder, the male owner, or the female milkers? In mixed
crop and livestock systems in which cattle do not migrate for grazing, women
may have the responsibility for feeding. Plans to improve forage production
are properly addressed to the person who has that responsibility. Large animal
livestock projects must identify women's role in animal production. Questions
for determining their role are

Who owns livestock? If women do not, do they have
access to dairy products from their husbands or families
livestock?
What is the gender division of labor in animal care -
feeding, watering, herding, care of sick animals?

What is the gender division of labor for processing animal
products -- meat, milk, wool, hides, eggs?

What is the gender division of control over livestock
production?

Small ruminants tend to be "women's animals," that is, under women's
care and control, in many sub-Saharan African countries and the altiplano
region of Latin America. Small ruminants have been used, like cattle, as a
form of savings and investment by women. Recent projects introducing dairy
goats have emphasized that milk is an equally valuable by-product of goat
production. Where small ruminants are promoted as an income-generating
activity, designers will need to integrate women into the marketing sector. It








Case Study 5: Dairy Goat Production Women's Projects vs. Integrated
Projects

Several projects have attempted to introduce dairy goat production in
Western Kenya, an area of high population and decreasing farm size. The
majority of the dairy goat projects were targeted to women through rural
women's goat raising organizations. Women's labor was to be used for
general animal care, and women were to receive training in goat management.
Women participants were eventually to receive a goat of their own to take
home. In fact, men held wage labor jobs at project sites and received the
training. When and if the women brought goats home, men controlled
economic decisions about their ownership. Project sponsors assumed that any
increased income would benefit the entire family. The majority of women
reported increased workloads and interference with their other work. Women
continued to participate primarily because of allegiance to the sponsor (a
woman Assistant Minister of Education from the area) and to maendeleo, a
Kiswahili term for progress or development.

In contrast, the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program
did not specifically address women in its dual purpose goat project. Instead,
all participating farmers were treated equally, whether male or female. The
majority of farmers were female at the project villages in Western Kenya.
Farmers received training at home and at the research station in goat care and
management, veterinary care, feed production, and milk and cheese production.
Farmers were brought to the research station to participate in training and to
teach staff about their farming practices. Enumerators lived in each area and
contacted farmers daily, forming close relationships with the farm families.
The tendency for male farmers to claim knowledge of livestock care and
responsibility, thus receiving all project inputs, was prevented if enumerators
found it not to be true. Project inputs and training went to the farmer who
was actually responsible for the goat. Project success has been outstanding;
both goats and their products are in high demand in the area. A likely
contribution to the equitable treatment of all farmers was the composition of
the technical staff, both expatriate and Kenyan. The forage agronomist, food
scientist, rural sociologist, agricultural economist, and animal technician were
all female at certain times during the project. Secondly, it is widely
recognized in Kenya that women are farmers, so that when project staff
worked with the farmer, whoever he or she was, conflicts did not occur.


[from Noble (40) and Russo (49)]







is rare for women to be livestock traders (Togo is an exception), yet they
must be able to control their income from sales.


Small animals such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, guinea fowl, rabbits, and
guinea pigs are important to women because they are often the only source of
income fully under women's control. As noted earlier, recognizing that these
small animals are women's responsibility has not necessarily meant that
project inputs are delivered to women.


Commercialization of dairying can adversely affect women by creating
more work yet depriving them of their income. The creation of dairying
cooperatives does not necessarily insure that women will directly benefit if
only men own cattle and only men are the official cooperative members.
Direct purchases of dairy products from women can help them retain their
income.


Livestock and veterinary services must be targeted to women as well as
men. If livestock information is made available only to men, there is no
evidence it will be passed on to women. In vaccination programs, women's
animals may not be brought to the vaccination point if women are unaware of
the program. Veterinary and livestock technicians are usually male, and
constraints noted earlier on the transfer of information from men to women
are present. The constraints that women face in livestock projects, the
effect of those constraints, and possible solutions are presented in Figure 23.
Adaptation of project design can improve women's access to new livestock
technologies.



3.5.8 Agroforestry and Natural Resource Management

Agroforestry is any system of land use that deliberately combines, in
space or over time, woody plants with crops and animals. This definition of
agroforestry applies to a variety of land use systems ranging from very
intensive farming to extensive pastoral systems, including bush fallow farming;
managing fodder trees in private or communal grazing land; planting trees and








FIGURE 23. CONSTRAINTS WOMEN FACE IN LIVESTOCK PROJECTS


Result in terms of
access to project
Gender Constraints Effect assistance Recommendations


Livestock ownership
may be considered a
man's activity




Women lack time for
increased livestock
caretaking




Women need
livestock/dairy
products for home
use, but project
promotes commercial

Women are not
integrated into
livestock/dairying
cooperatives


Women lack access
to commercial
markets


Women are often
neglected as credit
recipients

Women are often
excluded from live-
stock extension/
outreach


Project fails to
integrate women or
men take over
women's livestock
project component


Project causes
labor conflict with
agricultural or
household duties



Project diverts
livestock/dairy
products from
family use


Project increases
mean men's income,
women lose income,
especially from
dairying

Women face problems
in transport;
quality suffers


Women are less able
to increase live-
stock involvement

Women's livestock
suffer more illness
and less access to
vet care


Women do not
realize project
benefits and may
have increased
livestock
caretaking work

Women lack time to
engage in project
activities and
fail to benefit



Women fail to
benefit and family
nutrition declines



Women's income is
reduced and family
nutrition may
suffer


Women are less
able to benefit
from project input


Women receive
fewer benefits
than men


Women's livestock
is isolated from
project benefit


Select animals
associated with
women for project
input



Design women's
livestock
components that
are integrated
with women's work
schedules


Reserve a portion
of animal by-
products for
family use


Integrate women as
active partici-
pants in coops or
develop women's
producers coops

Provide marketing
input for women,
perhaps through
women's, coops

Provide credit for
women's livestock
investment

Recruit women
extension agents;
train men for
women's outreach







shrubs as live fences on farm boundaries for fuel wood, small timber, and
other useful products; intercropping tree cash crops with food, timber, fodder,
and soil improving crops; intercropping hedges with grain crops for leaf mulch;
home gardening of all types in which trees and annual crops are mixed; and
many other systems in which farmers and herders combine trees with field
crops or animals. In many of these systems, women are primarily responsible
for planting, tending, gathering, harvesting, processing, and using woody
plants, in addition to performing their roles in crop and animal production and
consumption within the larger agroforestry system. The following discussion is
taken from Rocheleau.(47)

Agroforestry systems reflect the prevailing gender division of labor,
skill, responsibility, and control within the larger society. The problems and
opportunities inherent in the gender division of access to land, labor,
cultivated and wild plants, and products present a special challenge to
planners. They require specific consideration and programs not yet part of
the mainstream approach to agroforestry research and development projects.
The implications of these differences extend to the content of technology
designs and social contracts for management as well as to the way that
research and development is conducted with women clients. Gender-based
differences in legal status, use of and access to space, type of activities, and
control over labor and resources all have a direct bearing on what type of
plants can be planted, managed, used, and harvested, in terms of place,
person, purpose, and benefit.

Whether or not women are considered apart or as a distinct client sub-
group within the larger population, the terms of their participation will
usually be distinct from that of men. This is especially true for the quantity,
quality, and terms of access to land. Women's access to other productive
resources (water, draft power, agrochemicals, labor, information) also differs
from men's. Moreover, women's control over the components (animals, crops,
trees, shrubs, pasture) and the products (food, fodder, fuel, timber, cash, fiber,
medicine) of agroforestry systems is often subject to rules distinct from those
governing men's actions. All of these differences are expressed in the
existence of men's and women's separate places and activities, in nested







complementary roles in the same places and activities, or in sharing of
interchangeable roles.


Although these differences may limit the scope and nature of agro-
forestry technology and project design, there are also distinct advantages and
opportunities for agroforestry within women's separate domains of space, time,
activities, interests, and skills. Women may also have special knowledge,
rights, and obligations relating to certain categories of artifacts (tools),
natural objects, and phenomena (water, fire, plants, animals). Women's
knowledge of wild plants used for food and medicine is generally much wider
than men's knowledge. Wild food may also be a significant .percentage of
children's diets. Reforestation and revegetation schemes should utilize local
plants when possible.

Project experiences suggest that women's interests in agroforestry and
natural resource management are not the same everywhere and vary consider-
ably from men's interests. Different groups of women may also have different
interests. Project design must address these distinct needs, constraints, and
interests.



3.5.9 Additional Components of Agricultural Projects

Previous sections have discussed the principal factors of access and
control and their implications for project design. Design issues of other
components of agricultural projects are presented in Figures 24 through 30.



3.6 Activities Common to Sectoral
and Field Level Projects

Both sectoral and field level projects share certain activities such as
technical assistance and training. Figures 31 through 33 present some issues
that may be encountered in the design of these activities.








FIGURE 24.
DESIGNING RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
>- What role do women play in resource management decisions?

0 How do the uses women make of renewable resources differ from those of
men (e.g., women may use wood for firewood, while men use wood for
construction, crafts, or sale)?

>- What role do women play in managing livestock that use threatened land
resources?

>- Do women's plots tend to be located on land resources more subject to
erosion or to other environmental damage than plots owned and managed
by men?

>- How are women's household maintenance activities, such as firewood
collection and water supply, affected by environmental degradation, and
what impact do these changes have on women's income-generating
activities (e.g., reduced time for farming)?
l- Is women's status in the tenure system a factor in poor resource
management?

Solutions
Include women farmers in conservation programs in proportion to their
role in managing fragile lands, as farmers, as livestock users, and as
resource managers. .
Analyze interactions between women-managed activities and men-managed
activities before devising conservation solutions.

Analyze potential impacts on women's income and labor use, including
household requirements, as part of the design of resource management
interventions.

Include components to improve women's land tenure security to encourage
sound long-term land management practices.
Consider both ownership-based and use-based rights (e.g., grazing rights,
gathering of wild plants) in designing resource management strategies. for
areas where multiple uses are important.








FIGURE 25.
DESIGNING ROAD AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

0- Based on experience elsewhere in the country, will expansion of the road
network tend to expand marketing activities carried out by women or will
small women traders be displaced by male traders?

I- If women traders tend to be displaced when roads improve, can the
program be expanded to include credit for women traders or other
measures to prevent this effect?

- How will the roads affect the relative profitability of production for home
consumption and for sale and how will this affect women farmers?



Solutions
* Analyze negative as well as positive effects on women traders and design
appropriate counter-measures, if needed.

* Analyze negative as well as positive effects on women farmers and design
appropriate counter-measures, if needed.
* Women should be eligible for credit for vehicles on the same basis as
men.









FIGURE 26.
DESIGNING IRRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT
COMPONENTS IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
>- What percentage of irrigated land is currently managed by women?

> How do women's family labor inputs and women's income per hectare
compare on irrigated and non-irrigated land?

> To what extent do women currently participate in irrigation management,
including allocation of irrigation water?

> Will high-value women's crops (e.g., vegetables) be irrigated or will it be
limited to cash crops or cereal crops managed by men?

> How will irrigation affect the relative profitability of production for home
consumption and for sale?

>- Will user charges be assessed against households or individuals?

> If gatekeepers and other irrigation system employees are to be drawn
from the local farm population, will women be eligible for these jobs and
will they be encouraged to enter the necessary training programs, etc.?

> How will changes in the irrigation or natural watercourse system affect
women's household activities, such as access to water for clothes-washing,
food preparation and clean-up, watering household animals, etc.?


Solutions

* Monitor the impact of irrigation system changes on women's labor inputs,
income, production, and household activities to identify problems and
solutions as early as possible.

* Organize water user groups in ways that give women farmers a voice in
the allocation of irrigated land and irrigation water.

* Consider household water use carefully in designing water system changes.

* Actively recruit women for water management and maintenance positions.

* Organize water user groups so that both male and female farm managers
participate.








FIGURE 27.
DESIGNING COMPONENTS TO PROVIDE OTHER SERVICES1
TO FARMERS IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
Do women farmers or traders currently make use of the system?

How are the services provided (visits, training centers, radio, etc.)

>- What barriers in the design of the system or in the system's environment
limit women's use of the service?

0- Is the service relevant to women farmers, e.g., does market information
cover crops marketed by women as well as by men?

p- Will the project improve women's access to the service?


Solutions
Monitor women's use of the service to identify and solve problems during
implementation.
Decentralize service provision to enable women to benefit.




















1. Examples include market information, soil testing services, and control of
agricultural chemical quality.








FIGURE 28.
DESIGNING INPUT SUPPLY SYSTEM COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

O- What role do women currently play in the informal or private sector
input supply system (including on-farm systems such as selection and
storage of seed)?

S How will the proposed changes to the system affect informal and private
sector systems?

'- Will the proposed system displace women's income-earning activities, such
as small trade?

- Will the proposed changes in the system limit women's access to inputs
(e.g., by linking purchase to membership in government-sponsored groups
that generally exclude women, by linking purchase to formal credit
systems with requirements that women cannot meet, etc.)?

S In selecting inputs for the supply system, will the needs of women
farmers be met as well as those of men (e.g., will poultry breeds include
traditional as well as hybrid breeds)?

- Will the smaller holding size of women be accounted for by "mini" input
packages or other marketing features?


Solutions

* Rule out assistance to.informal and private sector input supply systems
before considering establishment of a new government supply system or
assistance to an existing one.

* Reform existing public systems to allocate supplies by price, without
additional requirements such as use of government credit or membership
in specific groups.

* Provide assistance to informal on-farm systems, such as seed selection
and storage, to the extent feasible.

* Carefully consider negative impacts on traditional systems before
introducing new systems, particularly if the latter are not to operate on a
fully commercial basis.

* Involve women farmers in seed production, production of breeding stock,
nursery operation, and other input -supply support systems, either as
contract farmers or as employees.








FIGURE 29.
DESIGNING MARKETING COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
0- What is the role of women farmers and traders in the current marketing
system?

0- Do women traders have access to formal credit and other assistance?

P- What use do they make of informal credit and other support systems?

0- Are women traders adequately represented in the organizations) chosen
for project implementation, such as the Chamber of Commerce?
10- Do formal or informal organizations of women traders exist?

0 What problems do women traders and farmers face in marketing ac-
tivities?

0 How will the proposed changes in the marketing system affect women
traders and farmers?
0- What measures are necessary to ensure that women traders participate
fully in any assistance programs provided for traders?


Solutions
" Include a full analysis of private trading, including activity by women
traders and informal marketing by women farmers, in project start-up
activities, if sufficient information is not available, and allow sufficient
flexibility in the design to incorporate the findings of the analysis.
* Broaden market information programs and other assistance to traders to
reach small women traders as well as larger traders.
* Design marketers' credit programs with low minimum loan size and limited
collateral requirements to encourage women to participate.
" Analyze the impact of formal marketing systems on the traditional
systems operated by women traders and farmers.
* Monitor program impact on women traders and their relations with other
parts of the system.








FIGURE 30.
DESIGNING STORAGE AND PROCESSING COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
0 What role do women farmers and farm wives play in storage and
processing of crop, livestock, and forest products?

0- What technical problems do women face in storage and processing?

Can these problems be overcome or is it necessary to shift to a more
formal system to achieve acceptable levels of spoilage, etc. (or, on the
contrary, are losses lower in the traditional system)?

What role does on-farm storage and processing play in the overall system
for various agricultural commodities?

S How do on-farm and off-farm storage and processing systems interact?

Will proposed changes to the system compete with women-operated
systems, displace such systems, or support them?

Do existing regulations make it difficult or impossible to conduct
processing on-farm without violating such regulations and, if so, are the
regulations actually necessary for public health or other reasons?


Solutions
* Monitor the impact of project storage and processing activities on
traditional on-farm systems.

* Incorporate assistance to on-farm systems to the extent compatible with
the project's overall strategy.

* Provide financing for on-farm storage and processing.

* Revise food regulations and eliminate unworkable standards that dis-
courage small entrepreneurs or deny them credit.








FIGURE 31.
DESIGNING TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS



Issues
S- Will the proposed technical assistance team structure include expertise in
women-in-development issues?

- Will the team include social science as well as production expertise?

Does the institution (or type of institution) identified as the source of
technical assistance generally have expertise in addressing gender
concerns?

S Does the draft scope of work reflect gender concerns and incorporate
project design features to address such concerns?


Solutions

* Include social scientists as full-time members of the technical assistance
team where appropriate.

* Identify monitoring of gender issues and design of solutions as a priority
application for short-term technical assistance.

* Include gender concerns in the scope of work.

* Include experience with gender issues as a criterion for evaluating
technical assistance team and institutional qualifications for contract
award.








FIGURE 32.
DESIGNING IN-COUNTRY TRAINING COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
S- Will training sensitize both male and female trainees to the need to reach
women farmers and traders and provide information on how to do so?

>- Will training cover traditional activities as well as "modern" activities?

- Will emphasis be placed on identifying women candidates for training?

I'- Will the design of the training program (location, selection criteria, etc.)
facilitate participation by women?


Solutions
S Decentralize training and substitute several shorter courses for one longer
one to facilitate women's participation.

" Include information on the role of women in the agricultural sector and
the technologies used by women in training curriculum.

* Provide training on methods to reach women farmers and traders.

* Monitor women's participation in training and develop measures to
overcome problems restricting participation as they are identified.








FIGURE 33.
DESIGNING LONG-TERM TRAINING COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
0- Is the pool of women with appropriate backgrounds for long-term training
sufficiently large to ensure good representation in participant training?

0- If not, are the problems subject to solution with project funds (e.g.,
language training, studying for SAT, GRE, or TOEFL exams) or are they
more fundamental (limited number of women college graduates in fields
chosen for training)?


Solutions
" Broaden criteria (e.g., consider women with social science degrees
advanced overseas training in technical areas).
* Finance language training if necessary.

* Broaden program to include undergraduate training for women.

* Broaden program to include short-term training for women who can
qualify for long-term training.
* Include women in training and study courses for standardized tests.


for


not








FIGURE 34.
DESIGNING MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT COMPONENTS
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues

What role do women currently play in management of the institutions to
be assisted (e.g., district extension offices)?

What constraints exist to expanding the role of women in management:
low numbers of women in management positions; low numbers of women
in positions from which management cadres usually drawn; lesser degree
of formal preparation among women employees; attitudes of senior
personnel, etc.?

- Are women managers more common in public or private sector institutions
(where relevant, e.g., marketing institutions) and would broadening the
training to reach private sector firms increase the number of women
eligible?

S In private firms, do social practices conceal the importance of women's
role in management?

- Will the procedures to be used to identify candidates for management
training ensure that women are chosen at least in proportion to the share
of employees they represent?

S If personnel from private firms are to receive training, will the size of
firm be small enough to reach women entrepreneurs, who tend to run
smaller firms?

Solutions
* Track women's participation in training to identify problems in reaching
women at an early stage in the project.
* Include training modules aimed at personnel with less formal preparation.

* Expand training eligibility to include female personnel in mid-level
positions from which future managers will be drawn.

* Develop procedures for identifying candidates actively, rather than relying
solely on nomination by more senior personnel, who may not view women
as managers.








FIGURE 35.
DESIGNING COMPONENTS TO IMPROVE PHYSICAL FACILITIES
IN AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS


Issues
Will the design of the facilities permit women to use them, given local
mores and social practices (e.g., separate facilities for women, if
necessary)?

' Will the facilities be located sufficiently close to population centers
(urban or rural) so that women can commute, if overnight absences from
home are not locally acceptable?


Solutions
* Expansion of dormitory facilities to meet local privacy standards for
women (e.g., provision of separate rather than communal bathrooms)

* Construction of separate training facilities for women

* Location of facilities near main residential centers and transport routes

* Provision for day-care facilities on-site, particularly for women employees

* Decentralization of facilities (more, but smaller facilities) to facilitate use
by rural women, who may not be able to be absent from their homes for
extended periods.









3.7 Monitoring and Evaluation Systems

A.I.D. and the World Bank have produced documents providing guidance
for monitoring and evaluation; these are general guidelines for an entire
project's life cycle and are not specific for gender issues. However, some of
the ideas relevant to planning for monitoring and evaluation are equally
relevant here. The most obvious is that there is no single approach to or
methodology for monitoring and evaluation that can be used uniformly across
all projects. Approaches that are immediately useful to project managers are
preferred to more complicated methods. For example, it may not be necessary
to monitor production increases on men and women's fields, a difficult and
time-consuming task under the best of circumstances. Instead, interviews with
male and female farmers after harvest may give the type of information most
useful to project managers. These situation analyses are based on the critical
incident technique as described by Jiggins.(31) Informal but structured
interviewing focuses on a "critical incident" that exemplifies one of the
problems. The incident is analyzed in depth, leading to a discussion of ways
to deal with it. Another technique that can be used is peer group workshops.
Such informal methods have certain drawbacks but are often sufficient for
management's purposes.

Monitoring is used to measure the-progress during implementation and
the appropriateness of the project design. It is an ongoing function within
the project involving the continuous or periodic collection of information.
A.I.D. management systems also include mechanisms that link evaluation with
design and require that project designs provide a basis for the assessment of
performance.(1) Built into the design of a project should also be systems
specifically designed to monitor and evaluate women's participation in the
project. This type of monitoring and evaluation is separate from that required
by a project, but the results could certainly be included in project documenta-
tion. Collection of the right data is essential. Reliance on overly sophis-
ticated methods based on academic research standards for statistical accuracy
or reliability may be unworkable and impractical for development projects.(25)







These methods are too expensive, too complicated, too slow, and require
specialists.

Current thinking on monitoring and evaluation favors the use of multiple
data collection approaches rather than reliance on a single data collection
method.(9) Probably two of the best and ultimately most useful mechanisms
for monitoring project attention to women are field trip reports and quarterly
reports. These could include a standardized checklist, modified for each
project, such as


How many people were contacted?
men women
Whose farms/fields were visited?
men women
Who was trained?
men women
Was this the first visit or a repeat visit?

Gathering data in this manner is much more reliable than either a one-time,
extensive survey that consumes a great deal of time and energy or relying on
recall months after the fact. It also forces each person on the staff to
document involvement with women farmers and does not allow them to pass off
gender concerns to someone else.


Depending on the size and scope of the project, it is conceivable that
an individual other than the Project Officer could be made responsible for
monitoring project activities throughout the life of the project, or at least in
the initial years. This person could be placed directly on the project
management team to allow for continued interaction. It is not suggested that
a short-term WID consultant be parachuted in half-way through the project to
conduct an analysis. This only begs the issue, letting the project management
"forget" to implement women's programs and then not have the time nor money
to do so. Another approach to monitoring would be to designate one person
as the external WID adviser and have that person be responsible for WID
monitoring for the life of the project, regardless of the composition and







changes in project and mission staff. This arrangement would avoid several
problems: the 'parachuted' expert's inexperience with the project, the over-
burdened staff person's lack of time or interest, and the lack of continuity if
several consultants were used. Monitoring women's participation need not be a
painful task provided it is written into the project design and is used from the
beginning.

A separate analysis of project progress in reaching women is absolutely
essential. It is not enough to identify target groups in the PP. Aside from
the equity and fairness aspects, desk reviews and impact evaluations have
shown the economic importance of including women in agricultural projects.
Assessment of progress in reaching women should be relatively straightforward
if targets and progress indicators (benchmarks) were included in the project
design and if progress data (monitoring) are collected regularly during
implementation. A built-in monitoring and evaluation plan that included
benchmarks for evaluation would enable tracking the project's impact on the
target groups. Benchmarks for evaluation could include simple before and
after studies -- how many women are planting a new variety? how many
women are contacted by extension agents? how many hours do women spend
on production activities? Alternatively, targets could be set -- x number of
women in a village will have been trained by a particular date. In other
situations, merely documenting how many women have been trained or reached
by project activities will be sufficient.

A.I.D. documents such as the CDSS, PID, and PP are required to describe
strategies to involve women, benefits and impediments to women, and
benchmarks to measure women's participation.(2) In order to make benchmark
evaluations of women's participation, baseline information must be available.
The WID office has many documents, reports, and statistics that can be used
to establish baseline information for a particular country (see Appendix A).
Other sources of secondary information are also available depending on the
country or region. It may not be cost effective to collect such detailed
baseline information during the design stage. However, mechanisms to collect
this information must be built into the design of the project. Without baseline
data, it is difficult to measure adequately women's progress and participation






91
in a project. Delays in obtaining these data will only delay implementation of
project goals. The data collection can be made in conjunction with monitoring
activities; data collected during these activities will provide the information
necessary for evaluation during the life of the project.



Demand for Food Grains: Experience from The Gambia

The Mixed Farming Project in The Gambia promoted the use of maize as
a food grain rather than as a vegetable. Women did not know how to use
maize as a grain so cooking demonstrations were held throughout the country.
By the end of the project, more than 3,000 women had received training in the
preparation of maize as a grain.(36)




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