Group Title: TropSoils field research brief
Title: Farmer practice and production study
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080608/00001
 Material Information
Title: Farmer practice and production study characterization of home gardens in Aur Jaya (Sitiung Vc)
Series Title: TropSoils field research brief
Physical Description: 8 leaves ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Evensen, Stacy K ( Stacy Kanoelani ), 1954-
Lembaga Penelitian Tanah
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University
Place of Publication: Raleigh, NC
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Food crops -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Farmers -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Indonesia
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 5).
Statement of Responsibility: researcher, Stacy Evensen.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 1986."
General Note: At head of title: Centre for Soil Research.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080608
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 157038067

Full Text
PUSLITTAN TROPSOILS l
"I CSR) i5

FIELB RESEAREH



Centre for Soil Research; JI. Ir H. Juanda 98; Bogor: Indonesia (0251) 23012
Contact: TROPSOILS; Box 02; Sitiung 1A; Sumatera Barat
ATE: SEPTEMBER 1986 NUMBER: 32


TITLE: Farmer- Practice and Production Study -
Characterization of Home Gardens in Aur Jaya (Sitiung Vc)
EXPERIMENT No. : 4504

RESEARCHER: Stacy Evensen
OBJECTIVES: 1. To characterize the use and composition of
of crops in home gardens of .farmers
in Aur Jaya, and
2. To compare these home gardens to tradi-
tional gardens.
SITE HISTORY
Sitiung V is one of the newer settled areas within the
60,000 hectare transmigration area of Sitiung. When this study
began in April 1986, the village of Aur Jaya (Sitiung Vc), chosen
as site of this study, was 3 1/2 years old. Aur Jaya is an
ethnically mixed village consisting of 255 households; 124
Sundanese (49%), 126 East Javanese (49%) and 5 Minang (2%).
RESEARCH PLAN

Using a purposive random sampling technique, 8 families in
Aur Jaya representing all ethnic groups were chosen for a year-
long study. The length of this study is essential in order to
observe and document any changes in the nature of the home garden
system throughout a full cropping season. Direct observation,
structured interviews and drop-in visits are being used to gather
data for this study. In addition, an inventory of perennial and
annual (food) crops was compiled for each home garden, maps were
drawn to record the diversity of cropping patterns, and the
garden areas specifically devoted to food crops were measured.
All food and cash crop production in home gardens is currently
being mon-itored as well. This research brief will only report on
the results.of the initial characterization of home garden crops
and their use. Production information and soil management
practices for home gardens will be reported at a later date.

CHARACTERIZATION OF HOME GARDENS IN AUR JAYA
All Sitiung transmigrants received from the government a
house on a 1/4 hectare lot to be used for a home garden, in


1






addition to a one hectare upland field parcel. The 1/4 hectare
home gardens are, in most cases, fairly flat and, 3 1/2 years
after clearing, still contain some large stumps and logs. This
compares to the farmers' upland fields which are often sloping
and also filled with very large tree stumps and logs.

The 8 home gardens studied are all characterized by border
plantings of crops such as pineapple, jackfruit, silk-cotton
tree, coconut, and banana (see Appendix 1 for a list of the
Indonesian and scientific names of all crops mentioned in this
report). A variety of leguminous trees (calliandra, leucaena,
gliricidia and sesbania) were observed along the borders of some
home gardens but were by no means predominant among border
plantings. Farmers in Aur Jaya seem to only build fences to
denote the portion of their property fronting on streets.
Therefore, these border plantings are an important way to
designate boundaries in addition to providing food and firewood.

Within the planted border of the home garden, farmers may
plant a number of perennial tree and food crops (see Table 1).
Traditional home gardens may contain between 50-60 species of
mostly fruit tree and vegetable crops (Brownrigg 1985). A total
of 46 species were counted on the 8 home gardens studied, with no
one garden containing more than 28 species. This crop census may
slightly underestimate total species since census takers were
primarily concerned with annual food and perennial tree crops and
may have overlooked spice or medicinal plants, unless prominent.
However, this lower diversity of plantings when compared to
traditional home gardens was also pointed out by earlier research
(Chapman 1984).

Looking at Table la and lb, one notes some ethnic differ-
ences in types and amounts of crops planted. All farmers studied
planted coffee, coconut, banana, jackfru'it, papaya and,
pineapple. The Sundanese and Minang home gardens contain slightly
more fruit crops, whereas the Javanese contain more root crops.
The Minang home garden contained more sugarcane than the rest
combined.

Previous researchers' observations indicate that, when the
transmigrants first arrived 3 1/2 years ago, their home garden
was the first area to be cultivated (Colfer and Wade, personal
communication). Tree crops such as government-provided rambutan,
citrus, jackfruit and coconut were planted immediately. Coffee,
stinkbean and cloves were planted as soon as planting material
became available. Farmers elected to work their home gardens and
establish their food crop first before tackling the more
intensive task of clearing and planting their upland field. The
first food crops to appear in the home garden were maize,
soybean, cassava and peanuts.

During the first two years food crops dominated home garden
plantings and farmers relied heavily on this production for their
family food (along with government subsidies of rice, oil and
dried fish) (Colfer et al, 1985). Tree crops were still young







and u,.productive and farmers needed as much land as possible
planted to food crops for sale and subsistence. Now, while the
amount of home garden area still planted to food crops is
considerable (see Table 2), perennial tree crops are becoming
more important. After 4 years, crops of economic importance are
(or soon will be) bearing : coffee, rambutan, citrus and
sugarcane. Pineapple, papaya, banana, guava, jackfruit, and
starfruit provide a continuous supply of food for home
consumption and trade.

When asked the role of each farmer's home garden, the most
frequent response was "untuk masa depan" (for the future) or
"untuk tanaman keras" (for perennial tree crops). Both of these
responses related to the economic benefit home gardens may
provide to the farm family. The farmers, having planted
substantial amounts of as yet unproductive crops such as
stinkbean, clove and coconut, are waiting for these to produce in
order to add to the family income. Although farmers admit to
eating fruit and other produce from the home garden, not one of
the 8 farm families mentioned family food production as the role
of the home garden. Perhaps the supplementation of family food
from the garden is so self-evident to the farmer that it was not
highlighted as the major role of home gardens during interviews.
Also, since it appears that farmers in Aur Jaya are in a
transition period between subsistence and cash economies, perhaps
the economic benefit of the garden is currently of more interest.
Further evidence of the farmers' interest in the economics of the
home garden is the current frenzy with which many farmers are
planting coffee seedlings in their gardens. Why? The market
price is high now.

Table lb lists the composition of home garden crops by the
food group they represent. Looking at this from a nutritionist's
perspective, it appears that the Aur Jaya home gardens should
provide an adequate supply of major nutrients to the family diet.
A variety of pulses such as peanut and soybean are planted which
could greatly supplement family protein, calcium and B vitamin
intake. Vegetable crops and fruits are planted in what seem to
be adequate amounts for providing an abundant supply of vitamin A
and C. The presence of root crops (especially cassava) in home
gardens should supply an adequate and regular source of
carbohydrate, an important nutrient to all people, but an
especially important one for these hard working farmers.
Unfortunately, due to the lack of productivity of some of the
fruit trees (with the exception of nutrient-rich papaya), the
choice and quantity of vegetable crops planted (eggplant versus a
green leafy vegetable), and the fact that home garden produce may
be sold rather than consumed, the home garden may not be meeting
the nutritional needs of the Aur Jaya farmers.

Most of the fruit produced in the home garden is eaten
(often by children) or traded with neighbors. Most of the food
crops, however, are sold or saved for seed. Very little is
consumed by the family. This observation is contrary to that
which is seen in traditional home gardens whose use is generally






described as "chiefly for consumption by the family, the surplus
being used for barter or sale" (Goode 1983). Chapman's 1984
consumption survey also indicated that much of the family's food
was produced in the home garden. In order to verify the source
and nature of farmers' diets in Aur Jaya, another consumption
survey and garden production record has begun for each study
family and a representative sample of other families.

Again breaking with tradition, vegetable cultivation in Aur
Jaya home gardens seems remarkably limited. Aside from the ever-
present cassava leaves and young jackfruit, only scattered small
patches of swamp cabbage, eggplant, long bean and other
traditional "kitchen" garden crops were seen. The fact that
nutrient contribution from vegetables, especially green leafy
vegetables, is important for family health, and their production
appears limited, provides -additional reasons to pursue a more
intensive investigation of family food production and
consumption.

Spice and medicinal plants, while not the primary focus of-.
the home garden characterization, were noted where observed.
Small plantings of laos, lemongrass, basil, tamarind and chili
were seen with chili and laos being the most common. No plants
used exclusively for medicinal purposes was noted. Perhaps it
makes sense in the progressive development of the home garden
system that many medicinal plants may not be planted immediately.
It is also possible that plants used for these purposes in Java
do not grow well in Sitiung's climate. Seed availability is a
reason mentioned by farmers for not planting some of their
favorites from Java.

In every home garden ornamental shrubs and flowers were seen
(these do not appear in Table 1). Shrimp plant, zinnias, hibiscus
and other shrubs in the garden are usually seen along the
entrance to the house. While not much area is devoted to this
type of planting, their presence does attest to the interest
among farmers in aesthetics.

Few leguminous trees are seen in these Aur Jaya home
gardens. This is surprising considering the usefulness of tree
crops such as these for firewood, forage and green manure.
Farmers use wood for cooking and haven't adequate cash resources
to purchase inputs such as chemical fertilizers. Despite these
needs, and farmers' awareness of the potential benefit of
leguminous trees, they feel the forest is sufficiently close to
provide ample firewood. And, so far it seems, farmers have been
able to make do with government-provided (jatah) and government-
subsidized fertilizers. Also, the farmers in Aur Jaya have yet to
receive the cattle which they have been promised from the
government so they don't need forages yet. Farmers have mentioned
an interest in growing trees such as leucaena, calliandra,
gliricidia and albizia but have difficulties in obtaining
planting material.







CONCLUSIONS


Home gardens in Aur Jaya are still in transition. The
earlier gardens consisted primarily of food crops and young fruit
trees. Over time fruit and other tree crops (coffee, rambutan,
jackfruit? citrus, papaya) have become more important in terms of
providing food and cash income to the farm family. As these
trees grow, space available for planting food crops is becoming
more limited. Even so, farmers still depend heavily on home
garden food crops for cash income. The "traditional" use of home
gardens as chiefly for family consumption and secondarily for
sale or barter is not borne out by observations of Aur Jaya home
gardens. The opposite seems true. Except in the case of fruit
and some vegetables, the remainder of home garden production is
sold or saved for seed. Even crops such as cassava root and
jackfruit will be sold when a market is available. The nature of
home gardens in Aur Jaya seems to reflect their transition from a
subsistence to a cash economy. It will be interesting to see
what changes the arrival of cattle and other livestock will
produce in the home garden. Perhaps, judging from the interest
in leguminous trees expressed by farmers, we will begin to see an
emphasis on tree crops and forage grasses in the home garden.


REFERENCES

1. Brownrigg, L. 1985. Home Gardening in International
Development: What the Literature Shows. The League for-
International Food Education, Washington, D.C.

2. Chapman, B. 1984. Diet and Production Survey of Sitiung, West
Sumatra. Research memos 2 and 3. TROPSOILS Project, West Sumatra.

3. Colfer, C.J.P. and M. Wade. 1985. Personal communication.

4. Colfer, C.J.P., M.K. Wade, Atin Kurdiana and Suwandi. 1985.
Incorporating Farmer Conditions and Preferences into Farming
-Systems Research. TROPSOILS Project paper, West Sumatra.

5. Goode, P. 1983. The Role of Vegetable Growing in Household
Food Production References, sample pilot project profiles (ms).







Table la. Crop Census of Selected Home Gardens in Aur Java
(number of specific crops/trees planted per family)


Crop

Avocado
Basil
Banana
Calliandra
Cassava
Chayote
Chili
Citrus
Clove
Coconut
Coffee
Corn
Crotolaria
Duku
Durian
Eggplant
Embacang
Ginger
Guava
Hyacinth bean
Jackfruit
Katuk
Kunyit
Laos
Lemongrass
Leucaena
Long.bean
Mango
Mung bean
Papaya
Peanut
Pigeon pea
Pineapple
Rambutan
Sesbania
Silk-cotton tree
Soursop
Soybean
Spanish plum
Starfruit
Stinkbean
Sugarcane
Swamp cabbage
Sweet potato
Tamarind
Taro


-E. Javanese-
A B C D


17 2 10
6
*


2 13


16 16 25
6


2
1
1 15 21


Sundanes
E F


1
0 5 8
1
* *5


3 7

17 28
12


1
5 9

2 3


2 16 7 6 17
*5


7 7

3 2
2 5
* *1


7 16
*


*
* --*_*
14 5

4 1
2 4
* *
1
1
3 1
4 3 1
*


e Mi


n. No. of Average


G H plants
1 1
1
16 15 93
7
--
1
10 19
5 3 30
11 2 60
13 8 70
14 150 502
.M*

3 3
4-- 5
8 13
4 4
1 2 5
7 2 37
1
28 32 182
18
1
1 4
1 4
51

4 9

7 6 77
*


23 12 83
2
4 16
17

1
4 5
8 20 63
1 >100 NA


1
3


Species/farmer 28 19 22 17 22 25 19 24

* = an area planted; individual plants were not counted


12
1


2.5
4
7.5
8.5
63




1.5


4.5

23
2.5



6.3

1

9.5



10

2
2



8








Table lb. Composition of Home Garden Crops by Food Grou2 or Use
(number of species of each type of crop)

Farmer/Ethnic. Fuel/border Condiment Coffee Oil Fruit Pulse Root
tree & veg crop

A E. Java 2 6 1 1 8 6 3
B E. Java 2 2 1 1 8 3 2
C E. Java 3 2 1 1 7 5 2
D E. Java 2 4 1 1 5 3 1
E Sundanese 3 2 1 1 10 4 1
F Sundanese 2 5 1 1 10 5 1
G Sundanese 1 3 1 1 10 2 1
H Minang 6 1 1 10 5 1

Fuel/border trees = calliandra, leucaena, sesbania grandiflora,
crotolaria, and silk-cotton tree
Condiments = clove, tamarind, laos, lemongrass, basil, ginger,
and sugarcane
Root crops = cassava, sweet potato, and taro



Table 2. Home Garden Area Planted to Fgod Crops (April 19861
(Crop area in m )

Farmer Soy Peanut Corn Cassava Mung % Area Total
unused Area

A 2104 443 30 1783
B 1488 10 1339
C 945 260 20 965
D 1800 10 1620
E 1456 288 10 1570
F 157 1823 10 1782
G ------------ NO FOOD CROPS GROWN -------------
H 258 .. 70 630 5 910

NOTES:

= this crop was intercropped with soy or peanut; no individual
measurements taken.
a% Area not used. This is an estimate of the area within the
measured food crop plots unplanted due to the presence of stumps
or trees.
bTotal area. This figure represents an estimation of the amount
of home garden space planted to food crops. With the exception of
Farmer A who has 3200 m2, all remaining farmers have a total of
2500 m2 available to them on their home garden lot. Of this
total, an estimated 400m2 is taken up by the family house,
bathing area, and entrance/children's play area.






Appendix 1. List of Aqricultural Crops Referred to in the Text


English name


Albizia
Avocado
Basil
Banana
Calliandra
Cassava
Chayote
Chili
Citrus
Clove
Coconut
Coffee
Corn
Crotolaria
-
Durian
Eggplant

Ginger
Gliricidia
Guava
Hyacinth bean
Jackfruit


Lemongrass
Leucaena
Longbean
Mango
Mungbean
Papaya
Peanut
Pigeon pea
Pineapple
Rambutan
Sesbania
Silk-cotton tree
Sousop
Soybean
Spanish plum
Starfruit
Stinkbean
Sugarcane
Swamp cabbage
Sweet potato-
Tamarind
Taro
Tumeric


Indonesian name

Singon laut
Alpokat
Kemangi
Pi sang
Kaliander
Ubi kayu
Gambas
Cabe
Jeruk
Cengkeh
Kelapa
Kopi
Jagung
Orok-orok
Duku
Durian
Terung
Embacang
Jahe (jai)
Gamal
Jambu
Koro
Nangka
Katuk
Laos
Sere
Lamtoro
Kac. panjang
Man g g a
Kac. hijau
Pepaya
Kac. tanah
Kac. gude
Nenas
Rambutan
Turi
Randu
Sirsak
Kac. kedelai
Kedondong
Belimbing
Jengkol
Tebu
Kangkung
Ubi jalar
Asam
Talas
Kunyit


Latin name


Albizia falcataria
Persea gratissuma
Ocimum canum
Musa cvs.
Calliandra calothyrsus
Manihot esculenta
Sechium edule
Capsicum sp.
Citrus s5
Eugenia cary~2phlls
Cocos nucifera
Coffea spp,.
Zea mays
Crotolaria s p.
Lansium domesticum
Durio zibethinus
Solanum melongena
Mangifera odorata
Zingiber officinale
Gliricidia sepium
Psidium oua.aya
Dolichos lablab
Artocarpus hetero.hyl l us
SauroDus androqynus
Lanjuas qalanqa
Cymbopon citratus
Leucaena leucocephala
Vigna sesquiLpedalis
Mangifera indica
Phaseolus aureus
Carica aay.2
Arachis hypogaea
Ca*an cajanus
Ananas comosus
Nephelium lap.aceum
Sesbania Jrandiflora
Ceiba Eetandra
Annona muricata
Glycine max
Spondias dulcis
Averrhoa blimbi
Pithecellobium jiri na
Saccharum cvs.
Ipomoea aquatic
Ipomoea batatas
Tamarindus indica
Colocasia esculenta
Curcuma domestic




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