Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 From the director
 Progress towards impacts
 Accomplishments and impacts
 Institutional capacity buildin...
 Benefits to U.S.
 International research sites
 Publications & presentations
 Financial summary
 Committee memberships
 Back Cover

1995 Annual report - SANREM CRSP
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080653/00001
 Material Information
Title: 1995 Annual report - SANREM CRSP
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: SANREM
Publisher: SANREM CRSP
Publication Date: 1995
Subjects / Keywords: SANREM.
Sustainable agriculture -- Tropics -- Periodicals
Natural resources -- Management -- Tropics -- Periodicals
Landscape ecology -- Tropics -- Periodicals
Ecosystem management -- Tropics -- Periodicals
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Costa Rica
Burkina Faso
General Note: Description based on: 1995; title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 104632668
System ID: UF00080653:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    From the director
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Progress towards impacts
        Page 8
    Accomplishments and impacts
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Institutional capacity building
        Page 12
    Benefits to U.S.
        Page 12
    International research sites
        Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Burkina Faso
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Cape Verde
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Costa Rica & Honduras
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Global activities
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
    Publications & presentations
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Financial summary
        Page 48
    Committee memberships
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Back Cover
        Page 51
        Page 52
Full Text


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The Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource

Management Collaborative Research Support

Program (SANREM CRSP) is a 5-year research, train-

ing, and information exchange program funded

by the United States Agency for International

Development. This is the Annual Report for Year 3 of

the project. Additional copies may be obtained from

SANREM CRS University of Georgia, Georgia Station,

1109Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223-1797.

The mission of the SANREM CRSP is to implement a

comprehensive, farmer participatory, interdisciplinary

research, training, and information exchange program

that elucidates and establishes the principles of sustain-

able agriculture and natural resource management on a

landscape scale. A landscape ecology approach is used

to describe and understand the complex internal, exter-

nal, and interactive processes within and between the

individual ecosystems of a toposequence transecting two

or more agroecological zones. This includes human and

social, as well as physical and biological dimensions of

ecosystems. Interventions, appropriate to the farmer

(male and female) and other end-users, are designed

and evaluated in concert with those end-users in terms

of agricultural, environmental, economic, and social

sustainability. The wide applicability of these principles

and methodologies in fragile environments are being

demonstrated. Through training, institutional strength-

ening, and networking, local and regional contributions

to agricultural sustainability and improved natural

resource management are enhanced.


FROM THE DIRECTOR...................... .................................3

SAN REM CRSP .................................................... .............................

PROGRESS TOWARD IMPACTS............................................................8

ACCOMPLI'HMlE \TS AND IMPACTS................................................................9

INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING .....................................................12

B ENEFITS TO U .S........................................................... ........ ..............12

INTERNATIONAL RE[ \Rt H SITES ...........................................................13

P HILIPPINES ..................... ... ....... .......................... ... 14

B URKINA FASO ................................... ...................................... 22

ECUADOR ................................................ ......................... 26

CAPE VERDE .................... ............ ........... .........................30

COSTA RICA & Ho\li. Ris ............................................................ 36

GLOBAL ACTIVITIES ............................................ .................. 40

PUBLICATIONS & PRESENTATIONS ...........................................................46

FI\\ .\ I S i i\ R .............................................................................. 48

COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIPS....................................................................49

ACRON S .........................................................................................50

Writer Editor:
Kim B. Foglia
Assistant Editor:
Carla Roncoli
Creative Director
Graphic Production:
Sally Morgan. Columbus. GA
Corer Photos:
Niger market: William Hargrove
Filipino farmer. Princeto Lucbo and his son. Julbert: Bill Deutsch
( onrihtIng Photographers:
R. Balakrishnan, D. del Castillo. B. Deutsch. T. Gardiner.
W Hargrove, E. Kanemasu. S. Louis. D. \ltiiiure V. Nazarea. C. Neely.
T. Nissen, M. Piniero. D. Poudel. G. Prain. J. Roberts, C. Roncoli

This publication was made possible "hr,.u support by the
Office of Agriculture. Bureau of Global Programs. Research. and Food Security
.S. Agency for International Development
under Grant No. \ I[ls,. \. iiii -.1111

Printed on recycled paper


We have just completed a third productive year in the
SANREM CRSP andwe have many accomplishments to high-
light. In the past year, we have initiated major new activities
in Ecuador and Cape Verde. In the Philippines, we have on-
farm trials in improved commercial vegetable production
systems, home gardens, and agroforestry systems, and we
have a team focused on bioreserve buffer zone manage-
ment. Our efforts in water quality monitoring and enhanc-
ing local communities' environmental awareness are
paying big dividends as local people are engaged in water
quality issues and how to address them. Our farmer-partic-
ipatory field research is leading to improved understanding
ofLit.iinahle iechnolio.gies i and al:,o kern initrest b\ lui.cl
farnmers in addresing isLta.iinihilit issue', in ulnderCtand-
Ing linkage, herween 'on-l.irm and off-tarin aclit'iev.ind ini
S actell\I plicIa.llp. IIn deiglning s.%iliollur io I. cmlllplc'\
eIleiodou.Iloicall. %c li.hae min\ 'lc, ion', learned Our
conllferenic on -' iditi.ors otil isi.tiiijbilic .aid our iork-.
lluop on Parlicipatcor Res-t-.ir(h Mlhioduliogie reIc\iwed
ile di Jalldble kio'ledge .ill these imporiani lopics and
enabled us li butl le.irn trolnm ile eperieIlc il other' .id
h.re our iO\I ei.ixpelrien
At ihc. project lexel, %Le h.ne inlipleneniled .1 NLron- and
ilnllliou\lllc Mlloni nllg jlld LI[ LL.1i1c PruiTor.i %hic\ h \1Ill
111.l1 unll a,%Lsii ul in J.1 .sIlng progre'., and in illeelinig iioulr
goals hul I hcllcI ih breaking n e% ground inl dehninig aid ica-

during impacts of participatory research. We have vastly
improved our Information and Communications Office,
adding a full-time professional Communication Coordinator.
These and many more accomplishments are detailed in
this report. For these accomplishments and the impacts to
date, we are proud. But, our expectations for the future are
even greater.
Now that we have completed the start-up activities at all
sites, including diagnostic activities, group planning, and
building collaboration, we are ending the crucial planning
phase and entering the participation implementation
phase. Having spent much effort in diagnostics and plan-
ning. le anticipate ai \er\ fruitful CpcinlenaCi .lon phl.se
wilI ihilmmed.ie i1mp act on .ill I hi .ire p.Iircip.llll g. \\% l.halt.
built a strong fiindatjion based i.n piarncipanion .ind collec-
IIlt nce.1111iit1 on \\e sinlld re.lid\ Io C.I Cla.ll e'11 o 11ur inl\ l-
mncil in participajnon \\e .alilniip.il l tha field ree.irti \ ill
Ie.id lo both imnprtled underslanding and rcadi lldt iplllile
leti'in logies'. \\e aire building .1 rili e\perlence in par;ic-
IpajirN research Ilimehidlodugies. ihli tc lihope lio enilhaiiict
and Ito share "illi oivChers. \nd %e inend Iin tlnnlnue lh
iniprllle pruogr.mn unal.geimc lll nl d l he ll i elite thil we
pr nide
\\e lhalilk \oii lrt \ULr ps r lll and hiluIre cinIrillllloion and
Iidoik forward i, r.i.ping lhe rtc'ard, from ,-tlr itiies-llltinns
\\e pledge iii colnicine to iork wiiih \io in jcc mpli'ih O lur
iillsi.on and Imeit our goal
,._~ y.r

1)ehraReh li I, hpiiu,hnt I- 4,w, I i IllI, ati If, I, it, t I, ilj bw I Ill it I N It t"111111 III/ it dhaw llirv, it it (,, ih- it /hop /if 1, 0,11', \r~cl

The Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management
Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP) seeks
to develop and promote more sustainable ways of using natural
resources. We are most concerned with those environments that
are especially vulnerable to degradation, such as the humid and
semi-arid tropical regions of the developing world. Sustainability
is achieved when the resources with which we are entrusted are
used in ways that do not deny the same opportunities to future
generations. Developing a less
damaging relationship with the
earth requires that we also
establish better relationships
amongst ourselves. The SANREM
CRSP addresses these challenges
through an innovative research
methodology that respects the
ideas of local peoples and invites
their equal participation in the
research agenda.
The novelty and uniqueness
of the SANREM CRSP approach
Burkinabefarmer discuss
rests in its four "cornerstones:" WilliamHargrove,


landscape/lifescape interactions, interdisciplinary teamwork,
institutional partnerships, and participatory methodologies. Our
research looks at an entire watershed as a dynamic whole, to
understand how it is being affected by the interaction of biophys-
ical (landscape) and socioeconomic (lifescape) factors at play
within and around it. Because of the increasing complexity of these
interactions, we feel that the age of "Lone Ranger" research is over
and interdisciplinary teamwork is the way of the future. Therefore,
our work combines methods and insights from a variety of scien-
tific disciplines, such as ecological, agricultural, and social sci-
ences into an integrated research paradigm. Our teamwork
reaches beyond the doorsteps of academia to integrate the exper-
tise and experience of a diversity of partners, bringing together US-
based and host country researchers and representatives of

development agencies, government institutions, grassroots orga-
nizations, and rural communities in an institutional partnership.
This is a partnership among equals around a common commit-
ment to preserving the earth. Some of these partners have never
worked together and some have never been actively involved in sci-
entific research, such as farmers of developing countries. Partic-
ipatory methodologies combine the indigenous knowledge and
adaptive creativity of farmers with the scientific expertise and com-
parative perspective of scientists.
The farmer-back-to-farmer
model is at the heart of the SAN-
REM CRSP research process. This
model provides a framework for
research to build on the experi-
ence and knowledge of farmers,
beginning with their assessment
of problems and priorities and
endingwith their testing and adap-
tation of proposed solutions.
Accordingly, in each of its research
sites, the work of the SANREM
isfarmingpractices with
rEMCRSPDirector CRSP begins with a Participatory
Landscape Lifescape Appraisal (PLLA), carried out jointly by farm-
ers and researchers to identify the main problems to be addressed.
The findings of this community assessment are used to generate
a Framework Plan which outlines the priority research questions
for the project and serves as a guide for developing research work
plans that are implemented by collaborative community-
researcher teams.
Local communities, including those groups within them whose
voices are not commonly heard, such as the poor, the young, and
the women, are therefore involved at each stage of the research
process. We believe that only by integrating our concerns for food
security and for environmental sustainability our work will effec-
tively contribute to bringing about a better quality of life in a more
peaceful society on a healthier earth.



evaluated & adopted 4
by farmers

testing solutions
on-farm research

In the Farmer-Back-to-Farmermodel, farmers andscientists work
together in defining a problem, seeking solutions, and assessing
and adapting alternative practices to on-farm conditions. But the
ultimate decision on the utili) and feasibility of proposed solu-
tions rests with the farmers Once the new practices are incorpo-

diagnosis of problem

seeking solutions
22 through
,:r, interdisciplinary
,-. .: research
ntliat '
ifi ed

rated into the farmers' repertoire of knowledge, the process can
recycle as new problems emerge. (Rhoades, R.E. 198-i. Breaking
New Ground: Agricultural Anthropology. Lima, International
Potato Center.)


U.S. consortium
AuDurr, Unn.'ersfv
Colorado Siave Un..
lov~a Slale Llnivprs 11
PVO Ur. C.nier
iu-krg,: Ure L ,eril,
Lni, Vvizcori-En
i P U
W3'dlr~gion Siai~- U




The SANREM CRSP is an ambitious program that is designed to
effect long-term change, therefore identification of short-term
impacts can be a difficult task. To monitor both the short- and long-
term aspects of the process, the program has adopted a classifi-
cation system to recognize and document impacts and progress
toward impacts. An impact is defined as a change in the aware-
ness, attitude, or behavior of participants that results in an
enhanced quality of life or improvement in environmental condi-
tions, such as the quality or quantity of natural resources. This
hierarchical classification scheme illustrates an ordered process
of progress toward impacts. It begins as changes in people's
involvement in or reaction to sustainable resource management

activities and issues. As these first-order changes crystallize they
form a foundation for changes in people's knowledge, attitudes,
skills, or aspirations regarding sustainable resource use. To pro-
duce an impact with truly long-term significance these second-
order changes must ultimately bring about changes in practice
regarding sustainable agriculture and resource management. We
consider the adoption of the SANREM CRSP approach of partic-
ipatory methodologies in the research and development practice
of institutions and organizations to be at this level of third-order
change. The following is a summary listing of the overall progress
toward impacts that the SANREM CRSP has achieved through its
accomplishments across all research sites.

Changes in Practice
* farmers adopt alternative production practices to reduce environmental degradation
* host country institutes adopt participatory methodologies in agricultural research & community development;
US institutions & agencies adopting participatory research methodologies
Changes in Knowledge, Aspirations, Skills, or Attitude
* training of farmers to collect baseline data on biological & physical characteristics of their watershed; community
monitoring projects initiated
* independent experimenitatIn h\ farmers to test solutions to environmental problems
* farmers empowered \ consider themselves equal partners in research & development proiectr
* monitoring of ent ironmental parameters by community members
* e.tablishmenl ot unprecedented collaborations between communities, NGOs. host counitr g!terninent agencies. &
research intllnlltlte iln ista.ahle resource management research & development projects
* scit'ene education. curriculum in US & host country schools incorporate global environmental is-ues through
internaiional linkage
* training of husl oiuntri students, research institute staff, government officials, extension agents, grjanirool w'corkers in
parniulpdor. research methodologies
* de elupment of skills & capacity of host country research institutes improving their ability to compete in Internatonal
grant programs
Charikg in: Peoplep' Involvement pr Reactions
* heitgh~ined .il 0 SrlslCliapInrwcn rut bl
" hemhened a". 0 ;ps. nutrlfl


Data Collection & Analysis
* collection of data on indigenous knowledge & scientific
classification of insects & insect biodiversity
* collection of water quality data & stream invertebrate
inventory by community members
* plant & animal biodiversity inventory completed at
sample sites in upland zones
* correlation of scientific & indigenous knowledge of
plants & their uses

Education, Training & Capacity Building
* 30 farmers attended workshop on sustainable vegetable
production practices
* 130 women participated in workshops on home gar-
dening resulting in the establishment of pilot gardens
to test alternative production practices
* 24 gardeners trained in composting techniques
* community members trained in biodiversity monitor-
ing methods
* low-technology, user-friendly tissue culture method for
plant propagation developed; 4 local women trained
* germplasm conservation projects established through
local elementary schools; mothers, students & teachers
maintain culturally important crops in communal
* over 100 teachers trained in group decision-making,
cooperative practice & sustainable agriculture

* heightened community awareness of local sustainabiliqr
issues including local & global water pollution issues
* independent experimentation b. farmers in alternative
pest management & soil conservation practices & water
quality monitoring of local rivers
* women testing alternalike production practices in home
gardens & building composting bins on their oAwn
* commercial vegetable farmers implementing alterna-
tive production practices to reduce soil erosion &
nutrient runoff
* crop biodikersit enhanced through germplasm conser-
vation collections in community gardens

* analysis of resource use patterns & concepts of sustain-
ability completed through interviews with over 50
members of Lantapan ethnic groups
* development of GIS datasets characterizing physical
aspects of watershed
* establishment of weather station network
* community workshops held to discuss data, monitoring
issues & historical trends with farmers.

* over 700 farmers participated in on-farm experiments
to test alternative farming & conservation practices
* 4 IPM pilot gardens established; evaluation of
alternative crops & IPM technologies ongoing
* 24 potato farmers trained in True Potato Seed
production resulting in the establishment of 11
farmer-managed experimental plots
* 40 women attended workshop to discuss opportunities
for collaboration & concerns regarding natural
resource management
* over 220 local government officials participated in
workshops & field trips on local environmental &
sustainability issues
* workshop held to coordinate research in buffer zone

* community environmental monitoring group seeks
NGO status to become official, independent, self-sus-
taining organization
* new collaborations initiated between local research
institutions & communities
* new linkages established between women's grassroots
groups, government & academic institutions
* enhanced commitment to participatory methods by
university faculty & government representatives
* teachers incorporating sustainability issues & lessons
in local school curriculum

Data Collection & Analysis
* development of GIS datasets characterizing physical
aspects of watershed

Education & Training
* introduction of new soil conservation practices to farmers
* tree preserve planted in deforested area

* heightened comnuinict awareness of soil erosion
& deforestation

* establishment of weather station network
* farmers collecting baseline data

* participatory use of photography successfully tested as
tool for documenting environmental problems &
agricultural practices

* adoption of new soil conservation practices by farmers


Data Collection & Analysis
* community-led appraisal of local environmental &
resource management issues including agricultural
production practices & community health
* weather station network established

Education, Training & Capacity Building
* 30 community members, students, & NGO staff trained in
water quality monitoring techniques

* heightened awareness in communities ofsustainability
issue. including local & global water pollution issues
* independent monitoring of water qualiev in local riders

* collection of baseline data & development of classification
system developed on land use patterns, livelihood strate-
gies & production practices
* GIS datasets developed characterizing physical aspects
of the watershed

* reference collections of stream invertebrates developed
* stream monitoring program established

* new collaborations initiated between researchers, NGOs,
& communities
* neighboring communities have expressed interest in
participating in the SANREM program


Data Collection & Analysis
* community-led appraisal of local environmental issues &
constraints to sustainability
Education, Training, & Capacity Building
host country research institute & government agencies
staff, NGO staff, & community organizers trained in scien-
tific proposal writing & in the monitoring & evaluation of
research projects

heightened community awareness of local sustainability issues
new collaborations initiated between local research
institutions & communities
farmers & go\ernmeni agencies working in collaboration on

* identification of priority questions & agenda for research
on natural resource management

4 host country students enter graduate program at US
universities to be trained in agricultural & participatory
research methodologies

natural resource management projects for the first time
enhanced skills & capacity of host country research institutes
& grassroots organizations including improved ability to
compete in international grants programs for funding local


research & development projects in resource management
Community groups require treatment as equal partners
in local research & development projects

* increased capacity & expertise of host country research staff
through graduate training in agricultural & participatory


Data Collection & Analysis
* community-led appraisal of local environmental issues &
constraints to sustainability
development of a simplified surveying techniques to allow
Education, Training & Capacity Building
* 30 workshop participants compared participatory
research activities across SANREM sites & evaluated them
as tools to identify indigenous & scientific indicators of
* development of a 'tool kit' to teach participatory concepts &
methodologies for researching indicators of sustainability
* training of 22 undergraduate students from EARTH

* incorporation of participatory research methodologies as
curriculum component in education & training programs
at EARTH & Zamarano universities

community members to gather baseline data on the
physical characteristics of a watershed

University in participatory research methodologies &
designed community projects
* senior students at Zamarano University designed partic-
ipatory research projects to identify & test scientific &
indigenous indicators of sustainable resource use
* farmers, teachers, NGO workers, & extension trained
in procedures for gathering baseline data

* community members collecting baseline data with accessi-
ble monitoring techniques


Education, Training & Capacity Building
* 37 graduate & 9 undergraduate students, from 19 coun-
tries, undertaking participatory research at SANREM sites
* 28 participants, from 12 Southeast Asian countries,
trained in GIS technology & applications
* over 100 people, from 76 organizations, participated in
conference to discuss the state-of-the-art on indicators
of sustainability
* over 70 people, from 18 countries & numerous organiza-
tions, participated in a workshop to share experiences
from applications of participatory collaborative research
methodologies in a variety of settings

* students in US universities benefiting from research & train-
ing in use of participatory methodologies
* researchers throughout Asia equipped with GIS skills as a
new tool to understand natural resources issues & improve
management strategies
* science education curriculum in US & host country schools
enhanced through international linkage

* elementary students correspond internationally
* global environmental & sustainability issues incorporated
into local school curricula
* GM&E committee was formed & devised a standardized
methodology to assess technical accomplishments &
progress toward impacts
* participatory monitoring & evaluation workshops conduct-
ed at each research site to develop scientific & community-
based indicators of success

* organizations throughout the world with similar goals in
improving natural resource management set guidelines for
assessing participation & their programs' impacts on
* documentation of program process & progress have ensured
a self-reflective, dynamic program that can quickly move
from assessment of progress toward impacts to incorporation
of lessons learned in planning & implementation



In each of its research sites the SANREM CRSP has catalyzed an
unprecedented partnership of international, national, and com-
munity institutions. It has enabled researchers from government
programs and universities to work together with NGOs and there-
by integrate their field experience and farmer-centered method-
ologies into the research. Involvement in SANREM activities has
also brought the researchers in close contact with farmers,
enabling them to develop a better understanding of natural
resource management issues from the farmers' perspective. In
addition, representatives of local organizations and community
groups have had the opportunity to develop new skills and link-
ages with national and international institutions that can be uti-
lized in accessing relevant information and mobilizing resources
more effectively.
In the Philippines, Dr. Willie Dar, member of the SANREM
CRSP Global Technical Committee and Chair of the Philippines
National Coordinating Council was named Executive Director of
PCARRD, the umbrella institution that oversees all research in
agriculture and natural resource management in the country. His
commitment to the SANREM CRSP approach and goals ensures
that collaborative and participatory research methodologies will
be key ingredients in the scope of PCARRD.
In Burkina Faso, the SANREM CRSP cornerstones have
been incorporated into the Ten-Years Strategic Plan that will guide
the two main national agricultural research program, INERA and


* At UGA, the lead institution in the SANREM CRSP consortium,
the program has strengthened inter-departmental linkages and
provided opportunities for graduate students to acquire
research experience through interdisciplinary and internation-
al collaboration. The SANREM approach is keeping with the Uni-
versity President's agenda of environmental awareness and is
being incorporated in newly established research programs con-
cerning US agriculture.
* Involvement in the SANREM CRSP consortium has enriched the
curricula at Tuskegee University, WCU, and VPI by expanding
their international programs and promoting the study of envi-
ronmental issues from a global perspective.
* The SANREM CRSP approach has influenced Iowa State Universi-
ty's collaborative work with the Rural Community Assistance Pro-
gram of the US Forest Service. This has resulted in the adoption of
community-based indicators to assist rural communities in assess-
ing their own progress towards environmental sustainability.
* A linkage has been established between the EPAs Alabama
Waterwatch Program implemented by Auburn University and

IRBET. These institutes have also established closer collaborative
links with NGOs and other regional institutions for crop and agro-
forestry research.
In Cape Verde, the SANREM CRSP is working closely with
INIDA, the lead institution in agricultural research, to improve the
effectiveness and outreach capacity of its programs. The institute's
researchers are working directly with farmers for the first time. In
addition, training and experience acquired through SANREM
activities has significantly enhanced the capacity of INIDA's staff to
formulate research hypothesis, gather and analyze data, and write
scientific documents. This has strengthened its standing with
international development agencies, such as FAO, and its ability
to develop effective proposals for obtaining external funds. Clos-
er collaborative links with other agricultural institutions, such as
Animaqao Rural, have been established and participatory
approaches are not only being adopted by other research and
development institutions, but also demanded by the farmers
In Costa Rica and Hmlondirus. the SANREM CRSP has
strengthened the curriculum of agricultural universities, such as
EARTH University and EAP (Zamarano) which train students from
all over Latin America. The program has provided support for stu-
dent research on questions of sustainability and in the develop-
ment of training and materials on participatory research

the Citizen Water Monitoring program in the Philippines. The
exchange of experiences has enriched both programs and
increased the understanding of global environmental issues
among participants at both sites.
* Participation in the SANREM CRSP has provided US-based NGOs,
such as members of the PVO/University Center, new opportuni-
ties to integrate research with development and to expand their
international scope and collaborative networks.
* Involvement in the SANREM CRSP has enriched the work of HPI,
which has wide international scope but its focus has been lim-
ited to development work. The collaboration has enabled HPI
staff to work with research-oriented institutions and to develop
skills for integrating research into their own projects.
* A linkage has been established between the Margaret Beeks Ele-
mentary School in Blacksburg, VA and the Vincencia Tavares
School in Cape Verde in which students correspond and discuss
their cultures and local environmental issues. The international
exchange has enriched the curriculum in both schools. (see p. 35)


In each of its research sites the SANREM CRSP has catalyzed an
unprecedented partnership of international, national, and com-
munity institutions. It has enabled researchers from government
programs and universities to work together with NGOs and there-
by integrate their field experience and farmer-centered method-
ologies into the research. Involvement in SANREM activities has
also brought the researchers in close contact with farmers,
enabling them to develop a better understanding of natural
resource management issues from the farmers' perspective. In
addition, representatives of local organizations and community
groups have had the opportunity to develop new skills and link-
ages with national and international institutions that can be uti-
lized in accessing relevant information and mobilizing resources
more effectively.
In the Philippines, Dr. Willie Dar, member of the SANREM
CRSP Global Technical Committee and Chair of the Philippines
National Coordinating Council was named Executive Director of
PCARRD, the umbrella institution that oversees all research in
agriculture and natural resource management in the country. His
commitment to the SANREM CRSP approach and goals ensures
that collaborative and participatory research methodologies will
be key ingredients in the scope of PCARRD.
In Burkina Faso, the SANREM CRSP cornerstones have
been incorporated into the Ten-Years Strategic Plan that will guide
the two main national agricultural research program, INERA and


* At UGA, the lead institution in the SANREM CRSP consortium,
the program has strengthened inter-departmental linkages and
provided opportunities for graduate students to acquire
research experience through interdisciplinary and internation-
al collaboration. The SANREM approach is keeping with the Uni-
versity President's agenda of environmental awareness and is
being incorporated in newly established research programs con-
cerning US agriculture.
* Involvement in the SANREM CRSP consortium has enriched the
curricula at Tuskegee University, WCU, and VPI by expanding
their international programs and promoting the study of envi-
ronmental issues from a global perspective.
* The SANREM CRSP approach has influenced Iowa State Universi-
ty's collaborative work with the Rural Community Assistance Pro-
gram of the US Forest Service. This has resulted in the adoption of
community-based indicators to assist rural communities in assess-
ing their own progress towards environmental sustainability.
* A linkage has been established between the EPAs Alabama
Waterwatch Program implemented by Auburn University and

IRBET. These institutes have also established closer collaborative
links with NGOs and other regional institutions for crop and agro-
forestry research.
In Cape Verde, the SANREM CRSP is working closely with
INIDA, the lead institution in agricultural research, to improve the
effectiveness and outreach capacity of its programs. The institute's
researchers are working directly with farmers for the first time. In
addition, training and experience acquired through SANREM
activities has significantly enhanced the capacity of INIDA's staff to
formulate research hypothesis, gather and analyze data, and write
scientific documents. This has strengthened its standing with
international development agencies, such as FAO, and its ability
to develop effective proposals for obtaining external funds. Clos-
er collaborative links with other agricultural institutions, such as
Animaqao Rural, have been established and participatory
approaches are not only being adopted by other research and
development institutions, but also demanded by the farmers
In Costa Rica and Hmlondirus. the SANREM CRSP has
strengthened the curriculum of agricultural universities, such as
EARTH University and EAP (Zamarano) which train students from
all over Latin America. The program has provided support for stu-
dent research on questions of sustainability and in the develop-
ment of training and materials on participatory research

the Citizen Water Monitoring program in the Philippines. The
exchange of experiences has enriched both programs and
increased the understanding of global environmental issues
among participants at both sites.
* Participation in the SANREM CRSP has provided US-based NGOs,
such as members of the PVO/University Center, new opportuni-
ties to integrate research with development and to expand their
international scope and collaborative networks.
* Involvement in the SANREM CRSP has enriched the work of HPI,
which has wide international scope but its focus has been lim-
ited to development work. The collaboration has enabled HPI
staff to work with research-oriented institutions and to develop
skills for integrating research into their own projects.
* A linkage has been established between the Margaret Beeks Ele-
mentary School in Blacksburg, VA and the Vincencia Tavares
School in Cape Verde in which students correspond and discuss
their cultures and local environmental issues. The international
exchange has enriched the curriculum in both schools. (see p. 35)



The SANREM Philippines program is
being implemented in the Manupali
watershed, incorporating the munic-
ipality of Lantapan, in central Bukid-
non province on the southern island
of Mindanao. Lantapan is 15 km
south of the pro ncial capital Malav-
balay, and 130 km southeast of
Cagayan de Oro, the closest major
trading center and port. The water-
shed is located on the sleep slopes of
Mt. Kitanglad and Mt. Kalatungan,

Lifescape .
Lantapan is home to tribal groups
indigenous to Bukidnon, primarily
the Talandig, and to settlers, the
Dumagat, Ilocano, and Igorot, who
have arrived from coastal Mindanao
and other Philippine islands. The
watershed is divided into smaller
political divisions called barangays
Population increase has been rapid
in the last three decades, rising at
least 4% annually from 14,500 in
1970 to 39,500 people today. Agricul-
ture dominates the economy; most
farms are smaller than 5 haandmost
families live close to subsistence
level. Low altitude flatlands, where
irrigation is available, are devoted to
rice or sugar cane production. At
higher elevations, potatoes, vegeta-
bles, maize and coffee are the major

volcanic peaks which dominate the
landscape. The Manupali River
forms the southern boundary of
Lantapan and the watershed, inter-
laced with its tributaries, drains
about 40,000 hectares. It is a land-
locked region with river flatlands
descending towards the coast to the
north, and climbing in all other
directions through rolling hills to
some of Mindanao's highest moun-
tain ranges from 1100 to 2200

cash crops with root crops and
banana grown as subsistence crops.
There is some livestock pro-
duction in pigs, goats, and fowl, with
cattle and water buffalo raised as
draft animals.




meters. Almost half of the land in
the watershed has slopes of 40% or
more and much of the soil is a deep
clay. The upper Manupali watershed
has been subjected to heavy defor-
estation as agriculture has intensi-
fied; these higher elevations are now
experiencing losses in biodiversity
and critical levels of soil erosion. The
region has a 6 month monsoon sea-
son with annual rainfall averaging
2300 mm (92 inches).

As the first SANREM CRSP
research site, the Philippines pro-
gram began in November 1992 and
has just completed its first phase of
research implementation.



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Farmers Experiment to Reduce Soil Erosion

How can vegetable production systems in the Manupali water-
shed be improved for more sustainable yields? This question has
been the thrust of research led by David Midmore, of the AVRDC,
in collaboration with Leallyn Ramos, of Philippines DA. A work-
shop, attended by 30 farmers including three women, was held
to present the 1994 survey results to commercial vegetable pro-
ducers to validate the data. Discussions focused on cropping sys-
tems, inputs, soil quality data, land productivity, and pests and
diseases. Farmers expressed their desire to know how to improve
their land productivity, and were especially interested in receiving
the data on the soil fertility and chemical properties of their fields.
Researchers and farmers discussed specific options for potential
improvement in vegetable production systems, such as principles
of simple soil erosion control practices, like mulching and con-
tour planting. Farmers stated an interest in managing research
plots on their farms and requested assistance in setting up
hypothesis-testing experiments. As a result of this collaboration,
12 farmer-designed and managed plots and 24 researcher-man-
aged plots were established to measure soil erosion, and water
and nutrient runoff under various management practices.
Installation of these plots represents a great step towards
quantifying one of the main premises in the watershed hypothe-
sis, that soil erosion is worsened by vegetable production prac-
tices but that it can be reduced by increasing farmer awareness
and by designing and implementing sustainable management
alternatives. Already farmers are surprised by the amounts of soil
eroded from their plots and are implementing some of their own
remedies, such as constructing physical barriers and planting
hedgerows to reduce runoff. The research plots have generated

great interest in farmers not yet in the project and have also
increased communication between participant farmers as they
visit each other to compare management of the plots. This work
has shown that vegetable farmers are motivated to improve and
diversify their production systems and are willing to have experi-
mental plots installed on their land as a means to that end.
A parallel activity involving the work of UGA graduate student,
Todd Nissen, is seeking to clarify the land fallow system utilized
by farmers in the watershed. Declining productivity and a build-
up of pests and diseases drive
farmers to abandon lands. Solu-
tions being investigated to
reclaim the productivity of these
lands range from low mainte-
nance tree crops to a more sys-
tematic fallow system. A
corollary benefit from the work
with vegetable farmers has been
the training received by the local
Department of Agriculture staff
in comprehensive surveying
methods. Through this process
they evaluated farmer knowl-
edge on his/her production sys-
tem and were introduced to the
participatory methodology of
using information collected
from farmers to drive the design
of a research project.

Community Volunteers Monitor
Water Quality

Out of a growing concern for environmental degradation, mem-
bers of the Lantapan community have volunteered to monitor
water quality in the major rivers of their local watershed. The water
quality monitoring group, or Tigbantay Wahig, has been orga-
nized by Bill Deutsch of Auburn University and Jim Orprecio of
HPI. Deutsch has developed a water quality training manual for
general use with citizen monitoring teams; it has been translated
and revised for the Philippines program. The teams are monitor-
ing for total suspended solids as a measurement of soil erosion,
general water chemistry, and aquatic biodiversity. Atotal of 25 sites
have been monitored with 400 samples collected. The group also
has collected an initial stream invertebrate inventory for the
watershed and plan to use the information for the development
of biotic indicators of stream quality and also to enhance local

environmental education pro-
grams. After an initial training period, the Tigbantay Wahig con-
tinue their work supervised by the local field coordinator, and thus
provide a good example of the developing capacity among com-
munity members to undertake research and to train others to per-
petuate the project. The group is now posting their results at a
central public gathering site to increase community awareness of
the water quality of local rivers. As a result of their experience with
the monitoring teams, members of the group are expressing inter-
est in learning more about the relationships that are reflected in
the data they are gathering. The Tigbantay Wahig have also
applied to become an official Filipino NGO which would both for-
malize their status at the national level and enhance their ability
to become a self-sustaining group.

Pest Management:
Old Knowledge, New Partnerships

Vegetable farmers in the Manupali watershed are frequently
forced to abandon lands due to declining productivity, soil ero-
sion, and a build-up of pests, particularly soil-borne diseases
such as bacterial wilt. As previously cultivated lands are left fal-
low, farmers must turn to clearing forest to maintain their liveli-
hood. Research led by Gordon Prain and Maricel Piniero of
CIP/UPWARD has established a community-based integrated
pest management(IPM) program which aims to make vegetable
farming more viable, less costly, and-particularly in the case
of potatoes-less likely to encroach on the forest.
Interviews with 20 farmers
have provided information on
indigenous classifications of
insects and the history of insect
pests in the region. These folk
taxonomies categorize insects
primarily on the basis of
whether or not the insects cause
crop damage, rather than based
on morphology as with scientif-
ic classification systems. This
makes folk taxonomies power-
ful tools for the study of insect
pests and their management,
however, it was found that they
are weak at classifying beneficial

insects. Investigators and local farmers have been sampling
insects in the 4 main vegetable growing areas of the watershed to
develop a biodiversity collection. This has led to the identification
of beneficial insect parasites and predators. One communal and
4 individual IPM pilot sites have been established in different
areas of the watershed. Farmers are testing alternative crops and
a range of IPM technologies.
In another component to the pest management research,
more than 24 potato farmers in 7 barangays have been trained
in the new technology of True Potato Seed (TPS) production as a
potential source of clean potato planting material. Researchers
and farmers, in partnership, have designed and established 11
farmer-managed experimental plots to evaluate TPS crops on
farmers' lands. Farmers experimented on their own by choosing
the parameter that would be tested in a particular plot, such as
depth of sowing, exposure to disease, or comparison to tradition-
al tuber seed. Participants have experienced mixed results from
the TPS trials. Some farmers had crop failures while others pro-
duced increased yields. Monitoring and evaluation of the test crops
has been based on technical expertise as well as the farmers' per-
spective. A workshop held to present and discuss with farmers the
results of the TPS trials found that lack of success in individual tri-
als did not dampen either farmers' interest in alternative pest
management technologies or their determination to succeed.
Farmers have expressed a strong desire for greater access to infor-
mation about TPS, insect pests, and natural enemies.

Biodiversity Threatened by

In order to establish a base level
of data for biodiversity studies,
investigators from Green Min-
danao and CMU conducted a plant species inventory and diversi-
ty survey on Mt. Kinasalapi at 2700 and 2100 masl. Species of
plants representing the full range of botanical orders were col-
lected and identified at each site. However less than half the num-
ber of species were found at the lower altitude site than at higher
altitudes indicating a loss of biodiversity in agriculturally active
areas. Endangered plants and species with economic value were
discovered within the sampling area; their local names were
An animal biodiversity survey was undertaken by researchers
from MSU. Members of FPE and two Tala-andig ethnobiologists
were trained in these biodiversity monitoring methods. Investi-
gators were only able to locate 30% of the bird species known to

be found in the Kitanglad range. Deforestation, and therefore loss
of habitat, is believed to be the cause of this decline. Extensive
deforestation exists up to 1700 masl, with areas cleared for cul-
tivation of cabbage, potato, radish, and corn. The only signs that
these areas were once forested are the presence of large burned
and crownless trees. The first line of forest starts at 1800 masl
and it too shows signs of being slowly cleared for agriculture. Vir-
tually all the highly commercial lowland tropical rainforests are
gone. Only upper altitude forests, from 2000 to 2900 masl, are
still intact. Researchers consider this situation disheartening
when compared to the other municipalities around the Mt.
Kitanglad range such as San Vincente, Baungon, located in the
northwestern part of Bukidnon, where at 800 masl lowland
tropical rainforests are still untouched. All findings have been
shared and discussedwith the community through meetings and


Women's Gardens Cultivate Biodiversity

More than 130 women home gardeners, representing all but one
of Lantapan's 14 barangays and more than 25 organizations,
attended workshop to discuss their roles as providers of house-
hold needs and as protectors of biodiversity. The workshop was
organized by researchers with CIP/UPWARD and NOMIARC
studying how home gardening can enhance biodiversity con-
servation and household nutrition. Women mapped out their
gardens, listing species and varieties grown, and drew calendars
of garden activities and food production, as well as describing key
problems experienced. Self-drawn maps of the women's home
gardens provided researchers with an extensive inventory of cul-
tivated species and varieties which now serves as an ethnob-
otanical and management knowledge-base on home gardening.
In an effort to augment household food supplies, 88% of the
women cultivated a wide range of crop species and varieties. An
equal percentage of gardeners grew a selection of ornamentals
for their aesthetic value. For the sake of "beautification," some
of these women are conserving different forest species. Medici-
nal plants were cultivated in home gardens by 65% of the
women. Most of the women maintain their own planting mate-
rials or obtain them from neighbors' collections.

Landscape Models-
Valuable Research Tools
One of the goals of the SANREM program is to characterize the
biological, physical, and social aspects of each research site. The
GIS and weather station research projects, led by Ian Flitcroft of
UGA, are designed to gather and organize information describ-
ing the soils, topography, land use, and climate of each site. The
specific purpose of the GIS work is to create a set of digital (com-
puter) maps depicting different parameters which can be
overlain to investigate correlations. For example, by putting
together maps of soil type, topography, and land use, a map of
soil erosion potential can be created. This composite map is a
powerful tool in developing a plan for changes in resource man-
agement. In the Philippines, the following datasets and maps
have been generated: elevation and slope, land use, soil type,
political boundaries and towns, and roads and rivers. These
maps are a valuable resource for other investigators; NECI,
AVRDC, and IRRI are all making use of GIS datasets developed in
this research.
Clearly, the weather plays an important role in determining
agricultural production; monitoring the weather over at least

The women identified 24 pilot home gardeners, from across
the watershed, who will work in partnership with researchers to
test and demonstrate gardening innovations. Each village group
identified technical options which would be evaluated in these
pilot gardens, such as new varieties or crops, new cropping pat-
terns, or composting techniques.
A workshop on composting was offered to these pilot home
gardeners, in an effort to help them improve the management
of their gardens, Discussions
included benefits of compost-
ing, how-to demonstrations,
and visits to home gardens with
composts already in operation.
One of the main messages was
to treat "wastes" as resources
within each household. Com-
post bins, showing innovative
adaptations of the techniques
demonstrated at this workshop,
have already sprung up in
participants' gardens. kt

a 3 to 5 year period allows
researchers to determine cli-
matic trends. In the Philip-
pines, a weather station
network has been established
across the watershed to gather
this baseline data with farmers
responsible for monitoring
specific parameters. The weather data is being distributed to all
interested groups and institutions, including the community,
local governmental and non-governmental organizations, and
researchers. The weather stations are equipped with sensors
to measure rainfall, air temperature and humidity, wind speed
and direction, soil temperature, solar radiation, and photosyn-
thetically active radiation. Lucio Laurente, the work plan partner
at CMU, is conducting workshops in the community to discuss
the recent data, the reasons for collecting the data, and to gath-
er farmers' memories of past weather conditions.

The Economics of Sustainability

Farmers' decisions and resulting practices are among the main
factors that can ensure or undermine the sustainability of land
use. Therefore it is particularly important to understand what
are the main influences that shape such decisions, especially
in areas, such as the Manupali watershed, where land degrada-
tion is reaching levels that may result in ecological disaster,
unless current land use practices are modified. Economic
research, led by lan Coxhead of the University of Wisconsin and
Agnes Rola of the University of Philippines, is seeking to clarify
the role of factors stemming from the broader political econo-
my, such as government policies, access to markets, and com-
modity prices, in shaping
Lantapan farmers' decisions
about more or less sustainable
ways of using their land.
A farm survey of the upper
regions of the watershed estab-
lished that corn dominates the
land use and cultivation of
coffee, once the principal cash
crop, has declined as world
prices have fallen. The con-
version of coffee plantations
to vegetable crops, mainly
cabbages and potatoes, causes
significant environmental con-

sequences. Soil erosion under well-established perennial crops
such as coffee is much lower than that under short-season crops
(corn, vegetables).
Initial analysis of price monitoring of agricultural goods grown
and traded in the watershed indicates that agricultural prices are
determined mainly outside the watershed, rather than by pro-
duction within Lantapan. National compliance with GATT and
AFTA will undoubtedly lead to price changes for local farmers.
Since policy changes at the national level could influence relative
prices in the watershed thereby altering local farming practices,
national agricultural pricing policies should be seen as important
elements of environmental policy. Currently, the high cost of cap-
ital and reliance on informal credit markets is a major constraint
to adoption of soil conservation practices and also an incentive to
produce short-season crops which increase soil erosion. Deregu-
lation of the domestic banking industry and the lifting of restric-
tions on the operations of foreign banks therefore should have
strong positive environmental benefits in areas like Lantapan.
This research indicates promising areas for producing eco-
nomic and environmental impacts. Promotion of investments in
soil-conserving structures, such as contour strips on corn and
vegetable lands; conversion to alternative, less erosion-prone
crops, such as coffee; developing value-added enterprises and
niche markets, such as specialty coffee blends utilizing local pro-
cessing facilities, would all contribute to greater economic sta-
bility and to reduced soil erosion and land degradation.

Women's Concerns on the Landscape

The collaborative work of
Revathi Balakrishnan, of VPI,
with the End-User/Gender
Working Group has catalyzed
the development of new link-
ages with host-country institu-
tions and generated a wealth of
new information and insights
on women's perceptions and concerns in the area of natural
resource management.
A 3-day forum brought together 40 women representing 35
women's groups, 14 barangays, and the 5 agroecological zones
that make up the municipality of Lantapan. The objective was to
identify women's primary concerns regarding natural resource
management, opportunities for collaboration and mobilization
of resources, and criteria for the integration of gender issues in
research plans being implemented in the Philippines. Special
efforts were made to ensure the representation of all categories
and classes of women living in Lantapan, including women of

different ages, ethnicities, occupations, socioeconomic status,
and educational levels.
A series of innovative, interactive exercises enabled the
women to compare and combine their environmental concerns
and development priorities and to collectively develop resource
maps and historical narratives concerning the physical and
social landscape of the Lantapan area. The findings are being
made available to grassroots organizations, local government
institutions, and researchers that have expressed an interest in
integrating the women's concerns in their activities.
By providing opportunities for women's organizations to
network and to develop linkages with broader-scope institutions,
the forum also enhanced the women's ability to access infor-
mation and resources, and promoted the value of participatory
approaches and gender issues in research and development.
For instance, as a result of their involvement in the women's
forum, faculty from CMU have expressed a strong interest in
receiving further training in participatory methodologies.


Ethnoecology-Other Ways of Knowing

How you interact with the world depends on how you perceive it.
And how you see the world depends, in a large part, on the social
and cultural context in which you were raised. Do women see the
world and use resources differently than men? Do different
ethnic groups hold a different vision of their environment?
These are some of the questions being explored by the ethnoe-
cology research team led by Virginia Nazarea and Robert Rhoad-
es of UGA and Linda Burton of RIMCU at Xavier University.
Ethnoecology is the study of how local people view and catego-
rize the natural world.
Through extensive interviews with over 50 members of the
Lantapan community, from the Tala-andig, Dumagat, Ilocano,
and Igorot ethnic groups, the investigators have completed an in-
depth analysis of patterns of resource use and concepts of sus-
tainability as a function of ethnic group, gender, and age. This
has been complemented by a demographic study reconstructing
the historical migration patterns of these different ethnic groups
and history of resource use in the watershed. To tap people's
internalized vision of their world, investigators asked them to
draw maps of the watershed and weave stories about what they
saw in photographs depicting different agricultural scenes
around Lantapan. In this way, researchers are exploring the way
a person or group thinks about the world and which aspects are
most important to them. Analysis of these findings brings
researchers closer to understanding local people's concepts of
sustainability and how this translates into their resource man-
agement practices.
In parallel participatory action work, investigators have

On-Farm Experiments
Testing Solutions
User-First research, led by HPI & Philippine DA, is organizing
on-farm agricultural research in barangays throughout the
Manupali watershed. An HPI orientation workshop apprised 198
barangay officials of the role of local government in the com-
munity research activities. User-First teams facilitated diagnos-
tic workshops with 119 pundoks, informal groupings of farm
households, from the 5 agroecological zones across the Manu-
pali watershed. Participants identified and prioritized environ-
mental problems on their farms, mapping the relationships

undertaken several projects to increase local access to and con-
trol over plant genetic resources. To introduce local women to
the principles of biodiversity conservation, the ethnoecology
team organized a field trip for more than 25 participants from
Lantapan. They visited the germplasm collection of sweet pota-
toes in Libona, the flower farms in Malaybalay, and the tissue cul-
ture laboratory in Cagayan de Oro. Many of these women will, in
the next two years, be taking the
lead in germplasm conserva-
tion of culturally significant
plants in the planned tissue cul-
ture lab in Songco. The field trip
emphasized the pivotal role of
women in the maintenance of
biodiversity of important local
crops. The team has developed
a low-technology, user-friendly
tissue culture method for plant
propagation and trained 4 local
women in the protocol. In addi-
tion, germplasm conservation
projects have been established
through local elementary
schools in which students, with
their mothers and teachers,
maintain different varieties of
culturally important crops in
communal gardens.

between the problems and
potential causes. Farmers then evaluated possible solutions
based on their perspectives on sustainability, feasibility, risk, and
cost. Farmers then designed on-farm experiments to evaluate
the effects of alternative farming and conservation practices on
soil erosion control, soil fertility, weed control, and pest control.
HPI has also established bulletin boards at local gathering spots
to serve as a means of sharing information about SANREM CRSP
activities with the whole community.

Farmers Map a Vision of Their Future

NECI is workingwith hugpongs, informal networks of farm fam-
ilies, in 3 upland barangays on agroforestry issues. Through a
series of 8 workshops the group discussed with farmers the
importance of sustainable farming and resource management
issues. NECI is also working closely with the Mayor's office and
Barangay Development Councils. To study local agriculture
cycles and environmental effects, NECI facilitated field trips for
over 100 farmers and 30 BDC members to the Cagayan de Oro
city markets where Lantapan farm products are sold; to agro-
forestry research projects, tree nurseries, and demonstration
farms where they learned
about other farmers' conserva-
- tion efforts; and to the
hydropower plant which is

plagued by silting from agricultural runoff. Before the field trips,
farmers mapped their present land use; then after the visits they
were asked to repeat the exercise, this time showing what they
wish their farms would become. These maps are now being used
as goal-setting guides for on-farm research. Additional inter-
views conducted with 125 farmers have yielded extensive data
on land use patterns, farming systems, agroforestry practices,
indigenous perception of biodiversity in the upland barangays.
NECI and ICRAF also facilitated a national workshop, Buffer
Zone Management and Agroforestry, to gather the many
research institutes and development agencies working in and
around the Mt. Kitanglad Protected Area. The objective was to
coordinate research efforts and to develop a consensus on prac-
tical methods for buffer zone management.

Teaching the Children Well

SHAISI is a well-established
folk high school in Lantapan
for the study of agriculture and
environmental issues. In addi-
tion to their work with local
farm families, the group trains
teachers to increase their
awareness of sustainability
issues so that they may then
educate the next generations
who will live in and care for the
watershed. One hundred
teachers in the watershed have
participated in experiential
training in group decision-
making, cooperative practice,
sustainable agriculture and

New & Ongoing Activitic

* maintaining weather station net-
work & collection of daily weather
data (UGA & CMU)
* validation of watershed simulation
model to be used for evaluating land
use effects on water quality (UGA)
* initiating aquaculture research
based on feasibility study completed
last year (Auburn & SHAISI)

* completing inventory o
forest plants (DENR)
* completing demograpt
* conducting survey of c
systems to improve sus
of production (CMU)

natural resource management. Exercises are designed to stim-
ulate discussion about the causes and possible remedies for
poverty and ways to teach about sustainability. In order to high-
light landscape/lifescape interactions, the classroom training is
followed by field trips from Mt. Kitanglad down to the dam that
controls the flow of the Manupali River, and includes visits to
demonstration farms as well as to locations that exemplify the
consequences of mismanagement of natural resources. Partici-
pants design a farm development plan which they can imple-
ment in their school gardens and on their home farms. The
teachers have made plans to establish "enlightenment gardens"
on school campuses as showcases of sustainable farming.
SHAISI has also fostered a linkage between the SANREM Envi-
ronmental Education Working Group and the teachers of Lanta-
pan which can potentially lead to close integration between local
school curriculum and SANREM research.

7 consider education on agriculture through the
s i various trainigs, as the big contribution of
SANREM. We have become more anare thit the
of economic population conlimnes to increase irlile our
inam resource has remained.1 ed Wie are
lic study thankful that Ithrough S. VREDI. we learn more
about hou. to use properly the small piece of
n f g land that we till. Ifall of us iho haie gotten
orn farming
involved with SANREM gel organized, we can
better qhare te knowledge lt.at we hare gained
so far, with other members of the community."
-Flor Hing-on

Burkina Faso is a land-locked coun-
try in the Sudano-Sahelian region of
West Africa which lays between the
Sahara desert and the forested
coastal region, and one of the poor-
est in the world. The SANREM
research site lies within the water-
shed surrounding the village of Don-
sin, located about 100 km northeast
of the capital, Ouagadougou. This
semi-arid region has among the

Lifescape .

Almost 200 "compounds", that is
homesteads which include an
extended family and surrounded by
family farm, are scattered iltrough-
out thematershed of Donsin This is
home to 1550 people, mostly belong-
ing to the Mossi ethnic group. Men,
women, and older children work on
family fields, where they grow millet
and sorghum as the staple crops, and
cowpeas, peanuts, rice, and vegeta-
bles for cooking ingredients. But,
despite their hard work, most fami-
lies suffer food shortages during the
months preceding the new harvest,
when most of their food supplies are
exhausted. Cash earning opportuni-
ties, except for the sale ofpoullr) and
small ruminants, are scarce. Young

highest rates of land degradation in
the country. It covers about 6400 ha
and is surrounded by severely erod-
ed and deforested escarpments, with
a seasonal river along its northern
boundary. Loss of soil fertility and
scarce, erratic rainfall (an average of
650-750 mm, or 25-30 inches, per
year) are the main constraints on
agricultural production. Rainfall
occurs during a period of three or

men migrate to the Ivory Coast to
work as farm labor and women
engage in petty trade during the dry
season. Access to markets is limited
b) the lack of transportation and of
an all-weather road to cover the 18


Burkina Faso

four months (from June to Septem-
ber), and mostly in the form of heavy
downpours, which means that much
can be lost and even damaging to
crops and soils. The low water reten-
tion capacity of eroded soils also hin-
ders the ability of crops to make the
most of the available rain water.
Water quality is also a major problem
affecting animal and human health.

km distance between the village and
the nearest town of Boulsa.
The SANREM Burkina Faso pro-
gram was initiated in August 1993;
research plans have begun their first
phase of implementation.



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"We praise ti i'/ ip, aili r .I' ,i /, iftheprogram. The fact
that at every stage of the program, the population was
convened and consulted, and had plenty of chance to give
their point ofview. Among other things, ;it pr u project
has enabled us to obtain materials needed to plant trees."
-Chief of Donsin

No .aft..
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Farmers Adopt New Soil Conservation Measures

To bridge the time gap between the community assessment and
the implementation of SANREM research projects, a series of
priming activities have been initiated in Donsin by in-country
partners. The overall goals of these activities are to increase the
farmers' understanding of and participation in the SANREM pro-
gram and to integrate community members into the planned
research projects. The individ-
ual projects center around
DE L'MA l introducing farmers to innova-
Stive sustainable agricultural
,C, RSP practices that would reduce soil
erosion and land degradation.
Field trips to other provinces
where the fight against soil
degradation is ongoing were
initiated so that Donsin farmers could learn directly from the
experiences of other farmers struggling with similar problems.
Community members have established a Bosquet de L'Ami-
tiW or "Friendship Grove", to encourage farmers to replant defor-
ested areas. In this project, a small tree preserve is replanted and
cordoned off to allow traditional species of trees to grow undis-
turbed. This will decrease erosion and improve shade in the area
to enable future underplantings. The activity has raised aware-
ness in the Donsin community of the problems of deforestation
and of the need to protect trees. On their own initiative, residents
have begun planting trees along the roads within the village.
The zai project began with the training of 4 Donsin village
smiths at a center located in northern Burkina Faso where they
learned to make specialized planting hoes. Thezai method, intro-
duced to the region by INERA in 1992, is a labor-intensive soil con-
servation practice in which seeds and manure are placed in holes

in the fields before the planting season. The advantage of the zai
method is that it improves soil fertility and water holding capac-
ity. Since fields are planted before the heavy rains and the runoff
can collect in the zai holes, this practice gives farmers a head-
start on the short cropping season. The early planting and the
increased soil water retention results in more abundant and sta-
ble yields of sorghum and millet. The feasibility and effectiveness
of these sustainable agriculture practices are being examined
and tested further through
research projects that focus on
the role of agroforestry and the
zai technique in conserving or
restoring soil fertility.
As part of the priming activity
in Donsin, a learning program in
holistic resource management
was initiated through a series of
workshops led by HRM educa-
tors, Arne Vanderburg and Sam
Bingham. The first phase of the
program trained a group of 12
community facilitators, includ-
ing extension agents and devel-
opment workers from World
Neighbors and PPI, in a commu-
nity decision-making model for a
holistic approach to natural
resource management. These
facilitators will utilize their train-
ing to introduce this methodolo-
gy to the villagers of Donsin.

The advantages of the zai method are many: increases in soil water retention andfertility and it gives farmers a headstart on the increasingly
shortened farming season. Its use has allowed land that was abandoned or relegated to cattle grazing to be brought back into agricultural use.



Pictures Where People Matter

Can photographs be used as communication tool to enable minori-
ties and marginal populations to convey their own views of their
world-overcoming barriers of culture and literacy? In an effort to
expand the participatory approach to the development of educa-
tional materials, anthropologist Carla Roncoli and UGA journalism
graduate Margery Sendze tested the innovative methodology of
using photographs taken by farmers to elicit and to communicate
information about issues of agricultural sustainability
A training was held in the village of Donsin, involving 18 farmers
(12 men and 6 women) with the assistance of NGO field staff and a
local photographer. The program included a group discussion of the
themes identified as priority
research areas for the SANREM
Burkina Faso program (soil, water,
biodiversity, livestock manage-
ment, human health and nutri-
tion); a ranking exercise to
determine farmer's criteria for
judging photographs; and instruc-
tion in photographic technique.
After the training, participants,
using disposable cameras, were

given 2 days to take photographs focusing on the most severe prob-
lems in each research area and on the ways of addressing them which
are currently being implemented. A selection of photographs and
commentaries by the farmers was assembled in a community photo
album documenting environmental problems and agricultural prac-
tices from the farmers' point of view.
From this pilot study, the researchers conclude that participato-
ry use of photography can serve as an effective tool for a range of
research and development activities, such as problem assessment,
resource inventory, holistic planning, or monitoring and evaluation.
Because the SANREM CRSP mainly works among people with low
literacy rates, the possibility of expressing themselves through
images will increase their capacity to be active partners in every step
of the research process. This approach provides an innovative medi-
um to create educational and communication linkages between
farmers, enabling the exchange of ideas and experiences through
farmer-produced images, both across SANREM research sites and
with US agricultural programs. Another opportunity being explored
will use these photographs to develop interactive, multimedia teach-
ing modules to be used in US schools for interdisciplinary and mul-
ticultural curricula in such subjects as environmental science,
geography, and social science.

Models of the Landscape

One of the goals of the SANREM
program is to characterize the bio-
logical, physical, and social aspects
of each research site. The GIS and
weather station research projects,
led by lan Flitcroft of UGA, are
designed to gather and organize
information describing the soils,
topography, land use, and climate
of each site.
The specific purpose of the GIS
work is to create a set of digital

(computer) maps depicting different parameters which can be
overlain to investigate correlations. For example, by putting togeth-
er maps of soil type, topography, and land use, a map of soil erosion
potential can be created. This composite map is a powerful tool in
developing a plan for changes in resource management. In Burki-
na Faso, GIS researchers have developed baseline maps for the
Donsin area which are properly rectified. This work is essential to
correct maps developed earlier by host country institutions which
had incorporated distortions resulting from the original aerial
photography. In addition, the following datasets and maps have
been generated: land use, soil type and geomorphology, settlement
boundaries, and aerial and satellite images of the site.

New and Ongoing Activities
* study of indigenous knowledge in ethnoveterinary medicine and the role of livestock in nutrient management
(INERA & Univ. of Wisconsin)
* study of the relationship of sustainable agriculture and natural resources management on nutrition & quality of life (INERA & VPI)
* analysis of sustainable livestock production systems and soil fertility management (INERA & WSU)
* impact of water resources on farming & biodiversity (IRBET & Tuskegee Univ.)
* effects of agroforestry on sustainability (IRBET & Univ. of Wisconsin)
* study of land tenure & natural resource management (INERA & Tuskegee Univ.)
* improvement of small ruminant livestock management for productivity & sustainability (INERA & Tuskegee Univ.)
* study of soil fertility & cropping systems (IDR & UGA)
* the role of women's vegetable gardens in farm food self-sufficiency (INERA & UGA)


The research site for the SANREM
Ecuador program is a 34,000 ha
watershed within the Alambi River
and Guayllabamba River basins in
the buffer zone south of the Cota-
cachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve, a
major national park. The watershed
is perched along the steep slopes of
Ecuador's northwestern Andes
mountains about 100 km from the
capital city of Quito. This area is aptly

Lifescape .
Attracted by employment opportuni-
ties andthe favorable soil and climate
conditions, settlers have been flow-
ing into ihis region continuously for
the last 100 years, in a dri\e to extend
the agricultural frontier. The water-
shed, home to about 3000 people, is
inhabited by a mixture of farmers
from large hacienda owners to small-
scale subsistence farmers to medi-
um-sized sugar cane farms. Because
of its accessibility to the markets of
Quito, this region has been utilized
for the production of sugar cane, fruit
trees, and cattle. Crops are mainly
grown close to town on clustered
plots separated by living fences: a
mosaic of banana and citrus groves,
sugar cane fields, and family gardens
growing cassava, plantain, yucca,

situated in the middle of four nature
The Andean landscape, relatively
dry and peppered by plots of corn,
sugar cane, vegetable crops, eucalyp-
tus trees, and scattered homes,
changes as the road descends toward
the coastal provinces. The mountain
ridges in the protected reserves are
still carpeted with a dense tropical
cloud forest. But along the slopes and

sweet potato, maize, and beans. Fur-
ther away from town, along the hill-
sides, the land is used for grazing
cattle and the landscape is trans-
formed into pastureland and forest.

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in the river valleys, the landscape is
an agricultural patchwork. Villages
have gathered along the wide terraces
carved by the waters of the Guayl-
labamba River. In this region, the
hillsides are amix of scattered forests
and crops where the slopes are steep,
separated by wide expanses of crop
and grazing lands on the high plains.

The SANREM Ecuador program
began in September 1994; the diag-
nostic phase is completed and imple-
mentation of research is about to



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Autodiagnosticos-Community Self-Portraits

As the initiation of the SANREM Ecuador program, a series of com-
munity-led appraisals was held in the watershed. The leadership
of COMUNIDEC, a host country NGO with extensive experience in
the region, was enlisted, because they have devised an extremely
successful model for working with communities. The 4 commu-
nities, or comunas, participating in the SANREM program are
home to 280 families and 53% of them actively participated in the
autodiagnosticos. Community members, or comuneros, gath-
ered-men, women, and children-to reflect on their commu-
nity, its social and ecological history, its social and political
structure, the local environment and biodiversity, the pattern of
community activities, family structure and livelihood strategies,
environmental and resource problems and potential solutions.
Collectively, the comuneros described their world through words,
drawings, and diagrams.

The comuneros conceptualize the landscape in categories that
were akin to agroecozones, such as the river, swamp, short cycle
crops, long cycle crops, residential areas, home production areas,
hilly and mountain lands, and bad (unusable) lands. Comuneros
showed an extensive knowledge of the biodiversity in the area and
a clear awareness of the ecological changes occurring around them.
The autodiagnosticos were summarized and later validated at
community assemblies. Information and issues raised were then
developed into the Framework Plan which will serve as the guide-
line for the SANREM Ecuador
program and for research work
plans. The autodiagnosticos have
also helped to establish the foun-
dation for a trusting relationship
with the comunas in the SANREM
work zone.

Mosaic of Livelihood Strategies

As part of the initial assessment activities for the Ecuador program,
Laura German, a graduate student under the direction of Robert
Rhoades at UGA, conducted an inventory and rapid field appraisal
of communities lying within the Guayllabamba River watershed.
Through direct observation and discussions with local communi-
ty members, her work identifies and categorizes settlement pat-
terns, livelihood strategies, and production practices in the region.
This detailed study shows how variation in agroecological zones,
land use patterns, and socioeconomic levels all contribute to a
great diversity in livelihood strategies and a stratified community
structure. A classification scheme was devised to describe the dis-
tinct patterns in farm ownership and land management: large-
scale haciendas with owners in residence or with absentee owners,
subsistence farmers and small-scale cattle operations, medium-
scale sugar cane operations, and small-scale business entrepre-
neurs. Each of these categories is correlated with distinctive

patterns of land holdings,
resource use, social status, polit-
ical power, and environmental
impact. In particular, the most
severe land degradation occurred
on large-scale haciendas with
absentee owners and on small
subsistence farms which are con-
centrated in more isolated
regions and on marginal lands.
Such a classification system
enriches our understanding of
the diversity and complexity of
natural resource management
patterns and provides an essen-
tial baseline of data to guide future research.

Priming Activities-A Bridge to Progress

To maintain the momentum of the SANREM Ecuador program
until full implementation of proposed research projects, a con-
stellation of priming activities has been initiated in the 4 commu-
nities of the watershed. These endeavors also provide additional
information on the watershed to researchers. The priming activi-
ties stress equal participation of farmers and investigators in a
mutual teaching-learning process and take place directly in the
communities. Farmers participated in research in crop and live-

stockproduction practices and marketing systems currently in use
in the region. This research reveals that farmers are at a disad-
vantage because of inadequate information on production and
prices that affect farm management and family livelihood. More-
over evidence shows that the marketing system for farm products
is almost completely in the hands of middlemen which allows for
manipulation of supplies and prices in ways that are detrimental
to producers.

Collaboration with SUBIR

The SANREM Ecuador research site is within the SUBIR project's
area of interest. SUBIR, also funded by USAID Ecuador, is working
on issues related to sustainable management in the Cotacachi-
Cayapas Ecological Reserve, a major national park that borders the
watershed to the north. A Memorandum of Understanding was
signed between SUBIR and the SANREM CRSP outlining a collab-

orative program and detailing future projects and workshops to be
conducted jointly. The proposed SANREM activities that are being
considered for joint study with the SUBIR project are 1) environ-
mental impact of cabuya processing, 2) biodiversity of the Cota-
cachi-Cayapas reserve boundary, and 3) feasibility assessment of
lowland fish culture within the buffer zone of the bioreserve.

Volunteers Monitor Local Water Quality

Water quality monitoring workshops, facilitated by Bill Deutsch of
Auburn Uniirsit, were conducted to train 30 participants includ-
ing community members, high
school students of the Parish Seis
de Julio de Cuellaje in the
Province of Imbabura, students
from USFQ, and paratecnicos
and to provide these volunteer
teams with monitoring skills and
water quality testing equipment.
During the workshops, mornings
were spent in the classroom and
afternoons were spent in nearby
streams, demonstrating and

Mapping the
One of the goals of the SANREM
program is to characterize the bio-
logical, physical, and social aspects
of each research site. The GIS
research projects, led by Ian Flit-
croft of UGA, is designed to gather
and organize information describ-
ing the soils, topography, and land
use of each site. The specific pur-
pose of the GIS work is to create a set of digital (computer) maps
depicting different parameters which can be overlain to reveal cor-
relations. For example, by putting together maps of soil type, topog-
raphy, and land use, a map of soil erosion potential can be created.
This composite map is a powerful tool in developing a plan for
improving natural resource management. The Ecuador site is an

practicing water quality monitoring techniques. Bilingual work-
books explaining the principles and methods for monitoring
streams were distributed to the participants. The group has also
developed 3 reference collections of stream invertebrates for use
by monitoring teams. As part of the collaborative workwith SUBIR,
a stream monitoring program was designed in the Cristopamba
River watershed to assess the impact on water quality of cabuya
processing, in the manufacture of the fiber, sisal. Fourteen addi-
tional sampling sites across the watershed were selected to mon-
itor water quality in streams with and without cabuya processing.
A plan for continued monitoring was developed with on-site SUBIR
and SANREM personnel. The paratecnicos will sample all sites
monthly and transmit the data to Auburn University.

area of steep mountain slopes, and fast flowing rivers and streams.
The pattern of agricultural activity is dominated by these land forms
and the need for a detailed model of the topography is paramount.
Through a close collaboration with the Ecuador partner, CDC, the
GIS project has completed the sizable task of assembling a very
detailed Digital Elevation Model, a computer topographic map of the
site at 10 meter resolution.
A weather station network also has been established across the
watershed to gather baseline data, with farmers responsible for
monitoring specific parameters. Rain gauges have been located on
the grounds of local schools and will be read by teams of teachers
and sixth grade students. This will promote distribution of the infor-
mation to the community. Otherwise, the weather data is being dis-
seminated to all interested groups and institutions, including the
community, local governmental and non-governmental organiza-
tions, and researchers.

New & Ongoing Activities
* biodiversity survey in the buffer zone (SUBIR and SANREM)
* study on indicators of sustainability in the buffer zone (UGA & SUBIR)
* maintaining weather stations network and collection of daily weather data (UGA & CDC)
* aquaculture feasibility study (Auburn, SUBIR & USFQ)


The Republic of Cape Verde is an
island archipelago lying in a crescent
in the Atlantic Ocean between the
Tropic of Cancer and the Equator,
500 km off the coast of Dakar, Sene-
gal, the westernmost point in conti-
nental Africa. The archipelago is
volcanic in origin; it is a country
made up of 10 islands and 8 islets.
The Agua de Gato watershed,
located in the south central part of

Lifescape. .
The Agua de Gato watershed, com-
prising 350 hectares, is home to 177
families (about 1000 residents) mak-
ing their livelihood through subsis-
tence agriculture in the cultivation of
maize, beans, peanuts, vegetables,
fruit and small-scale raising of live-
stock such as cattle, goats, chickens,
pigs, and donkeys. A skewed land
tenure system reserves the best lands
to large landowners leaving small
farmers as tenants who inherit the
rights to only rent land. Agricultural
production is limited by the irregular-
ity of rainfall. Most families cultivate
rainfed crops; less than a quarter of
the community has the benefit of irri-
gation. Irrigated lands are mainly

the Island of Santiago, 18 km from
the capital city of Praia, is the
research site for the SANREM Cape
Verde program. It has a rugged relief,
with altitudes that vary between 350
and 750 masl, and extreme slopes
that create abrupt transitions in the
landscape. This varied relief is char-
acterized by volcanic rockwith steep,
gravely hillsides and valleys of loamy-
clay soils. The soils, affected by the

reserved for vegetable crops, fruit
trees, and sugar cane, the predomi-
nant cash crop. The residents ofAgua
de Gato have shown a desire to be
active players in the development of
long-term solutions for local problems
and possess the community dynamics
to implement such endeavors.

Republica de Cabo Verde

climatic conditions of the region, are
shallow, poor in organic matter and
fertility, and extremely susceptible to
erosion. Cape Verde endures peren-
nial drought conditions. On the
island of Santiago the annual rainfall
between 1970 and 1980 varied from
31 mm (1.2 inches) to 1200 mm (47
inches), and 1994 brought only 150
mm (6 inches) of rain.

The SANREM Cape Verde program
began in August 1994; research
plans are now being finalized and
implementation will begin in the
near future.

Atlantic Ocean
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Cape Verde has a history of famines with tragic death tolls caused by
frequent crop failures. Presently this condition is being mitigated by
extensive food aid and other international intervention. In hopes of
nurturing a more sustainable in-country program, the USAID mission
in Praia contacted the SANREM CRSP in 1993 to seek the program's
assistance in implementing the research component of the Cape

Verde WARD project. The Cape Verde program stands apart from other
SANREM programs in that it is bounded within a two-year agreement.
We see this as a unique opportunity and challenge to implement the
SANREM process, distilled to its essential elements, in a condensed
time frame. The following description of the Cape Verde program
serves as an illustration of the SANREM CRSP implementation process.

Watershed Identified for Research Program

After surveying a number of potential sites, the SANREM team select-
ed theAgua de Gato watershed as the research site for the Cape Verde
program. This watershed was chosen because it represented a wide
range of topographical conditions-from plains to pronounced
slopes-with a diversity of land-use systems, and it has an urgent need
for soil and water conservation. The residents of Agua de Gato,
through its community development association, Associagdo do
Desenvolvimento Communittdrio, have demonstrated a willingness
to participate with other institutions in the identification of the lim-
its and potential of its resources. The community has shown a spe-
cial enthusiasm for opportunities to study natural resource

management methods through an integrated approach and a long-
term perspective. The program is overseen by a US Project Coordi-
nator and a Site Coordinator who resides in Cape Verde. A National
Coordinating Council has been
established as an in-country com-
mittee to oversee the planning and
implementation of this project.
Serving on the council are represen-
tatives from the Cape Verde partners,
as well as 2 farmers' representatives
from the watershed.

PLLA-Self-portrait of a Community

The Cape Verde program was formally launched with the commu-
nity-led assessment, the Participatory Landscape/Lifescape
Appraisal (PLLA). This community assessment provided a forum
to the residents of Agua de Gato to discuss the constraints which
limit their livelihood strategies and the possible solutions they can
implement to better manage their resources. It provided investiga-
tors an opportunity to gain a comprehensive understanding of the
watershed and its inhabitants from the residents' perspective.
The PLLA teams were composed of 6 farmers from the water-
shed (3 men and 3 women) and 20 tMcnicos from collaborating
Cape Verdean organizations: Animaqdo Rural, ACDI, and the 3
Cape Verdean development institutions: INIDA, DGASP and INERF.
The PLLA was a significant occasion for this site given that
researchers from the national development and research institutes
had never worked collaboratively with farmers, or worked in either
an interdisciplinary or inter-institutional team. Building on the
experiences from SANREM's other sites, the PLLA team was first
trained in participatory methodologies by facilitators from the US
and Burkina Faso. Discussions amongst team members identified
7 major areas to be addressed during the community appraisal:
agroclimatic conditions, soil resources, water resources, agro-silvo-
pastoral production systems, agrarian systems, social/economic
infrastructure, and health, nutrition, and food security.
All team members spoke Portuguese and most spoke Crioulo,
the local language. The initial team was divided into smaller field

groups. A core group of members
from each team remained in the
watershed throughout the whole
activity so that they could interact
more fully with the residents to
develop a rapport and participate in
the various cultural activities host-
ed by community members. The
close contact with community
members fostered communication
between the tcnicos and the farm-
ers. Over 80 village residents par-
ticipated closely in the community self-diagnosis.
The principal limitations directly affecting the population of the
watershed are the continual lack of water and the shortage of ener-
gy sources, such as firewood, due to the almost complete depletion
of forestry resources. Agricultural development is also constrained
by the land tenure system in the watershed; the Catholic Church
owns almost half of the 350 ha in the watershed with the remain-
der primarily divided amongst a few big land owners. Most other
farmers remain renters or sharecroppers. On the final day of the
appraisal, the team presented a summary of its findings to the com-
munity for comment and validation. The presentation ended with
a watershed-wide dinner accompanied by local music and dance.

Framework Plan-A Blueprint For Sustainability

At each of the SANREM CRSP sites, the findings of the PLLA, the
community-led assessment process, are used to generate a
research agenda, the Framework Plan, which serves as an imple-
mentation guide directing the course of the host country program.
Research priorities for the SANREM/Cape Verde program were for-
mulated at a Framework Plan Development Workshop which gath-
ered 35 participants, including farmers from the community and
representatives of collaborating research institutions and govern-

Workshops and Trainings

As with other SANREM programs, the
Cape Verde program has been initi-
ated through a series of workshops
introducing the principles and cor-
nerstones of the SANREM approach
and offering training in participato-
ry research methodologies.
Judith Killen, a writing consul-
tant, facilitated a workshop on Pro-
posal Development and Marketing
to train potential Cape Verde
research partners in developing
work plans for the project. Thirty
people participated, representing all
WARD partners and other national
organizations, which included
researchers, NGO representatives,
extension specialists, and members
of farmer cooperatives. This work-
shop provided participants both

ment agencies. The 4 areas identified as research priorities from
the community appraisal are: agroclimatology and water, soils,
agrosilvopastoral production systems, and the socio-economic sit-
uation. The expected results of the research program are: to
improve water management and irrigation systems; to minimize
soil erosion and improve soil fertility and water holding capacity;
to improve food security and the socio-economic conditions in the

essential training in the fundamentals of proposal writing and
direct practical experience in order to help them become more
effective in competing for international grants programs. During
the workshop, participants asked for further training in project
design and proposal development. Killen assisted INIDA staff
in writing a proposal to be submitted to private foundations to
provide an intensive English-training workshop in technical
writing and to obtain materials to establish a reference library
at the institute.
A Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Workshop was
held for both community members and scientists. Thirty-five
participants attended, mainly from the WARD institutional part-
ners, such as INIDA, DGASP, INERF, INC, Animagdo Rural, and
the farmers' association from the watershed. This workshop
provided participants the opportunity to identify measurable indi-
cators which will be used to evaluate the progress of their indi-
vidual research projects. It also offered training in the process
of self-evaluation and in the establishment of an integrated,
ongoing evaluation system to coordinate monitoring and report-
ing procedures amongst research projects.

Graduate Student Training

In the continuing effort to enrich
host country resources, 4 students from Cape Verde were select-
ed for placement within M.S. programs at US universities within
the SANREM consortium. They began graduate training in Sep-
tember 1994 and have successfully completed their first academ-
ic year. The institutions participating include UGA, Auburn
University, and VPI. Each student has developed a research pro-
posal andreturned to Cape Verde this summer to initiate field work
and collect data in the Agua de Gato watershed. Their projects
focus on sustainable agriculture and natural resource manage-
ment in the watershed and apply participatory methods working
with farmers as full partners.

The research projects include analysis of opportunities and
constraints to implementing integrated forestry and farming sys-
tems; assessment of nutrient status of rainfed crops under vari-
ous manure fertilization schemes; effect on water use of crops
under different cropping strategies; and comparison of tradition-
al irrigation systems with new technologies in vegetable produc-
tion. At the end of their studies, targeted for August 1996, these
students are committed to return to INIDA and DGASP the princi-
ple Cape Verde institutions for agricultural research and develop-
ment, to continue working in collaboration with the local
communities on resource management issues.


Landmark Alliance

ile'r ,r.lig i/.ce SANREM brochure, Iknew that Cape Verde was exactly what they had in mind.
Plagued by an almost permanent drought and a tortuous landscape, the practice ofagriculture
and natural resources management in the islands is a continuous challenge."
-Dr. Jose Levy, president of the National Institute for
Agricultural Research and Development (INIDA)

Some of the fruits of participatory research farmers' association, Associaqdo do Desen-
are already being harvested in Cape Verde. volvimento Communitdrio, pursued and was
Through their representatives on the SAN- awarded the contract. In addition, a second
REM/Cape Verde National Coordination / contract has since been awarded to the associ-
Council, the farmers of the Agua de Gato ation for the construction of wells. This is an
watershed learned that DGASP was seeking a -_ S historic alliance; never before has a farmers'
contractor to initiate an afforestation program association in Cape Verde been delegated such
in the region. The residents of the watershed responsibilities by a government agency. It is
had recentlyparticipated in the SANREM com- felt that the SANREM workshops and the PLLA
munity self-diagnosis and this activity had experience have given both professionals and
reinforced their confidence that they could be farmers an opportunity to view each other with
equal partners in both research and development endeavors. The a fresh sense of mutual respect and trust.

New & Ongoing Activities
* an analysis of economic incentives to promote conservation behavior (ACDI, INIDA, Animagdo Rural)
* study of fruit tree production in the watershed (INFA)
* study for the improvement of forage plant production (INIDA)
* study on the maximization and management of the natural & human resources in the watershed (INIDA)
* study of the impact of agro-forestry, water & soil conservation practices on agricultural production & soil erosion (DGASP)

Global Classroom, Local Lessons

In an effort to promote environmental awareness and conserva-
tion efforts among the future residents of the watershed, the SAN-
REM CRSP Environmental Education Working Group has linked
elementary school classes from across the globe. The 4th and 5th
graders of theVincenciaTavares school in theAgua de Gato water-
shed have been corresponding with Mrs. Barbara Sinha's 4th
grade class at the Margaret Beeks Elementary School in Blacks-
burg, Virginia. The project has blossomed into a close relation-
ship between the students and offered many learning
opportunities on both shores.
Mrs. Sinha has found it easy to incorporate the project into
her curriculum; discussions about Cape Verde have been used
as a vehicle to teach geology, geography, meteorology, social stud-
ies and environmental science. As part of an enrichment pro-
gram to study the US colonial period, the students planted an
herbal garden with culinary, medicinal, and fragrance herbs that

"It let us learn about other cultures...
The best thing about it is we get to make
friends, even though we don'tget to meet
4th grade student

colonialists would have used in their day-to-day life. This offered
an additional alliance with the students in Cape Verde who have
a garden in which they grow crops for their school lunch pro-
gram. They also use many different herbs as medicine and sent
samples as gifts to their US pen pals. The Cape Verde students
have written to their new friends about their difficulties in main-
taining the garden because of the lack of water and about life on
an archipelago, in a land with a wet and dry season. In return
they are learning about a land with four seasons, North Ameri-
can geography, and what 4th grade students in the US study. The
students have also exchanged photographs. The two teachers are
corresponding, too, and sharing their experiences; both have
expressed great satisfaction and continued interest in the project.
In particular, they are pleased that the project has offered their
students the opportunity to learn directly and personally about
people from other countries.

For many of ibe children n mnr fourth grade class, this is Itheir
first opportliniy to hare a pen-palf'roni another counlry Ue cjund
Cape Ivrdte on the miap and discised ts declinate and culltre The
island s'fiirmaioin ia's especially mineresting as ine bhd fludied
geologic' earlier Most mntereting. though. were the pictures, herb.s.
antd letters thal the children sent i us e class ias rerr ercitlled to
recet'e letters especi/ali' sent lo idin'idual tiudlents Dlran. one of
my students, said it was a way "to make new friends with some
one you have never met." They also enjoyed seeing letters written
in another language and signed by Celestina, Emanuel, and
Fernando. Exotic names! From my perspective, I think it is always
valuable for children to learn about people from other countries.
Once a smilingface...a 'real'person... Celestina or Emanuel
becomes apart of our lives....Cape Verde is not so different or
so far away."
-Barbara Sinha,
4th grade teacher

The SANREM CRSP activities in Costa
Rica and Honduras are unique
among our site programs. In these
two Central American countries, the
research actiilties are primarily

through an institutional linkage with
Escuela Agricola Panamericana
(Zamarano) and EARTH universi-
ties. Thus we do not directly have a
network of research partners work-

ing within a specific watershed and
community; our projects, partner-
ships, and training are funneled
through these institutions.

EARTH University ....


Located in the heart of the Americas.
in the lush tropical lowlands of Costa
Rica, Escuela de Agricultura de la
Region Tropical Humeda, or EARTH.
is a unique international education-
al institution EARTH's mission is to
educate young Latin American lead-
ers in sustainable agricultural devel-
opment and responsible natural
resource management for the humid
tropics It is committed to help pro-
\ide long-term solutions to the com-
plex environmental problems which
threaten to destroy the rainforests.
The college was established in 1986
through the support of the X. K. Kel-
logg Foundation, LiSA)D, and a con-
sortium of Latin American

agricultural, educational, and gov-
ernmental institutions. It offers a 4-
year Bachelor of Science degree
program in agricultural sciences and
has facilities to accommodate 400
students who come from rural areas
throughout Latin America. Through
formal education, community out-
reach, and applied research, these
students are offered a learning pro-

r-, '^ ThL4
N.\ I

gram that emphasizes a balance
between agricultural production and
resource conservation through aphi-
losophy of "learning by doing."
In 1995, the SANREM CRSP and
EARTH began a collaborative research
project on sustainable agriculture
and natural resource management as
part of the curriculum for 3rd and4th
year students at the college.



Escuela Agricola Panamerica .....

In the early 1940s, the vision held by
a group of educators and scientists led
to the transformation of a typical
hacienda outside of Tegucigalpa, Hon-
duras into an impressive educational
program in tropical agriculture. This
institution has blossomed into the
Escuela Agricola Panamericana
(EAP). Zamarano, as it is nicknamed,
is committed to providing an integrat-
ed agricultural education that trains
the leaders that Latin America needs
in sustainable development, tropical
agriculture, agribusiness, natural
resources management, and rural

development. Its formal education
programs include a broad course of
study in a 3-year Agr6nomo program,
a more specialized and advanced
Ingeniero Agr6nomo program, and
a Master of Professional Studies
program cosponsored by Cornell
University. These learning programs
are based on the principles of Pan-
Americanism, academic excellence,
leadership development, and learn-
ing-by-doing. The college's 7000 ha
educational farm provides resource
management experience in a full
range of agroecosystems, from valley

floor to forested hillside to cloud for-
est. Reaching beyond its campus,
Zamarano also places a strong com-
mitment on community outreach
activities throughout Latin America,
including training and technical
assistance, extension and consulting,
applied research and publishing.
In 1995, the SANREM CRSP and
Zamarano began a collaborative
research project on sustainable agri-
culture and natural resource man-
agement as part of the curriculum of
the Ingeniero Agr6nomo program.


ZComo se dice Sustainability?

A diverse group of 30 participants gathered at EARTH to attend a
SANREM workshop on indicators of sustainability. Indicators of
sustainability are measurable conditions, such as water quality,
soil quality, plant diversity, or social equity which can be used to
evaluate the health and resiliency of an ecosystem or a commu-
nity. The workshop served as a forum to evaluate the effective-
ness of the community assessment, or PLLA, as a tool to identify
indigenous and scientific indicators of sustainability. Individuals
who had participated in the PLLAs in the Philippines, Burkina
Faso, Ecuador, and Cape Verde programs gave an overview of
the activities and outcomes of this diagnostic tool at their sites.
This cross-site comparison provided an invaluable opportunity
to share and document lessons learned from participatory
research on sustainable resource management undertaken
around the world.
This conference also offered participants a forum to develop
terminology in Spanish for the SANREM CRSP core concepts and
methodologies, based on the collective experience of site partic-
ipants from Honduras, Ecuador and Costa Rica, as well as Span-

ish-speaking participants from US collaborating institutions.
Finding that scientific language sometimes conflicts with cultur-
al meanings, the group faced the intricacies of working across
different cultures and struggled through the translation pro-
cess reaching consensus on key issues, terminology, and
Based on this workshop, and the subsequent PLLA in the
nearby La Argentina watershed, a document entitled "PLLA and
Indicators of Sustainability Tool
Kit" was developed. This in-
cludes a set of training tools to
teach participatory concepts and
methodologies for developing
scientific and indigenous indica-
tors of sustainability. It will be
used by EARTH students during
internships in different commu-
nities throughout Latin America.

La Argentina Community Appraisal

The workshop on indicators of sustainability hosted by EARTH
University also served as a forum to introduce the SANREM
approach to faculty, students, and local community members.
A community-led assessment, or PLLA, was undertaken in the
neighboring La Argentina watershed (about 60 km from EARTH)
to launch a collaborative research project on sustainable agri-
culture and natural resource management as part of the cur-
riculum at EARTH. The PLLA helped to define indicators of

Student Research-
Learning by Doing

Undergraduate students, enrolled at EARTH, are implementing
community-based participatory research projects in the neigh-
boring La Argentina watershed which reflect the SANREM cor-
nerstones and methodologies. Built on the information gathered
from the La Argentina community assessment, these research
plans were developed as course projects by senior-level students
taking part in the innovative curriculum that has developed from
the collaborative SANREM/EARTH program. EARTH researchers,
in collaboration with scientists from Iowa State University and the
University of Wisconsin, have provided technical and field sup-

sustainability themes for student
research projects that are now
being conducted in the commu-
nity. Atotal of 8 research projects,
with the participation of 22 stu-
dents, is being initiated through
this program.

port for these students. On-farm participatory research projects
include: a study on phosphorous as an indicator of sustainabili-
ty in different cropping systems; development of organic fertiliz-
ers suitable for medicinal plants and heart of palm production;
water quality study in Dos Novillos River; evaluation of the nutri-
ent requirements of medicinal plants; evaluation of biological
indicators (soil invertebrates and weeds) to measure soil quali-
ty under different cropping practices; testing solar drier design
and construction for medicinal plants; and a study of indigenous
assessments of pasture quality.



Students Learn While Helping

Building on SANREM principles and methodologies, Zamarano
has developed an innovative curriculum for the college's Inge-
niero Agr6nomo program. Interdisciplinary teams of student
researchers are working collectively with local communities on
participatory research projects to address sustainable agriculture
and natural resource issues.
In the "Lempira Project," communities in northwest Hon-
duras have been identified in which various forms of participa-
tory rural appraisals have
already been applied as part of
on-going Zamarano extension

work. Using the information generated from these community
assessments, 4th year students are designing participatory
research projects to identify and test indicators of sustainable
resource use helpful to both scientists and indigenous commu-
nities. Student research projects planned within the La Lima
community include: analysis of water usage in both domestic and
agricultural activities, evaluation of the health and nutritional
conditions, characterization of the agricultural (maize-bean)
production systems, and a study of the role of women in the man-
agement of natural resources.

Watershed Surveying Made Easy

The development of indicators of
sustainability requires the col-
lection of baseline data in order
to allow investigators to measure
change in a specific condition.
There are few existing data
sources presently available that
supply adequate information for
the management of small rural
watersheds. These watersheds
are predominantly the types of
upland basins used as sources of
potable water for remote rural
communities. Addressing this
need, Zamarano has under-
taken research to acquire base-
line data in order to monitor
water supplies and water quality
in these small rural watersheds.

A set of surveying techniques have been developed by Zamora-
no investigators to provide basic information on the physical
characteristics of a watershed-determination of boundaries,
water flow measurements, and land-use mapping. These tech-
niques require no special skills and only simple equipment and
have been tested in the field at Zamorano, and within the com-
munities of La Lima and Candelaria with non-technical survey-
ing teams. The techniques are currently being incorporated into
an illustrated, Spanish-language manual which is designed to
be used by community members with only basic reading and
mathematical skills.
A series of workshops was hosted by Zamarano to train NGO
paratecnicos, extension agents, community educators, and
farmers in surveying techniques, mapping, and watershed man-
agement principles. This work is in collaboration with
COCEPRADIL, an Honduran NGO which comprises a tightly-knit
consortium of regional water committees working with 82
rural communities on potable water supply development and
management, rural sanitation, and agricultural improvement.

Through collaborative projects
with the SANREM CRSI students at
host country universities are gain-
ing hands-on experience in partic-
ipatory research methodologies.
One of the projects designed by stu-
dents at EARP is a study of the role
of women in the management of
natural resources.



The environmental and resource issues addressed by the SANREM
CRSP are not bounded by barriers of nationality, culture, geogra-
phy, or climate.
Therefore, one of the overriding goals of the program is to step
beyond the individual research projects at host-country sites by
sponsoring regional and global activities that promote research on
issues of sustainability, a broader information exchange, and
increased educational and training opportunities. International

conferences and regional training bring together diverse groups
to learn from their common and varied experiences and increase
people's understanding of global environmental issues. Individ-
ual training for both US and international students, who then
return to their home countries, strengthens the capabilities and
enriches the resources of institutions. In these ways, the SANREM
CRSP hopes to multiply its impacts and foster truly self-sustaining

Lowerphoto: Participation personified-Researchers and community volunteersfrom water quality
monitoringprograms across the globe gathered together in Alabama, June 1995. Left to right: Bill Deutsch
(Auburn Univ.), Allison Busby (Alabama Water Watch), Janet Deutsch, Dick Bronson (Pres., Lake Martin
Lake Watch), Marianne Bronson, Jim Orprecio (HPI/Philippines), Hugo Valdebenito (USFQ, SANREM Ecuador
NCC Chair), Ananias (Jojo) Altomera (President, Tigbantay Wahig, SANREM Philippine Water Watch).



Long-term Training-
Graduate Students
Training students through hands-on participatory research in sustainable nat-
ural resource management sows seeds of change throughout the world. This
investment in human resources is essential to cultivating long-term, institu-
tional change. Twenty-three full-time and 14 part-time Ph.D. and M.S. students
representing 12 countries have been involved in conducting research at all the
SANREM CRSP sites. Additionally, the program has enhanced undergraduate
training through the support of 9 senior thesis projects applying participatory
research methods by students representing 7 Latin American countries at
EARTH and Zamarano universities. An undergraduate student exchange pro-
gram has also been established between EARTH University, UGA, and the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin. In addition, the SANREM CRSP offered an educational
module in international agricultural and natural resource issues to 4 US high
school minority students during a summer program in agricultural research.

Short-term Training-
S Workshops
A workshop on The Role of Geographic Information Systems in Developing
and Transferring Sustainable Agriculture Technologies in the Tropics was
held at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand, from February
20 to March 7, 1995 and was attended by an enthusiastic group of 28 people
from a dozen Southeast Asian countries. The participants, few of whom had any
previous GIS experience, received training in the theoretical aspects of GIS as
well in the computer skills required to use the methodology. These skills were
applied in analyzing data sets brought by each participant from their respective
countries. The SANREM CRSP collaborated with other international programs
and centers, such as ICRISAT and IRRI in sponsoring this event, with the addi-
tional contributions of AVRDC, ICRAF, and NASA.

A Different View of the World
Margery Sendze is a young woman from Cameroon who has recently
completed a Masters Degree in Journalism at UGA Her participation in a
SANREM CRSP project in Burkina Faso enabled her to gain not only valuable
professional experience but -also a new outlook on the purpose of her %%ork.
In her own words:
"When Ifirst went to Burkina Faso with the SANREM CRSP, what I really
1wanled was a good story to write up and I was hoping thefarmers would
cooperate and I would get/ what Ineededfor my work. .After living in thbe
village and getting to know people. I became more concerned about how
the work we came there to do would benefit them,. Wanted to be able to
leave something behind that had apositnie impact on tleir everyday' life. .
it hen ite left I knew we did, we had provided an opportunity fjor people to
be truly involved in the project and we all le, rned something together It
made me feel very good inside."


Building on the momentum from the 1994
e-mail conference, a Conference and
Workshop on Indicators ofSustainability
was held in Rosslyn, VA, from July 29 to
August 5, 1994. It brought together about
100 experts representing 76 organizations,
including the World Bank, USAID, IFPRI,
FAO, UNDP and SANREM. During the con-
ference 26 speakers and 23 poster presen-
ters shared experiences and perspectives on sustainability issues
from a range of scientific disciplines and relevant to a variety of
ecological and sociocultural settings. The workshop provided a
forum for the development of guidelines for the identification,
assessment, and testing of indicators that
build on local knowledge and conditions
but also allow for cross-site comparison. A (
handbook outlining the guidelines is being '
A SANREM CRSP sponsored meeting
entitled Towards Sustainability Revisited
was held in Atlanta, GA on Sept. 29-30,
1994. It brought together representatives
of USAID, NAS, universities, and NGOs to
discuss the evolution of the concept of sustainable agriculture
since the publication of the 1989 NRC report "Towards Sustain-
ability". The document guided the development of current USAID
programs, including the SANREM CRSP The meeting aimed at

"This differedfrom other meetings because it was
more participatory, there was an open sharing of
experiences, it was not just academic. It stressed
practical experience. It was not just an elite
group ofscientists talking to the rest ofus practi-
tioners, but there was mutual sharing, where
everyone was at the same level. There was a
sense oflearningfrom experience. I thought
there was an excellent atmosphere, a genuine
interest, among a diversity ofpeople, all con-
cerned about the same issues, that is you gen-
uinely involve people in solving problems they
-Jim DeVries, HPI
(Workshop on Participatory
Collaborative Research Methodologies,
Tuskegee University)

identifying any new ideas which should be
incorporated into program objectives and
offered the opportunity to report on and
assess the progress of the SANREM CRSP
program. The panel endorsed the pro-
gram's commitment to a collaborative,
participatory approach, anticipating its
cost-effectiveness in the long-run.
A Workshop on Participatory Collabo-
rative Research Methodologies took place at Tuskegee University
in Tuskegee, AL, on June 27-30, 1995. The event was jointly orga-
nized by the PVO/University Center and the End-User/Gender
Working Group. It gathered about 70 people from 18 countries in
a highly interactive program that enabled
them to share perspectives from a variety
of fields of participatory practice, including
.- agricultural and natural resource manage-
.- '-. ment, community development, health
and disability issues, and urban research.
The gathering provided an opportunity for
a fruitful comparison and integration of
US-focused and international experiences
and for the identification of and reflection
on common dilemmas, such as how to assess levels of participa-
tion, how to ensure true representation, and how to engage in the
research process in ways that are acceptable to both scientific cir-
cles and local communities.


The SANREM CRSP is an ambitious and long-term program. An
extensive documentation protocol is necessary to successfully
manage and monitor its world-wide array of research projects.
In the program, reporting is viewed as a tool for self-improve-
ment, rather than as an institutional requirement by our donor
organization. The Global Monitoring and Evaluation committee
was formed to oversee technical reporting, process documenta-
tion, and participatory monitoring and evaluation. The commit-
tee has devised a new quarterly reporting system which better
addresses the documentation of process, accomplishments, and
impacts for each of our research projects. In addition, an evalu-
ation staff person has now been hired at each site to supervise
monitoring and help work plan partners with reporting require-
To monitor both short-term accomplishments and long-term
changes, the program has adopted a classification system to rec-
ognize and document impacts and progress toward impacts.
Hierarchical classification identifies accomplishments as pro-
gressive steps toward impacts. These stages are: 1) changes in
people's involvement and reaction; 2) changes in knowledge,

Self-monitoring and evaluation are an integral part of the partic-
ipatory approach to research. A Participatory Monitoring and
Evaluation Workshop, held in the Philippines on November 9-
12, 1994, brought together 28 participants representing various
work plans and communities involved in the SANREM Philip-
pines program to discuss and define systematic monitoring pro-
cedures. A set of indicators was agreed upon to evaluate the
progress of research projects in attaining both the objectives and
impacts of program activities. The event was facilitated by Jen-
nifer Shumaker and Jerry Aaker of HPI.
A Work Plan Integration and Monitoring and Evaluation
Workshop was held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on May 15-
19, 1995 and was facilitated by Jim Rugh of Community Based
Evaluations. The objective of the workshop was to integrate

attitudes, skills, or aspirations; and 3) changes in practice,
including adoption of the SANREM CRSP methodologies.
Since the SANREM CRSP is attempting to implement innova-
tive methodologies in its approach to research, documentation
of the process is of utmost importance. Issues such as participa-
tion, partnership, opportunities, impacts, insights, points of
weakness and strength, and lessons learned must be docu-
mented. Process documentation allows for regular reflection on
the working process and highlights lessons learned which can be
built upon to improve future endeavors.
Workshops on self-monitoring and evaluation bring together
work plan partners from research, government, NGOs, and com-
munities. These training provide participants with the tools to
monitor the progress and assess the impacts of their research
activities. This helps all stakeholders in the program to first iden-
tify their expectations and then to develop measurable and mean-
ingful indicators of success which will allow them to assess their
progress toward those goals. This process enables participants to
systematize their experience, reflect on and evaluate results, and
then plan for future opportunities.

research activities and establish a systematic procedure for par-
ticipatory monitoring and evaluation. About 85 participants, rep-
resenting the various work plans, research institutions, USAID,
NGOs, and the Donsin community, attended a plenary session
devoted to presentation and discussion of the data requirements
and specific objectives of each research project. A field trip
brought all attending Burkinabe and US work plan leaders to
Donsin to present their plans to the community and listen to their
suggestions for the relevant indicators of progress and impact.
Researchers also worked together to develop a coordinated
schedule for field work and a common questionnaire that will
enable them to obtain needed baseline data without duplicating
efforts and taxing villagers' time and patience.


An External Evaluation Panel (EEP) review of the SANREM CRSP
took place in December 1994 as part of a mid-term evaluation
process. The panel, composed of Les Swindale of ICRISAT, Susan-
na Hecht of UC, Robert Herdt of the Rockefeller Foundation, and
Thurman Grove of NCSU, held a series of meetings with repre-
sentatives of the SANREM CRSP management team, partner insti-
tutions, and working groups. A team from the EEP traveled to the

Philippines for an on-site visit and evaluation of activities and
research currently being implemented. Based on their findings,
the EEP made recommendations for streamlining organization-
al structure and procedures and strengthening the program's
ability to meet its research objectives and deliver high quality sci-
entific data. These recommendations are being incorporated into
this year's program and future plans.



The SANREM CRSP is now coordinating research projects in Cen-
tral and South America, Southeast Asia, and Africa with a consor-
tium of investigators that includes universities throughout North
America. Clearly, communications is vital to the success of this pro-
gram. Our methodology adds an additional dimension to our infor-
mation exchange and educational needs. An international research
program based on equal participation of local people from a wide
variety of cultures, host country institutions, and researchers from
many disciplines gathers together a diverse audience and requires
us to develop a full repertoire of communication and educational
In order to successfully meet this need, the SANREM CRSP com-
missioned the development of strategic plans for communication
and outreach programs from Manning Selvage and Lee, a private
public relations firm in Atlanta, and from a class of graduate stu-
dents in public relations at the College of Journalism, UGA. Both
consulting teams advised the program to develop a full-fledged
Information and Communications Office. This year, the SANREM
CRSP Management Office hired a Communications Coordinator to
improve the program's educational and outreach activities, publi-
cations, and internal reports. The SANREM CRSP communications
program now includes a wide array of publications.
LAST Update is a quarterly newsletter produced by the Com-
munications Office that reports on the world-wide network of
SANREM activities. This publication contains articles to update a
broad readership on current SANREM research projects and
results, recent conferences, sustainability and resource manage-

Verderd programs
S NREN Cap -

ment issues, as well as invited editorials. It is written for a diverse
audience from our researchers to the general public.
SANREM e-mail News is a bimonthly electronic supplement
produced by the Communications Office that provides up-to-date
summaries of SANREM activities and travel plans of researchers
going to the research sites.
Ecolinks is a semi-annual newsletter produced by the PVO/Uni-
versity Center that contains in-depth articles on SANREM site and
global activities. It is written in a non-technical, popular style appro-
priate for its diverse audience of field-level collaborators, such as
development workers, community-based grassroots groups, NGOs,
and other host country partners. The newsletter is translated into
French and Spanish for our African and Latin American sites.
In light of our foundation in the farmer-back-to farmer model,
site newsletters are now produced by SANREM Site Coordinators in
the Philippines and Ecuador to maintain host country and local
community communications.
Our quarterly and annual reports compiled and produced by
the Communications Office provide an exhaustive documentation
on every stage of the s.~ \EM CRSP process as it unfolds both
locally and globally. This material is a valuable resource for future
efforts that seek to replicate the program's innovative approach
and methodologies.
Numerous other publications projects are planned to further
diversify our communications and education efforts, so that we
may better reach a broader audience in both the US and our host


"1p "

Philippines Workshop Looks at
Workplons for the Manupali Site


As we complete three years of work in
implementing our "core" sites, we
also face new and exciting opportu-
nities for growth and for leveraging
additional support. We are actively
engaged in a regional natural resource man-
agementprogram in West Africa which brings
together all USAID-funded CRSPs with opera-
tions in West Africa. This "Inter-CRSP" collabora-
tion is aimed at enhancing technology development and transfer
for improved natural resource management in the Sahel. Awork-
shop is to be held in Niamey, Niger, 18-22 September, 1995 to
plan the strategy. Support is being provided by USAID/Niger and
the Africa Bureau.
We are also working on building
collaboration to participate in a large
program entitled "Water Resources
Sustainability" funded by
USAID/Morocco. The project will address water
issues from many sectors. It will include an agri-
cultural component that will focus on soil ero-
sion control to improve surface water quality,
which offers an excellent opportunity for collaboration with the
SANREM CRSP We have developed linkages with Moroccan insti-
tutions and are building relationships with various U.S. organi-

zations interested in participating in the project. A "Request for
Proposals" for the project will be available in Fall 1995.
We have been invitedby USAID/Peru to make
a presentation about the SANREM CRSP and
initiate discussions with local NGOs oppor-
tunities for participatory watershed man-
agement in Peru. This could lead to a
small-scale activity in this country.
We were invited recently by USAID/Haiti to
visit several government agencies inHaiti to dis-
cuss participatory approaches to natural
r resource management. The Mis-
sion will be funding a local project in natural
S resource management and wanted
All of these opportunities and requ present the benefits of
methodologies to
the collaborat-
ing agencies.
The relationships developed could lead to the participation of the
SANREM CRSP in the project when it is implemented.
All of these opportunities and requests point to a vigorous and
healthy program with a reputation of having "something to offer"
to development programs around the world.


Bellows, B. "Participatory and Interdisciplinary Indicators of Sus-
tainability: Where Do We Go From Here?". In B. Bellows ed.
Proceedings of the Conference on Indicators of Sustainability,
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tory and Intersectoral Assessments of Indicators of Sustain-
ability: Outputs from the Workshop Sessions." In B. Bellows
ed. Proceedings of the Conference on Indicators of Sustain-
ability, SANREM CRSP, 1995.
Bellows, B. ed. Proceedings of the Conference on Indicators of Sus-
tainability, SANREM CRSP, 1995.
Bellows, B. and G. Buenavista eds. Participatory Landscape/
Lifescape Analysis of the Manupali Watershed, Province of
Bukidnon, Philippines. SANREM CRSP and USAID. 1995.
Bognounou, Q. "Indigenous Knowledge and Herbal Medicine in
Burkina Faso." In V Nazarea and R. Rhoades eds. Ethnoecol-
ogy Methods Manual: Interdisciplinary Natural Resource
Assessment. University of Georgia Press, in preparation.
Bognounou, Q. and H. Ye. "Ethnoecology: the Growing Concern of
Mossi Farmers over Scarcity of Woody Vegetation in the Don-
sin Experimental Site (SANREM CRSP/Burkina Faso)." In V
Nazarea and R. Rhoades eds. Ethnoecology Methods Manual:
Interdisciplinary Natural Resource Assessment. University of
Georgia Press, in preparation.
Burns, Allan. "Visual Anthropology." In V Nazarea and R. Rhoades
eds. "Ethnoecology Methods Manual: Interdisciplinary Natur-
al Resource Assessment." University of Georgia Press, in
Burton, L. "Understanding the Manupali Watershed through Eth-
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Costello, M A. "Ethnoecolog) of the NManupali watershedd : Insights
from an Eoolbing Research Work plan." In V Nazarea and R.
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Coxhead, I "Modeling ihe Economics of Agricultural Land Degra-
dation Agncultural Economics Staff Paper No. 385, Univer-
sity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 1995.
Co\ehad. "The Agricultural Economy of Lantapan Municipality,
Bulkdnon, Philippines Resulls of a Baseline Survey." SANREM
Social Science WorkingGroup. Technical Paper No. 1/95,1995.
Deuisch, A "A Field and Laboratory Manual for a Community-Based
\aler Quality Monitoring Program in Bukidnon, Philippines"
(in English and Spanish). International Center forAquaculture

and Aquatic Environments, Auburn University, Alabama, 1994.
Deutsch, W, G. Tan, J. Oprecio, and C. Neely. "Return of the Water
Spirits: the Role of Environmental Education in Cultural and
Ecological Sustainability." In B. Bellows ed. Proceedings of the
Conference on Indicators of Sustainability, SANREM CRSP,
Flora, C., M. Kroma, and A. Meares. "Indicators of Sustainability:
Community and Gender." In B. Bellows ed. Proceedings of the
Conference on Indicators of Sustainability, SANREM CRSP
German, L.A. "A Mosaic of Livelihood Strategies in the Guayl-
labamba River Watershed and Northwestern Pichincha."
Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens,
September, 1994.
Hill Rojas, M. and I. Silva-Barbeau. 'A Training Guide for Participa-
tory Research: Examining the Role of Gender and Communi-
ty Members in Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource
Management in Burkina Faso." SANREM CRSP, 1995.
Itong, R. "Local and Scientific Knowledge of Insects and Diseases
in the Upper Manupali: Report of a Workshop." The Exchange
(HPI quarterly newsletter), forthcoming.
Munoz, J.P "SANREM-Ecuador and Ethnoecological Methodolo-
gies." In V Nazarea and R. Rhoades eds. Ethnoecology Meth-
ods Manual: Interdisciplinary Natural Resource Assessment.
University of Georgia Press, in preparation.
Nazarea, V "Mapping and Ethnosemantic Games." In V Nazarea
and R. Rhoades eds. Ethnoecology Methods Manual: Interdis-
ciplinary Natural Resource Assessment. University of Georgia
Press, in preparation.
Nazarea, V ed. Ethnoecology: Different Takes and Emergent Prop-
erties. University of Arizona Press, under negotiation.
Nazarea, V "Lenses and Latitudes in Landscapes and Lifescapes. In
V Nazarea ed. Ethnoecology: Different Takes and Emergent
Properties. University of Arizona Press, under negotiation.
Nazarea, V. and R. Rhoades, eds. Ethnoecology Methods Manual:
Interdisciplinary Natural Resource Assessment. University of
Georgia Press, in preparation.
Nazarea, V. and R. Rhoades, eds. Ethnoecology of the Manupali
Watershed. SANREM CRSP Monograph, in preparation.
Ouada,J., S. Some. M. Belem, D. Kabore, A Nitiema,J. Ilboudo and
Z. Mantoro. "Some Key Indicators of Sustainability in Burkina
Faso." In B. Bellows ed. Proceedings of the Conference on Indi-
cators of Sustainability, SANREM CRSP, 1995.
Prain, G. and M. Piniero. "Participatory Research Methodologies: a
SANREM Philippines Experience." In V. Nazarea and R. Rhoad-
es eds. Ethnoecology Methods Manual: Interdisciplinary Nat-


ural Resource Assessment. University of Georgia Press, in
Recharte,J., H. Ballesteros,J. Chang andX. Silva. "Indicators of Sus-
tainability at the Guayllabamba Watershed, Northwestern
Ecuador: A Preliminary Assessment Framework". In B. Bel-
lows ed. Proceedings of the Conference on Indicators of Sus-
tainability, SANREM CRSP, 1995.
Rechkemmer, P and D. Thelaner. Gendered Knowledge: an Anno-
tated Bibliography CIKARD Documentation Unit, Iowa State
University, Ames, 1995.
Rhoades, R. "Land mines along the Road to Participatory
Research.". Department of Anthropology, University of Geor-
gia, Athens. Working paper, in preparation.
Rhoades, R. "Methods in Agricultural Anthropology." In V Nazarea
and R. Rhoades eds. "Ethnoecology Methods Manual: Inter-
disciplinary Natural Resource Assessment." University of
Georgia Press, in preparation.
Rhoades, R. andV. Sandoval. "Culturally Relevant Indicators of Sus-
tainability." In B. Bellows ed. Proceedings of the Conference
on Indicators of Sustainability, SANREM CRSP 1995.
Ticsay-Ruscoe, M., R. Alvarez, R. Banayal, G. Buenavista, T Pajaro,
R. Serrano, and A. Sumbalan. "Search for Indicators of Sus-
tainability for Philippine Upland: Focus on Manupali Water-
shed." In B. Bellows ed. Proceedings of the Conference on
Indicators of Sustainability, SANREM CRSP, 1995.

Balakrishnan, R. et al. "Analysis of Gender Differences in User Col-
laborative Participatory Research." Paper presented at the
Workshop on Participatory Collaborative Research Method-
ologies, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama, June 26-30,
Banaynal, R. "Community Participatory Action for Resource Man-
agement." Paper prepared for the Alternative to Slash and
Bur Regional Planning Workshop, Bogor, Indonesia, June 5-
9,1995 and presented at the Mindanao Advisory Council Meet-
ing and Workshop of the Foundation for Philippine Eagle
(FPE), Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines, June 15-17, 1995.
Bonner, J. and J., Lewis. "Participatory Approach to Sustainable
Agriculture and Natural Resource Management in the Sub-
iropics." Poster presentation at the AAAS Annual Meetings,
Atlanta. Georgia, Februar\ 16-20. 1995.
Buenavisla, G, I. Cothead, W. Deutsch, C Flora, C. Neely,V. Nazarea,
and L. West. "Integrating Biological and Social Scientists for
Susiainability in the Tropics" an Interdisciplinary Symposium
presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of
Agronomy, Seattle, Oregon, November 14, 1994.
Dar, W and T. Pajaro. "Watershed Case Study: Philippines." Paper
presented at the Workshop on the Role of GIS in Developing

and Transferring Sustainable Agriculture Technologies in the
Tropics, Bangkok, Thailand, February 20-March 7, 1995.
Deutsch, W and A. Altomera. "A SANREM Experience: The Com-
munity-Based Water Quality Monitoring and Education Pro-
gram in Lantapan, Bukidnon Province, Philippines." Paper
presented at the Workshop on Participatory Collaborative
Research Methodologies, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee,
Alabama, June 26-30, 1995.
Flora, C., M. Kroma, and A. Meares. "User Participatory Collabora-
tive Research Methodologies: an Overview of Literature and
Experience." Paper presented at the Workshop on Participa-
tory Collaborative Research Methodologies, Tuskegee Univer-
sity, Tuskegee, Alabama, June 26-30, 1995.
Hargrove, W "Challenge of Sustainability: an Agricultural Scientist's
Viewpoint on the Problems of 'Scaling up'." Paper presented
at the Conference on Agroecosystems, Southern Extension and
Experiment Station Directors, Pinehurst, North Carolina, April
Mabbayu, P and L. Sareno. "Priming Project of SANREM
CRSP/Philippines: a Participatory and Systems Approach
towards the Design and Implementation of Sustainable Farm
Options." Paper presented at the Asia Farming Systems Associ-
ation Symposium, Manila, Philippines, November 1-10, 1994.
Neely, C. "The SANREM Approach." Presentation at the Research
Management Workshop for students from the Kenya Agricul-
tural Research Institute, Fort Collins, Colorado, August 9, 1994.
Prain, G. "Landscape and Lifescape Approaches to Sustainable Agri-
culture and Natural Resource Management." Paper present-
ed at the Farming System Commodity Program Review,
PCARRD, Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines. 21-22, 1095
Serrano, R. "PCARRD Experience in Linkingwith Local Government
Units: Focus on SANREM CRSP/Philippines." Paper presented
at the Workshop on Local Government Units, National Agricul-
ture and Resource Research and Development Network Link-
age, PCARRD, Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines, May 3, 1995.
Serrano, R. "The Sustainable Agriculture and National Resource
Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SAN-
REM CRSP) and Use of Indicators of Sulstainabilht." Paper pre-
sented at the Expert Consultation on NARS Vision towards
Future Challenges and Opportunities for Sustained and
Enhanced Productivity and Food Security in the Asia Region,
PCARRD, Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines, November 22-24,
Silva-Barbeau, I. "Human Nutrition Issues: Links to Sustainable
Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Policy." Paper
presented at the Conference on Innovations and Partnership-
Working with Natural Resource Management, Gender, and
Local Communities in the Tropics. Gainesville, Florida, March
30-April 1, 1995.



Management &
Program Outreach

Global 13.3%

Cape Verde 22.5%

Costa Rica
& Honduras

Management & Program Outreach
Burkina Faso
Costa Rica and Honduras
Cape Verde

Management & Program Outreach: The activities of the Man-
agement Entity, Board of Directors, Global Technical Committee
and External Evaluation Panel, with additional activities such as
Information Outreach, Field Mission Support, Training Workshops
and Conferences for cross-cutting issues represented 26% of SAN-
REM CRSP funding in Year 3.

Philippines: Costs associated with site logistics and field research
participatory projects represented 13.3% of SANREM CRSP funds
in Year 3.

Burkina Faso: Costs associated with site logistics and training in
participatory methodologies represented 10.8% of SANREM CRSP
funds in Year 3.

Ecuador, Costa Rica and Honduras: Costs associatedwith start-
up site logistics and training in participatory methodologies rep-
resented 7.5% and 6.6%, respectively, of SANREM CRSP funds in
Year 3.

Cape Verde: In Year 3, SANREM CRSP received a buy-in from the
USAID mission in Cape Verde to implement a project for training
in research and development. Costs associated with these activi-
ties represented 22.5% of SANREM CRSP funds.

Global: 12.7% of SANREM CRSP funds were allocated to the US
institutions for assistance in conducting research at the host coun-
try sites in Year 3.

Philippines 13.3%

SBurkina Faso 10.8%

Ecuador 7.5%







Gerald Arkin
James Bonner
S. K. DeDatta
Dennis Garrity
Robert Gurevich
William Hargrove
Suchet Louis
Constance Neely
NITIEMA Ambroise
Ken Shapiro
Eduardo Sotomayor

PVO/Center (Chair)
Tuskegee U.
U. Wisconsin


James Bonner
Walt Butcher
Ron Carroll
William Dar
Bill Deutsch
Jim DeVries
Cornelia Flora
William Hargrove
Ed Kanemasu
Jose Levy
Kevin McSweeney
David Midmore
Ralph Montee
Constance Neely
NGANDU Mudiayi
Jess Reed
Robert Rhoades
Irma Silva-Barbeau
David Swift
Hugo Valdebenito

Washington State U.
Auburn U.
Iowa State U. (Chair)
U. Wisconsin
Tuskegee U.
U. Wisconsin
Silva Associates, Inc.
Colorado State U.


Bill Deutsch
Kevin McSweeney
NGANDU Mudiayi
Robert Rhoades
Irma Silva-Barbeau

Costa Rica/Honduras
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde

Thurman Grove
Susanna Hecht
Robert Herdt
Leslie Swindale

No. Carolina State U.
U. California
Rockefeller Foundation


HIMA Seydo
Christian Lefebvre
NITIEMA Ambroise
YODA Lucien

U. Ouagadougou, IDR
SANREM Burkina Faso
Pr6fet de Boulsa
INERA (Chair)

Ronelo Alvarez
Romy Banaynal
Gladys Buenavista
William Dar
Jim Orprecio
Teddy Pajaro
Lealyn Ramos
Greg Reyes
Agnes Rola
Rogelio Serrano
V. Pal Singh
Tony Sumbalan
Glicerio Tan
Mariliza Ticsay-Ruscoe

SANREM Philippines
PCARRD (Chair)
Mayor of Lantapan
Office of the Governor



HIMA Seydou
HIMA Soumaila

Farmer, Human Nutrition
Farmer, Human Nutrition
Farmer, Forestry
Farmer, Animal Science


Dennis del Castillo
Joao de Deus Fonseca
Steve Dosh
Tom Gardiner
Jose Levy
Joao 0. Mendes
Maria E F Mendes
Emanuel Pereira
Flugencio L. Tavares

SANREM Cape Verde
INIDA (Chair)
Farmers' Association
Farmers' Association

Ronelo Alvarez
Alfredo Anudon
Recto Canda
Ernie Devibar
Jeremias Endrina
Ireneo Endrina
Conrado Gunayan
Hermie Nalzaro
Judith Pensahan
Felix Ponferrada
Ermilinda Rivas
Victoria Rubin
Teofilo Sabaon
Adolino Saway
Ellie Yam-oc
Olympia Zaportiza

DILG (Chair)
Igorot Tribal Sector
Vegetable Farmer Sector
Youth Sector
Barangay Council
Religious Sector
Farmers' Sector
Farmers' Federation
Health Worker Sector
Cooperative Sector
Business Sector
Women Sector
Tala-andig Tribal Sector
Tala-andig Tribal Sector
Education Sector
Rural Womens' Sector



Hector Ballesteros
Gladys Buenavista
Dennis del Castillo
Michael Lee
B. K. Singh

SANREM Ecuador
SANREM Philippines
SANREM Cape Verde
SANREM Honduras, EAP
SANREM Burkina Faso

Carlos Ayala
Hector Ballesteros
Fernando Larrea
Juan Pablo Mufioz
Luis Penaherrera
Galo Ram6n Valarezo
Arsenio Recalde
Jorge Recharte
Xavier Silva
Eduardo Sotomayor
Hugo Valdebenito

Farmers' Representative
SANREM Ecuador
Terra Nueva
UCE y Zootecnia
Farmers' Representative
USFQ (Chair)



ACDI Agricultural Cooperative Development International
AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area
AVRDC Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
BDC Barangay Development Council
BSWM Bureau of Soil and Water Management
CAC Community Advisory Council
CDC Centro de Datos para la Conservacion
CIP International Potato Center
CIP/UPWARD International Potato Center/User's Perspective with Agricultural Research and Development
CMU Central Mindanao University
COCEPRADIL Central Committee Pro-Water and the Integrated Development of Lempira
COMUNIDEC Sistemas de Investigacion y Desarrollo Comunitario
CRSP Collaborative Research Support Program (USAID)
DA Department of Agriculture
DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DGASP Directorate General for Agriculture, Silviculture, & Animal Husbandry
DILG Department of Internal and Local Governments
DNR Department of Natural Resources
EAP Escuela Agricola Panamerica Zamorano
EARTH Escuela de Agricultura de la Region Tropical Humeda
EEP External Evaluation Panel
EPA Environmental Protection Agency (USA)
FAO Foreign Agriculture Organization
FLACSO Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales
FPE Foundation for the Philippine Eagle
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GIS Geographic Information Service
HPI Heifer Project International
HRM (Center for) Holistic Resource Management
ICRAF International Council for Research in Agroforestry
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
IDR Institute for Rural Development
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute
INC Instituto National das Cooperativos
INERA Institute for Agricultural Research and Study
INERF National Institute for Rural Engineering and Forestry
INFA Instituto Nacional do Fomento Agro-Pecuivio
INIDA National Institute for Agricultural Research and Development
IPM Integrated Pest Management
IRBET Institute for Tropical Ecology and Biology Research
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
masl meters above sea level
MSU Mindanao State University
NAPACOR National Power Company
NAS National Academy of Sciences
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCC National Coordinating Council
NCSU North Carolina State University
NECI Network for Environment Concerns, Incorporated
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NOMIARC Northern Mindanao Agriculture Research Center
NRC National Research Council
PCARRD Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resource Research and Development
PLLA Participatory Landscape-Lifescape Appraisal
PPI Plan International (Planned Parenthood International)
PVO/University Center Center for PVO/University Collaboration in Development
RFP Request for Proposals
RIMCU Research in Mindanao Culture
SANREM CRSP Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program
SHAISI San Herminiglido Agro-Industrial School Foundation
SPET Ministry of Environment and Tourism
SUBIR Sustainable Utilization of Biological Resources
TPS True Potato Seed
UCE Universidad Central de Ecuador
UGA University of Georgia
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UPLB University of the Philippines at Los Bafios
UPWARD User's Perspective with Agricultural Research and Development
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USFQ Universidad San Francisco de Quito
VPI Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
WARD Watershed and Applied Research Development Project
WCU Western Carolina University
WSU Washington State University