Title: Ciprian Melendez farm analysis (real case)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080651/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ciprian Melendez farm analysis (real case) final report
Series Title: Ciprian Melendez farm analysis (real case)
Alternate Title: AEB 5167 economic analysis in small farm livelihood systems
Physical Description: 38 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cabrera, Victor E
Hildebrand, Peter E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1997
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Peru -- Cañete (Province)   ( lcsh )
Farmers -- Economic aspects -- Peru -- Cañete (Province)   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems -- Peru -- Cañete (Province)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Peru
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Victor E. Cabrera.
General Note: "UF, December 02, 1997."
General Note: "Dr. Peter Hildebrand."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080651
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 162150192

Full Text
12.05os?












AEB 5167 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN SMALL FARM LIVELIHOOD SYSTEMS
DR. PETER HIDEBRAND








P N g MELENDiEZ FAFrM ANALYSIS
(PEAL CASE)




FINAL REPORT


VICTOR E. CABRERA
UF, DECEMBER 02, 1997






































CIPRIAN MELENDEZ FARM ANALYSIS
(REAL CASE)


I want to begin with a brief description of the environmental conditions on the
CIPRIAN MELENDEZ FARM (CMF). The CMF is located in Cahete Valley (Lima, Peru) in the
District of San Benito. There are 13 districts in Canete, which have in total 25.000 ha of
crop soils. 26 big farms control 3.200 ha, and the rest, 21.800 ha, is property of 4.000
small farmers, being the average per owner 5.45 ha.

It is important to indicate that approximately half of the small farmers do not have
property title. The main crops in the Valley are: Cotton (10.000 12.000 ha), maize (3.000
- 5.000 ha), sweet potato (2.500 ha), and grape (2.000 ha). The Cafete Valley's
advantages are: Short distance to Lima (150 km. The big market of Peru, 7 million of
people), fair to good soils quality, water availability, and a moderate climate. Among its
major problems are low training level of farmers, difficulty to making production groups
(associations, cooperatives, etc.), difficulty to obtaining credits, and lack of information
systems.












SCHEMATIC MODEL

a) The household unit with its individual members:

Ciprian Melendez Family Farm # Members: 8
# Ha: 5,4 (3F + 2,4 M)

Father Mother
Juan Ciprian Quispe (48) Soledad Melendez Aguirre (46)

Margarita Ciprian Melendez (24) Rufino Costa Melendez (28)
Oscar Ciprian Melendez (22) Soledad Costa Melendez (27)
Juan Ciprian Melendez (19)
Carolina Ciprian Melendez (12)

Work Labor force: 4 male adult, 3 female adult, and 1 female child.

b) Crops:

1997 Asparagus (Iha), Cotton (2ha), Maize (1,2 ha),
Sweet potato (1,2 ha)
1996 Potato (2ha), Cotton (1ha), Maize (2,4 ha)
1995 Potato (Iha), Cotton (2ha), Maize (1 ha), Sweet potato (1,4 ha)

c) Livestock:

Cow (1), Horses (2), Chickens (12), Pigs (3).

d) Forest, bush and/or fallow with various plants and animals:

12 trees in the whole farm (Schinus molle)

e) Market and other infrastructure:

One 3 by 4 by 2,5 m room to storage.
Mainly the harvest products remain in the field until the intermediary arrives.




























CROPS
COTTON,
MAIZE
SW.POTATO
POTATO
ASPARAGUS


LABOR


:; 1-~;












CIPRIAN MELENDEZ FAMILY FARM LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


The Ciprian Melendez is an average Family Farm Livelihood System in Cahete. It has 8
members and 5.4 ha of land. The members are Juan Ciprian Quispe (48), the Head;
Soledad Melendez Aguirre (46), the Mother; their sons, Oscar (22), Juan (19); their
daughters, Margarita (24), and Carolina (12). Besides the mother's son and daughter,
Rufino Costa Melendez (28), and Soledad Costa Melendez (27).

The livelihood CMF is divided into two farms: Father farm (3.0 ha), and Mother farm (2.4
ha). The common house (74 m2) out of these farms is part of the system.

All the members live in the same house and all participate in both farms' labors. Both
farms provide more than 80 % of the Family income. The unique utility that the house
has is electricity.

The father has studied only five years in a school of his born town, Ayacucho (High
Lands); the mother knows neither read nor write; among the others members: Rufino,
Soledad y Juan have successfully finished their high school but they do not want study
any more; Carolina is currently attending the first year of secondary school; Margarita
studied for to be kinder teacher and currently she works in that; Oscar attended for
three years professional studies in the major of Agricultural Production, and he actually is
a good technician.

The father, Juan, has had his land since 1970, when in Peru had an Agrarian Reform that
distributed the big farm lands among its workers. Since then almost all years he grows
cotton, maize and sweet potato. Sometimes he also plants potato and other
vegetables. This year, Oscar persuaded him to planting asparagus, a new, high-income
crop.

The mother farm was an inheritance of her father that she received in 1977. The same
crops are growing there. The big difference between the two farms is that the mother
farm has property title.

Among the livestock of the CMF we can see: A cow (Holstein crossed) that provides an
offspring per year and three litters of milk diary during 6 months in the year. Two horses
for land work and transportation. Twelve chickens and three pigs for family consumption
(especially in festive days).

The CMF household has 5.4 ha with the following features:

- Always there is an intermediary person between the household and the market when
the household sells. This intermediary is a trader that buys products in the same field,
transport these to the major market (Lima) and resells the products. Often the












intermediary has high profit, almost as large as the household's does. The big
advantages of the intermediary are transport vehicles, and cash availability.

- The fuel for the household ("kerosene," diesel derived) is purchased directly from the
market as well as the inputs for the crops (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.). Sometimes the
household has access to short credits from the stores.

- The main economical activities are the crops. All labor available in the household is
dedicated with priority to the crops and a little to the livestock.

- Occasionally the cow's offspring is sold through an intermediary. Generally, all the
livestock is for family consumption. The cow produces milk, the chickens and pigs meat.
The horses are used for work in land and transport.

- Although the family consumes its crop products: maize, sweet potato, potato, the
main inputs in the food are purchased directly from the market: sugar, rice, wheat, etc.

- The livestock fed come mainly from the crops and its residues. Sometimes are used the
fieldborders and off farm fallow.












ACTIVITY ANALYSIS AND ACTIVITY CALENDAR


The CMF Livelihood System has two kinds of activities: those that they have to do all of
year (continuously), and those others that they have to do in specifics' moments
according with the crops.

The continues' labors are:

1) Watering. It is a very important labor. They receive water each four days and then
they must use it and water their crops. One time is in the father farm and the other in the
mother farm. One time is in the day (among 8 18 hours) and the other in the night
(among 20 06 hours). Although it is an easy labor, it needs practice and because of
the risk of assault of women, it is exclusive labor of males.

2) Feeding livestock. Sometimes the animals are conduced to their farms, or other farms
for feeding, but generally the animals live in the house and the females are in charge of
their feed that they carry from the farm to the house every day. Usually the women help
themselves with the horse labor; it is common to see in the afternoon many horses
charged with fresh herb.
When the animals are conduced to the field, they need somebody to take care of
them: it is a frequent problem that the animals eat the own crops or the neighbor crop.
Other problem with the small animals is that they could be lost or stolen.

3) Cooking. It is an exclusive female labor. Often the mother cooks early in the morning
before going to the field. In the middle day or 1 PM, they all return to the house to
eating. Sometimes the other women also cook or help in cooking; even Carolina; the
younger women cook herself when she no attends to the school.

The other labors are specific according the crops, livestock and necessities.
The labor in Carete is measured by a day labor called journal that consist in five or six
hours (7-12 hours, or 7-13 hours) of hard work. In this period the worker accomplishes a
"task" that could be spray 1 ha, planting 20 rows or so on.
The exception is the labor Watching that consists in look after the crops without physic
effort that could be all the day or all the night.

Actually a journal or day labor is estimated or paid in S/. 8.00 (US$ 3.00). If you want that
the people work larger (until 5 or 6 PM) you must pay double.

The people in the households of Carete are accustomed to this rhythm of work
(although when there is much work, it could be different). That is that they return to their
houses for lunch and they do not return in the afternoon to the land. The women could
cook for the night or wash clothes and the men used to watch TV or play soccer in the
afternoons. They often go to bed early.









TABLE 1: LABOR DISTRIBUTION PER MONTH AND PER CROP.
JORNALS/LABOR REGULAR YEAR, 1995


CROP .. I i ". JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
COTTON L..ABR SPRAY EVALUA HARVEST. LANDPRE. PLANTING WEEDING 2FERT ROW ARR. SPRAY
COTTON LABOR WATCH. WATCH 1 FERT. WEEDING
COTTON LAB .', 1 SPRAY
COTTON JORNAL 2 1+20 6+20 2 10+3 16 2+7+2 1 2
COTTON HI .1 1. 5
COTTON TRAf. ____

MAIZE LABOR WEEDING 1 SPRAY HARVEST. LAND PRE, WEEDING WEEDING 1FERT 2 SPRAY 3 SPRAY HARVEST. LAND PRE.
MAIZE I R FERT. WATCH. PLANTING SPRAY WATCH. PLANTING
MAIZE JORNAL 10 4+2 44+10 1+1 4 4 2+1 2 2 50+10 1+1
MAIZE H(.
MAIZE TRACTOR 4 4

SW POTATO LABi: LAND PRE. 1 ERT. HARVEST.
SW POTATO LABOR PLANTING ROWARR.
SW POTATO Ji 1 __ 1+4 2+3 12
SW POTATO H' .1 s 5
SW POTATO TRACT'.' _3 2

POTATO LABOR LAND PRE 1 FERT 1 SPRAY HARVEST.
POTATO LABOR PLANTING ROW ARR. 2 SPRAY WATCH.
POTATO LABOR WATCH.
POTATO JORNAL 2+12+15 7+1 3+3 16+30
POTATO HORSE 2 5 5
POTATO TRACTOR 6 2

ASPARAGUS LABOR PLANTING ROW ARR. 1 SPRAY 2 SPRAY 3 SPRAY 1 FERT. 2 PERT.
ASPARAGUS JOURNAL 30 10 4 4 4 2 2
ASPARAGUS HORSE 5
ASPARAGUS TRACTOR__
Asparagus 1997 (done and planned)_












The most labors are joined labors (male and female) but there are some labors that are
exclusively for one or other sex:
- Watching crops, due the risk, only men.
- Watering crops, due the risk, only men.
- Feeding livestock, only women.
- Cooking, Washing, Cleaning, only women.
- Spraying (Insecticide, herbicide, etc.), only males.

Sometimes are preferred children labor to seed selection or look for insects, but these
are not exclusive. When the children are hired to work, it is considerate that their work
value is half or the adult, so the pay for them is half.

The household labor with its members is never paid with cash nor estimated.

Some labors are mechanized and others need animal help. The family uses its two
horses in many carrying labors where the horses pull a truck with charge; and in
preparation and arrangement of the soil with specials' tools.

When they need tractor labor, they solicit it and pay for it a rent cost (about S/. 27.00,
US$10, per hour). The tractor is only used in the land preparation.

The table 1 shows us that watching is a high labor waste in almost all crops. In Caiete,
there are a lot of crop thieves. It was a fact: when a CMF's neighbor planting potatoes
and does not watching at the night, the thieves rob all the seeds of the soil. The cotton,
the main crop, although is not for eating, is robbed for selling, because there is a black
market for thief-cotton. A person could rob two cwt. In a night, and sell it in about S/. 80
(US$ 30), ten times the diary labor payment. In this moment the only crop that is not
robbed is the asparagus: nobody likes eating it, and nobody buys it.

Watching in the day consists in stay in the farm and makes something-simple labor as
repair canals, and so on. In the night it is more difficult; the watchman needs a power
lantern and many times a gun.

They have an availability of labor of 187 Jornals per month. They could work harder and
to have about a 50% more labor (see table 2), but it is not common. We must have in
consideration that Margarita works regularly out of farm (in a school), and she helps with
cash and in minor labors (cook, feeding, etc.); Carolina studies half a day Monday
through Friday and she helps mainly the weekends and holidays. Oscar works part time
in counseling neighbor farmers. Approximately 15 days of the month he helps with hard
work and the weekends in management activities.

The months of the major labor requirement are March (214), September (97), and
October (82). The months of less work are April (2), and November (2). Actually in March
















TABLE 2: LABOR PER MONTH DISAGGREGATED
JORNALS/MONTH REGULAR YEAR, 1995


FATHER FARM: 1ha POTt If ': 2 ha U I '.U'l,..i
*'_.* rIi. IF-. :, I. ha ~."t 1.4 ha SWEET POTATO

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
MiALE _L ,E. ., 9 44 107 1 5 16 7 17 47 40 1 4
FEMALE LABOR 5 4 107 1 6 17 7 17 50 42 1 2
TOTAL 13 48 214 2 11 33 14 34 97 82 2 6


,.f. '.'. ITY OF L;H.' IN N :.:I'. V MONTrHLY CAPACITY(*)

4 ADULT MALE x 25 days 100 150
3 ADULT FEMALE x 25 days 75 112
1 CHILD FEMALE x 25 days 12 15
TOTAL 187 277

(*) If necessary they could work more (afternoons)












they hired people to work with them. In the epoch of the harvest cotton, arrive a lot of
people to Cahete looking for job. In the months of the less activity they used to go other
farms looking for job and/or make fixings in the house or farms. Sometimes there are
other work possibilities such as road construction, mining, and so on.

When they go to work to other farm, the work is unstable, The contract is daily.

The family that needs workers calls them only the night before or even the same day,
and the payment is the same day after the labor.

Only the specialized work is demanded constantly; for example Rufino is an expert in
fruit labors, and every year is required mainly in the fall. Also Oscar is needed for
technician services.












RESOURCE ANALYSIS

Oscar has done a list with all CMF's resources:


1) Land


FATHER FARM
MOTHER FARM


3 ha (Middle to up soil quality)
2.4 ha (Middle to up soil quality)


AVAILABILITY OF 2 HOURS OF WATER EACH 8 DAYS/ha


ESTIMATED S/. 10240 (US$ 3792) (Of selling cotton and maize)


2 HANDED SPRAYERS
1 MOTOR SPRAYER
10 BAGS KCI
1 HORSE TRUCK
MORE 300 LARGE BAGS
3 BIKES


6 JOURNAL PER DAY


22 BAGS NH4NO3
10 BAGS S03Ca2
18 LAND TOOLS
3 HORSE TOOLS
SOME PESTICIDES


ALL MEMBERS HAVE MANY YEARS WORK IN LAND
1 PERSON WITH MAJOR IN AGRICULTURE


This information is indicating two main ideas:

1. The capital and cash resources are very limited, and
2. In many years of the great effort the CMF does not obtain substantive improvements.
Maybe the major change was the education of its members.


2) Water


3) Cash


4) Capital


5) Labor


6) Training












CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM RESOURCE ANALYSIS


RESOURCE ACCESS CONTROL NOTES
LAND
FATHER FARM EVERYBODY FATHER MOTHER'S SON AND DAUGHTER LESS ACCESS
MOTHER EVERYBODY MOTHER MOTHER'S SON AND DAUGHTER MORE ACCESS
FARM
FATHER
WATER EVERYBODY MOTHER WATER IS FREE EVERY 8 DAYS
OSCAR
LABOR THE PARTNERS DECIDE ALL ABOUT THE
FAMILY FATHER/ FATHER/ LABOR; PROGRAMMATION AND
HIRED MOTHER MOTHER EXECUTION
CAP. GOOD
HORSES EVERYBODY MOTHER
FARM TOOLS EVERYBODY FATHER THE COORDINATION TO USE CAPITAL
STORAGE OSCAR/MAR OSCAR GOODS IS UNDERSTOOD BY THE DIARY
FOOD HOME MOTH/MAR MOTHER COSTUMES
BIKES EVERY MALE FATHER
INPUTS
FERTILIZERS FATHER/ OSCAR SOMETIMES THE FATHER HAS THE
PESTICIDES OSCAR CONTROL.
CASH FATH/MOTH/ ABSOLUTELY THE FATHER CONTROLS THE
OSC/MARG FATHER CASH
AGRICULT. OSCAR OSCAR CROPS: COTTON AND ASPARAGUS.
CREDIT ONLY OSCAR KNOWS
KNOWLEDGE FATH/MOTH/
LAND PREP. OSCAR FATH/MOTH SOMETIMES THERE ARE DISAGREEMENTS
PLANT CARE OSCAR/ OSCAR BETWEEN THE FATHER AND OSCAR
FERTILIZING MARGARITA OSCAR
EDUCATION JUAN/CAR/
GENERAL RUF/SOLE FATH/MOTH ONLY OSCAR STUDIED A MAJOR ON
SPECIALIZED OSC/MARG FATH/MOTH AGRICULTURE


The table shows us that the
Oscar.


control is centralized in the group: Father, Mother, and


Oscar has each time more control and decision about the use of the factors but a
critique point is the cash that only the father controls: many times have had arguments
between the father and Oscar.


TABLE 3:












BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS


The next table show on averages the costs, incomes, and profits of the CMF crops.


TABLE 4:


COST, INCOME, AND PROFIT
(Family labor and land rent are not included as costs)
(Parentheses, US$)


CROPS COST INCOME PROFIT
COTTON 3240 (1200) 5130(1900) 1840 (700)
MAIZE 2800 (1037) 3600 (1333) 800 (296)
SWEET POTATO 2214 (820) 2970(1100) 756 (280)
POTATO 9450 (3500) 12690 (4700) 3240 (1200)

It is necessary figure out that the cotton demands 9 months of land, the maize, 3-5, the
sweet potato 5, and the potato 4.

It is calculated the basic income in Peru, with which one person could live with the
minimum requirements, that is S/. 400 (148) per month. If we joint all profit of 1995, is S/.
7484 (US$ 2772). If we distribute this number in 12 months, is S/. 623.7 (US$ 231). And if
we divided this last number among 8 members, we would only have S/. 78 (US$ 28) per
month per person.


TABLE 5:


BENEFITS AND INCENTIVE ANALYSIS


CROP ACCESS CONTROL USES/CHARACTERISTICS
COTTON OSCAR/FATHER OSCAR SALE
MAIZE FATHER/MOTHER FATHER SALE/CONSUMPTION
SWEET POTATO FATHER/MOTHER FATHER SALE/CONSUMPTION
POTATO FATHER FATHER SALE/CONSUMPTION
ASPARAGUS FATH/MOTH/OSC OSCAR

The big problem is that the father controls the high-income crops (in any case he
controls all the cash). Oscar has already gained the control of the two crops in which
he had brought credit, cotton and asparagus. The cotton is a low-income crop that
uses the soil for 9 months but is very secure. The asparagus is a high-income crop
(estimated S/. 5400 (US$ 2000) of profit per year), but produce after two or two and a
half years.












CMF GOALS AND/OR OBJECTIVES


GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

Improve their quality of life through more income of the agricultural activity with
new and modern ways to produce and manage the farm. (Oscar)

In 20-year period each member of the CMR must have his/her own farm.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

Change the crops to fruits or vegetables (that have more net income) with the
use of credit opportunities.
Buy or rent agricultural soil to producing more.

These objectives are in mind of the whole members, but only Oscar and Margarita
make efforts to reaching these goals.

The father is a very conservative person, he does not like the changes. The mother does
not want other concerns. The brothers and sisters only wait for the next harvest (money
epoch).



FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING EVALUATION CRITERIA

I think that the following are the main factors for developing evaluation criteria in
CMF livelihood system:

1) Attitude to Change

Despite CM family is a family leader in the zone, It needs motivational elements for
improving. In this aspect the behaviors of the neighbors affect negatively because of
their relaxed way of living. The people are accustomed to working only 5 or 6 hours in a
day. For that they often chose easy crops in which they do not need neither much labor
nor new techniques.

The harvest productions permit them to living until next harvest, but it is a bad cycle
because each time there would be more people and the farms is being each time
poorer because they do not have new investment.












2) Education Training


I think that this point is key. Although there are several extension institutions in the Valley,
the changes and improvements do not reach to the farmers. It is a double fault: the
institutions do not have the precise tools to offer the farmers (new crops, techniques,
etc.), or the ways to transmit effectively. Besides many farmers do not trust in these
institutions and so that they do not have an approach with the institutions. The CM family
has an intermediate position.

3) Cash Management

The best way to reaching progress is investing the money earned. As in CMF, the head
of the households often has the cash control, and they generally do not understand a
plan in middle or large term; It seems that they only want to live the moment.
Many times is common known about bad wastes that are in superfluous things (the VHS
before the fertilizer, for example).

4. Credit Opportunities

Half of the small farmers of Cahete do not have property title; it means that they do not
have access to any credit. In the CM family the father farm does not have title (the
asparagus planted there was with the warranty of the mother farm).

The process to apply for a title is large and complicated. It is mainly a government
question, although the extension service could help.

In many cases there are borders fights because the farms are not clearly defined.









LINEAR PROGRAMMING


The following tables are the whole clean work as realistic as possible of the
Ciprian Melendez Livelihood System of maximization of CASH according with its
available resources and the many constraints encountered.

Table 1:
Not programming yet. Just a real situation between June 1997 and May1998. We
can not change this until the last date. We can see 18000 of cash income, full
land and technique assistance resources used, and plenty of labor and cash.
Note that cotton and asparagus do not need cash because of a credit
opportunity.

Table 2:
First programming table. The maximization of cash end year results in more cash
income (26517), using all land, cash, and technique assistance. There is plenty of
labor.

Table 3:
Matrix dates change. For more realistic situation I started the programming in
June of 1998, and it was done for a year period (until May 1999). The income is
major because of the first asparagus production.
Additional constraints are 2 ha maximum level for cotton (credit limited to a 1 ha
per farm) and 1 ha fixed of asparagus.

Table 4:
It was assumed that the family needs some maize and sweet potato for
consumption (included animals feed). The income is a little less because of the
consumption.

Table 5:
Matrix modification. Where the income row is located just below of the activities
and it was included a new row cash end year (May 99).

Table 6:
Benefit and incentive analysis. Cash control between the Father of the family
and the son (FCASH, OCASH). The Oscar cash would be major because the
cotton and asparagus production

Table 7:
Oscar and Father cash maximizations (7A, 7B). Just the differences between
them. When is Oscar maximization is more near to the total maximization.

Table 8:
Labor, Cash, and Technique Assistance two semester division. It was necessary to
split these resources for more realistic situation, mainly in the case of labor, in
which never (so far) there were a bind. I put the major levels of labor
requirements per moth for more accurate solution.









Table 9:
Land semester division and new crops. It was a clear achievement to divide the
year in semester per land use. It was like if they have more land than they really
have. Besides the maize and sweet potato can be planted in other seasons and
become new crops (have different requirements and different incomes). The
new possible income 10percent better.

Table 10:
New crops alternatives. Like squash, strawberry and paprika crops that could be
a great deal opportunity. In fact they do. It was demonstrated that the income
in the same period of time with the same resources could be a lot superior (134%
more than the current situation).

Table 11:
The assumption that the family needs maize and sweet potato is not 100 percent
valid (the family prefers looking for income alternatives, then they can be
removed without problems. The crops that in the last table were not chosen also
were removed for start the dynamic programming.

Table 12:
First attempt of three-year dynamic programming. No new alternatives yet. This
table was solved without the asparagus (1ha) constraint and that crop was not
chosen. The final presentation shows an increasing year to year income.

Table 13:
New crops alternatives: avocado and mandarin. These crops were not chosen.
The major income in this programming is because the cash transfer year to year.

Table 14:
Five year programming. The new crops are not chosen only the asparagus (with
constraint). Note that the data of the perennial crops is changed year to year.

Table 15:
Last programming matrix, nine years: Jun 1998-May 2007. Definitively the
avocado and mandarin are not chosen because of the high resource
requirements despite of their high-income levels. Even the asparagus would be
chosen but in a less than 1 ha planting. It is a very important prove that break a
lot of paradigms of my work in the Cahete Valley, where it is believed that the
fruit perennial crops are the best alternative for small farms. I confess that I tried
to force to choose the fruits, but the solution does not lie, the quick yearly crops
like squash and strawberry are more appropriate for the family.








CANETE, PERU, 1997
BASIC MATRIX FOR LP. CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


v v unit>>
CA ~ .' .* > SOLES
RES/CONST
LAND HECTARES
L,-R PR JOURNALS
.1 t SOLES
'TECHNIQUE ASSIS"TEN TIMES


S. 1 I


COTTON MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO ASPARAGUS
HA HA HA HA HA
5130 3600 2970 12690 0

1 1 1 1 1
10 16 3 6 12
0 2800 2214 9450 0
6 2 2 10 7


OBJ INCOMI VARIABLES
18144.00 2.00


1.20


1.20


0.00


RHS


5.40
100.00
10000.00
24.00


1.00


Curren situation of the CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM November, 1997.
This will not change until January, 1998, when the Maize will be harvested.
The sweet potato will be harvested in the end of Fabruary and the cotton in April
The asparagus is a perennial crop and will not produce until January 1999.
The income expected is 18144 in May, 1998.
This matrix show plenty cash and labor resources, being land and technique assistance the constraint resources.


1 2 1


CANETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM

v v unit>>
CASH ', ; .' > SOLES
RES/CONST
LAND HECTARES
LABOR JORNALS
CA : i SOLES
I- i "FJl.JE I H TIMES


COTTON MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO ASPARAGUS
HA HA HA HA HA
5130 3600 2970 12690 0

1 1 1 1 1
10 16 3 6 12
0 2800 2214 9450 0
6 2 2 10 7


OBJ INCOMI VARIABLES
26517,05 2.63


2.44


0.00


0.34


0.00


Solution that the LP would suggest, having these crops as alternatives.
Note that asparagus is not chosen because will not have cash income in this analysis.
The income would be considerably higher than real's but without planting aspragus (1 ha)
I this case they would be used all the money, land, and technique assistance. having plenty of labor.
They would be produced: 2.63 ha of cotton, 2.44 ha of Maize, and 0.34 ha of Potato.


Resource
Use


5.40
54.80
6016.80
23.80


RHS


5.40
100.00
10000.00
24.00


Resource
Use


5.40
67.27
10000.00
24.00













Now, I think that the best epoch to start the LP is in June of 1998, when there will be 4.4 ha of fallow land and 1 ha of asprargus.
But it is needed put three arrangements:
First: The CMF will not produce more than 2 ha of cotton (1 ha in each farm: father's an,
due that the credit is limited to a 1 ha for farm.
Second: It is a reality that there is 1 ha planted of asparagus. And it is perennial.
Third: Since January, 1999, the asparagus will produce.


CArJETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


CASH INCOME >
RES/CONST


v v unit>>
SOLES


L -rr HECTARES
L, i- JORNALS
CASH SOLES
' 1 i I i I iH !'ICE TIMES


COTTON MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO ASPARAGUS
HA HA HA HA HA
5130 3600 2970 12690 8400

1 1 1 1 1
10 16 3 6 12
0 2800 2214 9450 0
6 2 2 10 7


OBJ INCOME VARIABLES
29059.98 1.49


2.63


0.00


0.28


1.00


The first solution show that the optimization of the income would be when they are produced: 1.49 ha of cotton,
2.63 ha of maize, 0.28 ha of potato, adn the 1 ha of the perennial crop asparagus. It was no chosen the sweet
potato, and the total income would be S/. 29059.98. All the resource are full used with exception of the


RHS


5.40
100.00
10000.00
24.00


Resource
Use


5.40
70.66
10000.00
24.00

















The Family needs produce maize and sweet potato for consumption. It is calculated that the maize need is 1000 Kg/year (include little animal feed),
having on average a production of maize of 7000 Kg/ha. The sweet potato need is 3000 Kg/year (include animal feed), having on average a
production of 30000 Kg/ha. Surplus of both would be to sell in the market.


CARETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


UNIT INC' .-,
RES/CONST


LAND
MAIZE ACCTG
MAIZE CONS'N
SWEET ACCTG'
-' I i CONS'N
LABOR
CASH
TECH ,


RHS

5.40
0.00
-1.00
0.00
-3.00
100.00
10000.00
24.00


Resource
Use


540
0.00
-1.00
0.00
-3.00
69.37
10000.00
2400


L, I I'
MAIZE ACCTGi
MAIZEL CC .',
', ACCTG
S.I : CONS'N
LABOR
CASH
TECH. ASSIST.


OBJ INCOME VARIABLES
28214.61 1.48


16.74


0.00 300 2.53 0.10 0.28 1.00


The solution chooses the production of 1.48 ha of cotton, 2.53 ha of maize, 0.10 ha of sweet potato, 0.28 ha of potato, and the 1 ha of asparagus.
All the land, all the cash, and all the technique assistance are full used, having 30 jornals free.
In this solution is reached the objective of Family consumption of maize and sweet potato.
The objective income is 28214.61, approximately 3%fewer than previous due the consumption.


COTTON SL MAIZE MAZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO ASPARAGUS
5130 514.29 0 99 0 0 0 12690 8400


4 I. I. I. J L .1 .L L _______


1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 0 -7 0 0 0
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 -30 0 0
0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0
10 0 0 0 0 16 3 6 12
0 0 0 0 0 2800 2214 9450 0
6 0 0 0 0 2 2 10 7

















To continue the work in the CMF LP is necessary to modify the matrix.
Matrix modification for multiple objective analysis.


CAMETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
COTTON


UNIT INCOME >
RES/CONST
LAND
IVZ ACCTG
M2 CONS'N
'. CCTGI
SW Cl ,'N
LABOR
TECHA
CSH JL, 98
CSH MAY 99


2.00


1
0
0
0
0
10
6
0
5130


8L MAIZE MAIZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN
14.93 1.00 0.00 3.00


0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
514.29


MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO CSH TRN ASPARAGUS
2.28 0.10 0.03 3172.35 1.00


2
2800
0


2 10
2214 9450
0 12690


RHS


0 1 <= 5.40
0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 <= -1.00
0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 <= -3.00
0 12 <= 100.00
0 7 <= 24.00
1 0 <= 10000.00
1 8400 >= 0.00


Resource
Use

540 L'I I_!
0.00 MZ/ACCT,
-1.00 MZ CONS
0.00 SVV ACCI
-3.00 SWVV CON
68.85 LABOR
24.00 TECHA
10000 00 CSH JUNi
29825.38 CSH MAY


The solution is the same than in the previous matrix (4), but now all is in a single table that permits better analysis.
We have a little better income due to the transfer cash (June 98 to May 99)














BENEFIT AND INCENTIVE ANALYSIS
The Father controls the income of maize, sweet potato, and potato.
Oscar controls the profit of cotton and asparagus
In this analysis, the Father will contribute with S/. 7000 (income of the sweet potato + maize) (70% of maize, sweet potato, and potato)
Oscar will have about S/. 3000 (profit of the 2 ha of cotton) (30% of the maize, sweet potato, and potato)


CANETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
COTTON


UNIT INCOMiE >
RES/CONST
L '
MZ ACCTG

SW. I.
SW C,', I

TECHA
OCSH JU 98
FCSH J.U 98
OCSH- MA 99
F CSH MA 99
TCSH MA '


2.00


10
6
0
0
5130
0
5130


I 6


SL MAIZE MAIZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO OCH TRN FCH TRN ASPARAGUS
14.93 1.00 0.00 3.00 2.28 0.10 0.02 951.70 2220.64 1.00


0
0
0
0
0
514.29
514.29


16
2
840
1960
0
0
0


1
0
0
-30
0
3
2
664.2
1549.8
0
0
0


1
0
0
0
0
6
10
2835
6615
0
12690
12960


1
0
0
0
0
12
7
0
0
8400
0
8400


RHS

5.40
0.00
-1.00
0.00
-3.00
100.00
24.00
3000.00
7000.00
0.00
0.00
0.00


Resource
Use

5.40 LAND
-0.00 MZ ACC'T
-1.00 MZ CONS
0.00 SV ACCT
-3.00 SW CON,
68.85 LABOR
24.00 TECHA
3000.00 OCStI J U
7000.00 : HJU
19611.71 OCSH MA
10213.67 F CSH MW
29832.13: TCSH MA


This solution is almost the same than previous. But here is correcly separated the cash needs and the cash income between the Father and Oscar
The Mother does not understand about financial issues. Sometimes the daughter (Margarita) helps in that but mainly it is managed by the Father and Oscar.
It is important observe that in May of 1999 Oscar will have major cash control than his Father (31.05% more, will control the57%)











MAXIMIZATION OF THE OSCAR'S INCOME


CANETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
COTTON


LNIT INCOME >
RES/CONST
L? *
MZ A7 I
1 CONS'N
ACCTG
SW CONS'NJ
LAB([C
TECI-JA
OCSH JIU 98
FI -, JU 98
OCSH MIA 99
F CSHI MA 98
TCS'H MA 99


2.00


1
0
0
0
0
10
6
0
0
5130
0
5130


I 7A I


SL MAIZE MAIZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO
0.00 1.00 0.00 3.00 0.14 0.10 0.00


0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
514.29
514.29


1
-7
0
0
0
16
2
840
1960
0
0
0


MAXIMIZATION OF THE FATHER'S INCOME

CANJETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


1
0
0
-30
0
3
2
664.2
1549.8
0
0
0


1
0
0
0
0
6
10
2835
6615
0
12690
12960


I 78 I


UNIT INCOME :,
RES/CONST
LAND
MZ ACCTG
MZ CONS'N
SW ACC(TG
SW CONS'N
LABOR
TECH'
OCSH A 98
FCSH JU 98
OC;SH MA 99
F CSH MA 98
TCSH MA 99


COTTON SL MAIZE MAIZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO
-0.76 39.87 1.00 -65.52 3.00 5.84 -2.08 1.40


1
0
0
0
0
10
6
0
0
5130
0
5130


0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
514.29
514.29


1
-7
0
0
0
16
2
840
1960
0
0
0


1
0
0
-30
0
3
2
664.2
1549.8
0
0
0


OCH TRN FCH TRN ASPARAGUS
-4503.06 -10507.13 1.00


1
0
0
0
0
6
10
2835
6615
0
12690
12960


0
0
0
12
7
0
0
8400
0
8400


RHS

<= 5.40
<= 0.00
<= -1.00
<= 0.00
<= -3.00
<= 100.00
<= 24.00
= 3000.00
= 7000.00
>= 0.00
>= 0.00
>= 0


OCH TRN
2813.58

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1


FCH TRN
6565.02

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1


ASPARAGUS
1.00

1
0
0
0
0
12
7
0
0
8400
0
8400


RHS

5.40
0.00
-1.00
0.00
-3.00
100.00
24.00
3000.00
7000.00
0.00
0.00
0


Resource
Use

3.24
-000
-1 00
0 00
-3.00
34.59
1949
300000
7000.00
21473.58
6565 02
28038 60


LAND
N4.7 AOCTr
MZ ACC'T
MZ CONS
SW ACCT
SW C( ONi

TECHA

.,, JU

F CSH M'
" I MA


Resource
Use

5.40
0.00
-1,00
0.00
-300
100.00
24.00
300000
7000.00
0.00
21339 10
21718.40


LAND
" ACCT
MZ CONS
SW ACCT
SW CONE
I...ABOR
TECHA
OCSH Ju
FCSH JU
< MA
F CSH MKV
i ; ; MA















TWO SEMESTERS DIVISION (MAY-OCTOBER, AND NOVEMBER -APRIL): LABOR, CASH, AND TECHNIQUE ASSISTANCE
The labor is the factor that so far was plenty in all solutions.
But that is not correct because one important characteristic of the CMF system is that they have different rates of activitity during the months.
The major or minor activity in the months depend of the crops in the land.
To be more realistic it was considered: the major labor rate in any month into the semester (not the average)


CANETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
COTTON


LIn Nr.CO)VE *,
RES/CONST
LAND
MZ ACC'TG
MZ CONS'N
SW ACCTG
SW CONS'N
LABOR MA-OCC
LABOR NO-AP
TECHA MA-OC
TECHA NO-.AP
OCSH J U .98
FCSH JU .
O CSH NO 98
F CiSHI NO 9
OCSH AP 99
F CSH AP S9
TCSH AP 99


2.00


1
0
0
0
0
16
26
2
4
0
0
0
0
5130
0
5130


L 8 I


SL MAIZE MAIZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN MAIZE SWEET POT. POTATO
8.69 1.00 15.46 3.00 1.38 0.62 0.00


0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
514.29
0
0
514.29


0 1
0 -7
0 0
1 0
-1 0
0 40
0 0
0 2
0 0
0 840
0 1960
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


1
0
0
-30
0
14
0
2
0
664.2
1549.8
0
0
0
0
0


OCH TR FCH TR ASPARAGUS
1428.18 3332.43 1.00


1
0
0
0
0
53
0
10
0
2835
6615
0
12690
0
0
12690


1
0
0
0
0
4
30
4
3
0
0
0
0
8400
0
8400


Resource
S Use

5.40 5.00 LAND
0.00 000 MZ ACCTi
-1.00 -1.00 MZ CONS
0.00 0.00 SW ACCT
-3.00 -300 SW C ON
100.00 10000 LABOR JL
100.00 8200 LABOR JL
12.00 1200 TECHA M
12.00 100 TFCHA Nl
3000.00 3000.00 OCSH JU
7000.00 700000 FCSHJU'
0.00 142818 0 CSH NC
0.00 933349 F CSH NC
0.00 20088.18 OCSH MA
0.00 3332.43 F CSI- MAI
0.00 29421.67 TCSH MA


This result is clear and show that:


First: The division the labor in semesters is a lot more realistic, and it for first time is all used in the semester May October.
Second: Because of the transfer activities among periods, the income is a little major.
Third: It seems, that the decision of planting asparagus (1997) was very good to take advantage of the labor, and besides it has good incorr
Fourth: There is labor and land resources in the second semester that should be used.
Fifth: The new constraint now is Technique Assistance that no permit all land use in the first semester.















SEMESTER DMSION OF LAND AND TEST OF THE CROPS IN OTHER EPOCHS.
Due the land could better used, it was divided in the two semesters.
The crops maize and sweet potato can also be planted in other epochs (between November and April).
The maize in summer, November-April, needs less labor (30), and less cash (2300), less technique assistance (1) but also produce less (income of 3000).
The sweet potato in summer (November through April) needs 18 jornals, 1800 of cash, 1 technique assistance and produce S/.2600.


CAtNETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


COTTON
UN; i,',M: 2.00
RESICONST
LAND MA.OCC 1
LAND NO. AP 1
MZ ACCTG 0
MZ CO(NS'N 0
SWV ACCTG 0
SW CONS'N 0
LAB3O)R JU-OC 16
LABOR NO-MA 26
T ECHAi MA-OC 2
TECIA NO-AP 4
OCSH JU 98 0
FCSH JU 98 0
O CSH NO 98 0
F CSH NO 98 0
OCSH AP 99 5130
F CSH fP 99 0
TCSH APF99 5130


IL MAL MAZE TRN SL SWEET SWEET TRN MAIZE SWEET POTATO OCH TR FCH TR LAN TRN MA2E2 SWEET TCH TRN ASPARAGUS
8.69 1.00 15.46 3.00 1.38 0.62 0.00 1428.18 3332.43 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00


0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
514.29
0
0
514.29


0 1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 -7 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 -30 0 0
-1 0 0 0 0
0 40 14 53 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 2 2 10 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 840 664.2 2835 1
0 1960 1549.8 6615 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 12690 0
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 12690 1


0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 30 18
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 0 -2300 -1800
0 0 0 0
1 0 3150 2600
1 0 3150 2600


Resource
Use


1 <= 5.40 5.00 LAND MA,\
1 <= 5.40 400 LAND NO-
0 <= 0.00 000 MZACCT(
0 <= -1.00 -1.00 MZ CONS'
0 <= 0.00 0,00 SVV ACCT
0 <= -3.00 -3.00 SWCONS
4 <= 100.00 10000 LABOR JL
30 <= 100.00 10000 LABOR JL
4 <= 12.00 12.00 TECHA M
3 <= 12.00 1200 TECHA N
0 = 3000.00 3000 00 OCS!H JU
0 = 7000.00 700000 FCSH JU .
0 = 0.00 0 00 0 CSH NC
0 = 0.00 753349 F CSH N0
8400 >= 0.00 2008818 (CSH MA
0 >= 0.00 5932.43 F CSH MA
8400 >= 0.00 32021.67 TCSH MA


This is the better result until now. Is a lot realistic and very attractive to the livelihood to be adopted.
It is important indicate that so far the productive alternatives are the known by the family with the exception of the asparagus that has been already installed.
The income difference between 98/99 year and 97/98 year is really great: 32201 18144 = S/.14057 (77%).
That means that the Ciprian Melendez Family would have 77% more income with this alternative than the current, with the same resources, in the same period of time.
This solution show that the land is increased by the fact of dividing the year, then it means that they would have as 9 ha in the year.
Is produced cotton, maize in the first semester, sweet potato in both semesters, and asparagus. The potato is not chosen because requires high level of resources.
























NEW CROPS ALTERNATIVES
In Canete Valley there are new alternatives of annual crops.
With current data of the "Valle Grande Rural Institute" It was estimated the resource use and production of the following crops.

SQUASH STRAWBERRY PAPRIKA
LAND NG-AP MA-OC NO-AP
LABOR 25 40 30
TECHAS 3 5
CASH 2820 2450 2356
INCOME 6048 7362 7025


CAN4ETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
COTTN SL-ma MoA LBS B sIeR *W N mW maIB sWEr DOmTO oas ro.m u ANM m-mE sw.E onm~ smAr r-mY AM AHRou c Resource
UinI if l 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 3.00 0.14 0.10 0.00 1708.98 3987.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.80 1.50 0.00 1.00 RHS Use

1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 <= 5.40 2.75 IJUI) MA
LAND O AP 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 <= 5.40 380 I AND N
I ,"'CC 0 1 1 0 0 -7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00 .000 MZ A .C
IA:'C N 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -1.00 .100 l C!.'Ur
",,'CT 0 0 0 1 1 0 -30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00 000 .:A.
' ( ,t,;,',I 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -3.00 43.0 .;'.'l O
I.A 'c!R ,, : 16 0 0 0 0 40 14 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 0 4 <= 100.00 7123 il M
LAO 'K.OA" 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 18 0 25 0 30 30 <= 100.00 100 0 .LAS BOR
Ti A (y1; 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 4 <= 12.00 1200 '1 EC A
1 C11 i O-A 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 5 3 < 12.00 1140 T CA N
;C i A 0 0 0 0 0 840 664.2 2835 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 735 0 0 3000.00 300000 C i.! IA
FH "i 0 0 0 0 0 1960 1549.8 6615 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1715 0 0 7000.00 700000 r:';! MhAF'
0 CSh- h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0.00 1708 98 O C( 1I
F CS. NOI 0 514.29 0 99 0 0 0 12690 0 1 0 -2300 -1800 0 -2820 7362 -2565 0 0.00 71lM65 F CH h(
OC AP9 5130 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8400 = 0.00 10t08968 CC,'H/11:
FH' A! B9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3150 2600 0 6048 0 7025 0 >= 0.00 092202 CS- AP
'ICI /AP99 5130 514.29 0 99 0 0 0 12690 1 1 0 3150 2600 0 6048 7362 7025 8400 >= 0.00 42095.03 1 CSHA FP

it was demonstrated that there are alternatives of production that have much better Income.
The CMF system, despite of its leadership In the zone, is conservative.
So far, its unique great risk was the asparagus crop.
Each time is more difficult to bring credit for the crops and In these new crops was not considered credit.
The difficulty in the CMF would be that part of the cash is controled by the Father and he does not ike the changes.
Now the CMF has a new vision of its business: with the same resources could have more than double income, and yet some land free.
The annual Income of the CMF system could be 42095.( 23951 more than the 18144 that they expectto have this year, 132% more).





















BASIC MATRIX TO START DYNAMIC LINEAR PROGRAMMING
The sweet potato and maize needed for family (and animals) consumption could be left without problems.
The family does not want to lost income opportunities due the constraints of these crops.
The most important in the system is the income.


CARETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
OCH TR FCH TR SQUASH


UN1T INCOME .
RES/CONST
LAND MA-OC
LAND NO-AP
LABOR MIA-OC.
LABOR NCO-AP
T EC HA MA-OC
TE:CHA NO-AP
ASP ACCTG
OCSH AP 98
FCSH AP9%
( CSH NO 98
F CSH NOI 98
OCSH AP 99
F CSH AP 99
TCSH AP 99


1824.00 4256.00 2.80


0
1
0
25
0
3
0
0
0
0
-2820
0
6048
6048


I 11 I


STBERRY
1.60

1
0
40
0
5
0
0
735
1715
0
7362
0
0
7362


ASPARAGUS
1.00


1
1
4
30
4
3
-1
0
0
0
0
8400
0
8400


Resource
IS Use

5.40 260 LAND MA-OC
5.40 380 LAND NO-AP
100.00 6800 LABOR MA-OC
100.00 10000 LABOR NO-AP
12.00 1200 TECHA MA-OC
12.00 11 40 TECHA NIO-AP
-1.00 -1lO ASP ACCTG
3000.00 3000.00 OCSH AP 98
7000.00 7000.00 FCSH AP98
0.00 1824.00 0 CS-i NO 9
0.00 8139.20 F CSH NO 9
0.00 1022400 OCSH AP 99
0.00 2119040 FCSHAP99
0.00 43193.60 TCSH AP a9


The income after the solution is a little major than previous because now the family does not want to produce maize and/or sweet potato
for consumption.
It is a good matrix to start the dynamic programming

























CANETE. PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM
aOHIR FCHoR IQUAl I ERR AWIARAOU OCOHT FCH'm sUsH e0ry 0sp AouI 0o01 P0H1R Qua0I sie-yH ASIPORR A
UM INCO. > 1236.00 2884.00 4.00 2.40 0.00 1236.00 2884.00 4.00 2.40 0.00 1236.00 2884.00 4.00 2.40 0.00
Fl7: --'._T
*, 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LAND NO-AP 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LABOR V. C 0 0 0 40 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I.A'OR NO-A 0 0 25 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TE CHAMA-OC 0 0 0 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
'ECHIA C-AP 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASPACC'G 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
GCS AP!r 1 0 0 735 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F'.-;!i 0 1 0 1715 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O CSHN59 i' 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F C 0 98 0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OCrSH A,' 1 0 0 0 8400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F CH AP 99 0 1 6048 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TC'_H AP 93I 1 1 6048 7362 8400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ILANDMA-OC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
ILA!) NO. P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
I.ABR A-OC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 8 0 0 0 0 0
LBOR AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30 0 0 0 0 0
ECH A'M C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 0 0 0 0
T ECHA 'OP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
A''ACC G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
CC. HA9 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 735 1166 0 0 0 0 0
FSHAi i 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1715 2073 0 0 0 0 0
O :.'; i CO PE 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F CSH VO 96 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0 0 0 0
OC-i A"' 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4665.6 0 0 0 0 0
F A 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6048 0 8294.4 0 0 0 0 0
TISAP,9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6048 7362 12960 0 0 0 0 0
L',NA,.O, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
[.A'DO.P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
L.iBO i '.~A-.: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 12
L ABOR AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30
T 'HMA- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2
TE.-AP-'A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2
AP ACC. G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1
CC ii SH ,p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 735 1283
iF.:H ,i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1715 2280
OCH:9 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
IF Cl 0 NO'i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -2820 7362 0
O-, AP ` 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5832
F CSAAP 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6048 0 10368
FCSItHAP F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6048 7362 16200


Resource
RHS Use

<= 5.40 2.40 L/l'ii M
<= 5.40 4.00 IAL NO
-= 100.00 9600 L.AllOR
<= 100.00 10000 LAPOR N
= 12.00 1200 TECIAM
= 12.00 1200 'TECHAl
<= 0.00 000 SPA
3000.00 300000 .C ,A
7000.00 700000 i:S AP'
S 000 123600 ~CiSHi!;
0.00 927280 CSi-i
>= 0.00 123600 CSi-IA
>= 0.00 2707600 CSH AP
>= 0.00 .598080 : CSHAF
<= 5.40 240 IAND MA
<= 5.40 400 LAOiO'C
<= 100.00 9600 LMiCR fl
<= 100.00 10000LAt'O)R
<= 12.00 1200 i;CHAl
<= 12.00 1200 THCr AN
<= 0.00 -000 ASP ACC
3000.00 30000 C00 OSH A
= 7000.00 700000 F !7A!-'
= 0.00 123600 C CSH N'
= 0.00 9272 80 I CSI' !;
>= 0.00 123600 OC.SHL
>= 0.00 2707600 F CS!H iA
>= 0.00 4590.801 TcHAP
<= 5.40 240 LAiDMA.V
<= 5.40 400 LAND NO
<= 100.00 9600 LAPO;, ;,
<= 100.00 10000 L.AB.
<= 12.00 1200 ;CH11 V
<= 12.00 1200 ECriA N
<= 0.00 000 8"ACC
3000.00 300000 .CSHPF
7000.00 700000 CS i F'
0.00 123600 ; CH ;N.
S 0.00 927280 H C I;c
>= 0.00 123600 CSH AP
>= 0.00 2707600 C.: h AP
>= 0.00 496800 B.CS IIAF
137942.4



























CAiETE. PERU. 1997
CMF LVELIHOOD SYSTEM 1 1 1 1 1 1
oman FeIlR s0us0 steWl 0sstMus) vocacO 10o51N
1824.00 4258.00 2.80 1.60 1.00 0.00 0.00

0 0 0 1 1 1 1
L' iNO.NO 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
I.ALAOLR M ;i 0 0 0 40 4 20 25
LAbO'C No AP 0 0 25 0 30 5 20
T E CA MA- TELHAii tC,'k' 0 0 3 0 3 1 2
CC(I-h Ail 1 0 0 735 0 199884 1872
'FCS ,P 0 1 0 1715 0 3456 3328
C CM NO 9O 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F ;S tNO .N L 0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0
O '-. AP i-' 1 0 0 0 8400 0 0
F C, ; .- l Al' ,.l 0 1 6048 0 0 0 0
TOS!" AP1 i 1 1 6048 7362 8400 0 0


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
oc43.0 00 2.80 1.80 1.00 0.00pnn o 00 158ocm F3OIB saAiO sB 4inous 28c 2x moWI .
4335.00 4096.00 2.80 1.80 1.00 0.00 0.00 11682.00 3386.00 2.80 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
o 0
o n


o 0 0
o 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
a a


RHS


Resource
Use


< 5.40 2.80 I t I OC 1
<= 5.40 3.80 LA/,IiK I 1
= 100.00 8.,00 Jl FI W,.1C 1
= 100. 1000 100i00 L.r I o. 1
= 12.00 1.00 I(C',!/ M 1
< 12.00 1140 TLI' (A No 1
3000.0000 300000 Ci C P Ol 1
7000.00 700000 f':" i, ,i.'. 1
>= 0.00 1824 0 0 1 N(: !. ; 1
>= 0.00 813920 1 :;'H N': 1
>= 0.00 1022400 O1 i' 1
>= 0.00 2118040 F l'.iH A' 1


i.L ,A. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40 2.80 MNiA ; 2
.LAgN P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40 3.80 L I 'hAl 2
I.ABOR IMAO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 025 25 0 0 0 0 0 100.00 O L 'r._ R '; 2
LA.OC.R NO i.' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30 10 25 0 00 0 0 0 <= 100.00 100,00 L'.iC NO P 2
TEC!-, .V. C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 2 2 0 00 0 0 0 0 < 12.00 1200 Ti C ( : 0 2
EC'hOA. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00 1040 i C: lNOi.A' 2
ASP ,:PC.G 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 0.00 -000 A ,- PA.i'L 2
AVO: ACCT 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 000 00 0 /AVO 2
lfAAND .\(.;'."(, 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00 -0000 I,,. i.A"TC. 2
O:HA,'ii -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 735 1186 1458 2059.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5000.00 500000 0' SH 1 ,P 2
FCS'" AP9" 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1715 2073 2592 3660.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 5000.00 500000 i ;.- A-' 2
CC';!.H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0.00 433500 L( Ip r 2
1 C I O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > 0.00 945180 F C 2
OCSH P' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4665.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 900060 O '-i. ;.,P0 2
F CS'i A 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 1 6048 0 8294.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > 0.00 29324 80 1. AP 2
fTSH ,- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6048 7362 12960 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0. 51577.00 T.&,i 0 .: 2
I.A) MA OC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5.40 300 l ii-.,C 3
LWN. W :' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 5.40 3.80 L./\(r'. 3
LAO r : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 40 12 25 25 <= 100.00 92,00 L.A'!'1;, i.,r--C 3
L; l:-,R ho. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30 15 25 <= 100.00 10000 IL W) i,'. N-IP 3
1. CH. .vik, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 2 <= 12.00 12.00 Ti:;;HPM A.C 3
TE.CHAN',OAP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 <= 12.00 1040 T;/ rl. 3
ASP "rCT(, 00 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1 0 00 0 1 0 0 0.00 000 A.1 : 3
AVO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1 0 00 <= 0.00 .000 /:AL (:. l 3
tA'3 I: '.CCT"' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 = 0 00 -00
Oa.iHAPO( 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128 :21 O: *0i j000000 1000000 3
F';3HAP'() 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 6 Ilf 260 51' 8 45ji944. 00000j 500000 0
'OCSH I O, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : 0 '0 0 '= 050 1158200
F SHO ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I :.:0 1 0 r j i 1021400
OCSHAP01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 5: it.68 l3 10 = l 000 1741400 :
SCSHAFI' 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0 I 604i 10361B 331: I '1o40l U0 3088 40 3
TO A' 01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 I 'j ":* I: 2':' '0 0- 000 282 40, ,
i1'59 00















CARETE, PERU, 1B97
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
38R FOUR7.88 SU2. 0S.1 A1.S00 000 O.00 I 6717.38 9654.88 2,80 0.00 O1.00 0.00 MU
2883.38 6727.88 2.80 0.16 1.00 0.00 0.00 6717.38 9664.88 2.80 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00


0
LAND INOAP 0
LA.'MA OC 0
LABOR N' Ac 0
TECHAMAOC 0
TEC'!A NO Ae 0

FCi.' A0i '8 0
Ip 1 0

W)C C r O i'L 1
t C.h AF -9 1
F C.SH AP0! ) 0
T1. AV P/ 1


001
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 40
0 25 0
0 0 5
0 3 0
0 0 735
1 0 1715
0 0 0
1 -2820 7362
0 0 0
1 6048 0
1 6048 7362


3 3 3 3 3 3

13964.38 8944.88 2.80 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00

0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 00 0 0
0 0 0 0 00
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 00 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
00 0 00 00
0 0 0 0 000
0 0 0 0 00
00 0 0 0 00
00 0 0 0 00


L O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LANU' 4-AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ABOR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 8 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SA NO P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30 10 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TEC1 ', OCi0 00i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CA O AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 3 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P l' 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VOC C 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MANDi T 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OC"HP -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 735 1166 1458 2059.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
FC' l 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1715 2073 2592 3660.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F "H a aC .X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OCCr AP 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4665.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F C(CH A 0i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8048 0 8294.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ICSHAP 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6048 7362 12960 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LA0NON IAD. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
L ,.D ;,> AlP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
LABOR ,A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 12 25 25
SOR O AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30 15 25
TIECHiA MA-OC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 2
TE C'HA C.AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2
i /P A' '. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
/V 'C A.C' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
tW.rL ACCT": 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
,C-,' P 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 735 1283 2916 3706.58
FC! 'P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1715 2280 5184 6589.44
C. UC,'II 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F CSH N. '-J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0
CCS F AP' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5832 7499.88 10350
F AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 1 6048 0 10368 13333.12 18400
i AP/ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6048 7362 16200 20833 28750
L 'b ''; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I AN'.D WC' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
,LI!R, -,'-A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I-AV 'A ,' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
'.E C;", .' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7' !:',,[. N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I/1 ,C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0
.lDc r'C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0
1V'i I.UN"C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1
C C!' ,P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F 'A.E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
(I CSFI01 N" O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
C0 NCIXO 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OC S0/ AP 0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F /' C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
cH F' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LAND 'W. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LAI'0 N'-AP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LJ'i, MA--OC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
L BIf fECi' tiA,"C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I EC /.,A i- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A'!5F C'"M 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
IVO)c "1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
AC'ITf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

OC CI 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F1CSHP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CIi VG2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I 0H N4 1- C2 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OCISHI AF C3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F Ch AP 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
L1T( P30 0a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
IANONCAF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a a
LWORMAO C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a a a a a a
LAB O NC A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00a a
TEC HAW G 0 0 0 a00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a
TCEI-HAN 3 a0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a a a
A R~ QPACCM a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 a a
AVOC/cCTS0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -10a a a a a a















4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
omIR cwm SOJASU smn r 5 xvocuo iM1 olurm 1H0R soIAsH sur u- os -Lm yaU Resourco
23211.38 9234.88 2.80 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 3545838 13524.88 2.80 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 RHS Use

0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 5.40 11 L/-AtI 14-C 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 5.40 380 LAJN.- dAI' 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 100.00 103 L.pBORM.l\CC 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 <= 100.00 10000 Lp IP hPI AP; 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00 '4 g9 TiC. W- 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00 1140 rFC-l I 0H AP 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 3000.00 30000 OCSH AP : 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0= 7000.00 '00000 FCY. '\ A?'P 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 2883 38 C CSH lrI 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > 0.00 -000 F C-Si'F !NI 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 11283 38 OCSCH '' 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0.00 2306228 FCSH AP 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a _Ci 36113 '6 8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 j ~4 10 100
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u C 0 : 40 380
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 = 100 80 800
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 :0 0 = O 10000 1000
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ':' j 00I; U 3 00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 '0 0 0 00 1040
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 j C 0,50 G 000 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.0 WAVOCA i: 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00 -000 MANDO A:C. 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 5000.00 500000 OC Al' 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 5000.00 500000 FC:'Stl 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > 0.00 871738 O C-'NO 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > 0.00 15888 F CS'NO 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 1382.981 OC iH AP 9 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 34886.8 F CS- AP 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 48286.68 :TC, APAi: 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40 3.00 IAI D M4 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40 3.80 A P 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *- i I0, 200 9200 .
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I. D100 10000 .
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : 12 Ci00O 1200 .
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u 0 0 0 1 1. I1i 1040
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : 0 00 000 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i' 0 u u : u 00 -000
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 :0 0 0 00 0 -00 O 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u 0 G0 : 0 0j 1110000 0 1000000 a. 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u U 0 0 ,: 0 1 = 0030 l0 500000 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ': 3 uI03 1396438
00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0 CIlJ 17288 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ,u 0 C' 0 8 : 7j8j I 83n28 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 j 0 3 : 0 32': j 0 4 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C0 :00 '0a76'4
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0I r z 0 3 00 4
0 0 1 0 1 1 1 03 0 0 0 0 740 3 80
0 0 0 40 12 25 25 ) 0 I, 0 0 li i ui o 9200
0 0 25 0 30 15 25 0 ,: 0 0 0 : = iC00. 100000 4
0 0 0 5 2 1 2 u 0 0 C rji co00 12.00 4
0 0 3 0 2 1 2 L : 0C 0 0 i = 12 0i 10' 40 4
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 I3 0 0 0 0l rj 0 00 000
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0: 0 0 lj 0 00 -000 4
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 :0 D 0 ( : = 000 0 00
1 0 0 735 1283 2916 3706.56 r 0 0 0 i: I:i 12000 00 1200000
0 1 0 1715 2280 5184 6589.44 0 j 0C 0 j0 4 3 10000 5 00 00
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 lj 0 000 2321138 4
0 1 -2820 7382 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 : 000 16082 88
1 0 0 0 5832 9812 10954 0 0 I: 0 i U = 00 2904338 4
0 1 6048 0 10368 22895 25559 0 0 0 C = o0 o 38 86372 4
1 1 6048 7382 18200 32707 38513 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 80304.66 T:CH AP llu 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 <= 5.40 3.80 LANr M.'A C 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 <= 5.40 3.80 -LA; n A 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 12 25 25 <= 100.00 92.00 L\ ( rM, OC 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 30 15 25 <= 100.00 100.00 I.AO; C i 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 2 <= 12.00 12.00 TEf:'.i.' O-C 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 <= 12.00 10,40 ri'CH O 5
0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 <= 0.00 0.00 A'P 5
0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 <= 0.00 0.00 AVOCACC rlG 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 < 0.00 0.00 IlA 1 5
-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 735 1283 2916 3706.56 115000.00 5000.00. CCS HAP ', 5
0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1715 2280 5184 8589.44 = 10000.00 10000.00 FCSj. AI-l 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00 354-8,3 OtC.- NO 9. 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 1 -2820 7362 0 0 >= 0.00 20352.88 F CS NcC 5 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5832 13050 14625 >= 0.00 4129.38 OCHAP.99 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6048 0 10368 30450 34125 >= 0.00 4027.28 F CS' .AP f 5
0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 1 1 6048 7362 16200 43500 48750 >= 0.00 96841.88 TCI-SAP il' 0 5
S330294.43















CAiRETE, PERU. 1597
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM 1 1 1 1 1
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>= 0.00 2201277" CS 'AP 1
>= 0.00 33412 P7::H 4 4 1
<= 5.40 1.00 I. NI A-O 2
<= 5.40 380 L AiH IAP 2
<= 100.00 800 LaO, F44 -OC 2
<= 100.00 10000 I : Pr'J-oA 2
<= 12.00 300 Ti.0! AM',-OC 2
<= 12.00 1040 TLC(HANO 2
<= 0.00 000 A' ,I' ,CT 2
<= 0.00 -000 A/OAC cre 2
= 0.00 000 MAND A:CC" C 2
= 500000 8000 OCSi AP 9. 2
= 5000.00 600000 'S:H AFC4 .S 2
>= 0.00 0834 00 ( C, SH NI: 98 2
>= 0.00 203100 I" C Nu 2
>= 0.00 1148880 S :OCH -' 2
> 0.00 3515580 F CSHi P A 2
>= 0.00 4S6S d0 ___ 2
<= 5.40 100 3
<= 5.40 380 IND NO O.A 3
<= 100.00 1200 LACR '.,A -C 3
<= 100.00 10000 L C [(R O-. 3
<= 12.00 200 TFC', 3-,'-C 3
<= 12.00 1040 T'L.Ch4A O- AP 3
<= 0.00 000 bPAC 3
<= 0.00 000 AVOO A(:C:~ 3
<= 0.00 000 O A; IcD ,'C, 3
= 10000.00 1000000 C 3
5000.00 800000 F; S- AP4 8 3
>= 0.00 15551 00 O CS 'C P a; 3
>= 0.00 4751 00 r CSH I 'a 3
>= 0.00 2138300 OC 3AP;9 3
>= 0.00 30940 F HP 0 3
>= 0.00 81332.40 -. 3
<= 5.40 100 1 4
<= 5.40 380 44,;) tO AP 4
<= 100.00 1200 I ,.R 4
<= 10.00 100 I00E00 j. N -At' 4
= 12.00 200 'r.CH, M-X 4
<= 12.00 1040 *I FciCH' -A 4
<= 0.00 000 / ACC TG 4
<= 0.00 000 AVCC 4 CCTG 4
<= 0.00 -000 1,/AND ACCTG 4
S 12000.00 1200000 OCS A'P 49 4
= 000.00 000000 FC SH P3 4
>= 0.00 25268 00 C CS7 N'c If 4
>= 0.00 84'1 00 F QC1 'V1C4 t8, 4
>= 0.00 3210000 COCiH AP 9' 4
>= 0.00 4380 40 F CSH. AP .3 4
>= 0.00 '5765 40 ITCl H-APF' t, 4
<= 5.40 100 LuC t'41..O 5
<= 5.40 380 I.PNI: .AP 5
<= 100.00 1200 I ABO'P 5
<= 100.00 100I00 1LBOR NO-AP 5
<= 12.00 200 'T(CHA, ft.-,OC 5
<= 12.00 1040 TECiHAN4,". 5
<= 0.00 000 ASP /,CC1: 5
<= 0.00 000 .AVC A.' C 5
<= 0.00 000 MA /HE. ;C 5
15000.00 1500000 .CS- AP 94 5
= 10000.00 1000000 I"':SH Ap.G 5
>= 0.00 39986 00 0 (CS' C 98 5
>= 0.00 15191 00 F CSH II'0 fO8 5















0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 5.40
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 100.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 12.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 15000.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 10000.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 5.40
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 100.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 <= 100.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 12.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 15000.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 10000.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40
0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 5.40
0 0 0 40 12 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 100.00
0 0 25 0 30 15 25 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 <= 100.00
0 0 0 5 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00
0 0 3 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 12.00
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0.00
1 0 0 735 1283 2916 3706.56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15000.00
0 1 0 1715 2280 5184 6589.44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 10000.00
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 1 -2820 7362 0 0 0 0 0 00 >= 0.00
1 0 0 0 5832 17369.55 19465.875 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 1 6048 0 10368 40528.95 45420.375 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
1 1 6048 7362 16200 57898.5 84886.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 v C0 I I I 40
0 0 0 u 3 3 I
0 0 C 0 12 a C 1) *= lu Iu'j
0 0 j 0 i 0 u ; 0 I :( = 1aL0 rJ
0 0 u0 3 0 u 0 0 C, 5 1 2 = 12 uO
0 0 A u C0 0 3 0 2 3 = 12 0
0 0 0 C 0 3u 0 1 1 0 0 OOu
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 1 000
0 0 C' u ,u 0 .1 0 0 ,J 0 0 l u 0,
-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 '3 1263 ;&16 3'0I'6 I= .00000
0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 a I 126c0 i.164 366. 44 1 000000
0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 rj 0 *"= 0 00
0 0 0 0 0 a 0 a I .2620 6:" C 0 00 O
0 0 7 0a 0a 1 0 0 j 3.'3: 1-10'5 i1 i 48 *= ji40J
0 0 u 3 u a 0 Ca I P60d .l 36 34d3 l4:, 48963-4 16 = GO
0 0 Ia) c 0 1 1 60_ I I 7 361 I ]33 463_ 13 .-: a0


45817 00 OC- IP w. 5
5138940 F CS'HAFI 5
97gOa 40 TCHAih f.ir 5
100 L[D' M.-OC 6
380 LAWNO-V 6
1200 LABI',< 6
10000 LA i.BRuf. Xp 6
200 TL.C.f'A ') 6
1040 T -- I( A 6
0 00 /P .AL i G 6
000 AVOC ACC(1 ; 6
'300 /AN! AC', I : 6
15.00000 CCSA 6
10000.00 FICS I/ 6
5370200 0 :SH'* 6
2381100 F ,SI 03 6
58534 00 01, I.1 6
5810 90 FC'HI P I 6
11884340 I 4i'i 6
300 -' 7
380 AP 7
8200 0 7
10000 1, 7
1200 0. ; 7
1040 7
000 7
000 i. 7
000 T: 7
1500000 0, 7
1000000 7
6594900 j1 O' 7
4282500 0 D1 7
7'181 00 f)' 7
83399 40 0' 7
1499044O ____ fi.___ 7
300 LANti i.'A 8
380 i.LANl? 1'0o1, 8
9200 LAOOC M'V OC 8
10000 LABA li- AP 8
1200 *rCH'. -- 8
1040 TEFIAII' 8
000 ACP LU 8
000 1,> 1 8
000 AO A 8
0 00 l!,;i .. 8
150000 (c' ci i 8
10000 00 rFs'! ;i t', 8
7819800 C (.L Hf, 8
4721500 i'CH [1 5 8
84028 00 (OC : 1-;. O i 8
5'88940 F rSH J 8
160441.40 8
300 9
380 9
9200 9
10000 9
12.00
1040 9
000 9
000 9
000 9
1500000 9
1000000 '
9044300 9
5150500 9
9627500 9
'197940 9
18298 40 9
932343 87 I













OUTPUT TABLE


CANETE, PERU, 1997
CMF LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM


ZI ..45 I le
YRAf;g- 'lA0 Y --4r.E-AY


07 0. -'p F. 4.

If'..
NNW.
-.1 5


2.48 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
11400.00 11499.60 21383.00 32100.00 45817.00 59534.00 71781.00 84028.00 96275.00
22012.77 35155.80 39949.40 43669.40 51389.40 59109.40 63399.40 67689.40 71979.40
12. '" i ; : i ;9'' i"0 4'' 7 '' 1beb i i ,i, 4I '3 4 :,4 !.4QI 932343.97 '
S 932343.97


EIMENIMEMlI 3347jt,


4: i 91 04582.48
604582.48


IPP~i~s~s~r~a




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