• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Abstract
 Resume
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 An introductin to I.N.R.A.N
 From research to extension
 The "farming research systems research"...
 Current research on farming systems...
 Conclusion
 Bibliography
 Table 1. Characteristics of the...
 Table 2. Salient characteristics...














Group Title: evolution of farming systems research at the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Niger
Title: The evolution of farming systems research at the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Niger
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080635/00001
 Material Information
Title: The evolution of farming systems research at the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Niger
Alternate Title: Evolution of farming systems research at the National Institute of Agronomic Research in Niger
Physical Description: 27 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ly, Samba
Publisher: Re´publique du Niger, Ministe`re du De´veloppement Rural, Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques du Niger, De´partement de Recherches en Economie Rurale, De´partement de Recherches Agricoles, De´partement de Recherches Ecologiques,
République du Niger, Ministère du Développement Rural, Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques du Niger, Département de Recherches en Economie Rurale, Département de Recherches Agricoles, Département de Recherches Ecologiques
Place of Publication: Niamey?
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Research -- Niger   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Niger
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 24-25).
Language: Text in English with French and English abstracts.
Statement of Responsibility: by S. Ly ... et al..
General Note: "Paper presented at the Symposium on Farming Systems Research and Extension held at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, October 13-16, 1985."
General Note: "Document No. 10E ; October 1985."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080635
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 154724280

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Resume
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    An introductin to I.N.R.A.N
        Page 2
    From research to extension
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The "farming research systems research" working group
        Page 9
    Current research on farming systems at I.N.R.A.N.
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Conclusion
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Bibliography
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Table 1. Characteristics of the recommendations domains
        Page 26
    Table 2. Salient characteristics of farms in 1984 by recommendation domains
        Page 27
Full Text









R&Pujblique du Niger
Miniist&-re du Dr:veloppernerit. Rural
Institute National de Recherches Agrornomiques du Niger
D6part.erment de Recherches en Ecornomie Rurale
Department de Recherches Agricoles
Drparterent. de Recherches Ecol ogi ques

















The Evolution of Farming Systems Research
at. the National Institute of Agricultural
Research of Niger


by


S. Ly, R. Deuson, M. GoubI,
G. Numra, C. Reddy, et S. Swinrton


Paper presented
on Farming Systems
held at Kansas
Manhattan, Kansas,


at the Symposium
Research and Extension
State University,
October 13-16, 1985.


Document. No. 10E
October 1985











Ayit. hor-s

The authors are listed in alphabetical order after Samba Ly:,

Head of the Department of Research in Rural Economics (DECOR) of

INRAN. Robert Deuson is Assistant Professor in the Department of

Agri cul tural Economics at Purdue University (West Lafayette,

Ind-iana) and Seni or Economist assigned to DECOR. Moussa Gi:oubl: -is

Head of the Soil Chemnistry and Fertility Section in the Depar-

tment of Ecological Research (DRE). Gilbert Numa is an agricul -

tural economist with the Fonds d'Assistance et Cooperation (FAC)

assigned to DECOR. Chandra Reddy is Assistant Professor in the

Department of Agronomy at Alabama A & M Uniiversity (Normal,

Alabama) and assigned to the General Agroniomy Section of the

Department of Agronomic Research (DRA). Scot.t Swinton is Inst-

ructor in the Department of Agricultural Economics at Purdue

University assigned to DECOR. Deuson, Reddy and Swinton work on

the Niger Cereals Research Project (NCRP) fina-nced by USAID under

cont ract no. 683-0225-820.





The authors wish to thank Issa Mahamane and Maliki Kadi for

the constructive comments and corrections which they cont ributed

on the early drafts of this Paper.



















THE EVOLUTION OF FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AT THE
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRONOMIC RESEARCH IN NIGER



The authors summarize the history of farming systems re-

search at the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Niger.

In 1983, INRAN undertook a Farming Systems Research Program with

assistance from a USAID-funded project in collaboration with

Purdue University and Alabama A & M University. The program

seeks to identify farm-level constraints by agro-climatic zone

and to provide on-station researchers with farming systems infor-

mation that will allow them to direct their research accordingly.

A dual methodology uses both long-term village-level data collec-

tion and rapid reconnaissance surveys by mul tidiscipl inary teams

of INRAN researchers. A working group composed of biological and

socio -economic researchers is develop ng onr-stat-i on research

programs to address the identified constraints. Promising tech-

nologies are subsequently tested on farmers' fields in distinct

agro-cl i matic regions. The participation of INRAN administrators

in the working group is helping to institute onal ize this emergent

FSR methodology.


ABSTRACT













RESUME


L'EVOLUTION D'UN PROGRAMME DE RECHERCHE SUR SYSTEMS DE PRODUCTION
A L'INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHES AGRONOMIQUES DU NIGER



Les auteurs rsument 'histori-iue de la recherche sur sys-

temes de production agricole entreprise A 1 Instit ut. National de

Recherches Agronomiques du Niger (INRAN). En 1983, 1 INRAN a

entrepris un programme de recherches sur syst.mes de production

agricole dans le cadre d'un project financed par 'USAID en colla-

boration avec PFurdue University et Alabama A & M University

(U.S.A.). Le programme tente d'cidenti fier les contraintes au

niveau de 1'exploitation agricole par zone agro-climatique afin

de donner aux chercheurs sur station des information ns sur les

syst.mes de production quli leur permettr-oant de modeler leur

recherche en consequence. Urne mrnetc thodolog:ie double utilise et la

collect de donnres dans le temps au niveau des villages, et des

sondages rapids effects par les chercheurs de 'INRAN gro.up&s

en aquipes pluridiscipl inaires. Un group de travail, compose de

chercheurs danesles sciences biologiques et dans les sciences

sociales et aconomiques developpent ensemble des programmes de

recherche sur stati on qui s'adressent aux:: contrai ntes -identi -

fiies. Les technologies prometteuses sont ensuite testes en

milieu rnel dans diffrentes zones agro-climatiques. La partici-

pati on des administrateurs de 'INRAN au group de travail permit

1 insti. tuti ornal i sati onr de cette nouve lle mrthocdologi e de

recherche sur syst.rmes de production.











CONTENTS



I. Introduction ........................... ........... .... .... ... 1
2. An Introduction to I.N.R.A.N .............................. 2
2.1 History of the Creation of I.N.R.A.N. ................. 2
2.2 Research Directions at I.N.R.A.N ..................... 2
2.3 Research Infrastructure .............................. 2
3. From Research to Extension ................................. 3
3. 1 The Traditional Approach ............................... 3
3.1.1 Otn-Station Research and the "E::xtension
Recommendations Themes" .......................... 3
3.1.2 Agricultural Extension and the
Multi locati onal Trials ......................... 3
3.2 The Development of the Farming Systems
Approach at I.N.R.A.N. ................................4
3.2.1 Monitoring the "Test Farmer" at Tarna .........5
3.2.2 Monitoring Two Graduates of the Farmer
Training Centers ............. .... ............5
3.2.3 The "Experimental Agricultural
Production Units" Operation ................. 6
3.2.4 The Conception and Birth of the
Current Approach ....................... .... 8
4. The "Farming Systems Research" Working Group ...............9
5. Current Research on Farming Systems at I.N.R.A.N. ........10
5. 1 The Multidisciplinary Recornaissance
Survey (sondeo) ..................................... 10
5.2 On-Stat-i on Agronomic Research ....................... 12
5.3 On-Farm Research .................................... 13
5.3. 1 Socio-Economnic Research ....................... 13
5.3.1. 1 Objectives .................................. 13
5.3. 1.2 Methodology ........................... 14
5.3. 1.3 Results ....................... ..... 15
5.3.1.4 Feedback .............................. 16
5.3.2 On-Farm Trials ..........................17
5.3.2.1 Objectives .............. ........ 17
5.3.2.2 Types of On-Farm Trials ......... 18
5.3.2.3 Trials Adapted to Local
Conditions .................... 18
5.3.2.4 Analysis of On-Farm
Trials ............................. 19
6. Conclusions ...............................................20
Bibliography ............... ................ ............ 23


APPENDICES

Table 1. Characteristics of the recommendati ons
domains ........................................ 24
Table 2. Salient characteristics of surveyed farms
in 1984 by recommendations domain .................. 25
Figure 1. Location of the study zones in Niger ............... 26










1. INTRODUCTION

Niger is a country of 1,267,000 square kilometers situated

in the heart of West Africa. It is bordered on the east by Chad,

on the west by Mali and Burkina Faso, on the north by Algeria and

Libya, and on the south by Nigeria. Besides being very large,

Niger is a desert country (approximately four-fifths of its area

being covered by the Sahara). Climatic variability among other

factors exerts a strong influence over the country's economic and

social development.

Agriculture, which employs 80% of the population of six

million, is li mited by fickle rainfall and high temperatures. The

rainy season lasts only four months, from June to September.

Average temperatures from 27 to 29 degrees centegrade are typi-

cal, with maxima in May-June and September-October.

Given such conditions, people practice manual, extensive

agriculture centered around millet, sorghum and cowpea, which are

often grown in association (Reddy and Gonda 1985 and Swinton,

Nurna and Ly 1985).

However, chronic droughts and soil deterioration have broken the

cropping cycle and undermined traditional practices. Deteriora-

tion was partly the result of of monocropped export crops and of

demographic growth that was accompanied by an expansion of land

under cult-ivat.ion and the subdivision of fields, with a corollary

disappearance of fallows.

In order to meet expanded demand, particularly for cereals,

Nigerien agriculture needs to move towards an evolved intensive

system of crops and livestock, and hence one that relies more on

a base provided by agricultural research.









2. AN INTRODUCTION TO I.N.R.A.N.

2.1 History of the creation of I.jN..A.N.

Since the recent years of drought., the Nigerien countryside

has encountered numerous and complex::: problems. Aware that agri-

culture and livestock raising, the pillars of economic develop-

ment. in Niger, cannot progress without the solid support of

agricultural research, the public authorities decided in January

1975 to created the Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques

du Niger. INRAN pulled together and took over the various French

research organizations which had hitherto been responsible for

carrying out agricultural research.



2.2 Researcgh Di2reticton at I.N.R.. A._N.

Niger's national policy of food self-sufficiency determines

the nature of agricultural research at INRAN. Hence, the or-ien-

tat-ion is toward subsistence crops (millet,. sorghum, cowpea and

groundnut), with emphasis being placed on varietal improvements

and cultural practices. In contrast with the former approach,

the strategy is primarily directed toward applied research taking

account of environmental conditions and the real needs of the

rural world. To carry this out INRAN is divided into five tech-

nical departments responsible for research in the following

areas: agronomy, ecology, animal and veterinary sciences, fores-

try and economics.


2.3 Research Infrastruct-ure

In operating its numerous research programs, INRAN utilizes

58 university-educated researchers, including 25 Nigerieris. Most.










research is carried out on the two principal research stations

(Tarna and Kolo), which cover a total of 308 hectares. These

stations are supported by a nation-wide network of sub-stat.i ons

and research support sites. During the 198:3-84 fis-cal year, the

budget totaled 633,330,000 C.F.A. francs (US$ 1,583,325 at an

exchange rate of 400 FCFA per dollar). Of this sum, about 16;

went into the financing of non-salary research activities (INRAN

1984, page A XX).



3. FROM RESEARCr Ti .-"-TEISIIN

3. 1 The Traditi onal reproach

3. 1 1 IrnStati on Research and tthe "E
Thernesl

In the past, agricultural researchers would synthesize re-

search station results in to "recipes" for cropping practices for

the agricultural extension service. These were called "extension

and recommendations themes" (INRAN 1982). The research approach

was thoroughly specialized and particular stick.

The results coming off the research stations and sub-sta-

t.ions were only rarely checked in the peasant farming environ-

ment, and the differences between the two were at times striking.

Recommended practices tended to focus almost exclusively upon

technical or technological aspects of farmers' problems, without

taking into account the structures and systems of production and

paying g insufficient attention to socio-economic repercussions on

the lives of rural people. As a result, ex::tended practices were

rarely adopted by small farmers.










:3. 1.2 .Aricltura1 c::-:tens.ri onr and th-.e Mult-i 2ocatj..onal Tr-i als

Such a research approach did not. facilitate the e::::xtension of

the agricultural recrnmmandatiors. Moreover., collaboration bet--

ween researchers and e::xt.ensionists was limited to contacts at the

annual meetings. Indeed, from 1979 to 1984, INRAN was part of

the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, while the exten-

sion services were located -in the Ministry of Rural Development.

(The two are now joined within the latter Mini story .

Toward the end of the 1970's, an initial effort was begun to

link research and e::t.ension. At the suggestion oif some ex:::t.ension

agents, INRAN undertook a program of rulti locational trials which

are carried out by extension agents under experimental designs

provided by INRAN. They are placed across the country at ext::en-

sion sites. For the first time recognize rng officially the need

to distinguish among different agricultural zones, INRAN divided

the rmultilocat.ional trials between a low-ra infa'll zone (aninua"i

mean under 400 mm) and a moderate rainfall zone (over 4o00 mm).

For the varietal trials, a second dist.inct-ion was make between

dune (sandy) and valley (sandy-clay) soils.

The goal of the rmu ltil ocatl ional t.ria'ls is to evaluate vai-

ties and fertilizer levels before extending them. Results of

these trials have been very uneven during the initial years.

These variations were due not only to differences inherent to the

physical environment., but also to a shortage of adequate super-

vision of the trials. Since 1970, the rural development projects

have contributed to the improvement of the management of these

trials. Since 1984, INRAN has simple field the experimental de-

signs of the varietal trials entrusted to the extension service,










leaving the more complex designs on the interaction of varieties

with fertility levels to the applied research sections of the

rural development projects.



3.2 The 'evelFmrnent of the Farm ing Syst.es Aeeroyach at I..=_NR-eA.._N.

After the creation of INRAN and the reorientation of re-

search toward development needs, it rapidly becomes apparent that

agricultural research should be placed in its true context and

should take account of rural realities. There have been several

attempts to do this, beginning in 1977. From 1977 to 1983, the

approach pursued was to carry out case studies on agricultural

recommendations already being e::::ended to farmers. There were

three different versions of this approach.


3.2.1 Monitori i the "Test FarEmer at Tarna

At first, an artificial farm was established on an existing

research station in order to study the application of the agri-

cultural recommendations package under the best possible condi-

tions and to evaluate their profitability. From 1977 to 1983,

the monitoring of the "test farmer" (E.arsD e.ilote) at Tarna

allowed a better understanding of how the extended agricultural

recommendations performed in an environment with unconstrained

access to capital (chiefly in the form of fertilizers, improved

seed varieties and animal traction equipment) (Roesch 1982, pp.

17-24). Overall, the study showed that the recommendations pac-

kage could provide attractive returns, but the profitability of

individual recommended practices and the returns to capital

investments were never evaluated.









3.2.2 Mornitoring Two !.-.t_ of the Farmer TraKi ni r Cet-.e2rs

A second attempt at evaluating the extended agricultural

recommendations studied the behavior of two farmers trained at

the farmer training centers (Ce ntres de Promontio2 Rural) of t.he

Maradi Rural Development Project (Roesch 1982b). The objectives

of this study were "to test the validity of the techniq ues

taught, the fashion in which these techniques wee adapted in the

field, the problems and deficiencies in the training, and the

social and economic constraints which an e::-trainee was likely to

encounter... For INRAN, interest focused on the study and

improvement of cultural techniques and the identificati on of

peasant needs in agricultural research." (Roesch 1982a, p. 25).

To carry out the study, two training graduates were chosen, one

from a village on dune soils and the other from a vi-llage on

sandy-clay soils. The study took place from 1979 to 1981 and was

expanded in 1981 to cover 28 farms located near the two farms

that were being studied in depth.

Moni tor-ing the farms of the two training- center graduates

from the Maradi Project and the survey of the 28 farms

surrounding g them a allowed feedback not only to the ex:tensionr

service, but also to INRAN (Roesch 1982a, p.43). It indicated

that certain hi therto neglected areas of research should be

considered, notably the feeding and train-ing of draught animals,

making the agr-icultural recommendations more flexible in the face

of climatic and economic uncertainty es, int ercroppi ng marnagi ng

organic matter and addressing the high cost of the equipment

needed to practice, the recommended techniques.










3.2.3 The "E:::Eer mental Ar0I,-cultural Produ,-tin n-i ts" OE2 elra. o02

The third approach adopted for the evaluation of the agr-icu-

Stural recomrnmedat-i ons, which continues to this day, ai ms at

studying the recommendations on sample farms managed by peasants

who have received no previous training. These farms have been

named "Ex:perimental Agricultural Production Units" (Unit.es de

FC'-d:uctJin Ag.1, ,:e E:erimental es) or UPAE. The objectives of

the UPAE study are : 1) the ident.ificati on of real constraints

encountered in the application of the recommendations, and 2) the

search for solution ns that will relax: or remove the observed

constraints through comb-ining all factors of production, includ-

ing soc-io-economic parameters which have long been neglected

(DECOR 1983a, p.14).

This program has evolved through several stages since its

beginning in 1980. A survey of 113 farms in Filingue Arrond-isse-

ment made it possible to choose six: for an in-depth study. Six

farms are split between two Zarma villages, one located on dune

soils and the other in a large dry valley. After one year of

monitor-ing the farms without any researcher -interventi on, INRAN

began in 1982 to introduce certa-in~ recommendations on a part of

each UPIAE. The recormmenrdati ons in clude:

1) rmnorcropped millet and cowpea,

2) improved varieties of millet and cowpea,

3) destumping,

4) higher planting density (millet at 10,000 hills per
hectare; cowpea at 55,000 plants per hectare),

5) mineral ferti izers (urea and superhosphate,
100kg/he each

6) pest management, and










7) poultry farming with improved species.

In 1984, the sample was expanded to include five UPAE in

each of the two villages as well as fifteen farms (without resea-

rcher intervention at first) in a third village on dune soils,

but made up of ethnic Hausas.

Farmer reactions to the introduction of these recommenda-

tions have provided lessons to researchers (DECOR 1984, pp. 4-5):

1) Use of the line tracer (to guarantee recommended
planting density) is difficult,

2) Mixing urea into the soil around each hill of cereal
crops considerably increases labor time required,

3) A millet variety which tillers better than the
recommended one (HKP) should be developed,

4) A cowpea variety that tastes better than the
recommended variety (TN 88-63) should be developed.

THe UPAE program is allowing the identify cation of both

favorable and constraining factors affecting peasant adopting of

a.gromonic practices developed on the research station and recomn-

mended to the extension service. Moreover, the results of this

program have emphasized the importance of elaborating on-station

research programs based a prior on farmers' objectives and the

actual constraints imposed by their environment.


3.2.4 The Conce pti on and Birth of the Current Aer2oach

The results of the three programs aimed at evaluating the

application of the agricultural recommendations confirmed a pre-

vious belief by agencies involved in extension and rural develop-

ment that on-station research and agricultural extension both

need a reorientation. The monitoring of the two farmer training

center graduates from the Maradi Project. in particular focused










on the lack of recommenedati ons for intercropping and the homo::ge-

neity of recommendations that does not take into account the

variety of farmers' ecological and economic conditions. Recom-

mendations requiring greater investments than farmers can afford

are particularly unlikely to succeed. The UPAE operations further

establ i shed the importance of developing recommendations which

meet the specific needs of farmers in different agro-c i matic

zones of the country.

These discoveries have led INRAN to reflect upon how to assure

that the products of agronomic research will better meet the

needs of its clientele. It is clearly inadequate simply to

evaluate agricultural recommendation ons after they have already

gone into extension or to conduct mult.ilocational trials managed

by extension agents to assure the appropr i ateness of these

recommendations. If we accept that the peasant farmer is the

final user of our research products, then a profound reori enta-

tion of our scientific approach is necessary. It becomes impera-

tive to understand his objectives, his needs, his resources and

the constraints he faces before elaborating research programs.

From the outset, he must be invited to join INRAN researchers in

formulating research objectives.



4. THE "FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH" WORKING GROUP

In 1984, INRAN established several technical groups called

"working groups", among which was the working group on "Farming

Systems Research". The groups objectives are as follows:

1) To establish with INRAN a mul tidisciplinary team composed of
researchers from different fields (biologists and economists)
and extension agents (developers).








2) To formulate research programs on farming systems and, after
their execution by the multidiscipl inary team, to evaluate
the results and generate feed-back for future programs,

3) To inform INRAN administrators of the progress achieved in
these programs and to insure administrative support for them.

This working group, which is coordinated by the head of the

Rural Economics Department assisted by two biological and two

economic researchers, counts among its members production agrono-

mists, plant breeders, entomologists, plant pathologists, veteri-

narians, soil scientists, agricultural chemists, agricultural

economists and extension agents.

So far, the working group has accomplished the following

tasks:

1) Formation of a multidisciplinary team,

2) Organization of a rapid reconnaissance survey (sondeo),

3) Elaboration of an on-farm trial program.

5. CURRENT RESEARCH ON FARMING SYSTEMS AT I.N.R.A.N.

At present, INRAN has adopted a multidisciplinary approach

oriented to satisfying the specific needs of farmers from diffe-

rent agr-iclimatic zones of Niger. The development of this ap--

proach englobes the following steps:

1) the establishment of multidisc-iplinary teams,

2) a rapid reconnaissance survey (sondeo),

3) on-stat.ion agrronomic research,

4) an in-depth soc-io-econiomic survey,

5) on-farm agronomic trials.



5 As one of its animal field visits for oSuther INRAN resear-e
As one of its annual field visits for other INRAN resear-










chers, the Rural Economics Department organized a trip for the

multidisciplinary team to the Experimental Agricultural Produc-

tion Units at Tashi, Lagare and Kouka in F-il ingue Arronndissemernt.

The team, made up of three soil scientists, a production agr-ono-

mist, three economists, a plant breeder and a statistician,

evaluated the work underway in order to see what contribution the

other INRAN research departments could make to these programs.

In this particular case, the principal difference vis-a-vis the

approach followed by Hi debrand (1979) in Guatemala was that the

rapid reconnaissance survey verified a program already underway

rather than an area where research had not yet begun.

Upon arriving at the villages, the team found that after

three years of on-farm demonstrations, farmers on the UPAE still

limited the application of the agricultural recommendations to

the INRAN test fields. When asked "Why don't you apply the

recommended techniques to your other fields?" they gave two

principal reasons. First, they do not like mono-cropping, belie-

ving that it does not make rational use of space and that it

increases the danger of a poor harvest when rains are poor.

Second, agricultural inputs (chiefly m-inreral fertilizers) were

unavailable to farmers, as much for financial reasons as because

they were logistically difficult to obtain (the farmer had to:.

travel 17 km by donkey). They found the recommended application

technique for urea fertilizer (localized around the hi 1I of

millet) to be too time-consuming:, since it coincides with the

weeding period. As farmers saw it, "if ferti lizer- is not

available, it is unwise to plant at the high density recommended

by INRAN (10, 000 hills of millet per hectare).









Important lessons for on-station research came out of the

rultidi sciplinary reconnaissance survey. Farmers' unwi 1llingness

to practice mono-cropping once again convinced researchers of the

importance of developing intercropping recommendations. More-

over, the unacceptabi lity of the recornrnendations package as a

whole suggested a need either to simplify the recommendations or

introduce them in stages while adapting them to local conditions

in the target zones. These lessons have brought three changes to

INRAN: the renewal of research on intercropping, on-farm verifi-

cati on of techniques developed on the research stati on before

extension to farmers, and the acceptance, not only by researchers

but also by administrators, of the importance of multi-

disciplinary approach in on-farm research programs. The partici-

pation of administrators (the heads of three research depar-

tments) in the team's activities facilitated the rapid adoption

of these new directions.


5.2 On--S0t0ati Aon .s.CDSoiE Researtch

In order to resolve some of the problems mentioned above,

the General Agronomy Sect.ion undertook a cropping systems re-

search program at Tarna and on the different INRAN research sub-

stations early in 1984. The program is in two parts: 1) research

on cultural practices that can be adopted immediately by the

farmers, and 2) long-term research aimed at reaching a better

understanding of intercropping systems and their interaction with

ecological factors (e ._ rainfall) and factors influencing farmer

access to production resources (such as animal traction equipment

and fertilizers). Under the first part of the research program,









trials on varieties, planting density and geometry, and land

preparation techniques were initiated in 1984 at Tarna and the

sub-stations and continued in 1985. The same is true for the

second part of the research program, which encompasses experi-

ments on plant physiology, water utilization, -insolation, plant

nutrients, insect incidence, plant diseases, weeds and crop rota-

tions.

Aside from the agronomic experimentation, results from

socio-economic surveys carried out by the Rural Economics Depar-

tment as well as contacts with other researchers and extension-

i sts are utilized to -identify the objective es, resources and

constraints faced by farmers who are the targets of on-station

research.

The on-stat'ion research aimed at finding technical solutions

to production problems is conducted by the General Agronomy

Section with the collaborate on of researchers from other depart-

ments. The on-farm trials were initiated on a small scale by the

Rural Economics Department in 1984 in order to learn to manage

the logistics of such trials. They have been continued in 1985 in

conjunction with the Genreral Agronomy Section. These trials are

based on research results for on-station ex:peri mentation in 1984

at Tarna and on the sub-stations. Eventually, these on- farm

trials will lead to definitive recommendations that will be

transmitted to rural people on a large scale by the agricultural

extension service.


5.3 On-Farm Research

On-farm research is carried out -in order to study farmers'









needs and to evaluate techniques and new varieties that have

per-formed well in a controlled environment. The focus is on

surveying farmers' needs and orienting agronomic research in

order best to meet those needs.

The identification of farmers' needs is done in two stages.

The first, already described, is the multidiscipl inary rapid

reconnaissance survey. This permits a general assessment of

needs as felt by farmers and observed by researchers inr the

course of a single visit. In order to acquire a more complete

understanding of farmers' needs and to be able to prior tize

these different needs, it. is necessary to monitor closely the

management of their farms.


5.3.1 Socio-Eonormic Research

5.3.1.1 Objectives

In order to monitor farm management, a socio-economic sur-

vey is carried out with the following objectives:

- In the short run:

1. To establish a typology of farms in order to group
farms together by recommendations domain.

2. To identify farmers' objectives.

3. To identify the constraints and the factors that favor
the realisation of these objectives.

In the medium run:

1. To help establish priorities for agronomic research
given farmer constraints and the likelihood that
research can find solutions for them.

2. To help guide national agricultural policy in order
to relax economic constraints (for e::ample, by
improving access to modern inputs and by bringing
product prices in to equilibrium).

3. To evaluate the results of agronomic and economic








research.


5.3.1.2 Methodol ogy

A research program in a given zone of the country begins

with the collection of baseline data on the region. This data

collection can be done either through library research or, fail-

ing that, by a survey of the entire zone. For two programs, a

lack of information forced INRAN to undertake baseline surveys.

In both cases, a large sample of farmers was drawn at random for

an ernt.ire arrondi ssement (113 farms -in Fi 1 ing ue inr 19 80, 348

farms in Madarounfa in 1982). The analysis of data collected

during the baseline survey furnished the necessary in formation to

establish recommendations domains. In the case of the study Con

the interaction between rainfed and irrigated agriculture along

the River Niger, the baseline information necessary was already

available from the National Office of Agricultural Water Manage-

ment (ONAHA).

The second stage is an in-depth survey of a subsample of

villages intentionally y chosen to represent each recommendat-ions

domain. At this stage, peasant objectives are studied, as well

as farm resources and agricultural activities. The goal of these

studies is to be able to:

1. Quantify the agricultural resources of typical farms.

2. Establish partial budgets for different cropping
systems and technology levels.

3. Integrate these into a model of a typical farm
operati on.


5.3.1.3 Results.

The initial results of the socio-economic surveys have made










it possible to establish recomrnendations domains, and thus to

choose sample villages for in-depth studies. Each study zone

represents a distinct region, particularly as regards rainfall,

the principal constraint to agricultural production in Nigcer.

Hence, as shown in Table 1, the north-west and center-south

agricultural zones were chosen for their significant differences

in rainfall, and the irrigation perimeters along the River Niger

for their reliable supply of water on irrigated fields. Within

each zone, the baseline information made it possible to choose

vi llages having different characteristics of topography, soil

texture and predominant ethnic group (this last being linked to
1
important differences in agricultural techniques.)

The second analytical stage is to describe quantitatively

the farms' agricultural resources and the u.tilisation of these

resources in different farming systems. It is not surprising to

see in Table 2 that there ex-ist quite substantial differences in

farm resources according to the recommendations domain. For

example in the north-west of the rainfed agricultural zone, farms

in the valley are smaller than those on the plateau. Resource

utilization also varies by zone, and so, consequently, do cropp-

ing systems. Sorghum, for example, is present in all major crop-

ping systems in the center-south of the agricultural zone of

Niger (Madarounfa) while it is rarely encountered in the north-

west (Fi'lingue, except for the valleys).

Analyzing the data on labor time and the management of

different cropping systems will allow the establishment of of


I/ For an example of the methodology. y used to determine a
recommendations domain, see Swinton and Ly 1984.










partial budgets by level of technology (animal traction and

manual farming) and the cropping system. The utili station of farm

resource inforrat.ionr and the partial budget results wit.hini an

input-output mathematical model wi ll permit the identi fi cat.ion of

the principal constraints to agricultural production for each

type of farm and the classification according to the value of

marginal product which could be obtained as each constraint is

removed.


5.3.1.4 Feedback

The creation of input-output mathernmt.i cal models offers

several important possible -ities to agronomic researchers, as well

as economists. Besides quanti flying constraints, these models

make i t. possible to simulate the impact of a new technology

already tested on the research station when such a technology is

introduced into an existing farming system on a typical farm.

The possibility of evaluating the farm-level profitability

of an investment in the development of a mew technology allows a

more efficient management of agricultural research. Moreover,

the choice of a profitable technology increases the probability

that it will be accepted by the farmer in the course of on-farm

trials.

Obviously, a mathematical model is not something fixed and

immutable. It lends itself to constant mod-ifi cations and correc-

tions so that. it better approaches reality. For example, al-

though at present INRAN's farming systems research program pays

little attention to livestock production, this does not prevent

it from being -incorporated into farm models int the future.









The feedback between socio-economic and agronomic research

does not stop there. Agronornic research offers the possibili ty

to ver-ify the i nterpretati on of economic research results. For

example, in 1984, intercropping trials were installed in the

there representative villages of Madarounfa Arrondissernent to

verify the hypothesis that agronomic conditions (chiefly soi

texture) vary sig ni ficantly from one recommendations domain to

another. Although the drought prevented the crops from reaching

maturity, the results of soil tests showed that soils in two of

the villages were not different, which led us to assume that the

differences in cropping systems between the two domains were due

to the use of different agricultural techniques.

Eventually, the feedback between research and the'reality of

the peasant world (via agricultural extension as well as on-farm

trials) should play a primary role. Only lessons learned in the

field can give a true evaluation of research results and the

efficacity of communication between e::tension agents and farmers.

However, we are still in the process of perfecting recommended

technologies according to the needs of farmers in different zones

of the country. At the current stage, the role of extension is

limited to fixing research directions and evaluating the on-farm

trials. Once certain recommendations have been transmitted :to

the extension service, its role in helping to evaluate the recom-

mendationrs on a large scale will expand enormously.


5.3.3 Onr-Far TrMials

5.3.3.1 Obj.ectives

The objectives of the on-farm trials are as follows:








1) To determine whether technologies proposed by
on-station research are ready for extensionn.

2) To determine whether the proposed technologies
should be re-evaluated by on-station researchers
in order to take into account biologic and economic:
constraints encountered at the farm level.

3) To determine to what extent the extension and input
supply services should prepare for the diffusion of
these new technologies.

5.33.32 TyEes of OnzFarm Trials

Two types of on-farm trials are distinguished at INRAN: 1)

researcher-managed trials and 2) farmer-managed trials.

The first type is used above all for developing new techno-

logies which take into account actual farming conditi ons. The

trials are very simi'liar to those carried out on-stat.i on, since

the researcher controls all the e::perimental variables. However,

these trials differ from those done on-stat-ion in that they are

conducted on farmers' fields, under ecological conditions more

varied than those on the research station, and taking into ac-

count the reactions of the farmer.

The second type of trials, those under farmer management, is

used to study how and why the farmer adopts a new technology,

wholly or partially, or rejects it. In this method, the farmer

himself tries to adopt and adapt the new technology proposed

within the context of his biological environment and his soc-io-

economic c circumstances.


5.3.3.3. Trials Adapted to Local Con dit.ons

Farmer-managed trials frequently have coefficients of varia-

tion from 30 to 50 percent, thus considerably higher than those

generally registered in on-station trials (Shaner et a1. 1982,









p. 119) .

In order to reduce or eliminate these variations, on-farm

trials at INRAN are conducted on relatively large parcels (1000
2
m ), with sufficient repetitions (25 per zone) and are designed

according to local conditions. E::xperimental blocks must be cho-

sen according t.o predominant agro-climratic conditions in the

region and treatments must be adapted t.o the region. For exam-

ple, since rainfall is the determining factor in Niger, a single

variety of millet cannot, be recommended for several regions

having different levels of rainfall. Hence, an early variety

(HKP) was used for trials in low rainfall regions (mean of 300-

450 mm/year) and another variety (CIVT) for higher rainfall

regions (mean of 450-600 mm/year).

Given the high variability of rainfall and soils in Niger,

INRAN's 1985 on-farm trials were divided among three distinct

agro- climatic zones (Filingue, Madarounfa and Kolo). These

zones were chosen based on the recommendations domairns previously

defined. In addition, ICRISAT installed the INRAN on-farm trial

expert mental design in one of its village research sites.


5.3.3.4 AnlZysis of OnzEarm rj..als

INRAN's analytical methods are essentially centered around

the desire to integrate the different disciplinary understandings

of the rural environment brought by the team members.

First. of all, agronomists determine the biologic and techni-

cal feasibility of the recommendations proposed by finding out if

there exist statistically significant differences between yields

obtained using the proposed recommendations and those gotten








using traditional practices. To do this, analysis of variance

(ANOVA) is used. However, in contrast with on-stat-i on experimen-

tal analysis, the ANOVA can be done at higher levels of accep-

table error (for example, 10% instead of 1 -or 5%). In effect,

the farmer may be willing to accept a higher risk of error than

the researcher normally would (Perrin et al. 1976).

Secondly, the economists establish the economic profitabi l

ity of the proposed technology. Two methods can be used to do

this: analysis of the entire farm, or the construction of partial

budgets. The former method is appropriate for cases where the

proposed new technology requires a profound transformation of

traditional farming practices, either by demanding considerable

capital investments or by strongly tipping the balance among

existing production systems (the case of "heavyweight recommenda-

tions"). Whole-farm analysis requires a broad base of detailed

in formation and sophisticated analytical tools (linear program-

ming, for example). However, since INRAN's on-farm trials so far

involve only simple techniques, this form of analysis is not yet

used.

The second method, the construction of partial budgets, is

appropriate when the proposed recommendations represent a margi-

nal change in traditional methods (the case of "1 ightwei ght

recommendations"). Such a change necessitates neither fundamen-

tal reorganization of farm management, nor great capital invest-

ment. Partial budgets make it possible to quantify the contribu-

tion of a recommendation to the farmer's net income. When seve-

ral alternative recommendations are proposed, it is best to

-identify the one which will contribute the most to met revenue










for its variable cost. Dominance analysis is used to do this.

Such an analysis has been used at INRAN (Kennedy et al.,1984).


6. CONCLUSIONS

At its birth in 1975, INRAN's role consisted of developing

agricultural recommendations without thoroughly understanding the

farming systems of Nigerien peasants. At. that t.i me, agronomic

research, confined exclusively to the research station, was foc-

used on ronocropping and transmitted recommendations to the ext-

ension service in the form of recipes without. having tested them

under farmers' conditions. Having realized that. certain recom-

rendations were not accepted by Nigerien farmers, INRAN set up

two new programs to evaluate the recommended techniques: 1) the

multi locational trials and 2) the monitoring and evaluation stu-

dies of farmers using the recommended techniques (the monitoring

of the "Test. Farmer"' at Tarna, that of the two farmer training

center graduates from the Maradi Project, and the E:xperi mental

Agricultural Production Units of Filin argue. The multi locat.i onal

trials chiefly aim to insure that the cultural practices and new

varieties developed on the two principal research stations behave

well agronomnically elsewhere. The socio-economic studies of the

use of the extended recommendations aimed to identify the factors

which facilitated or impeded their adoption and to suggest, means

of rel ax::i rg the constraints.

But the fact. that certain recomrmendati ons hold inherent. con-

straints to their adopt.i on (excessive labor time, high cost)

brought INRAN to opt for a new approach. From the outset, it.

seeks to discover the needs of Nigerien farmers and to develop








agricultural recommendations applicable to zones with suffici ern-

tly homogenous characteristics. Currently, INRAN's Farming

Systems Research Program is a multidisciplinary program with

scientists in both the social and biologic realms. Once identi-

fied for research, an intervention zone is rapidly surveyed by a

multi -discipi inary team to determine its agronomic_ possibilities

and the needs of its farmers. Sim ultaneously, a socio-economic:

survey is begun in order thoroughly to understand farming systems

in the zone and to quantify their parameters. The findings of

this survey are exarnined jointly with the agronomists. Based on

the reconnaissance survey and the socio-economic study, the odds

for the adoption of a new technology are evaluated within the

context of the traditional farming systems. All promi sing." tech-

nolo:gies are then tested in on-farm trials. At first, these

trials are carried out under researcher management. Those which

do well are then repeated under farmer management.

Several years will be necessary before this approach can

yield e::tendable recommendations. However, it has al ready

brought about certain promising new research directions. The

focus on intecropping research will doubtless lead to the develo-

pment of recommendations more acceptable to farmers. Economic

research will prevent unprofitable recommendations from being

extended. The participation of Farmers and extension agents in

agricultural research will permit other factors liable to be

overlooked by researchers to be taken into account. These new

directions insure that the products of agricultural research will

better respond to the needs of Niger's farmers.










BIBLIOGRAPHY


D.E.C.O.R. 1984. Recherche sur les systmres de production agricole.
Campagne 1983: Deulxi me annee d'intervent.ion dans les unites de
Production Agricole Ex:pri mentales (U.P.A.E.) des villages de
Lagard et de Tashi (Arrondissement de Fil-ingu.) .. INRAN, Niamey.

1983a. Etude sur les syst&mes de production "Unit.es de
product on agricole experimentales" premiere annae d' intervent.iorl
dans 1'Arrondissement de Filingue. INRAN, Niamey.

1983b. Enqute socio-aconomri que par sondage et choice:
d'Unites de Producti on Agricoles Ex:perimentales dans la region de
Filingu6 (Rapubli que du Niger). INRAN, Niarey.

HI-ildebrand, P.E. 1979. Generatit'ng technology for traditional farmers
the Guatemalan experience. PFresented at the 9th Int. Cong. of
Plant Prot. 5-11 Aug. 1979. Washington, D.C. Soc:i oeconomrnia Rural,
Sector Publico Agricola, ICTA, Guaterala.

I.N.R.A.N. 1984. Note information sur 1'INRAN. Niamey.

1982. Fiche signal]tique des variotrs vulgarisees. Niamey.

Kennedy L., A.S. Ly et R.R. Deuson. 1985. Rapport de Recherche: Etude.
des cas portant sur des essais en mi lieu r.el effects dans
"I'Arrondissement de Kolo en 1984. DECOR, INRAN, Niamey (*).

Ly A.S. et R.R. D:euson. 1985. Pro:fi de tro-is amrnagements du Fleuve
Niger et inventaire pr"l iminaire des resources de 58 e:::ploitations-
achantillons. DECOR, INRAN, Niarey.

Numa G. 1985. Les Uni ts de Production Agricaoles E:xparimentales
(U.P.A.E.) dans Arrondissement de Filingu,: RFsuiltats de a
Campagne 1984. DECOR, INRAN, Niamey.

Perrin R.K., D.L. Winkelmann, E.RF. Moscardi, and ...R. Anderson. 1976.
From agronomric data to farmer re:cornmmendations: an economics training
manual. Inf. Bull. 27. CIMMYT, El Bat.an, Mexico.

Reddy K.C. and J. Gonda. 1985. Recherche en cultures associaes au
Niger. Liaiiso Sahel no. 3. Institute du Sahel. Bamako.
pp. 109-125 (*).

Roesch M. 1982a. Rapport Provisoire Agronornmie Gneral e 1981. INRAN,
Maradi.

1982b. Su ivi de deux anciens stagiaires des Centres de
Promotion Rural e du Projet de Developpement Rural de Maradi et des
28 exploit stations de leur environnement dans les villages de
Atchitakofoto et. :Djiratawa. INRAN, Maradi.








Shaner W.W., P.F. Phili pp and W.R. Schrehl. 1982. Farming iSystems
Research and :Development. Guidelines for DevelopingC Coruntries. The
Consorti urn for Internatio nal Developmenet. Westview Press, Inc.
Bou older :, Colo radio, U.S.A.

Swinton S. 1985. Les resources agricoles des exploitation dans trois
vi ages repr'sentatifs de Arrond-issement de Madarounfa. D:ECOR:,
INRAN, Niamey.

et. Ly S.A. 1984. Definition des dornaines de recommandati ons
agricoles dans le Centre-Sud dui Niger: Arrondissement de Madarounfa.
DECOR, INRAN, Niamey. Document pr-sentW lors du Symposium de
Recherches sur syst.mes de Production Agricole tenu A Kansas State
University, A Manhat.t.an, Kansas, du 7 au 10 octobre 1984 (*).

SNuma G. et S.A. Ly. 1985. Les cultures associes en milieu
paysan dans deux r ,gions du Niger: Filingur et Madarounfa. Liaison
Sahel no. 3. Institute du Sahel. Bamako. pp. 183-194 (*).


(*) Available in English from the authors.




















Table 1 : Characteristics of the recommendations domains

Meari
Crop Zone rainfall Topography Soil Dominant. Number of
1971-84 1/ Te>::t..ure Et.hn ic GroupF: Farms

mm


Rai rifed
Nolrt-h-west.
(Fi ingu1)


Cent.er-south
(Madarounfa)


River-north
(Fi ingue6)

River -sout.h
Ko 1 0


340
( )


420




147


220


valley
plateau
plateau

plateau
valley
plateau

valley
valley

valley


sandy-clay
sandy
sandy

sandy
sandy-clay
sand

sandy-clay
sandy-clay

sandy-clay


Zarma
Zarma
Haoussa


Peul h
Haoussa
Haoussa

Zarma/Sonrai
Soninkee


Zarma


1 In order to obtain an adequate time series, the figures given come
from the following sites: Fi lingue from Fil-ingue, Madarounfa from
Maradi :, Tillabery from Tillabery and Kolo from Niarney airport.











Table 2 : Salient characteristics of farms in 1984 by recommendation domains

Recommendati on Livest.ock
domains by crop Mean farm Mean farm -------------- Cropping
zone size population Bovine Ovine/ system
caprine

.a E-j 'l e.L'.S r h d

Rarinfed
Nor thwest:.
Valley Zarma 6.7 8.6 MC.MSCNM2
Plateau Zarma 15.8 10.8 M
PF"lateau Haoussa 12.3 8.6 M.MC

Southwest.
Valley 5.5 8.0 10.2 10.0


Cent.erso-ut h
Plateau P:eulh 4.1 5.5 3.2 5.6 MSMSC
Valley Haoussa 4.0 5.4 1. 0 5.1 M, MSC, MS, MC
Plateau Haoussa 5 9.0 1.8 14.6 MSCMC, MS MC

IrJl riat-ed
Ri ver -north
Zarma/Sonrai 3.9 4.4 5.2 1.4 MCR
River-nort.h
Soinkee 1.5 3.7 1.9 0.8 M, R
River-south
Zarma 4.3 4.7 2.1 2.9 MC,R

(1) Covering over 10% of the surveyed land aea.
(2) By order of imrnportance decreasing from left. to right :
M = Millet S = Sorghum C = Cowpea R = Rice

S'yrcgs: Numa 1985, pp. 20, 35; DECOR 1983b, p. 1383 Swintonr 1985,
pp. 6, 21, 24; Ly et. Eeuson 1985, pp. 22, 36, 40.




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