Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Organization and operation of distributive education programs for adults
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080576/00001
 Material Information
Title: Organization and operation of distributive education programs for adults
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: November, 1969
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 74H-9
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080576
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text




Tallahassee, Florida
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner



Bulletin 74H-9



Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Dr. Carl W. Proehl, Director

Business and Distributive Education Section
Mr. Joseph R. Barkley, Administrator

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Distributive education had its inception in 1936 with the

passage of the George-Deen Act. This Act provided funds to be

made available to states for the launching of a nationwide program

designed to provide training for people engaged in or about to be

employed in distributive occupations.

Subsequent legislation has kept the distributive education

R program in operation and ha.s expanded its offerings to include

more-people. Through the initial efforts of the federal government,

cooperation of state governments, and the aggressive activity in

many local communities, distributive education is now established

as an integral part of the total education program.

This guide is offered to assist county superintendents, local

directors of vocational education, local coordinators, and supervisors

( in the organization, development, and supervision of distributive edu-

cation programs for adults. Since every step cannot be foreseen in the

promotion and development of county or institutional programs, the

) professional approach may have to be implemented by the local distri-

butive education specialist.

This guide was developed under the supervision of Miss Gail

Trapnell, Curriculum Specialist for Distributive Education.


Appreciation is expressed to the following persons for their efforts and

contributions in the development of this publication:

Mrs. Sarah A. Budoff
Hillsborough County
Tampa, Florida

Charles D. Corwin, Jr.
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida,

William R. Young
Leto High School
Tampa., Florida.

William P. Danenburg
University of South Florida,
Tampa., Florida.

James T. Fowler
East Bay High School
Riverview, Florida

Jack W. Oescher
Robinson High School
Tampa., Florida.

Mrs. Dolly Kistler
Mary Karl Vocational Division
Daytons. Beach Junior College
Daytona. Beach, Florida

Dr. Peter Haines
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan

James Shumate
Pinellas County
St. Petersburg, Florida

William Day
Brevard Junior College
Cocoa,, Florida

Lawrence E. Paige
Broward County
Fort Lauderdale, Florida,

Lloyd E. Smith
Dade County
Miami, Florida

Chester Howarth
Duval County
Jacksonville, Florida

Charles Key
Escambia County
Pensacola, Florida.

Mrs. Sara, M. Comer
Leon County
Tallahassee, Florida.

Wilford J. Beumel
Highlands County
Sebring, Florida

Norman Lemstrom
Palm Beach County
West Palm Beach, Florida

Russell Moncrief
Orange County
Orlando, Florida,

Dominick Palmeiri
Mary Karl Vocational Division
Daytona Beach Junior College
Daytona Beach, Florida.






State Program Administration 3
Local Program Administration 4


Organization 6
Appointment of Advisory Committee 8
Determining the Needs of the Business Community 10
Promotion and Publicity 13
Selection and Preparation of Instructors 19
Qualifications of Enrollees 22
Finance 24
Facilities 25
Awards and Certificates 26
Evaluation 26


The Adult Student 32
The Ability of the Adult to Learn 34
Planning the Curriculum 36
Teaching Methods 37
Occupational Areas and Course Offerings 55


Teacher Certification Forms 67
Florida Requirements for Teacher Certification 71
Samples of Certificates and Awards 74



Vocational instruction in distributive education is designed to fit

people for employment in a recognized non-professional distributive

occupation. It includes training or retraining for those preparing to

enter a recognized distributive occupation upon completion of the program.

Adult distributive education is also provided for those who are already

employed but who wish to upgrade or update their occupational skills and

knowledge to achieve employment stability or advancement.

A distributive occupation is defined as an occupation that is

followed by proprietors, managers, or employees engaged primarily in the

marketing or merchandising of goods or services. These occupations are

commonly found in various business establishments such as (without being

limited to) retailing, wholesaling, manufacturing, storing, transporting,

financing, and risk bearing.

The major objective of the adult distributive education program is

to prepare persons for gainful employment in distributive occupations.

More specifically, the objectives may be stated as follows:

A. To offer an educational program which provides the field

of distribution with a, source of better trained personnel

to meet business needs and demands, thereby contributing

to the reduction of business losses due to inefficient

personnel as well as unsound management policies and


B. To provide special education which will assist in upgrading

individual qualifications and performance, thereby providing

the individual with the knowledge necessary for progressive

ability and confidence to assume higher responsibilities.

C. To provide individuals in the community an opportunity to

have the advantages of formal qualified instruction to

supplement regular on-the-job employee training.

The adult program provides education to the entry, supervisory, and

managerial levels of businesses in the marketing and distribution occupa-

tions. These programs should result in immediate increase of job effi-

ciency, eventual promotion, and better understanding of the field of

economic activity in which workers are engaged.


State Program Administration

The Statutes of Florida establish the State Board of Education as the

State Board for Vocational Education. They empower it to cooperate with

federal agencies in administering all phases of the vocational-technical

education program. This Board also has responsibility for administering

all state and federal laws and funds for promoting the program and for

articulating it with other phases of the state program of education. The

Statutes designate the State Superintendent of Public Instruction a.s secre-

tary and executive officer of the State Board for Vocational Education and

empower him to designate the assistants needed to carry on the program.

The Florida, State Plan for the Improvement of Vocational Technical and

Related Education Services' is a contract between the State of Florida, and

the Federal Government defining the structure approved by the Florida, State

Board for Vocational Education for operating the Vocational, Technical, and

Adult Education programs in the State. According to provisions of the State

Plan, the State Director of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education and

specialized qualified assistants in the respective vocational-technical

services are responsible to the executive officer of the Board, and through

him, to the State Board for Vocational Education for the administration and

supervision of all phases and aspects of the program.

lFlorida State Plan for the Improvement of Vocational, Technical, and
Related Educational Services, State Department of Education, Division of
Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Bulletin 70A-3.

In view of these assigned responsibilities, the Division of Vocational,

Technical, and Adult Education is responsible for coordinating, administering,

and supervising the total state-wide program of vocational-technical educa-

tion conducted by county boards of public instruction.

The Division is organized into sections of specialized areas with

distributive education assigned to the Distributive, Cooperative, and

Business Education Section. This section is administered by an Assistant

Director who delegates the concerns of distributive education to specialists

who assist him in administering the state-wide program for distributive edu-


Local Program Administration

The responsibility for the distributive education program for adults is

generally assigned to the vocational administrative personnel in counties where

such individuals are employed. In other counties, the County Superintendent of

Public Instruction or his designated representative may be responsible for

activities in this field.

The county or junior college coordinator for adult distributive education

is the one largely responsible for the promotion, planning, and growth of this

phase of vocational education. He is a member of the county supervisory staff

in accordance with the local organizational pattern. The coordinator ordinarily

would be responsible to the county director of vocational and adult education unless

otherwise designated by the local school board or county superintendent.

Junior colleges operating under Plan 11 axe responsible for all vocational

education beyond the secondary school. This is the responsibility of the presi-

dent and is usually delegated to a, Division Director or Dean for Vocational,

Technical, and Adult Education. Junior colleges operating under Plan 1, 2, 3,

and 42 may institute college credit programs in distributive education and these

can be delegated to an appropriate division, department, or a. coordinator who is

directly responsible to the president.

1Alternative Plans of Organization and Operation of General Adult and
Vocational Educational Services in Areas Served by Community Junior Colleges,
State Department of Education, Division of Community Junior Colleges,
CJC 12/65.




The organization of the adult distributive education program is a

cooperative enterprise involving both the county school administration and

the community. In accordance with the provisions of the State Plan, the

County School Board through the local Superintendent of Public Instruction

should request the State Supervisor of Distributive, Cooperative, and

Business Education on Form A that special vocational instructional units

under the Minimum Foundation Program be allocated the county for the estab-

lishment of adult classes in distributive education. Form A is a request

for special unit allocation for the next fiscal year and is submitted to the

office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction by May 15 of each


Nine hundred instruction hours constitute one full vocational unit. A

fraction of a unit calculated at the rate of 1/900 of an instruction unit

for each hour of instructional service rendered shall be allowed for part-

time vocational teachers. For example, if a county plans to operate classes

totaling 450 clock.hours of instruction, the county would request .5 of an

instruction unit (450/900 = .5 unit). Three units would be requested for

the operation of 2700 clock hours of instruction (2700/900 = 3 units).

It is recommended that a, Supervisor or Coordinator for adult distributive

education classes be appointed to initiate and set in motion the procedures

listed below:

A. Contact interested business associations and firms and form a,

local advisory committee.

B. Provide the advisory committee with survey,-information regarding

training needs of the community as obtained from the employment

service or other reliable sources.

C. Plan and conduct a meeting between the advisory committee and

the school administration to determine what programs and courses

are to be offered.

D. Organize the class in cooperation with the advisory committee


1. Locating and selecting a competent instructor; arranging

for his certification and/or teacher training program

2. Developing a course of study that will satisfy the needs

of the individual students and business

3. Securing suitable classroom facilities and instructional


4. Arranging appropriate publicity releases through various


5. Supervising enrollment to see that registration meets

the State Board regulations for Average Daily Attendance.

E. Report class operation to State Department of Education on

appropriate reporting form* when the class closes.

*A new reporting form is now being developed by the State Department
of Education. The Assistant Director for Distributive, Cooperative, and
Business Education should be contacted to obtain copies.

Appointment of Advisory Committees

A vital aspect of the organization and operation of adult programs

in distributive education is the utilization of advisory committees, as

the establishment of classes requires the advice and assistance of many

people. There are those who may only assist in the promotion and adminis-

tration of the program.

Advisory committee reports should be organized for the purpose of

advising and counseling the local school authorities. Such committees should

be composed of representatives from the local distributive businesses.

Business, civic, and trade associations should be consulted in selecting

the membership of advisory committees. The coordinator of the adult distri-

butive education program, in cooperation with the director of vocational

and adult education, should submit a list of names to the county superintendent

for appointment to the advisory committee.

The responsibilities of the advisory committee should be clearly defined

and understood prior to appointment. The committee should be advisory in

nature, leaving the specifics of course content and method to the coordinator

and the instructor. This committee should be non-salaried and its functioning

should be without expense to the appointing authority.

The advisory committee may function in broad areas or specific areas.

Special industry advisory committees--i.e., insurance, real estate, etc.--may

be set up for such purposes as:

A. To give overall advice on the operation of a specific

education program

B. To advise on content of courses to be offered

C. To assist in the development of specifications for

facilities and equipment

Committees may be temporary or permanent in nature depending on the

functions to be performed. Frequently it is found most useful to combine

both elements by having some permanent and some temporary appointments to

a committee. The permanent members are those considered to have the long-

time interest in the program, while the temporary members might be those

indicating more immediate needs and interests. The committee membership

should designate a chairman and a secretary who will function within the

prescribed responsibilities.

Suggested functions of the advisory committee should include the


A. Assist in securing enrollment, facilities, equipment, and

resource material.

B. Develop promotional and publicity activities.

C. Assist in community surveys to determine training needs.

D. Help prepare course outlines and courses of study.

E. Aid in securing competent instructors for the adult classes.

F. Aid in securing financial and legislative support.

G. Assist in evaluating the program to both the community

and the appointing authority.

H. Assist in the placement of students upon completion of the


It is important that an agenda be prepared prior to each meeting and

that minutes of the meetings be properly maintained for matter of record.

These responsibilities may be assumed by the chairman of the advisory

committee and a secretary appointed by the committee members.

Determining the Needs of the Business Community

The needs for adult education in the distributive field are many and

varied. To develop a truly comprehensive adult program in distributive

education, these needs must be determined by the local coordinator working

in conjunction with the adult supervisor and the advisory committee. These

needs may be determined in a, variety of ways, some of which are described


A. Observation--

The coordinator may find that certain needs exist by observing

services and operations of businesses in his community. He may

see some of these needs and recommend training for these needs.

Training suggested should not be based entirely upon "hunch"

procedure, but upon realistic facts observed or noticed in his

well-defined knowledge of the business community.

B. Interviews--

Interviews or talks with employees, employers, and customers

will reveal situations demanding training. These interviews


are often impromptu and informal as any rigid procedure to seek

information may result in "no information." People talk more

freely in relaxed and informal situations. Information and/or

facts may indicate needs not clearly known by those interviewed.

Recommendations may come from information received from the


C. Surveys--

The study of local surveys conducted by local merchant's groups

or trade groups will certainly reveal needs. The surveys usually

indicate strengths and weaknesses within local businesses. A

careful study of these surveys by local school officials, coordi-

nators, and advisory committees usually indicates the direction

to take in promoting and establishing local training courses or


The local school officials or other interested persons may

advise and undertake a survey on their own to determine needs.

These "home spun" surveys are usually as effective as the more

elaborate or professional ones since the locally prepared survey

can be directed to specific situations and can normally be

administered quickly and economically.

D. Occupational Reports--

Local, state, and federal agencies are constantly releasing

data on the occupational status of local businesses and industries.

These agencies are ready to assist local school or trade agencies

in the interpretation of these reports. Such reports reveal

possible needs which may lead to the establishment of training


E. Agencies--

Most local agencies dealing with business, industry, local

government are excellent sources of information and assistance.

Although each agency may have different objectives concerning

their operations, they deal in "people" and their well-being.

These agencies axe usually in a position to offer suggestions

and in many cases direct help in organizing local adult programs.

Regularly scheduled conferences with agency leaders it the essence

of future training programs. Some of these agencies are as follows:

1. Chambers of Commerce

2. Boards of Trade

3. Merchants Associations

4. Trade Associations

5. Local schools

6. Unions

7. Sales Executives Clubs

8. Professional Associations

9. Government--local, state, federal

10. Service clubs

11. Junior Chambers of Commerce

12. Individual business firms--retail, wholesale, service, and

industrial firms

Promotion and Publicity

Oftentimes many educators, businessmen's organizations, and merchants

are unaware of the advantages which accrue from adult education programs.

A carefully arranged and prepared presentation to the members of the business

community can attract attention to their needs and the opportunities available

to them in adult distributive education programs. The coordinator's responsi-

bility is to present this data showing the value of education in this field so

skillfully that the need for and advantages of this education will be apparent.

In a local area it is suggested that the coordinator first approach the

most strongly organized group. The coordinator should discover the "live-wire"

group or the leaders in the community, as success in a local situation largely

depends upon the selection of the right group to initiate favorable reaction to

the program, to publicize it, and to influence the citizens and businessmen in the


A. Presenting the Needs to Employer Groups--

Appeals to merchants, trade associations, and chamber of commerce

officials should be based upon the profit motive. They will not be

interested in the program unless they have a, general understanding

of the objectives of these classes and the assurance that the

instructors are qualified through their training and experiences.

The following are some of the advantages which can accrue to an

individual organization through the adult distributive education


1. To decrease training costs

2. To improve workers' efficiency, improve morale, improve

customer services by providing refresher training in new

methods and merchandise knowledge, better preparation in

human relations for workers who have been employed for

some time.

3. To teach others to instruct; to help build training

material by teaching supervisory personnel to teach


4. To educate supervisors and managers in the best methods

of working with employees, of building department and

organizational morale, and or increasing employee and

organization efficiency--thus building stronger organi-


5. To provide scholastic recognition for distribution.

Emphasis on the educational needs for successful

work increases the prestige of the work. People feel

that educational recognition for training increases

the value of that training, so they can accept the

necessity for continuous improvement.

B. Selling the Programs to Employed Persons--

The value of training programs should be explained to

all the workers as simply as possible. Each worker should

be given the type of training he needs. They should be told

the objectives of the program, and the course content should

be explained to them. The result of an effective training

program may be "brought home to them" through simple illustra-

tions of what it has accomplished in the case of individual

workers or in particular companies. Explain that training

enables the worker:

1. To improve his chances for advancement. Executives will

be more likely to advance trained people in their own

organization to key positions than to go outside their


2. To reduce errors of various kinds, to increase his efficiency,

and to acquire accurate knowledge about his job and what he


3. To make better showing in connection with emnlovers'

systems for rating and evaluating the employees. These

systems are designed to recognize good work and ability.

4. To prepare themselves for transfer to other departments

or more desirable kinds of work.

5. To derive increased pleasure or satisfaction from

present work.

6. To broaden their knowledge and understanding of their

work and of work related thereto. In the rush of daily

routine work, it is often difficult for an employee to

get an understanding of other departments and of many

of the "behind-the-scenes" activities of his


7. To meet and make friends with others in similar

work in other companies.

8. To help make the company in which he works a good

place in which to do business.

9. To acquire a better knowledge of duties and problems

and in this way lessen misunderstandings and friction

with fellow employees.

10. To make their position more secure during periods of

business retrenchment.

C. Selling the Program to Unemployed Persons--

This group of persons may be one of the most difficult to

reach as their dispersion throughout our populace impedes the

identification of them as a "captured audience."

In selling the distributive education program to this group,

care must be taken to state the benefits in realistic terms

which they can understand. Philosophical reasoning and flowery

speech will not be understood nor accepted.

Explanations such as these may be offered:

1. The instruction is "tailor-made" to meet his particular

interests and needs.

2. It helps to develop a feeling of self-confidence in

one's abilities.

3. Serves to develop a feeling of pride and individual

worth from the achievements he will realize.

4. The program helps to develop salable skills which will

lead to full-time employment.

5. In obtaining full-time employment, he will be better able

to provide for his family in a manner he desires.

D. Selling the Program to Educators--

Educators are sometimes prone to delay action on a new

idea or program. They often want to "analyze" or "survey"

the proposed plan for a lengthy period of time. It is

necessary, therefore, in presenting the distributive educa-

tion program to the educator to appeal to his judgment,

reasoning, and good sense. One should not over-emphasize to

educators the benefits that will occur to owners and employed

workers from training in distributive education. Rather, it is

better to emphasize the increased opportunity it opens to the

school to serve the community, and the fact that distributive

education may be reimbursed from state and federal funds.

E. Suggested Methods for Promoting Program--

Among the methods that may be used to bring the proposed

training program to the attention of the groups that should be

reached in a small or medium-sized community are the following:

1. Articles and announcements in trade bulletins, magazines,

and other local or state publications.

2. A series of news stories, incorporating specific examples

of types of courses and explaining the results of training

in other communities.

3. A paid advertisement donated by the Chamber of Commerce

or some other organization.

4. Radio announcements and programs which portray in story

form, the value and results of training for distributive


5. Postal-card reminders to selected groups and individuals

prior to the opening session of the classes.

6. Telephone calls to explain the program to persons belonging

to specific groups.

7. Announcements on bulletin boards in business establishments

and other public places.

8. Brief explanations in ten-minute meetings with business


9. Publicity through the Chamber of Commerce or trade


10. Encouragement of "word-of-mouth" publicity to everyone

who might be affected by the program.

Selection and Preparation of Instructors

A. Selection of Instructors--

In locating prospective instructors qualified in the field in

which they are to offer instruction, consideration should be given

to local business establishments which have persons in their employ

who are thoroughly familiar with their particular line of work and

who are vocationally competent to conduct classes. Since a major

function of an advisory committee is to aid in the development and

strengthening of the program, the problem of securing well-qualified

instructors is one for its consideration. Full use should be made

of the broad experience of this group, representing as it does,

a cross section of business, civic organizations, and trade groups.

The supervisor or coordinator must seek out prospective instructors

and not wait for them to come to him. Care must be taken to maintain

the standards that have been set for employment. To do otherwise

is to invite serious instructional problems.

It cannot be taken for granted that the individual suggested

will necessarily want to teach. A number of appeals can be made

in talking with a prospective instructor. Among these are the

prestige that comes from teaching, opportunity to meet people in

business and to gain new ideas, and the personal satisfaction that

comes from teaching and rendering a public service.

To be successful in teaching adults, the instructor must be

socially acceptable. That means he must be in good standing in


the community, must be an emotionally mature person, and he must

have the respect of the business leaders in his field. He must

also have the type of outgoing personality that will encourage

class members to respond. Such faults as an unpleasant appearance,

poor speaking voice, or faulty grammar will lessen his chances for

success, but this does not infer that it would necessarily make him

an unsuccessful teacher. Rather it is important that the instructor

have the ability to express himself on the student's level of under-

standing and that he have the ability to create enthusiasm and

initiative on the part of the students.

The following procedure is offered in order to assist the

coordinator in securing the most competent instructor and meeting

certification requirements.

1. Complete Form CG-10 (see Appendix), including the health


2. Send $5.00 fee with application to the State Department of

Education, Certification Section, Tallahassee, Florida.

3. File Withholding Form W-4 with local administration.

4. File loyalty oath with local administration,

5. Verify in writing by employer, experience in the field,

and file with the local administration.

6. Record all part-time certificates with the local


The instructor and the coordinator should enlist the services of

resource people to supplement instruction whenever possible. Various

sources for obtaining instructors are the advisory committee, the

Junior Chamber of Commerce, and the local school administration.

An employed teacher is already certified and understands methods

of teaching. The use of a "call staff" is recommended. This is a

list of all available teachers in the area designating their fields

of specialty.

The small county may find it to their advantage to hire a

teacher-coordinator, who will not only act as the coordinator of the

programs, but will also participate in carrying a portion of a teacher's

load. Local high school Distributive Education coordinators might

also be instrumental in assisting to organize classes for adults on a

part-time basis. (See Appendix for State Certification Requirements.)

B. Preparation of Instructors--

It is recommended that an educational program be established to

familiarize qualified people with teaching methods which would enable

them to present subject matter in the most effective way to groups of

adults. Most of the training of adult instructors will be on an

individual basis to meet individual needs. Some of this training may

be given before the instructor starts to teach; the remainder to

include on-the-job training carried on during the instructor's

period of employment. Group training of instructors has the advantage

of permitting pooling experiences and this tends to weld the members

into a professional group.

When feasible, an inexperienced teacher who is willing to

learn may be placed with an experienced teacher either on a

voluntary basis or as a secondi:teacher in the classroom if

Average Daily Attendance is sufficient to warrant this. Special

orientation and in-service training for adult instructors can

be arranged through the distributive education teacherreducators

at the University of South Florida and Florida Atlantic University.

The supervisor should strive to create enthusiasm and initiative

in the teacher. He should caution the teacher to pace his instruction

according to the ability of the student.

The supervisor, coordinator or teacher-trainer need not be a

specialist in all subject matter to be taught. He must be thoroughly

familiar, however, with up-to-date methods of group instruction and

be able to show how the methods can be adapted to particular training

situations. A typical course should include orientation to the

adult distributive education program, the learning process,

methods of teaching, evaluations, application'and practices. Such

training and instruction is available at the University of South

Florida and Florida Atlantic University in the Distributive Education


Qualifications of Enrollees

While it is often true that there is little opportunity to select the

student in the adult distributive education program, the coordinator should

assume the responsibility of seeing that the enrollees are qualified for


training. Vocational state and federal regulations require that there be

a reasonable expectation for employment when the training is completed, and

that the training be in keeping with the student's needs, interests, and

abilities. The coordinator must have the authority to process students in

a, pre-determined procedure, thereby helping to assure proper placement of

the student and to insure the student's understanding of specific course

objectives. Sufficient time must, therefore, be given to proper guidance

and counseling.

If this is followed, the adult distributive education program will

contribute to the improvement in standards of living through better services,

lower costs, and a general improvement in the field of distribution. The

program will help in the development of better citizenship, and will contri-

bute to community improvement.

Many of the adult offerings may be through special efforts of an

employer, in which case the employer may select the students for the course.

A particular offering for an employer would be a controlled class, in which

the students would be pre-screened and pre-selected.

Another factor for consideration in proper student selection is the

image it will provide to the education institution. A successful adult

distributive education program enhances the image of the Board of Public

Instruction or the junior college in the community. It will bring school

and business into closer cooperation, increasing the practical educational

contribution from school to society. Adult distributive education programs

secure both monetary and training benefits for the students which provides

the pathway to abetter community relationship.



Payment of instructional personnel for part-time classes is made through

the vocational unit allocation pro-rated on the basis of 900 hours of

instruction per unit. Some counties supplement the hourly rate for

instructional personnel based upon a local support formula. In some

cases various businesses may supplement these salary payments.

A budget is recommended for each course or program of instruction in

order to determine the total cost. When the budget is determined, any excess

cost may be pro-rated among the enrollees by charging a nominal registration

fee. This fee may be established by the adult supervisor, the local coordinator,

and the advisory committee. In some locales the registration fee may be estab-

lished by the county school administration.

All consumable supplies, including pass-out materials, other instructional

materials, and promotional materials or expenses used by the enrollees and/or

in the operation of the program (including rental costs if applicable) may be

covered in the registration fee. Some counties charge a registration fee and

a materials fee for each course based on the amount of consumable materials

used by the students in the course. This materials fee includes all expenses

of the course not included in monies received from Minimum Foundation Funds

or county funds. Travel and/or fees for consultants may either be reimbursed

by the county or included in the registration fee depending upon the local

county regulations.


Ideally, both facilities and equipment should be comparable to that which

is in use, or entering into use, by the employment opportunities in that area.

Projected modernization and changes should be included in content and methods

of instruction.

Existing school facilities and equipment should be made available for

use. Use of privately owned facilities and equipment may be provided for

when such use appears desirable.

Resource material, including school and public libraries, should be made

available to the adult student. Provision should be made for the purchase of

necessary materials for student use as determined by the coordinator, subject

to State and County regulations. Textbooks and resource material should be

organized and available within the classroom during all class meetings when

finances permit their purchase.

The facilities used should offer an atmosphere conducive to learning.

Good surroundings with adequate tables and chairs, blackboards, lighting, etc.,

usually promote a psychological atmosphere conducive to good training. In

addition to the classroom itself, adequate parking, rest room facilities, and

smoking privileges should be considered.

Provisions should also be made for the use of audio-visual equipment such

as movie projector, overhead projector, opaque projector, flip charts, film

strips, mock-ups, flash cards, flannel boards, chalk boards, tape recorders,

record players, television, radio, and conference telephone service as or

when needed.

Awards and Certificates

It is recommended that a certificate with appropriate signatures be

awarded to each person successfully completing a predetermined number of

class hours or series of courses. Consideration may also be given to the

presentation of certificates for attendance. (See Appendix for sample


When feasible, some token which represents the emblem or symbol of

the industry such as a. charm or pin that could become a part of the person,

may be presented to the student. Banquets, luncheons, receptions, and

socials are other methods of showing recognition. Such activities may be

sponsored by local trade associations, civic groups, etc, The presentation

of awards and certificates can be used as a promotional device to promote

the offering of additional courses.


To perpetuate and contribute to the betterment of the adult distributive

education program, the adult supervisor must be ever aware of the importance

of evaluation.

In adult education, evaluation is predicated on the basic assumption

that the purpose of education is to change behavior--the thinking, feeling,

and acting of adults--in desirable ways. "Evaluation, then involves both

measurements of behavior and judgments about the extent to which it has

changed in the direction of established goals."l

IWilson Thiede, "Evaluation and Adult Education," Adult Education,
edited by Jensen, Liveright, and Halleribeck, Adult Education Association
of the U. S. A., 1964, p. 292.

Evaluation must be "an integral part of any plan for adult education.

It should be applied to the planning of the program, to the execution of the

program, and to the results."I

The major purposes of evaluation are summarized as follows:2

A. To determine how near the individual student and the group as a

whole come to reaching the goal that they set out to attain.

B. To measure the rate of progress that the students are making

at any given time in the course.

C. To determine the effectiveness of specific teaching methods,

materials, and activities.

D. To provide information which will be useful to the student,

the instructor, and the public.

The evaluation process includes five basic steps:3

A. Determining what to evaluate--

The evaluation of a program is largely based on the extent

to which the pre-established objectives were attained. Therefore,

the appropriateness and sources of the objectives must be carefully

evaluated. Sources of objectives include:

1. The needs and values held by the society

2. The objectives of the organizational auspices under which

the adult education program is conducted.

-Barton Morgan, Glenn E. Holmes, and Clarence E. Bundy, Methods in
Adult Education, The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., Danville,
Illinois, 1960, p. 151.

2Ibid., pp. 152-153.

3Thiede, op. cit., pp. 294-300.

3. The needs and interests of the individuals

4. The subject matter itself

5. The learning theory

Regardless of the source or sources selected to obtain the objectives

of the program, these objectives must be realistic, attainable, and closely

related to the needs and interests of the adult learner.

B. Defining the Behavior Desired--

The objectives of the program must be clearly defined in

terms of the specific behavorial outcomes desired.

C. Determining Acceptable Evidence-a'

In order to determine what evidence is acceptable in evaluating

the attainment of an objective, one basic question must first be

answered--how will the individual behave at various stages of

attainment? This will necessitate the determination of sub-objectives

and order of attainment.

D. Collecting Evidence--

Evidence of various types should be collected to evaluate the

attainment of the objectives as reliably and as validly as possible.

Pre-tests and post-tests are common tools, as are check lists, self

inventories, performance tests, interview records, and observed

behavior. Care should be taken, however, to present these tools

to the adult learner for the purpose of self-evaluation rather than

for grade determination.

E. Summarizing the Evidence and Making Judgments--

After the evidence has been collected, it should be summarized

and analyzed to determine the extent to which the objectives have

been realized and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the

program. Judgment decisions should then be made as to how the

program may be modified to make it more effective.

In the evaluation process, attention should be paid to the

evaluation of the teaching ability of the instructor, the adequacy

and suitability of the physical facilities and equipment, and to

the learning outcomes of the individual students.

An evaluation device to be used by the students may be devised

to include the following items:

1. Training ability of the instructor

2. Suitability of content

3. Organization of content

4. Introduction

5. Knowledge of subject

6. Appointment of time

7. Group participation

8. Handling of visual aids

9. Handling of discussion

10. Appropriateness of methods

11. Closing

12. Recognition of student needs

Personal Qualities of the Instructor:

1. Appearance and dress

2. English and manner of speaking

3. Group management and control

4. Quality of voice

5. Poise-bearing movements

6. Attitude toward class

Physical Facilities and Arrangements:

1. Room arrangement

2. Equipment available

3. Record keeping

4. Light, heat, and ventilation

5. Teaching supplies

6. Class schedule

The evaluating device or instrument should be carefully prepared

to insure the most complete information desired. The evaluation must

be positive in approach, and should be short and simple to use.

The checklist presented below represents a sample of selected

questions taken from the evaluative criteria for distributive vocational

education prepared by the American Vocational Association, A copy of

the entire instrument may be obtained from the American Vocational

Association, 1025 15th Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.


( ) Definite objectives of each specific training program are
set up in advance, and are developed cooperatively by workers,
management, vocational educators and other interested parties.

( ) The distributive education program is constantly adjusted
to meet the current needs of the community.

( ) The courses offered give training opportunities in broad
areas as well as meeting the needs in specific areas.

( ) Instruction is directed toward clearly formulated, compre-
hensive and long-range objectives in distributive education.

( ) An advisory committee assists, through advice and recommenda-
tions, in coordinating problems, information, terminology,
skills and activities of instruction with business practices.

( ) Activities approximate as nearly as possible the actual
activities and conditions in distributive occupations.

( ) Business resources of the community are utilized in the
instructional activities.

( ) Individual differences of adult enrollees are considered
in selecting, planning and conducting instructional activities.

( ) The instructor periodically evaluates the instruction in
light of standards of achievement recognized as acceptable
in business.

( ) Course outlines, study guides and manuals for instructors
are available for use in instructional activities.

( ) Follow-up studies are carried on to determine the results
of the adult program.

( ) Results of follow-ups are made available to interested
community groups and individuals for study.

( ) Distributive employer-employee groups react favorably
to the total program.

( ) Persons who have participated in one training class enroll
for other distributive education offerings.

( ) Evaluation activities are a part of the instructional


The Adult Student

The most determinant factor in the success of an adult distributive

education program is the ability of the instructor to motivate and teach

the adult student. This rests on his understanding of the adult as a, learner,

his insight into the adult's motivations, attitudes, fears, complexes, and


The adult student who comes to the classroom from the workaday world

and a real life situation cannot be compared with the elementary or secondary

school student whose life principally evolves around the classroom situation.

The differences are marked, especially as they relate to the immediate concerns

of an adult throughout the various stages of his life span. In early..adulthood,

he may be concerned with rearing a family and planning for a long-term successful

career. In later years, he may become more concerned with his financial security

and the breaking up of his household as his children leave home. As he approaches

retirement age, he will become concerned with the use of his leisure time.

The needs, attitudes, and motivations of the adult will vary in each of

these life stages. To ignore the emotional composition of the adult as a,

student is to .invite his resentment and failure. UNDERSTANDING thus becomes a.

prime requisite for a successful adult program in distributive education.

Being highly motivated, many of the adult students enter the program

with a definite purpose. Others need to be encouraged to actively participate;

their interest must be aroused and an understanding established as to the need

for continuing education. There are some adults who are keenly interested in

enrolling in this type of program, but are hesitant to do so as they question

the social acceptibility of "going to school" at their age. Others may lack

self-confidence in their ability to learn. This may be due to the fact that

the adult had little success in school as a child, that he has forgotten how

to study, or that he fears possible embarrassment in the classroom.

Because of his age and breadth of experiences, the adult student may

have become "set in his ways," thus being highly resistant to change. Pre-

established opinions and prejudices may cause him to appear somewhat narrow-

minded in attitude. The older the student, the more probable it is that these

prejudices are stronger and more difficult to change.

The adult student resents being treated as a child in a typical school

classroom situation. He resents being asked questions which he considers to

be senseless, and he may resent being called on by the instructor when he

does not volunteer to participate in classroom discussions.

Most of the adult students resent what may be considered "red tape" in
completing lengthy registration forms, personal resume forms, and evaluation

forms. They resent the instructor who is incompetent just as they dislike the

instructor who adopts a "know-it-all" attitude in class.

All of these resentments, fears, likes, and dislikes can be found in the

typical adult class. Their ages may vary from 16 to 70, and the educational

level may vary from less than eighth grade to college degree or higher. Thus,

it is imperative that the curriculum for the adult program be carefully planned

so as to encompass the gamut of interests and abilities. To implement and to

effectuate this curriculum, the instructor must have an understanding of the

adult student and his learning processes.


The Ability of the Adult To Learn

Adulthood is usually determined by two factors; physiological and.

sociological maturity. Physiologically, a person becomes an adult when he

has grown to full size and strength; this point comes at the climax of

adolescence and is very close to the point at which a person reaches his

peak in physical ability--somewhere around the ages of twenty to twenty-

five. After this age, the adult experiences a slowing down in reaction time,

his sensory perceptions become less sharp, and his physical stamina may begin

to weaken. It must be remembered, however, that these changes will occur at

different ages and in varying degrees from one individual to another. These

physiological changes and declines must be understood and recognized in con-

ducting adult classes and in planning room and/or seating arrangements. Care

must be taken in using audio-visual aids so that each class member can both

see and hear what is going on with the least amount of effort.

All research indicates that adults can learn as it has been proven

that one's capacity to learn does not decline with increasing age unless

there is a physiological change involving brain damage. In fact, the I.Q.

increases with age for those with more education, Vocabulary, if used,

increases with age. There is a decline in the rate of learning as age

progresses, but the intellectual power in and of itself does not change.

The social factor is less frequently considered a characteristic

of adults, but this factor is implicit in much of adult education. Socially,

an adult is one who has become independent and responsible for himself in

the society where he lives. The social factor involves such things as inde-

pendence from family authority, economic independence, and the assumption

of responsibilities for family and for community.

In analyzing the social factor, attention must be given to the

experience of an adult. Adults, as compared to youth, have had more

experiences, more different types of experiences, and organize these

experiences differently. Because of this, the adult will approach educa-

tion from a different vantage point than will the school youth. The adult

will approach the idea of continuing education from a more practical point

of view, as he is more concerned with the immediate problems facing him in

the workaday world. He is interested in building a better life for himself

now, in obtaining results now, not in the distant future as is usually the

case for the school youth. Thus, it is important that "feedback" play an

important part in the adult program, as knowledge of his progress and the

observance of tangible results will motivate the adult to continue to learn.

Time denotes a different factor to an adult than it does to a school

youth. To the latter, time is an infinite period extending into an endless

future. But to the adult, time is finite. Time is precious. He realizes

that he has a limited number of years remaining to accomplish his life's

ambitions and objectives. Because of this limited time factor, the adult

must choose the activities in which he will participate. In many instances,

he will rank social, political, and economic responsibilities over education.

In planning the adult program, therefore, consideration must be given to the

scheduling of classes. This suggests a flexible realistic organization of

the curriculum, rather than attempting to fit a rigid semester or quester


Planning the Curriculum

The needs, interests, and abilities of the class form the basis for

the development of the curriculum. With this as a foundation, the "bull's

eye" technique may be employed to determine the courses of study and their

sequence within the curriculum.

In using this technique and the curriculum approach ir the development

of the adult program, the instructor should first determine the "target" of

his instruction or that which the student must know. Secondary objectives

follow to include that which the learner should know. Upon the achievement

of these two goals, instruction should be given as to what the learner would

like to know and that which he might find helpful to know.1

--- --- --- -- ----- MUST KNOW

---- --- --- ------- SHOULD KNOW

----- ---- -.------- WOULD LIKE TO KNOW

.-.---------------- HELPFUL TO KNOW

IGuide for Part-Time Instructors: Distributive Education for Adults,
U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Vocational Division
Bulletin No. 259, D. E. Series No. 21, 1955.

With these objectives constituting an outline for instruction, a

broad curriculum can then be developed which would include a planned

sequence of courses moving from the "target" to the periphery. For

example, an adult program may be developed which would begin with basic

salesmanship and move through supervisory management.

The use of the curriculum approach to adult distributive education

programs discourages the offering of "disconnected" short courses and

the tendency to provide a "shot-in-the-arm" type of training program.

After the curriculum has been developed and the sequence of course

studies arranged, the instructor should then prepare his instructional

outline for each course of study. A topical outline based on the objectives

for that particular course should be outlined, followed by sub-topics, and

the development of specific points in a logical teaching order.

Teaching Methods

Having stated the objectives and having prepared a teaching outline for

each course of study, the instructor must then select the method or combina-

tion of methods which will help to reach the desired goal. The selection of

the particular method to be used in any one class should be determined by:

1. The Character of the Subject--

a. Is direct information needed?

b. Are there different points of view to be presented?

c. Is this a controversial subject which will stimulate discussion?

2. Available Leadership--

a. Who can be called upon as speakers, panel members,

discussion leaders?

b. How can the total class be involved?

3. Available Facilities--

a. Does the room lend itself to formal or informal use?

b. How can the setting be adapted to facilitate discussion?

c. Is equipment available? --moving picture projector, loud

speaker system, blackboards, visual aids, etc.

4. The Character of the Class--

a. How many do you expect to attend?

b. What is the level of education, age spread, occupational

background, and general interest of the group?

Some of the most frequently used methods are described below:

A. The Lecture--

A lecture is a carefully prepared oral presentation of a

subject by a. qualified expert. It is usually rather formal.

The Lecture May Be Used:

1. To present factual material in a direct and logical manner.

2. To present one point of view on a controversial subject.

3. For accounts of travels or personal experiences.

4. To entertain or inspire an audience.

5. To stimulate thinking and further study on a problem and

to open the subject for general discussion.

Some Special Advantages of the Lecture:

1. Some people can learn more easily by listening than by


2. It is suitable for large audiences.

3. It is easy to organize.

Some Limitations:

1. Good speakers informed on subjects of interest to your group

may be hard to find. Experts are not always good speakers.

2. The role of the audience is passive.

3. Its effect on the audience is difficult to guage.

4. Only one side of a question is presented with little chance for

challenge or rebuttal.

Physical Requirements:

1. A stage or a raised platform -- and a speakers' rostrum.

2. Adequate seating so that every member of the audience may

see and hear the speaker in comfort.


The chairman should introduce the speaker to the audience with

brief remarks as to his position, his experience, or special


If visual aids such as films, slides, maps, charts, etc., are to

be used, they should be appropriate to the subject, to the audience,

and so used as to heighten audience interest, not distract their


At the conclusion of the prepared lecture the chairman should

thank the speaker.

Question Period:

A question period may help to overcome some of the shortcomings of

the lecture by providing for limited participation. If a question

period is to follow, both the speaker and the audience should be so

informed before the lecture begins. The forum technique or the

buzz session may be used to improve the quality and quantity of

questions and to stimulate discussion. The chairman (or some other

qualified person) should serve as moderator during the question


B. The Symposium--

A symposium is a series of prepared speeches given by two to

five experts on as many aspects of a problem as there are speakers.

The talks should be short and to the point (10 to 25 minutes each).

The Symposium May Be Used:

1. To present new material in a concise and logical way.

2. To present several objective viewpoints to give an impartial

treatment to the subject under consideration.

3. To give a fair analysis of several sides of a controversial


4. To stimulate thinking, study, and discussion.

5. To clarify aspects of a complex problem and to show the relation

of the parts to the whole.

Some Advantages:

1. Allows for several points of view.

2. More comprehensive coverage of the subject is possible.

3. Short speeches prevent lengthy digressions and keep

the audience alert.

4. Your program doesn't sink or swim with the performance

of one speaker.

Some Limitations:

1. The symposium is quite formal.

2. The role of the audience is passive.

3. There is little opportunity for discussion between

the speakers.

Physical Requirements:


Speaker's stan
Oor microphone

Platform or Stage

The symposium requires a larger
platform than is necessary for the

Conditions for audience seating are
the same as for the lecture.


The chairman should introduce each speaker with a few brief

remarks at the beginning of the program or before each rises to


There may be a short question period after each talk or

questions may be reserved for a discussion period.


A short period may be allowed for exchange of questions and

comments between the speakers before the discussion period. If a

question period or discussion is planned, it may be handled as

outlined for the lecture.

C. The Panel--

The panel consists of a group of 4 to 8 persons who have special

knowledge of the subject and who hold an orderly conversation on

an assigned topic in full view of the audience.

The Panel May Be Used:

1. To identify and explore a problem or issue.

2. To give the audience en understanding of the various parts of

a problem.

3. To weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a course of



1. The panel establishes informal contact with the audience.

2. Frequent changes of speaker and viewpoint whet interest

and stimulate discussion.


1. The panel may not cover all aspects of the problem or may

over-emphasize one aspect.

2. The subject may not be considered in logical order.

3. Extreme difference of opinion among the panel may block

progress toward a solution.

4. To keep the discussion moving may require a skilled moderator.


Physical Requirements:






The stage or platform must be large
enough to seat the panel in comfort
along a table facing the audience.
The moderator should be seated in the

Microphones must be so located that
all speakers may be heard from where
they are sitting.


The panel members should be introduced by the moderator. Each may

make a short statement (not more than 5 minutes) before the exchange

of ideas and comment begins.

The panel may be used to develop a subject introduced by a film

or short lecture. It may be followed by a forum in order to broaden

discussion and involve the audience.

D. The Forum--

The forum is a, public assemblage in which everyone has a chance

to voice his views. The forum is usually used to facilitate orderly

discussion after the topic has been introduced by a speaker, panel,

film, or some other method.


1. The forum permits audience participation in a large meeting.

2. It helps the development of opinion by testing ideas under fire.

3. It can contribute to the development of the consensus

necessary before action may be taken in the community.


lo The success of the forum depends upon the ability of the

moderator and the maturity of the audience,

2. Partisan controversy and heated debates may be stimulating,

but it often inhibits the development of consensus.


After the subject has been introduced and developed by any:suitable

method, the moderator will call for questions and comments from the

audience. He must rephrase or repeat each question and direct it to

a particular speaker or panel member. He must keep the discussion

moving and orderly. At intervals he may summarize the arguments.

Except in very large meetings, the use of written questions is

not recommended.

The censoring or "editing" of questions must be avoided at all


Physical Requirements are the same as for any large meeting. The

use of assistant moderators stationed in strategic locations in the

audience may speed up the process of identifying and recognizing

those who want to participate. The use of portable or parabolic

microphones greatly improves the effectiveness of the forum in a,

large meeting.

E. The Film Forum--

The film forum is a program using a motion picture to

introduce or develop a subject for discussion.

The Film May Be Used:

1. To establish a mood or supply a background for consideration

of the subject.

2. To introduce the subject for discussion.

3. To emphasize, illustrate, or document a subject already

introduced by a speaker or panel.

4. To summarize a discussion and bring home the salient points

to the audience.

Advantages of the Film:

1. Provides the audience with a vivid and immediate common

experience on which to base discussion.

2. Effective with audiences of limited education.

3. The showing of a film will often attract a larger audience

than would normally attend a purely verbal program.

4. Films can often express complex ideas in terms which

are easily grasped.

Advantages of Discussion with a, Film:

1. Discussion can bring out applications of the film's message.

2. Aspects of the problem not shown in the film may be considered.

3. Discussion emphasizes the important ideas presented in the film.

Film Selection:

1. 16 millimeter films are usually preferred.

2. Films should be well-organized and contain information not

well imparted by any other medium.

3. Films should have high technical quality with no disturbing


4. Film content should be significant and suited to the particular



1. Speakers and discussion leaders should preview the films to

determine their suitability and to note points to bring out

in discussion.

2. Too much film tends to inhibit discussion. Not more than half

the program time should be film showing and not more than three

films should be used.

Physical Requirements:

Projection equipment should be set up, checked and the film

threaded before the program begins. The projectionist should be

trained to operate the particular equipment used. Adequate pro-

vision for darkening the room should be made.


Many variations are possible. Generally, the film should be

introduced to the audience by a few brief remarks on what it is

about, what to look for, or any special information which will

help them understand and apply its message. A brief review or

discussion by experts following the showing will often stimulate

discussion. ,

F. The Buzz Session--

The buzz session is a device for involving every member of a

large audience directly in the discussion process. The audience

is divided into small groups (5 to 7 members) for a limited time

(5 to 7 minutes) for discussion to which each member contributes

his ideas.

The Buzz Session May Be Used:

1. To develop questions for a speaker or panel.

2. To discover areas in which the group would like more information

or further study--especially useful for institutes or conventions.

3. To discover areas of special interest for future programs.

4. To evaluate a meeting, institute or convention in terms of its

value to the participants.


1. Provides a source of fresh ideas of real interest to the group.

2. When used in planning, it promotes individual identification with

the program and its goals.

3. It gives everyone a chance to participate without having to get

up in front of the full meeting.


1. The amount of individual participation is restricted.

2. Contributions of the several groups may be contradictory or

difficult to combine.

Physical Requirements:

S I I Movable chairs facilitate quick organi-
chairman nation of buzz groups. In an auditorium
stage with fixed seats, the first three in the
front row turn and face the three sitting
behind them in the second row. The
next three face those behind them, etc.
Audience during Buzz Session

S- Cards and pencils should be distributed
(/X 3D quickly while or before the groups form.
XXX XXX ,' ) XX)


The chairman must assign limited and specific objectives to the buzz

groups. Directions must be clear and explicit. If the audience is

unfamiliar with the method, a demonstration group may be formed. Each

group should designate a leader and a recorder quickly. The leader

sees that every member has his say. The recorder makes a written

record of each contribution on the card provided. Oral reporting of

group findings by the leader is preferred. In very large meetings, the

buzz session may be used by providing for a second round of buzz sessions

of the leaders of the original groups.

G. The Skit--

The skit is a short, rehearsed dramatic presentation involving two

or more persons. It usually is acted from a prepared script and

dramatizes an incident which illustrates a problem or situation.

The Skit May Be Used:

1. To introduce a, topic for discussion.

2. To highlight a situation already introduced in a talk or film

and to show its application to the community or to the group.


1. Care must be taken to prevent over-acting.

2. Costumes and props should be kept to a minimum.

3. Inappropriate humor and irrelevant action must be avoided.


1. It awakens lively interest and stimulates discussion.

2. It personalizes a situation and promotes emotional involvement

in the problem by the audience.

3. It demands active participation by a few.

Physical Requirements:

n F1 j 1S' n 1. The skit should be played in a
Ch n part of the stage in full view of
Curtain or Speaker's the audience. It should not dis-
screen Ostand during rupt the setting for the rest of
screen Ostand during
skit the meeting.
o Speaker's
stand after skit
Microphone Stage
2. Shifting of furniture or scenery
should be kept to an absolute
AUDIENCE minimum.


The skit may be used at any point in the program. It may precede

or follow a lecture or film, symposium or panel, but should come before


the discussion period. Two or more skits may be used (if so, they

should be very short) to illustrate different approaches to a problem

or "before" and "after." They may be given in succession or at

different points in the program.

H. Role Playing--

Some members act out a real-life situation in front of the group.

There is no script, no set dialogue, and they make up their parts as

they go along. The group then discusses the implications of the

performance to the situation or problem under consideration--most

effective with groups of thirty or less.

Role Playing May Be Used:

1. To examine a delicate problem in human relations.

2. To explore possible solutions to an emotion-laden problem.

3. To provide insight into attitudes differing sharply from those

of the participants.


1. A dramatic way of presenting a problem and stimulating discussion,

2. It can provide clues to possible solutions and explore them

without the dangers inherent in a real-life trial and error approach.

3. It gives the players a chance to assume the personality of another

human being--to think and act like him.


1. Some people may be too self-conscious or too self-centered to act

successfully in role playing. Others may be shy and fear being

made "ridiculous" before the group.

2. Role playing before large audiences is less effective because

of the psychological effect of the large group upon the players.

Physical Requirements:

A room large enough to provide seating so that all members of the

group may see the action. No stage or platform is necessary with

groups of thirty or less. Costumes or elaborate props are not



The problem or situation must be clearly defined by the group

before role playing begins. The "scene" should be set by the group

leader with the assistance of the group. A brief warm-up period

may be necessary to throw off self-consciousness and to get into the

spirit. Players should be selected just before role playing begins

and should not be warned in advance. The leader should allow the

action to proceed only so long as it is contributing to understanding

(usually not more than five to ten minutes). After discussion, a

second set of actors may be chosen and the scene replayed.

I. The Discussion Group--

The discussion group involves a group of persons (6 to 20) who meet

together to discuss informally and deliberate on a topic of mutual


The Discussion Group May Be Used:

1. To develop a nucleus of leadership for community service or

informal education.

2. To identify, explore, and seek solutions for problems and to

develop plans of action.

3. To change attitudes through discussion and the examination

of information.


1. Group discussion permits full participation.

2. It can establish consensus democratically.

3. It pools the abilities, knowledge, and experience of all to

reach a common goal.


1. The leader must believe in the ability of the group. He must

be able to draw out the ideas of the members and to keep the

discussion moving without antagonizing anyone.


1. Group members must be willing to listen as well as talk and

accept the conclusions of the group when arrived at democratically.


1. Group discussion is time consuming, particularly if the group

includes persons of widely different backgrounds.

2. A bossy leader or a few members may dominate the discussion.

Physical Requirements:

c L l The group should be seated comfortably
] a around a large table (or tables arranged
0I in a rectangle). Face-to-face discus-
STable sion is essential. An informal and
I relaxed atmosphere will permit free
I rI I discussion.
part icipan .E
52 (a--Leader; b--Blackboard;


Should be governed by the group itself. Generally, the leader

will preside and moderate the discussion.

A group may meet as long and as often as is necessary and


A change of leaders may be made to utilize special individual

abilities. For example: different leaders may be used in the

deliberation, planning, and action phases of the group's work.

The group may appoint a recorder to keep track of its deliberations

and to report on its progress from time to time.

J. The Workshop--

A group (10 to 25 persons) sharing a common interest or problem

meet together to improve their individual proficiency, to solve a

problem, or to extend their knowledge of a subject through intensive

study, research, and discussion.

The Workshop May Be Used:

1. To identify, explore, and seek solution of a problem.

2. To permit extensive study of a situation including its background

and social or philosophical implications.


1. Provides the opportunity for preparation for specific vocational,

professional, or community service functions.

2. Permits a high degree of individual participation.

3. Provides for group determination of goals and methods.


1. Requires considerable time from participants and staff.

2. Expensive to operate (a) high proportion of staff to

participants, (b) may require special facilities or materials.


1. The director or leader presides. He must give democratic

leadership and may have an expert or special knowledge of

the subject.

2. Consultants or outside specialists may be called in as needed.

3. Participants must be willing to work both independently and


Physical Requirements:

Partici ants 1. A roan large enough to provide
-1 FI n F I a comfortable seating for all around
I- -- a large table (or tables arranged
Sin a rectangle) with extra space
Sfor use of resource materials.
II I b 2. Library or other resource materials
1EII- I n for research.

I Materials (a--Leader; b--Consultant;

The workshop is an extremely flexible method. It may be condensed

into a weekend or extended over periodic meetings for several months.

A series of short workshops on related problems may be incorporated

into the program of a convention or institute.

Occupational Areas and Courses Offered

Occupations in the distributive field cover a wide variety of activities

involved in the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer. The

intent of distributive education is to offer courses and supplemental

instruction to include all the relevant activities and services except those

competently covered in other vocational endeavors.

The distributive area should consider the levels of occupations in each

of the functions performed by persons engaged in distribution and marketing.

The three levels of performance include the duties, responsibilities and

activities of management, supervisory personnel, and the rank and file

employees. To be effective, the adult distributive education program should

be prepared to offer courses at all levels.

Course content should vary according to the functions of the occupation

and according to the institution in which the occupation is performed.

Functions of an occupation, to be considered, are such activities as buying,

selling, advertising, transportation, warehousing, financing, risk-bearing,

and research. The type of business should also be considered. Selling at

the wholesale level differs from retail sales. Selling techniques for hard-

ware items vary greatly from the techniques used by the life insurance

salesman. Consequently, the activities in which the business institution is

engaged should have a bearing on the course content. The three basic types

of businesses are wholesale, retail and the service establishments. Within

these three categories, and in some instances within more than one of these

types, lie the various occupations involved in the distributive field.

A successful distributive education program for adults must not only

be prepared to offer courses covering the three levels of performance, but

must also be prepared to offer courses covering all of the functions per-

formed in each of the various types of business institutions.

The next section of this guide lists Vocational Distributive Education

adult offerings which the State Department of Education has approved under

Minimum Foundation Program Support. Upon application to the Division of

Vocational, Technical and Adult Education of the State Department of Educa.-

tion, approval of'other special courses may be obtained when local need ha.s

been established.



4520 V Advertising

Included in this course are advertising procedures, copywriting and testing,
selection and use of illustrations, direct mail advertising, including
research and analysis of sales territory, and the coordination of display,
advertising, and sales departments.

4521 V Display

This course offers training in design, trimming and constructing interior
and window display for small stores and large stores. It includes the
techniques of display from the idea to the completed construction. Individual
problems in window display and trimming are studied in classes held in local

4553 V Sales Promotion

This course, designed for all type of sales personnel, covers basic methods
and techniques used in sales promotion program development. Research,
advertising, merchandising display, direct mail advertising, development of
effective sales talks and demonstrations are covered including the coordination
of these activities.


4570 V Banking Fundamentals

This course offers a study of the principles and functions of commerical
banking in the United States and stresses the fundamentals of banking. It
explains the operating principles of both small and large banks and gives
complete coverage to all ordinary banking procedures.

4530 V Credit Management

This course is designed for executive or supervisory level personnel.
It concerns itself with a statement and discussion of factors influencing
and determining loan policies. Methods of credit investigations and
analysis, credit techniques, collection methods, specific credit problems,
and regular as well as unusual types of loans are outlined and discussed.

4523 V Income Tax Problems for Business

The material taught in this course is based on the internal revenue code.
Persons in the tax accounting field who prepare returns for private indi-
viduals, merchants, and other businessmen are taught to prepare and keep
suitable records for income tax purposes. They are taught to prepare
their income tax returns according to legal interpretations.

4571 V Negotiable Instruments

This course is built around the provisions of the uniform negotiable
instruments law with emphasis upon bills of lading, stock certificates,
bonds, certificates of deposit, trade acceptance, warehouse receipts,
and other similar banking instruments.

4572 V Savings and Loan Principles

This course stresses the basic principles of savings and loan organizations
and explains the procedures involved in their operation.

4564 V Securities Sales Training

This course is designed for bankers, investment businesses, investment
salesmen and others interested in learning the operations and methods
involved in merchandising stocks, mutual funds, bonds, and listed and
unlisted securities. Analyses are made of a number of different types
of investments.


4506 V Executive Housekeeping

This course develops leadership and organizational ability for supervisory
personnel responsible for maintaining an.establishment in a clean, orderly,
and attractive manner. It includes the basic technical knowledge essential
to the position.

4507 V Hotel Housekeeping

Training in the cleaning, orderliness, and decorating of a commercial
housing establishment, including the purchasing of supplies and equipment
for the housekeeping department.

4504 V Hotel-Motel Auditing and Posting Machine

This course includes a study of posting charges and credits to guest accounts
correcting errors, balancing cash at end of watch, transferring bills to new
accounts, taking trial balance, and proving all transactions made during the

4503 V Hotel-Motel Cashiering

This course includes instruction in procedure and mathematics to enable the
learner to prepare guest accounts accurately. Posting of charges and credits
to individual guest accounts, handling of checks and making change, posting
of charges and credits to accounts of non-registered guests, handling of
transcripts, and check-ins and check-outs are considered.

4502 V Hotel-Motel Front Office Procedures

This course covers the basic duties and responsibilities of front office
personnel, i.e., registering and rooming guests, reservations, recording
charges and credits, billing guests, checking out guests, preparing trans-
scripts of guests' accounts receivable, and balancing transcripts.

4514 V Hotel-Motel Management

This course is designed to cover all phases of hotel and/or motel operation.
It includes supervision of employees, room sales, dining room service, bell-
man duties, and training techniques. All phases of promoting the sales of
services offered by the institution are considered, together with accounting

4505 V Hotel-Motel PBX Operator

This course includes a study of the manipulative skills involved in handling
keys, cards, supervisory signals, dials, extensions, incoming and outgoing
local and long distance calls, voice techniques, and courtesy. Proper
phrasing, paging, and filling names of guests are included.


4516 V Insurance Sales and Agency Management

The objective of this course is to prepare individuals for insurance agency
management and insurance sales management. A brief discussion of insurance
history including growth of the industry and methods of operation is covered.
The essentials of direct selling, group demonstrations, and the techniques
of preparing sales talks are included.

4581 V Insurance Sales Training

This course is designed especially for training in the sale of insurance.
It includes a study of minimizing and meeting risks, disposition wants,
estate questionnaires, securing action, estate creation and conservation,
the sales process, and fitting the product to the market.

4582 V Insurance Rating

This course deals with the rating problems encountered in a general in-
surance agency; fire, automobile, casualty, fidelity, and surety. Practice
with up-to-date manuals and policies enables the learner to obtain knowledge
of the major factors involved in fidelity and surety and insurance rating.

4580 V Principles and Practices of Insurance

This course is designed to teach the basic information and skills needed to
obtain and retain employment in the insurance business. Basic sales pro-
cedures, such as contacting prospects, sales interviews, analysis of in-
surance policies and programs, are covered.


4512 V Applied Marketing Economics

A study of the applications of economic principles to specific marketing
problems encountered by managers of distributive businesses. This short
course deals with the national income and its distribution; demand, supply
and prices; competition, spending and taxes; international trade and com-
mercial policy; debt management; and money and banking.

4510 V Business Management

This course is designed for administrative management personnel concerned
with the organization and operation of a business. Typical topics con-
sidered included selecting a business location, sales promotion, long and
short-term financing, recordkeeping, managerial aids, and efficient use
of personnel and merchandise.

4511 V Establishing and Operating a New Business

This course is designed for new and/or prospective managers and/or owners
of small businesses. Included in the course are units covering location
determination, financing a new business, legal risks, personnel management,
market research, and taxation.

4535 V Supervisory Training for Distributive Workers

This course includes a study of the basic principles of supervision and how
to apply these principles in practice. It covers the job of supervision,
the establishment of good human relations, evaluation of job performance,
employee training, job advancement, and development of other supervisory

4531 V Marketing Executive Development

This course is designed primarily for executive supervisory personnel
specializing in merchandising and buying. The more involved functions of
marketing, inventory control systems, buying functions, and sales promotion
are studied at the supervisory level. Management problems are discussed
and typical operation sheets developed for various departments.


4593 V Real Estate Appraisals

This course includes a study of the nature and purposes of appraisals,
reasons for and use of appraisals, depreciations, income approach, types
of appraisals, valuations, maps, values, costs, and markets.

4594 V Real Estate Finance

Typical topics considered include the problems involved in obtaining
mortgage money, money sources, mortgage liability, foreclosure proceedings,
debts and pledges, titles, recording rights, and liabilities of mortgagor
and mortgagee.

4591 V Real Estate Law

This course covers legal practices and procedures in real estate and in-
cludes a study of the legal documents used in real estate transactions.
It offers actual practice in the preparation of various legal forms.

4590 V Real Estate License

This course includes a study and review of the Florida real estate license
law. It covers the field of real estate with particular emphasis placed on
real estate law and ethics used by successful brokers and salesmen.

4592 V Real Estate Sales Promotion

This course covers all phases of the various ethical techniques used in
selling real estate. Fundamental concepts concerning human relationships
and various methods used in advertising and promoting the sale of real
estate are included.


4515 V Food Service Management

This course is designed for those persons serving in a managerial or super-
visory capacity in the food service industry. It includes such phases as,
but is not limited to, food purchasing, food costs accounting, food control,
food checking, and food sales and services.

4500 V Waiter-Waitress Training

This course covers techniques used in greeting guests, seating them, taking
orders, serving food, proper sanitation practices, and suggestive selling
to aid uncertain customers.

4501 V Hostess Training

This course, designed for restaurant personnel, covers the proper way to
handle goods, dress, how to take orders, placing of orders, seating and
arrangements, dining room service, and ways to make customers' meals


4566 V Apparel and Accessories (Fashion Merchandising)

Organized subject matter and learning experiences related to the variety
of sales, fashion, and sales-supporting tasks performed by employees and
management in establishments primarily engaged in selling clothing of all
kinds and related articles for personal wear and adornment.

4560 V Automobile Sales

This course is designed to prepare individuals for employment as automobile
salesman. The course includes sales techniques, prospecting, qualifying,
insurance coverage, auto financing, closing sales, and owner follow-up.

4554 V Cashiering for Salespeople

This course is designed for salespersons covering machine use, essentials
of business mathematics, sales and luxury taxes, and handling of sales;

4569 V Farm and Garden Supplies, and Equipment

Organized subject matter and learning experiences related to a variety of
sales and sales-supporting tasks performed by distributive employees and
management in establishments engaged primarily in selling the basic lines
of farm and garden supplies and equipment at retail, at wholesale, or to

4561 V Floral Design and Sales

This course is designed for personnel employed as retail florists. Studies
of basic designs and specific sales techniques are covered.

4551 V Fundamentals of Creative Salesmanship

This is a basic selling course which covers the sequences that go into
making a sale. Course content includes selling in various fields such as
retailing, direct and wholesaling areas, and an analysis of the buyer-
focused theory of selling. Attention is given to the application of
psychological principles to selling problems including buyer motivation, the
factor of attention and interest in the sales process, and the attributes of
a successful salesperson. The use of visual aids augments classroom activities,
and the student has an opportunity to practice selling in the calssroom.

4567 V Grocery Merchandising (Food Distribution)

Organized subject matter and learning experiences related to the variety
of sales and sales-supporting tasks performed by employees and management
in establishments primarily engaged in selling food for home preparation
and consumption or selling a general or commodity line of food products at

4568 V Hardware, Building Materials

Organized subject matter and learning experiences related to a variety of
sales and sales supporting tasks performed by distributive employees and
management in establishments engaged primarily in selling the basic lines
of hardware, lumber, building materials, supplies and equipment for home

4562 V Household Appliance Merchandising

Organized subject matter and learning experiences related to various sales
and sales-supporting tasks performed by distributive employees and
management personnel in retail and wholesale establishments engaged primarily
in selling home appliances.

4565 V Interior Decorating for Retail Sales

This course is designed for persons employed in selling furniture, draperies
and fabrics, household accessories, carpeting, paint, and other lines
requiring a knowledge of interior decoration. Emphasis is placed on pre-
senting information regarding design and color to assist in making more
effective sales.

4534 V Merchandising and Buying

This course deals principally with training for personnel specializing in
merchandising and buying. The functions of the merchandising department,
inventory control system, stock turnover, the buying functions, and sales
promotion are covered.

4550 V Principles of Retailing

This course of study shows the organization and operation of a retail
merchandising business. Included is basic coverage of sales, service,
sales promotion and advertising, credit and accounting, and administra-
tion departments. Also basic coverage is given to such topics as channels
of distribution, store financing, personnel problems, and operating statements.

4532 V Retailer-Consumer Problems

This course deals with the current status of the market, regulations
affecting the industry, buyer habits and trends, and the selling,
advertising, merchandising, and distribution of consumer goods. Class
interests are analyzed and subject matter is fitted to the needs.

4513 V Service Station Management

This course is designed for training service station managers and owners.
It covers the basic principles involved in this type of occupation. Items
such as customer relations, accounting, servicing, and product control are


4524 V Traffic Management and Rates

This course offers basic information on routing procedures and interstate
commerce rules and regulations for the person entering employment in this
field. Particular emphasis is given to new developments in the field of
traffic control.

4525 V Travel Agency and Ticketing Procedures

This course provides information concerning reservation procedures, conducted
tours, ticketing, visas and passports, money exchange rates, express, baggage
handling, and other problems in local and foreign travel. All methods of
travel are covered.


4522 V Export and Import Practices

This course provides training for entrance into the export and import
business. Preparation of forms for import and export duties and taxes
on different classes of merchandise are included.

4518 V Fundamentals of Modern Wholesaling

Organized subject matter and learning experiences which emphasize marketing
functions performed by employees managers and/or proprietors in wholesale
firms which sell goods to retailers, industrial, commercial, institutional
and professional users or which bring buyer and seller together.

4517 V Warehouse Management

This course is designed for retail and wholesale personnel involved in the
merchandising and distribution of salable goods from the factory to the
sales counter. Transportation from sources, warehousing procedures, inven-
tory control systems, warehouse to store distribution, insurance and
protection from theft and damage, handling costs, material handling equip-
ment, and warehouse labor problems are covered in this course.


Form CO-1-Rev. '66--0M
DO NOT FILL IN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Florida State Department of Educa-
TALLAHASSEE tion or Teacher Retirement Number,
If any.
Degree Sm. Hrs.___ CERTIFICATE
Issued.__ Exp._ Yrs. Exp_ INSTRUCTIONS: DO NOT FILL IN
The applicant must assume full responsibility for filing a
completed application. A completed application Involves
the following Itemse
Accounting -
1. A FEE of $5.00 (Check or money order payable to
-'State Department of Education"). Transcript In
Please do not send cash. (NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR
official copy of the applicant's college credits. In
either case, the transcript must bear the seal of Score
the Institution and signature of Registrar. Occu-
pational experience must be verified by letters Notarized i H.C, C.R._
from employers for Vocational-Industrial certifica-
tion and for Adult Education. Rec. Sig. of Co. Supt.
b. Should the institution granting degree have policy Method of Pay
of not releasing transcript to applicant, the appli-
cant is requested to execute this form, attach fee, Fee Transferred
and send to Institution so that transcript might be
attached and sent directly to the Certification Se- Fee Refunded
tlon, State Department of Education, Tallahassee,
Issue Upon Request ( ) Issue ( ) Florida. Fee Re-submitted

Date 3. Substantiation of birth date (for initial certification). Carded
....4. This application must be NOTARIZED.
NOTEI Fee, transcripts and testimonials will not be re-
turned. All future correspondence with the State Depart-
ment of Education must bear name as it appears on original
application and SDE number when assigned,
I-PERSONAL RECORD Federal Social Security No. Date

Miss (Husband's
NAME Mrs. Initials)
Mr. First Middle Maiden Last
Mail Certificate tot
Street or Route No City County State
Permanent Address:
Street or Route No. City County State
1. Female White (_ ) 1. Single ( ) Date of Birth: Age- (Min. 20 yrs. or 4-yr. degree from
2. Male White () 2. Married ( ) Month Day Year accredited institution; Max. 69
Syrs. for full-time teaching)
3. Female Negro(_) 3. Divorced (- ) Place of Birth:
4. Male Negro ( ) 4. Widowed (_) City or County State
Are you a citizen of the United States?_ Natural born ( ) Naturalized (_ )

II-TRAINING RECORD of of Hours and
City State from to No. Grad. Degree Credit Minors
High Schooll 19 19 19

Colleges attended: 19 19 19

Please list in this space the EXACT NAME UNDER WHICH YOU WERE REGISTERED at above institutions

1. Check below the item which indicates the grade organization or area for which you desire certification. DO NOT FILL IN
Grades 1-12 Junior College Vocational
( ) Elementary (grades 1-6) ( ) Academic Part Full
( ) Secondary (grades 7-12) ( Pb'ctmtcal Time Time
( ) Elementary and Secondary (grades 1- 1) ( ) Nursing Education
( ) Substitute Teacher (grades 1-12) ( ) Dental Hygiene ( ) ( ) Vocational-Industrial
( ) Forestry ( ) ( ) Vocational-Distributive
Adult Education ( ) Special Occupations ( ) ( ) Vocational-Cooperative
( ) Full-Time ( ) Part-Time ( ) ( ) Vocational-Technical
( ) Part-Time
( ) Homemaking
2. List subject or field in which you wish to be certified:_
3. School year for which certification is desired: July 1, 19 through June 30, 19-
Certificates are valid as of July 1 of the SCHOOL YEAR for which they are issued.
Give the following information about any FLORIDA certificate you hold or have held:





If you are teaching in Florida, it is essential that the certificate be issued to cover the year you are teaching. If your certificate is not
needed for employment at the time of application, issuance of the certificate can be left pending for a maximum of one year from the date
the application is received in the State Department of Education. If the issuance of the certificate is left pending, you will receive a
statement of your eligibility for certification, but the certificate will not be issued until you request it.

Please Designote Preference Belows (If neither Is checked, the highest type certificate for which you are eligible will be issued.)

1. Certificate is needed for employment. I shall accept the highest type certificate for which I am entitled.
2. Please send me a statement of my eligibility for a certificate, but leave my application pending until I request the cer-
tificate be issued. (If certificate is not issued, the application will expire one year from the date it is received in the
State Department of Education.)

TEACHER EXAMINATIONS-Section 231.16, Florida Statutes.
Have you taken one of the teacher examinations listed below? ( ) YES. ( ) NO.
If answer is YES, official report of scores must be submitted.

Name of Examination Type or Phase of Required
Examination Score
NATIONAL TEACHER: Common Examination Score Common Examination 500
GRADUATE RECORD: Institution at which taken _Verbal and Quantitative 800
Examination No. ; Score Abilities
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST (available only to those Verbal and Quantitative
with 60 hours or less of college credit) Abilities 286

IV-COMPLETE TEACHING EXPERIENCE RECORD (Do not List Substitute or Part-Time Teaching Experience.)
(If additional space is needed, please use separate sheet of paper and attach it to the application blank.)

YEAR < 0 P.

1. 19 to 19

2. 19 to 19

3. 19 to 19

4. 19 to 19

5. 19 to 19

I hereby certify that I subscribe to and will uphold the principles incorporated in the Constitution of the United States of America.
I understand that Florida statutes provide for revocation of a teacher's certificate if evidence and proof is established that the certifi-
cate has been obtained by fraudulent means (Section 231.28, F.S,). I further certify that all information pertaining to this application is
true and correct.


Signature of applicant
Sworn to and subscribed before me this day of

Signature of Notary Public
My commission expires

(Affix Seal Here)

Florida Statutes

This is to certify that on this day

Month Day Year

I, a licensed medical doctor, examined

Name of Applicant

and found (him) (her) free from malignant, communicable, or mental diseases

and from any physical illness, defect, or deformity which would impair or prevent the performance of duties, functions, or responsibilities
of a teacher.

SIGNATURE OF DOCTOR (Facsimile Stamp not Acceptable)






VII-CHARACTER REFERENCE-Section 231.17,-lorida Statutes
This is to certify that I have known for years.
From this acquaintance and association I certify that (he) (she) la of good moral character. I therefore recommend (him) (her) for a cer-
tificate to teach in the schools of Florida.

Signature of Person Making Recommendation Address

Position Date

VIII-RECOMMENDATION-Section 231.17, Florida Statutes .
Each applicant who graduated subsequent to July 1, 1961, with a four-year or higher degree and who has not had at least three (3)
years of teaching experience in a public or non-public elementary or secondary school shall be recommended for a teacher's certificate
by an official designated by the president of the institution of higher learning from which he most recently graduated. If no one has been
designated, the signature of the president, dean or registrar will be acceptable.

Name Date of Birth
Pirst Middle Maiden Last Mo. Day Year
Street & Number Box or Route City State Zip Code
Degree & Date Conferred Major
(Please complete item 1, 2 or 3, then date and sign)


On the applicant satisfactorily completed all ( course) ( degree) requirements for the

____ NCATE- approved program

State-approved institutional program

and is recommended for a Florida teacher's certificate as follows: (Indicate subject or field in which certification is recommended)


On ,_ the applicant satisfactorily completed all requirements for the degree, but did
Date Type

not complete the approved program for professional teacher certification.

The applicant was not enrolled in, or has not completed a teacher training program, but there is no known reason
to deny temporary certification if Florida requirements have been met.

3. CANNOT RECOMMEND (explain):

DATE ______

Designated College Official

Title or Position

College or University


(Individuals who have held Temporary or Part-Time Certificates should use form CT-2)


The county superintendent must complete this section of the application if the applicant is a non-citizen (other than Cuban) or if the ap-
plication is for:

1. A certificate for Substitute Teaching;

2. A first Temporary or Interim Certificate for full-time teaching based on less than a four-year college degree;

3. A part-time certificate for:

a. Adult Education

b. Vocational Education

c. Junior College

NOTE: 1. A non-citizen other than Cuban must file Declaration of Intention Form N-315 with this application;

2. Cuban citizens must file application Form CG-10-Special.

I request that a Certificate, as indicated below, be issued to
First Name Middle or Maiden Last
to teach in ___ for the 19 19 school year. This teacher has approximately
County Number
semester hours of college credit.

( ) Substitute Part- Full-
Time Time Subject Area
( ) Full-time Temporary ( ) ( ) Adult Education
( ) ( ) Adult Homemaking
( ) Junior College (Part-Time) Adult Homemaking
( ) ( ) Vocational Business Education
( ) Non-Citizen ( ) ( ) Vocational Distributive Education
( ) ( ) Trade and Industrial Education
( ) ( ) Technical Education

Signed_ Date
County Superintendent (or Junior College President if applicable)


(a) Qualifying occupational experience in field(s) to be taught (If required for the type of certificate requested)
Verify all required trade or practical experience by submitting original letters on business stationary from employers stating kind
of work done, degree of success, and dales. (This does not refer to teaching experience.)

(b) Professional License

*The applicant holds the following professional licenses) in the field to be taught:

Type Issuing Authority
(Name of Licensing Agency & Address)

Date Number__ Validity Period_

When completed please mail this form with supporting documents to:

Teacher Certification Office

State Department of Education

Tallahassee, Florida


Distributive and Industrial Education

Each applicant shall meet all requirements common to all certificates,
except as hereinafter specified, and shall hold a high school diploma or a.
state certificate of equivalency based on the general education development
tests or other standardized achievement tests approved by the state board of
education. Certification to cover distributive education subjects in an
adult program will be issued to applicants under the same regulations outlined
for industrial education, provided the occupational experience is in the fields
of distribution and/or sales and services. When a.bachelor's or higher degree
is made a part of the certification, the degree major must be in distributive
education or from a, recognized school of business in a standard institution.

All certificates covering industrial education currently valid under
regulations existing prior to February 1962, and all certificates covering
distributive education currently valid under regulations existing prior to
July 1, 1956, will not be affected by these regulations during the period
of current validity.

This certification covers full-time teachers of vocational trade
shops, technical laboratories, industrial related subjects, school-industry
cooperative training, and distributive education subjects.

(a.) Experience Requirements.--Each applicant shall be a master or
senior employee of the industrial or distributive occupation in which
instruction is to be given and for which certification is requested.
He shall have worked in the occupation for an employer in industry,
business, or government as a, wage earner for at least 6 years of
full-time employment (or the equivalent in part-time employment),
2 years of which must have been at the journeyman, technician,
engineer, or trained employee level. The applicant shall have been
employed a, minimum of 6 weeks in the occupation within the 5 year
period preceding the date of application, except where the applicant
has been teaching the occupation in an approved industrial education
or distributive education program for 1 year of the 5 year period.

(b) Competency Requirements.--One of the following means of
determining occupational competency may be accepted in lieu of
the qualifying work experience requirements:

1. Graduation from a standard four year institution of higher
learning with specialization in the occupational field
for which certification is requested, plus 2 years of work
experience at the journeyman, technician, engineer, or
trained employee level. Non-graduate occupational training
in an institution may be accepted year for year for the
learning period, provided at least 9 semester hours of
skill or theory course work in the occupation are completed
for each year credited.

2. Successful completion of a program of training in a, vocational
or technical institution approved by the state board for
vocational education in the state where the institution is
located. Included in this program shall be specialization
in the occupational field for which certification is requested,
plus 2 years of work experience at the journeyman, technician,
engineer, or trained employee level.

3. Licensing by a recognized licensing agency, plus 2 years of
work experience at the journeyman, technician, engineer, or
trained employee level in the occupational field for which
certification is requested. A recognized licensing agency
is a, legally constituted body authorized and empowered by
law to grant licenses. Where occupational licensing is
legally required of teachers, such applicants shall hold a,
valid license in that occupation.

4. A certificate of completion of an apprenticeship as established
by the United States Department of Labor, the Florida, Industrial
Commission, or any state apprenticeship department, plus 2
years of work experience at the journeyman or master mechanic

5. Thirty (30) semester hours of college credit earned by
occupational competency tests from a. standard institution
of higher learning approved by the state board for vocational
education in the state where the institution is located, plus
2 years of work experience at the journeyman, technician,
engineer, or trained employee level. Less than 30 semester
hours credit shall be prorated at the rate of 71 credits
per year of experience.

(c) Other Requirements.--Applicants for certificates shall furnish
the following documentary evidence, when required, to verify
employment offered in satisfaction of certification requirements.
(For the purpose of verifying self-employment, or if a. former
employer is no longer in business, verification of qualifying

occupational experience may be submitted by a notarized
affidavit from another individual or firm who was familiar
with the applicant and his work and could certify as to the
length and type of work experience.):

1. Signed statements from former employers on business

2. Certification on union letterhead by the business agent of
the local union to which applicant belongs verifying work

3. Official transcript of college credits

4. Official certificate of completion of vocational or
technical institute training

5. Valid license in occupation to be taught

6. Certificate of completion of apprenticeship

7. Military discharge papers showing ratings and
specialties in service

This certification covers part-time and substitute teachers of
industrial-technical and distributive subjects who are paid an hourly wage
and teach courses for adults which are classified a.s part-time classes. Holders
of full-time certificates covering the subject to be taught may teach in the
part-time program.

1. Part-time Certificate.--The part-time certificate in Rank III,
will be issued to applicants who certify by means of a, notarized
affidavit, 6 years employment, of which a, minimum of 2 years
must be at the level of journeyman, technician, engineer, office
worker, or was in sales and services to the public, in the
occupation for which certification is requested. The same
occupational competency equivalencies for work experience may
apply to a. part-time teacher as to a full-time teacher. Occupa.-
tional competency may also be verified by a. written attest from
the chairman of the local craft or occupational advisory commit-
tee that the applicant has received a. majority endorsement of
the representatives on the committee. Such verification will be
accepted only if the chairman of the committee is an industrial
or business representative and not a.public school employee.
The part-time certificate will be valid for ten years.1

lFlorida Requirements for Teacher Certification, State Department of
Education, Tallahassee, Florida, section 42, pp. 113-115, 118.

0l4r Mary Jarl rnftirnnl Biu1iion

certifies that

has completed a

hour course in

and is awarded this

w rttfi rate

day of nineteen hundred and
at Daytona Beach, Florida

on this


ltensacola junior (iallege
Center if(or (AnUt tihiess
Programs in Psocational anb 'Tgeclniczal itbutation
Pensacola, Alorlba

This is to Certify that _

has successfully completed a _. program of

instruction in_

This day of 19




--Ml iPr.

-----~--- -- -- -- --

-- -- L- -- - - ---- L ---- - - -r


t ,tt11 _- t h M t h


Division of Vocational,
Technical and Adult Education
Dade County, Florida

has A tua~faclaify .amnipthL4 a __ U_. hoUx tin

Instructor Supervisor

;abe Countp ubtlic Setools
fitjislan of tiocational, ~rhlnical NO A builtt fburation
jlabe Oo1nntu, Jloriba

1fi .5 is to (Certift that

Aa4 ~tet/4e eeauitemen/4 o0 a cou"'e o//4ainifct in

aS tiedcsieded dy /ie g eisiac oV/ 1eca'4toa, /ec/ tfcaland.Ldut/
/ducalion, Oade wceuntly Boatdot of/ adlic 9flauclaion,
and&i deie4 feden/ed/i4
CA er"" / wwte^evo"401Z ee lfd^/cw


NST a UCTOdd aaf4ere/ae /4we er o de' Mtr/w eda



Was_ the Gest Speaker in the DistributihveEducaton Course in




NtN~ '-' r-"' -___

- - - -


Baugarten, Frankiska, Psychology of Human Relations in Industry, Pitman
Publishers, Co., New York, New York, 1950.

Benegevin, Paul, Dwight Morris, and Robert Smith, Adult Education Procedures,
The Seaburg Press, Greenwich, 1963.

Borrow, Henry, Man and the World of Work, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.

Evaluative Criteria, for Distributive Vocational Education, American
Vocational Association, Washington, D. C.

Getzels, S. W., Learning Theory and Classroom Practice in Adult Education,
University College of Syracuse University, 1956.

Guide: Adult Distributive Education, State Department of Public Instruction,
Distributive Education, Columbus, Ohio.

Guide for Part-Time Instructors: Distributive Education for Adults, U. S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Vocational Division
Bulletin No. 259, Distributive Education Series No. 21, 1955.

Hand, S. A., Review of Physiological and Psychological Factors in Aging
and Their Implications for Teachers and Adults, Bulletin 716, State
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, 1957.

IHavinghurst, R. and B. Orr, Adult Education and Adult Needs, CBLEA, Chicago,

Hawkins, Layton, Charles A. Brossey, and John Wright, Development of
Vocational Education, American Technical Society, Chicago, 1941.

Houle, Cyril 0,, The Inquiring Mind, The University of Wisconsin Press,
Madison, Wisconsin, 1961.

Kidd, J. R., How Adults Learn, Association Press, New York, 1959.

Knowles, Malcolm (ed.), Handbook of Adult Education, AEA, Chicago, 1960.

Maier, Norman, Psychology in Industry, Houghton-Mifflin Co., New York, 1955.

Morgan, Barton, Glen Holms, and Clarence Bundy, Methods in Adult Education,
Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois, 1960.

Mursill, James L., Successful Teaching, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Russell, J. R., Changes and Challenges in American Education, Houghton-Mifflin,
Inc., 1964.

Selection and Learning of Part-Time Instruction: Distributive Education
for Adults, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Vocational Division Bulletin No. 258, Distributive Education
Series No. 20, 1955.

So You're Teaching Adults, State of Wisconsin, Board of Vocational and
Adult Education, Madison, Wisconsin.

Thiede, Wilson, "Evaluation and Adult Education," Adult Education, edited
by Jensen, Liveright, and Hallenbeck, Adult Education Association of
the U. S. A., 1964.

Venn, Grant, Man, Education, and Work, American Council on Education,
Washington, D. C., 1964.

Vocational Education in Distributive Occupations: Organization and Operation
of Local Programs, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Vocational Division Bulletin No. 255, Distributive
Education Series No. 19, 1954.

Your Attitude is Showing, Science Research, Chicago.


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