Group Title: TropSoils field research brief
Title: Tillage and soil amendments for land reclamation of a bulldozed area in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080582/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tillage and soil amendments for land reclamation of a bulldozed area in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Series Title: TropSoils field research brief
Physical Description: 3 leaves ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Makarim, Abdul Karim, 1950-
Cassel, D. Keith
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University
Place of Publication: Raleigh, NC
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Soil amendments -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Tillage -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Indonesia
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: researchers, A. Karim Makarim and D.K. Cassel.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April, 1985."
General Note: At head of title: TropSoils-Indonesia.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080582
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 156912117

Full Text


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TROPSOILS-Indonesia
Field Research Brief No. 4
April, 1985


TITLE: 1201. Tillage and Soil Amendments for Land Reclamation
of a Bulldozed Area in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia

RESEARCHER: A. Karim Makarim and D. K. Cassel


OBJECTIVES:


1. To study the effects of tillage practices and
soil amendments on soil properties and crop
performance,


2. To find effective practices for increasing crop
yields and improving soil properties on areas in
need of reclamation.

SOIL: Clayey, kaolinitic, isohyerthermic, Typic Haplorthox;
Caek: The land was bare for 6 years since forest clearing
by a straight blade bulldozer in 1977. The farmer had
given up cultivation the land because no crops would grow.


TREATMENTS:


Split plot design, RCB, 4 replications, 3.5X8m
plots.
Main plots
FO-no lime or fertilizers (first year only)
Fl-low input (lime and fertilizers to "critical"
levels
F2-high input (lime and fertilizers to eliminate all
nutrient deficiencies)
FI-2-medium.input (apply lime and fertilizers to
optimum levels)


Sub lots:
H -hoeing to 15cm depth,
Hm-hoeing + mulching with 12.5T/ha fresh
Cagajagonium so,
Hg-hoeing + green manuring (incorporation of
12.5 T/ha fresh Calaaggonium sB),
F -spading fork to 30cm depth,
SF-strip spading fork (F in alternate 20cm strips)
R -rototiller to 15cm depth.

CROPS: Rice, cv Sentani, planted 25X25cm on October 22, 1983 and
harvested February 14, 1984;
Soybeans, cv Orba, planted 20X4Ocm on March 8, 1984 and
harvested June 4, 1984;
Mungbeans, cv Betet, planted on June 10, 1984, grew very
poorly due to drought and are not reported here;
Rice, cv Sentani, planted 25X25cm on October 14, 1984 and
harvested February 5, 1985.

RESULTS: Plants did not grow in the FO (no lime or fertilizer)
exept for the green manure sub plots during the first year. The









levels of yields of rice in the Fl, F1-2, and F2 were about the
same. Thus, rice did not respond to high soil fertility.
Soybeans however were very responsive to high fertility, as the
yields of F1 averaged only 0.76 T/ha whereas the F2 averaged 2.32
T/ha in 1984.

Green manure wasvery important for increasing rice
yields. Low input + green manure produced higher yields of rice
than high inputs without green manure. The rice plant is
suitable for low input. Mulching, which increased yields, is a
good practice that helped prevent drought stress, and loss of
nutrients due to runoff or erosion.

Deep tillage, F and SF, was not beneficial for
increasing rice yields, perhaps due to the shallow, fiborous root
system of rice which can not utilize moisture, lime and/or
fertilizers in the deeper zone. The deeper tap root system of
soybeans, in contrast, can utilize them and thus their yields
were increased by deep tillage, especially at low input levels
where the extra nutrients are needed. Rototillering, which
incorporated lime and fertilizers to only about 10 cm depth,
increased yields of both crops compared to hoeing. It may be due
to more effective plant roots that utilize nutrients concentrated
in a shallower zone.

A preliminary recommendation for farmers in the area is
to use low input strategy with green manure, shallow
incorporation of inputs and cover the soil with mulch.

CONCLUSION: Bulldozed areas in Sitiung can be reclaimed. The
higher the input the faster and better the land can be brought
into production. Organic additions will help accelerate the
process.




Table 1. Rates of lime and fertilizers applied for each crop and
input ( kg/ha )

--------------------------------------------------------------
Lime/ Rice Soybeans Rice Total
-------------------- ----------- ----------- ---------------
fertilizers F1 F2 F1 F2 F1-2 F1 F2 F1 F2 F1-2
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Lime 1500 6840 0 0 2200 413 0 1913 6840 2200
N 120 150 0 0 135 120 150 240 300 135
P205 90 1300 0 0 345 141 0 231 1300 345
K20 88 176 70 180 183 56 169 214 525 183
Mg 70 140 0 0 105 0 0 770 140 105
S 93 187 0 0 140 0 0 93 187 140
Mn 0 0 1 2 1 1 3 2 5 1
Zn 5 9 0 0 2 2 2 7 11 2
Cu 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 1
--------------------------------------------------------------










Table 2. Yields of rice-soybeans as affected by different
treatments

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Treat- Rice Soybeans Rice
ment 1983-84 1984 1984-85
----------------------------------------------------
............... (t/ha) .........................
FOHg 2) 0.67 0.11 1)

F1H 1.54 0.57 1.88
F1Hm 1.80 0.79 2.63
F1Hg 2.71 0.63 2.76
F1F 1.79 1.33 2.06
F1SF 1.36 0.47 1.67
F1R 2.04 0.80 2.41

F1-2H 1.30
F1-2Hm 2.18
F1-2Hg 2.63
F1-2F 1.68
F1-2SF 1.45
F1-2R 1.75

F2H 2.17 2.24 2.09
F2Hm 2.33 2.44 3.17
F2Hg 2.94 2.40 2.93
F2F 2.19 2.16 1.49
F2SF 1.27 2.40 2.01
F2R 2.09 2.27 2.32


LSDO.05 0.52 0.27 0.60
No experiment;------------------------------No yield for other FO
1)No experiment; 2)No yield for other FO-'s


Table 3.


Soil analysis as affected by treatment and year


pH


4.1
4.8
6.6


F1
F1-2
F2


Al+H Ca+Mg K

...... meg/100 ml........
after rice first year
4.2 0.3 0.05
1.8 2.7 0.10
0.1 7.2 1.23

after rice second year
2.4 2.0 -
1.2 3.6
0.1 6.2


P

ppm


2
11
118


13
31
71


-~--




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