TROPSOILS Indonesia / Center for Soil Research Field Research Brief No. 20 October 1985
TITLE: Alley Cropping Trial Tree Establishment Period
EXPERIMENT NO.: 3502
RESEARCHERS: Carl Evensen and Russell Yost
OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine N, leaf, and wood production and Al
tolerance of three legume tree species under
2. To measure the effects of green leaf manure
additions on rice and soybean (or cowpea) yields
(intercropped with the trees).
3. To measure effects of these organic matter
additions on soil chemical properties (Al
saturation, ECEC, pH, organic C, etc.) and their
interactions with crop growth.
4. To select an appropriate legume tree species and
liming level for farmer testing.
SOIL: Typic Paleudult; clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic.
FCC: Ceak. Cleared by manual tree felling and then bulldozed during 82/83 wet season but never cropped;
heavily eroded in parts.
The experiment is laid out in a split plot design with four replications. The treatments are as follows:
Main Plots Tree Species
1) Albizia falcataria (planted by seed)
2) Calliandra calothyrsus (planted by seed)
3) Gliricidia seium Tplanted by hardwood cuttings)
4) No trees (control)
Subplot Liming Levels
1) No lime
2) Low lime (Ca supplied as a nutrient at 375 kg CaCO3/ha/
year to provide 0.5 meq Ca/100Og soil to 15 cm depth)
3) Liming rate to reduce Al saturation to 25 %
(2 T CaCO3/ha during first year)
This report covers the first crop of upland rice and the
second crop of cowpeas, which were planted during the establishment phase of the alley cropped trees. The lime rates were broadcast over the subplots on December 22, 1984 along with a blanket application of P at a rate of 40 kg P/ha. To establish the tree hedges, TSP was applied at 10 g/m in 25cm wide strips (to provide 80 kg/ha of P in the 25cm wide strips). The trees
were planted in hedgerows over the fertilized strips on December 29 and 31, 1984. Subplot size is 5.5m x 12m (consisting of 3 hedges, 5.5m long and 4m between hedges) for the alley cropped plots and 5.5m x 6m for the no-tree control plots. The harvested portion of the subplots consists of the central 3m of the center tree hedge and 2m to either side of the hedge (ie. 12 m2) for food crop yields. Plots were laid out to exclude stumps, soil mounds, and tree throw holes, where possible.
Upland rice ('Sentani') was planted on January 12, 1985 at a 25 x 25cm spacing, skipping one row of rice where there was a row of trees. Furadan insecticide was applied in the dibble hole at about 1.5 kg a.i./ha. Germination was delayed by dry weather, but a good stand resulted from rains two weeks after planting. N was sidedressed at 25 kg N/ha at 42 days after planting. However, rice blast began to appear at about this time and became so severe that almost no grain was produced. The crop was harvested for total plant weight on May 13 and 14, 1985. The alley cropped trees were quite small and were not expected to affect rice yields at this time, however, a liming effect as well as extreme soil microvariability were observed (as reflected by rice plant heights and leaf color). The zero lime subplots were extremely stunted and chlorotic.
A semi-determinate local variety of cowpea was planted on
May 17, 1985 at 20cm intra-row x 40cm inter-row spacing. No rows of cowpeas were skipped in subplots with trees (ie. rows of cowpea were planted 20 cm on either side of the tree rows). No additional fertilizer was applied, so that soil microvariability could be further characterized. Sevin insecticide (85% carbamate) was applied 15 day after planting at 0.5 kg a.i./ha.
Germination was excellent, but within two weeks, plots
without lime had extensive leaf chlorosis and necrosis and about 30 to 50 % seedling mortality. At both low and high lime rates, plants were fairly healthy, although throughout the experiment, many plants exhibited leaf bronzing and purplish-brown mottling along the veins. This might have indicated a general K deficiency, Ca deficiency, and/or Al toxicity, since it was much worse in the unlimed subplots. The alley cropped tree species were much more vigorous by this time and, especially in the case of the Albizia, competed for light with the cowpeas. However, there was a prolonged drought from mid-June to late-July which severely reduced pod set and yields. Thus, when cowpeas were harvested on September 12, only total plant weights were measured.
Total plant dry matter yields and plant heights in the
upland rice crop showed a highly significant response to lime. There was no significant difference between the low and the high rates of lime (Table 1). There was also no rice growth response to the tree species, since the trees were too young to compete with the rice and had not yet been trimmed for green manure.
Table 1. Upland rice response to liming.
Lime Rate Dry Matter Yield Plant Height.
(kg7Ta) ( kg7ha) (cm)
375 2005 50
r 2000 1667 46
0 940 32
LSD (0.05) 620 9
An analysis of variance for the cowpea total dry matter
yields indicated that tree species had a significant effect (0.05 level) and liming rates had a highly significant effect (0.01 level) on cowpea yields. In Table 2a, cowpea yields are shown to be significantly increased by lime application, although-the low and high lime rates produced the same yields. This supports the earlier observation in the upland rice crop that 375 kg lime/ha is sufficient for Al tolerant crops on this soil. In Table 2b, the Albiz.ia hedge rows significantly decreased cowpea yields (undoubtedly through shading, since the Albizia trees averaged 3 to
4 meters in height by cowpea harvest). The other trees did not significantly differ from the no tree control in effects on the cowpea crop. This competition of trees intercropped with food crops will not subsequently be so severe since tree hedges will be cut to a 40 50 cm stubble every few months during the cropping season. Also the application of the green leaf manures, starting in September, will presumably more than compensate for any tree/food crop competition. More timely planting, to reduce blast infection and experience better soil moisture conditions, will hopefully, also improve on the dismal yields found in these first two crops.
Table 2. Total dry matter yield of cowpeas (vines and pods) in
response to liming (a) and alley cropped trees (b).
Lime Rate Dry Matter Yield Tree Species Dry Matter Yield
( k g 7h a) (kgTh a) ( kglha )
2000 216 No Tree 256
375 215 Calliandra 189
0 73 Gliricidia 175
"92 -Albizia 49
_ -LSD (0.05) 118
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mods:identifier type OCLC 156942814
mods:languageTerm text English
code authority iso639-2b eng
mods:physicalLocation University of Florida
mods:url access object in context http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080597/00001
mods:namePart Evensen, Carl.
Yost, Russell S. (Russell Shelley)
Lembaga Penelitian Tanah.
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program.
mods:note Caption title.
At head of title: TropSoils Indonesia / Center for Soil Research.
mods:publisher Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University,
mods:placeTerm Raleigh, NC
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00080597_00001
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
mods:extent 3 leaves ; 28 cm.
mods:title TropSoils field research brief ; 20
mods:topic Hedgerow intercropping
Liming of soils
Alley cropping trial : tree establishment period
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sobekcm:Name Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University,
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PDIV1 Tropsoils Indonesia center for soil research: Field research brief no. 20 October 1985 1 Chapter