Citation
CIAT regional trial B : establishment phase

Material Information

Title:
CIAT regional trial B : establishment phase
Series Title:
TropSoils field research brief ;, 19
Creator:
Thompson, John.
Evensen, Carl.
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program.
Lembaga Penelitian Tanah.
Place of Publication:
Raleigh, NC
Publisher:
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University,
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
6 leaves ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Forage plants -- Varieties -- Indonesia.
Soil management -- Indonesia.
Spatial Coverage:
Indonesia.

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"September 1985."
General Note:
At head of title: TropSoils Indonesia / Center for Soil Research.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
156941687 ( OCLC )

Full Text
T OpSOlLS
pUSLITTAN
EST SUmPTERA
TROPSOILS Indonesia / Center for Soil Research Field Research Brief No. 19 September 1985
TITLE: CIAT Regional Trial B Establishment Phase
EXPERIMENT NO.: 3101
RESEARCHERS: John Thompson and Carl Evensen
OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate germplasm of pasture legumes and
grasses, managed with low fertilizer inputs,
under Sitiung edaphic and climatic conditions.
2. To determine most productive forages and to
consider applications as green manures and cover
crops as well as animal feeds.
3. To network with CIAT and benefit from their
experiences in tropical pasture.
SOIL: Typic dystropept. Cleared by bulldozing 7 years ago; used
briefly as a coconut nursery (in plastic bags), probably
without lime and P additions. FCC: Cak.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
The experiment is arranged in a RCB design with four
replications. The following accessions were planted on Dec. 26, 1984:
Trt. Species CIAT No. Comments
1) Aeschynomene histrix 9690
2) Centrosema arenarium 5236
3) C. brasilianum 5234
4) C. brasilianum 5712
5) C. macrocarpum 5062
6) C. macrocar2um 5065
7) C. pubescens 438
8) C. pubescens 5189
9) C. sp. 5112
10) C. sp. 5568
11) Desmodium ovalifolium 350
12) D. ovalifolium 3784
13) Pueraria phaseoloides 9900
14) Stylosanthes capitata 2252
15) S. capitata 10280
16) S. guianensis 136
17) S. guianensis 184
18) Zornia latifolia 728
19) Z. sp. 7847
20) Androp~~gon qayanus 621
21) Brachiaria decumbens 606
22) B. dictyoneura 6133
23) Medicao sativa 0Florida 770 -low lime rate
24) M. sativa F'Torida 770 -high lime rate
25) M. sativa 'WL 6000 -low lime rate
26) M. sativa "WL 600* -highlime rate
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Trt. Species Comments
27) Calopgonium coeruleum
28) C. muconoides
29) Macroptilium atropurpureum
30) P.2phocarus palustris -only 2 reps
31) Vigna hosei -only 2 reps
The first 22 accessions were sent from CIAT, while the
last 9 (reatments were added locally. Lime was broadcast over all plots at a rate of 375 kg CaCO3/ha (to give about 0.5 meq Ca/100 g soil to a 15 cm depth) except on the high lime plots which were limed at a rate of 5.4 T/ha (2 x meq Al). P was banded at 40 'kg P/ha. The P (TSP) was applied in 20cm wide strips and hoed in to a 20cm depth. The seed was planted in rows 50cm apart. Plot dimensions are 2m x Sm and there are lm gaps between plots.
As per instructions from CIAT, the data collected for this trial include: 1)plant counts and height measurements during establishment; 2) plant counts and height during production; 3) dry matter production at 8 week intervals, except during minimum and maximum precipitation periods when 1 m2 subplots will be harvested at 3, 6, 9, and 12 week intervals. Also some estimates were made of plant canopy coverage ("mulching percentage").
CROP ESTABLISHMENT AND GROWTH:
All species germinated well except C. coeruleum, C.
muconoides, P. palustris, V. hosei and Z. latifolia. Seed of the first 3 of these species were scarified before replanting. The grasses and Desmodiums were slow to establish but grew and spread well after the first month. The alfalfa germinated well but began to exhibit chlorosis and nectrotic leaves within 2 weeks and most had died on both low and high lime plots by 4 weeks. All forages, except the alfalfa (which were abandoned at this point), were replanted where necessary on January 30, 1985. Cuttings of Setaria ancegs obtained from Jambi Province, were planted into the treatment 23 plots (low lime 'Florida 77' alfalfa) on March 15. Since the P. palustris never germinated, it was replaced by V. hosei to make the latter a fully replicated treatment. The P. phaseoloides was severely infested with a leaf rolling insect in April, which greatly reduced it's yield in the first harvest. It recovered well after that, however.
The first harvest was made on April 19, 1985 and involved all treatments except 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, and 31 which had either died or were not suf ciently established. The harvested subplot was the central 3 m of the middle two rows (ie. 3m x Im area. The second harvest was made on June 17, 1985 (two months after the first harvest) and included all treatments except 2 25, 26, 30 and 31. The harvested subplot was the central 4 m of the middle two rows (ie. 4m x Im area)..
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RESULTS:
Growth data taken on April 8 (before the first harvest) is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Plant growth at 103 days after planting.
Plant Growth Soil
Treatment (CIAT No.) Height Habit Flowering Coverage
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----(cm)
A. histrix 71 W 4 1
Centrosema arenarium 65 W 3 2
C. brasilianum (5234) 20 P 4 1
C. brasilianum (5712) 17 P 4 1
C. macrocarpum (5062) 33 P/E 4 1
C. macrocarpum (5065) 36 P/E 4 1
C. pubescens (438) 19 P 4 2
C. pubescens (5189) 15 P 4 1
C. sp. (5112) 21 P 4 1
C. sp. (5568) 22 P 4 2
Desmodium ovalifolium (350) 16 P 4 2
D. ovalifolium (3784) 20 P 4 2
Pueraria phaseoloides 21 P 3 2
Stylosanthes capitata (2252) 71 E 2 1
S. capitata (10280) 42 P/E 2 3
S. guianensis (136) 59 E 4 2
S. guianensis (184) 56 E 3 1
Zornia latifolia 23 P/E 2 2
Z. sp. 37 E 3 2
Andropogon gayanus 79 E 3 1
Brachiaria decumbens 75 P/E 3 1
B. dictyoneura 41 P 4 1
Calopogonium coeruleum 17 P 4 3
C. muconoides 24 P 4 2
Macroptilium atropurpureum 22 P 1 1
LEGEND:
Growth Habit: Flowering: Soil Coveraje:
P=Prostrate 1= >50% flowering 1= complete soil cover
E=Erect 2= 11-50% flowering 2= 0-25% bare soil
W=Woody Erect 3= 1-10% flowering 3= >25% bare soil
4= 0 flowering
Treatment means for the first harvest (on April 19, 1985) are shown in Table 2. The results are reported on a sun dried weight basis since other drying facilities were not available. The analysis of variance for the first harvest was calculated and both treatment and replication effects were significantly different at the 0.001 level. In Table 3, chemical analyses for the whole forages are presented.
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Table 2. Ranked treatment means for harvest on April 19, 1985.
Treatment (CIAT No.) Sun Dry Yield (kg/ha)
Brachiaria decumbans (606) 7010 a
B. dictyoneura (61"33) 6318 ab
Andropogon gayanus (621) 5850 abc
Aesch'ynomene histrix (9690) 5537 abc
Stylosanthes guianensis (136) 4872 bcd
Zornia sp. (7847) 4651 bcd
S. guianensis (184) 4597 cd
Centrosema brasilianum (5234) 4459 cde
C. macrocarpum (5062) 4265 cdef
S. capitata (2252) 4188 cdefg
C. brasilianum (5712) 4104 cdefg
Z. latifolia (728) 3533 defgh
C. macrocarpum (5065) 3527 defgh
S. capitata (10280) 3427 defghi
C. sp. (5112) 3294 defghij
Desmodium ovalifolium (3784) 3124 defghij
C. sp. (5568) 2797 efghij
D. ovalifolium (350) 2509 fghij
C. pubescens (438) 2412 ghij
Calopogonium muconoides 1887 hij
C. pubescens (5189) 1833 hij
C. arenarium (5236) 1712 ij
Macroptilium atropurpureum 1670 ij
Pueraria phaseoloides (9900) 1618 j
Means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the 0.05 level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Table 3. Chemical analysis of forages (total plant) harvested
April 19, 1985.
Species (CIAT No.) N P K Ca Mg S Al Mn
------------- % Sun Dry Weight-------------A. histrix (9690) 1.91 0.14 0.82 0.73 0.11 0.11 132 561 C. arenarium (5236) 1.16 0.07 0.28 0.23 0.18 0.07 244 287 C. brasilianum (5234) 2.12 0.15 1.22 0.78 0.17 0.15 127 930 C. brasilianum (5712) 1.75 0.14 1.17 0.63 0.14 0.11 310 1260 C. macrocarpum (5062) 2.50 0.17 1.11 0.51 0.17 0.15 398 574 C. macrocarpum (5065) 2.63 0.19 1.60 0.48 0.14 0.12 832 1017 C. pubescens (438) 1.62 1.42 0.59 0.14 0.12 175 605 C. pubescens (5189) 1.61 0.11 0.86 0.20 0.12 0.07 177 484 C. sp. (5112) 1.17 0.14 0.66 0.88 0.14 0.11 299 805
C. sp. (5568) 2.03 0.12 1.06 0.99 0.17 0.12 184 1296
D. ovalifolium (350) 2.24 0.12 0.91 0.78 0.16 0.12 582 544 D. ovalifolium (3784) 2.18 0.13 0.81 1.11 0.15 0.13 413 1261 P. phaseoloides (9900) 2.57 0.20 0.96 0.54 0.11 0.11 392 726 S. capitata (2252) 2.26 0.16 1.,16 0.63 0.13 0.16 408 713
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Species (CIAT No.) N P K Ca Mg S Al Mn
S. capitata (10280) 1.81 0.13 0.85 0.66 0.11 0.15 227 664 S. guianensis (136) 2.02 0.16 0.99 0.89 0.13 0.14 167 1071 S. guianensis (184) 2.01 0.14 1.07 0.59 0.16 0.11 405 1400 Z. latifolia (728) 2.22 0.15 0.82 0.80 0.20 0.14 963 1453 Z. sp. (7847) 1.98 0.15 0.93 0.60 0.12 0.14 207 648
A. gayanus (621) 2.03 0.16 0.72 0.82 0.12 0.14 270 559
B. decumbans (606) 1.82 0.12 0.80 0.67 0.14 0.10 80 376 B. dictyoneura (6133) 1.69 0.18 0.79 0.61 0.12 0.15 220 388 C. muconoides 1.25 0.08 0.82 0.13 0.12 0.08 115 334
M. atropurpureum 2.38 0.16 1.24 0.70 0.12 0.12 482 379
The analysis of variance for the second harvest (on June 17, 1985) was calculated and treatments were significantly different at the 0.001 level and replications at the 0.01 level. Treatment means are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Ranked treatment means for harvest on June 17, 1985.
Treatment (CIAT No.) Sun Dry Yield (kg/ha)
Andropogon gayanus (621) 4764 a
Brachiaria decumbens (606) 2472 b
Centrosema sp. (5112) 2319 bc
B. dictyoneura (6133) 2248 bc
Setaria ancepts 2179 bc
C. brasilianum (5234) 2170 bc
Zornia latifolia (728) 2097 bcd
C. macrocarpum (5062) 2073 bcd
Desmodium ovalifolium (350) 1980 bcde
C. brasilianum (5712) 1895 bcdef
Aeschynomene histrix (9690) 1734 bcdefg
Stylosanthes guianensis (184) 1654 bcdefgh
S. guianensis (136) 1536 cdefghi
C. sp. (5568) 1506 cdefghi
Zornia sp. (7847) 1499 cdefghi
D. ovalifolium (3784) 1470 cdefghi
C. pubescens (5189) 1281 defghi
C. macrocarpum (5065) 1270 defghij
S. capitata (10280) 1188 efghij
S. capitata (2252) 1119 fghij
P. phaseoloides (9900) 1012 ghij
Calopogonium muconoides 1011 ghij
C. pubescens (438) 960 ghij
C. coeruleum 828 hij
C, arenarium (5236) 773 ij
Macroptilium atropurpureum 399 j
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
5




CONCLUSIONS:
The data presented here were collected during the
establishment phase of this trial, that is, during the period in which the forages were growing to fill in the plots. Therefore, comparisons of the species-in terms of productivity should be made with caution. However, the following general conclusions can be made at this time:
1) Grasses in general and A. aansin particular outproduced the legume species. Surprisingly, the nitrogen contents of the grasses were not much lower (and were in
some cases higher) than the legumes in these early
harvests.
2) Among the legumes, A. histrix, C. brasilianum (both #
5234 and 5712), S qjiaensis (both # 136 and 184), and
C. macroca rpum (# 5062) were among the highest yielders in
both trials.
3) Since the plants were drought stressed and probably
nutrient deficient (in at least K and possibly in Mg and
S) the forage yields were probably not up to their
potential.
Subsequent management of this trial will entail fertilizing everything with K (and possibly Mg) and the grasses with N. The productivity of the forages will also be compared during rainy and dry seasons. The overall management philosophy for thi's trial entails a low input approach, since the consensus of TROPSOILS researchers is that local farmers would not be willing to apply much fertilizer or pesticide to forages. Therefore, no pesticides will be used and lime and P will not be reapplied.
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