Group Title: TropSoils field research brief ;, 19
Title: CIAT regional trial B : : establishment phase
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080596/00001
 Material Information
Title: CIAT regional trial B : : establishment phase
Series Title: TropSoils field research brief ;, 19
Physical Description: 6 leaves ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, John.
Evensen, Carl.
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program.
Lembaga Penelitian Tanah.
Publisher: Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University,
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Varieties -- Indonesia.
Soil management -- Indonesia.
Spatial Coverage: Indonesia.
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 1985."
General Note: At head of title: TropSoils Indonesia / Center for Soil Research.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080596
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 156941687

Full Text
TROPSOILS
PUSLITTAN
WEST SUMATERA
TROPSOILS Indonesia / Center for Soil Research
Field Research Brief No. 19
September 1985

TITLE: CIAT Regional Trial B Establishment Phase

EXPERIMENT NO.: 3101


RESEARCHERS:

OBJECTIVES:


John Thompson and Carl Evensen

1. To evaluate germplasm of pasture legumes and
grasses, managed with low fertilizer inputs,
under Sitiung edaphic and climatic conditions.
2. To determine most productive forages and to
consider applications as green manures and cover
crops as well as animal feeds.
3. To network with CIAT and benefit from their
experiences in tropical pasture.


SOIL: Typic dystropept. Cleared by bulldozing 7 years ago; used
briefly as a coconut nursery (in plastic bags), probably
without lime and P additions. FCC: Cak.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
The experiment is arranged in a RCB design with four
replications. The following accessions were planted on Dec. 26,
1984:


Species
Aeschynomene histrix
Centrosema arenarium
C. brasilianum
C. brasilianum
C. macrocarpum
C. macrocar2um
C. pubescens
C. pubescens
C. sp.
C. sp.
Desmodium ovalifolium
D. ovalifolium
Pueraria phaseoloides
Stylosanthes capitata
S. capitata
S. guianensis
S. guianensis
Zornia latifolia
Z. sp.
Andropgjon gayanus
Brachiaria decumbens
B. dictyoneura
Medicaqo sativa Florida 770
M. sativa -Florida 770
M. sativa "WL 6000
M. sativa OWL 6000


CIAT No.
9690
5236
5234
5712
5062
5065
438
5189
5112
5568
350
3784
9900
2252
10280
136
184
728
7847
621
606
6133


Comments





















-low lime rate
-high lime rate
-low lime rate
-highlime rate


Trt.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)






Trt. SRecies Comments
27) Calopogonium coeruleum
28) C. muconoides
29) Macroptilium atropurpureum
30) PSohocarpus palustris -only 2 reps
31) Vigna hosei -only 2 reps

The first 22 accessions were sent from CIAT, while the
last 9 Ireatments were added locally. Lime was broadcast over
all plots at a rate of 375 kg CaCO3/ha (to give about 0.5 meq
Ca/100 g soil to a 15 cm depth) except on the high lime plots
which were limed at a rate of 5.4 T/ha (2 x meq Al). P was banded
at 40 'kg P/ha. The P (TSP) was applied in 20cm wide strips and
hoed in to a 20cm depth. The seed was planted in rows 50cm
apart. Plot dimensions are 2m x 5m and there are Im gaps between
plots.

As per instructions from CIAT, the data collected for this
trial include: 1)plant counts and height measurements during
establishment; 2) plant counts and height during production; 3)
dry matter production at 8 week intervals, except during minimum
and maximum precipitation periods when 1 m2 subplots will be
harvested at 3, 6, 9, and 12 week intervals. Also some estimates
were made of plant canopy coverage ("mulching percentage").

CROP ESTABLISHMENT AND GROWTH:
All species germinated well except C. coeruleum, C.
muconoides, P. palustris, V. hosei and Z. latifolia. Seed of the
first 3 of these species were scarified before replanting. The
grasses and Desmodiums were slow to establish but grew and spread
well after the first month. The alfalfa germinated well but
began to exhibit chlorosis and nectrotic leaves within 2 weeks and
most had died on both low and high lime plots by 4 weeks. All
forages, except the alfalfa (which were abandoned at this point),
were replanted where necessary on January 30, 1985. Cuttings of
Setaria anceps obtained from Jambi Province, were planted into
the treatment 23 plots (low lime 'Florida 77' alfalfa) on March
15. Since the P. palustris never germinated, it was replaced by
V. hosei to make the latter a fully replicated treatment. The P.
phaseoloides was severely infested with a leaf rolling insect in
April, which greatly reduced it's yield in the first harvest. It
recovered well after that, however.

The first harvest was made on April 19, 1985 and involved
all treatments except 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, and 31 which had
either died or were not suf ciently established. The harvested
subplot was the central 3 m of the middle two rows (ie. 3m x Im
area. The second harvest was made on June 17, 1985 (two months
after the first harvest) and included all treatments except 2 ,
25, 26, 30 and 31. The harvested subplot was the central 4 m of
the middle two rows (ie. 4m x Im area).






RESULTS:
Growth data taken on April 8 (before the first harvest) is
presented in Table 1.


Table 1. Plant growth at 103 days


Treatment (CIAT No.)


Plant
Height


after planting.

Growth Soil
Habit Flowering Coverage


(cm)
(cm)


A. histrix
Centrosema arenarium
C. brasilianum (5234)
C. brasilianum (5712)
C. macrocarpum (5062)
C. macrocarpum (5065)
C. pubescens (438)
C. pubescens (5189)
C. sp. (5112)
C. sp. (5568)
Desmodium ovalifolium (350)
D. ovalifolium (3784)
Pueraria phaseoloides
Stylosanthes capitata (2252)
S. capitata (10280)
S. guianensis (136)
S. guianensis (184)
Zornia latifolia
Z. sp.
Andropogon gayanus
Brachiaria decumbens
B. dictyoneura
Calopogonium coeruleum
C. muconoides
Macroptilium atropurpureum


LEGEND:


Growth Habit:
P=Prostrate
E=Erect
W=Woody Erect


Flowering:
1= >50% flowering
2= 11-50% flowering
3= 1-10% flowering
4= 0 flowering


Soil CoveraJe:
1= complete soil cover
2= 0-25% bare soil
3= >25% bare soil


Treatment means for the first harvest (on April 19, 1985)
are shown in Table 2. The results are reported on a sun dried
weight basis since other drying facilities were not available.
The analysis of variance for the first harvest was calculated and
both treatment and replication effects were significantly
different at the 0.001 level. In Table 3, chemical analyses for
the whole forages are presented.


W
W
P
P
P/E
P/E
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
E
P/E
E
E
P/E
E
E
P/E
P
P
P
P







Table 2. Ranked treatment means for harvest on April 19, 1985.


Treatment (CIAT No.)


Sun Dry Yield (kg/ha)


Brachiaria decumbans (606)
B. dictyoneura (61'33)
Andropogon gayanus (621)
Aesch'nomene histrix (9690)
Stylosanthes guianensis (136)
Zornia sp. (7847)
S. guianensis (184)
Centrosema brasilianum (5234)
C. macrocarpum (5062)
S. capitata (2252)
C. brasilianum (5712)
Z. latifolia (728)
C. macrocarpum (5065)
S. capitata (10280)
C. sp. (5112)
Desmodium ovalifolium (3784)
C. sp. (5568)
D. ovalifolium (350)
C. pubescens (438)
Calopogonium muconoides
C. pubescens (5189)
C. arenarium (5236)
Macroptilium atropurpureum
Pueraria phaseoloides (9900)


7010
6318
5850
5537
4872
4651
4597
4459
4265
4188
4104
3533
3527
3427
3294
3124
2797
2509
2412
1887
1833
1712
1670
1618


a
ab
abc
abc
bcd
bcd
cd
cde
cdef
cdefg
cdefg
defgh
defgh
defghi
defghij
defghij
efghij
fghij
ghij
hij
hij
ij
i
3


Means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly
at the 0.05 level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


Table 3. Chemical analysis of forages (total plant) harvested
April 19, 1985.


Species (CIAT No.)


N P K Ca Mg S Al Mn


------------- % Sun Dry Weight -------------


histrix (9690)
arenarium (5236)
brasilianum (5234)
brasilianum (5712)
macrocarpum (5062)
macrocarpum (5065)
pubescens (438)
pubescens (5189)
sp. (5112)
sp. (5568)
ovalifolium (350)
ovalifolium (3784)
phaseoloides (9900)
capitata (2252)


1.91
1.16
2.12
1.75
2.50
2.63
1.62
1.61
1.17
2.03
2.24
2.18
2.57
2.26


0.14
0.07
0.15
0.14
0.17
0.19

0.11
0.14
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.20
0.16


0.82
0.28
1.22
1.17
1.11
1.60
1.42
0.86
0.66
1.06
0.91
0.81
0.96
1.16


0.73
0.23
0.78
0.63
0.51
0.48
0.59
0.20
0.88
0.99
0.78
1.11
0.54
0.63


0.11
0.18
0.17
0.14
0.17
0.14
0.14
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.11
0.13


0.11
0.07
0.15
0.11
0.15
0.12
0.12
0.07
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.11
0.16


132
244
127
310
398
832
175
177
299
184
582
413
392
408


561
287
930
1260
574
1017
605
484
805
1296
544
1261
726
713


- - - - - - - - - - - -







N P K Ca Mg S Al Mn


S. capitata (10280) 1.81 0.13 0.85 0.66 0.11 0.15 227 664
S. guianensis (136) 2.02 0.16 0.99 0.89 0.13 0.14 167 1071
S. guianensis (184) 2.01 0.14 1.07 0.59 0.16 0.11 405 1400
Z. latifolia (728) 2.22 0.15 0.82 0.80 0.20 0.14 963 1453
Z. sp. (7847) 1.98 0.15 0.93 0.60 0.12 0.14 207 648
A. gayanus (621) 2.03 0.16 0.72 0.82 0.12 0.14 270 559
B. decumbans (606) 1.82 0.12 0.80 0.67 0.14 0.10 80 376
B. dictyoneura (6133) 1.69 0.18 0.79 0.61 0.12 0.15 220 388
C. muconoides 1.25 0.08 0.82 0.13 0.12 0.08 115 334
M. atropurpureum 2.38 0.16 1.24 0.70 0.12 0.12 482 379



The analysis of variance for the second harvest (on June 17,
1985) was calculated and treatments were significantly different
at the 0.001 level and replications at the 0.01 level. Treatment
means are shown in Table 4.


Table 4. Ranked treatment means for harvest on June 17, 1985.


Treatment (CIAT No.)


Sun Dry Yield (kg/ha)


Andropogon gayanus (621)
Brachiaria decumbens (606)
Centrosema sp. (5112)
B. dictyoneura (6133)
Setaria ancepts
C. brasilianum (5234)
Zornia latifolia (728)
C. macrocarpum (5062)
Desmodium ovalifolium (350)
C. brasilianum (5712)
Aeschynomene histrix (9690)
Stylosanthes guianensis (184)
S. guianensis (136)
C. sp. (5568)
Zornia sp. (7847)
D. ovalifolium (3784)
C. pubescens (5189)
C. macrocarpum (5065)
S. capitata (10280)
S. capitata (2252)
P. phaseoloides (9900)
Calopogonium muconoides
C. pubescens (438)
C. coeruleum
C. arenarium (5236)
Macroptilium atropurpureum


4764
2472
2319
2248
2179
2170
2097
2073
1980
1895
1734
1654
1536
1506
1499
1470
1281
1270
1188
1119
1012
1011
960
828
773
399


a
b
bc
bc
bc
bc
bcd
bcd
bcde
bcdef
bcdefg
bcdefgh
cdefghi
cdefghi
cdefghi
cdefghi
defghi
defghij
efghij
fghij
ghij
ghij
ghij
hij
ij
j


Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
at the 0.05 level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


--- ------------------- ------------ -I--------------


Species (CIAT No.)







CONCLUSIONS:


The data presented here were collected during the
establishment phase of this trial, that is, during the period in
which the forages were growing to fill in the plots. Therefore,
comparisons of the species in terms of productivity should be
made with caution. However, the following general conclusions
can be made at this time:

1) Grasses in general and A. gaAanus in particular out-
produced the legume species. Surprisingly, the nitrogen
contents of the grasses were not much lower (and were in
some cases higher) than the legumes in these early
harvests.

2) Among the legumes, A. histrix, C. brasilianum (both #
5234 and 5712), S. quianensis (both # 136 and 184), and
C. macrocar.um (# 5062) were among the highest yielders in
both trials.

3) Since the plants were drought stressed and probably
nutrient deficient (in at least K and possibly in Mg and
S) the forage yields were probably not up to their
potential.

Subsequent management of this trial will entail fertilizing
everything with K (and possibly Mg) and the grasses with N. The
productivity of the forages will also be compared during rainy
and dry seasons. The overall management philosophy for thi's
trial entails a low input approach, since the consensus of
TROPSOILS researchers is that local farmers would not be willing
to apply much fertilizer or pesticide to forages. Therefore, no
pesticides will be used and lime and P will not be reapplied.




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