• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Advertising
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 First day at school
 The neighbor's call
 A brighter prospect
 The Sabbath lesson
 The sale
 Pulling up stakes
 The pioneer boy
 The grist-mill
 The lucky shot
 Sorrow
 Going up higher
 The letter and visitor
 At school again
 Still at school
 A trial and treasure
 Eighteen years old
 Trip to New Orleans
 Removal to Illinois
 New friends
 A merchant's clerk
 Captain in the Black-Hawk War
 Plans and progress
 Success and its results
 Working and winning
 The tragedy
 Conclusion






Group Title: pioneer boy,
Title: The pioneer boy
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080569/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pioneer boy and how he became president
Series Title: The pioneer boy
Physical Description: xiv, 17-310 p. : plates (incl. front.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thayer, William Makepeace, 1820-1898
Publisher: Walker, Wise and Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1863
 Subjects
Subject: |a Pioneer children |v Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
|a Presidents |v Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
|a Parent and Child |v Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
|a Country life |v Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Genre: individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By William M. Thayer ... 5th thousand.
General Note: |a "Stereotyped and Printed by Welch, Bigelow, & Co." --P.310.
General Note: |a Illustrations engraved by Bricher-Russel after J. Harley
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080569
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ACS1800
oclc - 02649959
alephbibnum - 000502101
lccn - 11034939

Table of Contents
    Advertising
        Page 2
        Advertising 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Preface
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    First day at school
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The neighbor's call
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    A brighter prospect
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The Sabbath lesson
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The sale
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Pulling up stakes
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The pioneer boy
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 86a
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    The grist-mill
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    The lucky shot
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Sorrow
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Going up higher
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    The letter and visitor
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 138a
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    At school again
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Still at school
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    A trial and treasure
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Eighteen years old
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    Trip to New Orleans
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    Removal to Illinois
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    New friends
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 226a
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    A merchant's clerk
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    Captain in the Black-Hawk War
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
    Plans and progress
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Success and its results
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    Working and winning
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
    The tragedy
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
    Conclusion
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
Full Text









ATTRACTIVE AND INSTRUCTIVE BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG.


THE

"SPECTACLE SERIES."

Vol. III.- PEKIN.--Just ready.
With five full-page and twenty-five small illustrations, rare and curi-
ous, from original designs, which came from Pekin. Written by one
well and directly informed of the country of which she writes.
So little that is authentic has been written of China, that a book got
up in the attractive form of this will be sought after by youth every-
where. Price, 75 cents.

Vol. II.- ST. PETERSBURG.
Third Thousand.
With thirty original illustrations from designs from St. Petersburg.
Price, 75 cents.

Vol. I.-BOSTON AND VICINITY.
Fifth Thousand.
With over forty illustrations. Price, 75 cents.


These books are for sale by booksellers everywhere, or will be sent
by mail free, on receipt of seventy-five cents each volume.

WALKER, WISE, & CO., Publishers,
BosToN, MAsS.




















I/ ,


C-- ~


FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.









TIIE


PIONEER BOY,



AND



HOW HE BECAME PRESIDENT.




BY


WILLIAM M. THAYER,
AUTHOR OF "THE BOBBIN BOY," "THE PRINTER BOY," "THE POOR BOY
AND MERCHANT PRINCE," "WORKING AND WINNING,"
"TALES FROM GENESIS IN TWO VOLUMES," ETC.






SIXTH THOUSAND.






B OSTON:
WALKER, WISE, AND COMPANY,
245 WASHINGTON STREET.
18638.








--

/S7



















Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by
WALKER, WISE. AND COMPANY,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.




















UNIVERSITY PRESS:
WELCH, BIGELOW, AND COMPANY,
CAMBRIDGE.













PREFACE.




THAT a boy, reared in a floorless log-cabin of
the West to twenty-one years of age, should
work his way, by dint of perseverance, into the
legal profession, and finally become President of
the United States, is a fact of sufficient importance
to justify the inquiry, how it was done. This
humble volume answers that question, by telling
the story of his early life, and pointing out the
elements of his success. The imagination has done
no more than connect facts gathered from authen-
tic sources.
While the chief object of the book is to show
how its hero won his position, it brings out, inci-
dentally, the manners and customs of the times and
section of the country in which he was reared.
The author has intentionally avoided the provin-








iv PREFACE.

cialisms, and that singular perversion of the English
language, that characterized the poor people of
Kentucky and Indiana forty years ago.
Real names are generally used in the work. In
some instances, however, where objections to such a
use seemed to exist, fictitious names are employed.
To the persons, residing in five different States,
who have promptly and cordially assisted the au-
thor, during the past year, in collecting materials
for the work, he gratefully records his thanks.

W. M. T.


















CONTENTS.







I.


First Day at School 17

THE SCENE. ABRAHAM LEARNING TO READ.- CONVERSATION OF
HIS PARENTS ABOUT SLAVERY. HIS FATHER'S EARLY LIFE. VALUE
OF PENMANSHIP. WHERE THE SCENE OCCURRED. THE LINCOLN
FAMILY. A REMARKABLE MOTHER. A COMMON-SENSE FATHER. -
ABRAHAM SEVEN YEARS OLD.- HAZEL HIS TEACHER. DILWORTH'S
SPELLING-BOOK, AND THE BIBLE. ABRAHAM'S GRANDFATHER KILLED
BY THE INDIANS. HOW IT HAPPENED. THE SAD CONDITION OF
THE FAMILY AFTER HIS DEATH. DANIEL BOONE'S EXPERIENCE WITH
THE INDIANS.- THREE LITTLE GIRLS CAPTURED BY THE INDIANS. -
ADVICE ABOUT READING.



II.


The Neighbor's Call 31

THE ERRAND.- THE CURSE OF SLAVERY TO THE POOR WHITES. -
SELBY, A DEGRADED WHITE. HIS VIEWS OF KNOWLEDGE. LIN-
COLN'S RESOLVE TO REMOVE TO FREE INDIANA. SELBY'S INFIDEL-
ITY.- MRS. LINCOLN'S REGARD FOR THE BIBLE.--THREE THINGS
THAT SELBY'S CHARACTER TAUGHT ABRAHAM: NOT TO SWEAR, EVIL
OF IGNORANCE, AND THE MISERY OF INTEMPERANCE. HOW POOR
WHITES SOMETIMES INTERFERE WITH SLAVES. AN INCIDENT. -MR.
LINCOLN'S VIEWS OF THE EVILS OF SLAVERY CORRECT.










V1i CONTENTS.

AND PESTLE. EIGHTEEN MILES TO MILL. THE VALUE OF THE MILL.
- ABRAHAM STILL LEARNING. GOOD LESSONS AND THE BIBLE. HE
LONGS FOR OTHER BOOKS. READ BY THE LIGHT OF THE FIRE, AS TOO
POOR TO HAVE CANDLES. PROSPECTS NOT VERY BRIGHT.



IX.


The Lucky Shot 104

SPRING COMES. SOWING SEED. -THE WHISKEY AGAIN. -WAS IT
BEST TO LOSE IT? DISCUSSION ABOUT IT.--I'LL TRY, AND WHAT IT
HAS DONE. ABRAHAM FIRES AT A TURKEY AND KILLS IT. ACCOUNT
OF GOOD MARKSMEN. DRIVING NAILS BY FIRING. SNUFFING A
CANDLE.--SHOOTING NOT A PASTIME.--HIS PHYSICAL CULTURE AND
COURAGE. CONCLUSION.



X.


Sorrow 112

HIS MOTHER SICK. ABRAHAM AWAKED. MRS. BRUNER SENT FOR.
-ABRAHAM'S LOVE AND ANXIETY.- REMEDIES APPLIED. -WORD
SENT TO MRS. GRANGER. HER WILLINGNESS TO DIE. HER WORDS TO
ABRAHAM. HER DEATH. PREPARATIONS FOR THE FUNERAL. -
SPOT FOR GRAVE CHOSEN. -NO MINISTER TO OFFICIATE. TESTIMONY
OF HER WORTH. SYMPATHY FOR ABRAHAM. HER GRAVE A
TEACHER.


XI.


Going up Higher 124

THE CHANGE. PILGRIM'S PROGRESS BORROWED. ABRAHAM'S
DELIGHT. A PRESENT OF "ESOP'S FABLES. BOTH RE-READ. COM-
MITS TLE FABLES TO MEMORY.-- DENIS HANKS.- LEARNING TO










CONTENTS.


WRITE. HIS PROGRESS. HIS ENTHUSIASM. WRITING ON SLABS,
STOOLS, AND THE GROUND. -STUDY INTERFERES WITH WORK.--HIS
FATHER'S CENSURE. READS WEEM'S LIFE OF WASHINGTON. -WRITES
HIS NAME ON THE GROUND. LIKE PASCAL. LIKE DAVID WILKIE. -
HOW BOYS GO UP HIGHER.




XII.


The Letter and Visitor 137

ABRAHAM'S FIRST LETTER. WHAT WAS IN IT.-HIS FATHER'S
JOY OVER IT.-WILL PARSON ELKINS COME--TALK ABOUT THE
LETTER. OTHERS COME TO GET HIM TO WRITE LETTERS FOR THEM. -
THE NEXT THREE MONTHS. ABRAHAM SEES PARSON ELKINS COMING.
- INTERVIEW WITH ABRAHAM AND HIS FATHER. -THE FUNERAL SER-
MON AT THE GRAVE. THE ASSEMBLY. IMPRESSION ON ABRAHAM. -
HIS TROUBLE ABOUT THE RESURRECTION. HIS DESIRE TO KNOW THE
WHY AND WHEREFORE. -HIS PRECOCITY AND CRITICISM OF SERMONS.
- MORE ABOUT PIONEER PREACHERS.- THE ONE WHO REFUSED A
TITLE-DEED. HENRY BIDLEMAN BASCOM. ACCOUNT OF HIS MINIS-
TERS. PULPIT INFLUENCE.




XIII.


At School Again 154

A YEAR MORE. HIS FATHER MARRIED AGAIN. WARM GREETING
FOR HIS STEP-MOTHER. -TALK ABOUT SCHOOL.--BUCKSKIN SUIT OF
CLOTHES. GOES TO MR. CRAWFORD TO SCHOOL GETS ON A STUMP
AND REPEATS A SERMON. HIS HABIT OF CLOSE ATTENTION. MR.
CRAWFORD SAW IT. DR. CHALMERS. THE ENGLISH STATESMAN. -
MR. CRAWFORD'S OPINION OF THE BOY. --TALK WITH MR. LINCOLN. -
CONFESSING HIS ERRORS. LIKE WASHINGTON CUTTING THE CHERRY-
TREE. SEE MATERNAL INFLUENCE. WRITING A LETTER FOR A
NEIGHBOR. WORDS OF ANOTHER ABOUT HIM.










X CONTENTS.


XIV.


Still at School 165

KEEPING ALONG HIS ARITHMETIC. ERRAND FOR HIS MOTHER, AND
FOREGOES PLEASURES TO PERFORM IT. OVERTAKES DAVID. HIS
PUNCTUALITY. PROTESTS AGAINST CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. HIS TEN-
DER FEELINGS. -THE RULE OF THREE, AND HOW HE GOT ALONG WITH
IT. -A DIFFICULTY BETWEEN JOHN AND DANIEL. ITS PROGRESS.-
ABRAHAM A "PEACEMAKER." --SETTLING DIFFICULTIES. END OF
SCHOOL-DAYS. -LIFE OF HENRY CLAY, AND ITS INFLUENCE ON HIM. -
REMARKS.


XV.


A Trial and Treasure 174

ABRAHAM'S VIEW OF WASHINGTON. RAMSAY'S LIFE OF WASHING-
TON. WAY TO BORROW IT. SUCCEEDS IN GETTING IT. THE IN-
TERVIEW. -MANLY CONSIDERATION ABOUT PRESERVING IT. -THE
STORM, AND THE BORROWED BOOK WET. NOT ASHAMED TO DO RIGHT.
RETURNS THE BOOK AND PROFFERS PAY.- AGREES TO CUT CORN
TO PAY FOR IT.-M R. CRAWFORD'S OPINION OF THE BOY. -WORKS
THREE DAYS TO PAY FOR THE BOOK. --CARRIES IT HOME. -HIS
HONORABLE AND HONEST CONDUCT AN EXAMPLE FOR BOYS.



XVI.


Eighteen Years Old 188

WHAT HE IS AT EIGHTEEN. HIS LIBRARY, TO WHICH 18 ADDED LIFE
OF FRANKLIN AND PLUTARCH'S LIVES. HIS FAIR REPUTATION. A
HOUSE-RAISING. ABRAHAM GOES. HIS FATHER GOES TO MARKET.
A TRUCK-WAGON." MARKET WHERE ? COMING HOME FROM
HOUSE-RAISING.- OLD MYERS IN THE DITCH DRUS.--THEY CARRY










CONTENTS. xi


HIM TO DALE'S.- ABRAHAM STAYS ALL NIGHT WITH HIM.-AN IL-
LUSTRATION OF HIS KINDNESS OF HEART. DEATH OF HIS SISTER. -
ONE MORE EVENT.


XVII.

Trip to New Orleans 197

INTERVIEW WITH PETERS ABOUT TRIP TO NEW ORLEANS.- SEES
HIS FATHER.--BARGAIN TO GO.--MR. PETERS'S ELDEST SON.-
ABRAHAM'S DELIGHT. ACCOUNT OF FLAT-BOATMEN. CARGOES
CARRIED ON FLAT-BOATS. HOW MERCHANTS TRADED THEN. -
THE TRIP EIGHTEEN HUNDRED MILES.- HIS FATHER'S FEELINGS. -
COMMENCES THE VOYAGE. CONVERSATIONS WITH HIS COMPANION ON
THE WAY. TIED UP BOAT AT NIGHT. A THRILLING SCENE. FIGHT
WITH NEGROES WHO ATTEMPT TO MURDER THEM.-THE NEGROES
DRIVEN OFF.- A SUCCESSFUL TRIP.- ASCRIBED TO ABRAHAM'S TACT,
JUDGMENT, AND FIDELITY.


XVIII.

Removal to Illinois 212

NEWS FROM ILLINOIS. HANKS SENT TO RECONNOITRE. TWO
YEARS BEFORE THEY DECIDE. THREE FAMILIES AND TWELVE PER-
SONS TO GO. -ABRAHAM FREE, BUT STILL A FAITHFUL SON. HOW
PEOPLE MOVED THEN, A DESCRIPTION. TWO HUNDRED MILES TO GO.
- THEY START. HOW THEY CROSS KASKASKIA RIVER. ENERGY. -
FIFTEEN DAYS ON THE JOURNEY. WHERE THEY SETTLE. BUILD A
LOG-HOUSE. PLANT TEN ACRES OF CORN. ABRAHAM SPLITTING
RAILS TO FENCE. -THESE ARE THE RAILS OF WHICH SO MUCH HAS
BEEN SAID. LOUIS PHILIPPE. THE WINTER OF THE GREAT SNOW."
-HOW ABRAHAM SAVED THE FAMILY FROM SUFFERING.


XIX.

New Friends 222

LEAVING HOME. HIS FEELINGS. HIS PARENTS' FEELINGS. -
LABOES FOR ONE ARMSTRONG. STUDIES HIS LEISURE MOMENTS. -










xll CONTENTS.


WHAT ARMSTRONG THINKS OF HIM. PROPOSITION TO GIVE HIM A
HOME THERE. ABRAHAM'S HONESTY AGAIN. HOW IT WON THE
PEOPLE NEAR PETERSBURG. CHOSEN JUDGE BY BOTH CONTENDING
PARTIES. HOW HE CAME TO BE CALLED HONEST ABE." STUDYING
IN ARMSTRONG CABIN IN WINTER. BUYS SOME BOOKS. STUDIES
ARITHMETIC. GOOD NEWS FOR ABRAHAM. AGREES TO GO ON FLAT-
BOAT TO NEW ORLEANS. BIDS ARMSTRONG ADIEU. HIS GRATITUDE.
- HIS SUCCESS. -HIRED TO TAKE CARE OF A STORE AND MILL IN NEW
SALEM.



XX.

A Merchant's Clerk 231

HIS IMPORTANCE IN THE PLACE. DREW A CIRCLE AROUND HIM. -
INSTANCE OF HONEST DEALING.--DOES BUSINESS AS IF IT WAS HIS
OWN.--HIS STORY-TELLING POWERS AND KNOWLEDGE OF HISTORY.
- CONFIDENCE IN HIM, AND THE REASON FOR IT. WORDS FROM MER-
CHANT'S MAGAZINE. STUDYING GRAMMAR. DISCUSSION WITH A
COMPANION ABOUT IT.--MASTERS IT IN HIS LEISURE HOURS.--FUR-
THER DISPUTE WITH HIS COMPANION. RICHARD YATES. NEIGHBORS
TOOK FRIENDS TO VISIT HIM. -DINNER, AND THE BOWL OF MILK UP-
SET. -ABRAHAM'S UNWILLINGNESS TO MAKE TROUBLE. -AIDED IN
GRAMMAR BY W. GREENE. LIKE ALEXANDER MURRAY. REMARKS.



XXI.

Captain in the Black-Hawk War 245

THE BLACK-HAWK WAR BREAKS OUT.- ABRAHAM THE FIRST TO EN-
LIST.- TALK WITH HIS COMPANION. -DESIRE TO RAISE A WHOLE
COMPANY IN NEW SALEM. THEY GET THE PRIVILEGE. THE COM-
PANY RAISED. CHOICE OF OFFICERS. SECRET PLAN TO MAKE ABRA-
HAM CAPTAIN. ITS SUCCESS. HIS SURPRISE. A SCENE. ABRA-
HAM LIFTS A BARREL OF WHISKEY. WHY HE DOES IT. HIS TEM-
PERANCE PRINCIPLES. TIE EVENING AFTER, AND GREENE'S PROMISE
TO ABRAHAM NOT TO BET AGAIN OR GAMBLE. THE COMPANY OFF TO
WAR. TIME UP, AND ABRAHAM RE-ENLISTS TWICE. HIS EFFICIENCY
AND COURAGE IN THE ARMY.










CONTENTS.


XXII.

Plans and Progress. 254

HIS RETURN. PROPOSAL TO SEND HIM TO THE LEGISLATURE. IN-
TERVIEW WITH A FRIEND ABOUT IT. -DISCUSSION WITH OLDER PER-
SONS. --A CLAY MAN." --NOT ELECTED, YET A TRIUMPH.- DECIDES
TO SETTLE IN NEW SALEM.-BUYS STORE AND SELLS AGAIN.- CON-
VERSATION ABOUT BECOMING A LAWYER, AND 11IS OBJECTIONS. -
STUDIES SURVEYING WITI CALHOUN. BECOMES A GOOD SURVEYOR.
-BUSINESS PLENTY. WORKS AT IT STEADILY A YEAR.




XXIII.

Success and its Results 265

THE SUMMER OF 1834.- LINCOLN A CANDIDATE FOR REPRESENTA-
TIVE. HIS POPULARITY. TALK ABOUT POLITICIANS. HIS MOD-
ESTY. HIS ELECTION. SCENE AFTERWARDS. REFUSES TO TREAT
HIS COMPANIONS WITH STRONG DRINK. --HIS DECISION.-- GOING TO
LEGISLATURE. INTERVIEW WITH HON. J. T. STUART ABOUT STUDYING
LAW. HIS ADVICE AND OFFER OF BOOKS. FACTS PRESENTED. -
HENRY CLAY'S EARLY LIFE.--THE RESULT.




XXIV.

Working and Winning 274

THE NEWS. WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF HIS STUDYING LAW. HIS
VIEWS OF ECONOMY OF TIME. -DECLINES GOING TO A PARTY. -
WALKS TWENTY-TWO MILES FOR HIS LAW-BOOKS. -BLACKSTONE'S
COMMENTARIES IN FOUR VOLUMES CARRIED TWENTY-TWO MILES. -
EXAMINED IN FIRST VOLUME, STUDIED WHEN WALKING. DEVO-
TION TO STUDY. HIS INTERVIEW WITH THE IGNORANT FARMER. -A
PLACE FOR LAWYERS. GIVES UP PARTIES AND PLEASURES. ENJOYS
STUDY BEST. REASON OF IT. ARCHIMEDES. PROFESSOR HAYNES.
MADE RAPID PROGRESS, WORKED AND WON. ONE MORE SCENE.










CONTENTS.


XXV.

The Tragedy 288

A MAN KILLED. EXCITEMENT. DONE IN A DRUNKEN MELEE AT A
CAMP-MEETING.-ARREST OF JOE ARMSTRONG.--TIDINGS TRAVEL
TO HIS NATIVE PLACE. HIS FORMER LIFE, AND GENERAL CENSURE.
HIS MOTHER'S GRIEF. KINDNESS OF MR. JONES. EFFORT TO GET
COUNSEL. LETTER FROM ABRAHAM LINCOLN. HOPE REVIVES. -
LINCOLN'S EFFORT TO DELAY TRIAL TILL EXCITEMENT IS OVER. UN-
RAVELS A CONSPIRACY. TIME OF THE TRIAL. WITNESSES EXAM-
INED. -A PERJURER. HIS EXPOSURE LINCOLN'S ELOQUENT PLEA.
-CARRIES THE CROWD.--ARMSTRONG NOT GUILTY.- HIS MOTHER
OVERCOME. GRATITUDE TO LINCOLN. CASE OF ALEXANDER H. STE-
PHENS. LINCOLN A PATRIOT.



XXVI.

Conclusion 06

HOW FAR TRACED HIS LIFE. HIS LIFE SINCE THAT PERIOD. -
FOUNDATION OF CHARACTER LAID IN CHILDHOOD. -MATERNAL INFLU-
ENCE. -ENERGY, PERSEVERANCE, AND DECISION.--DOING THINGS
WELL. HABITS OF STUDY. SELF-CONTROL. NOT ABOVE HIS BUSI-
NESS. INFLUENCE OF ANCESTORS. OPPOSITION TO SLAVERY. HIS
LIBRARY. HIS HONESTY AGAIN. TESTIMONY OF ONE WHO KNOWS.
- THE MAN WHAT THE BOY WAS.













THE PIONEER BOY.



I.

FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.

A BRIGHT spring morning, flooding hill and
valley with its golden light, an old log-house
with its humble tenants at the door, and the hero of
our volume starting forth to receive his first lesson
at school, is the scene that opens to our view.
A great day for you, my boy," said his mother;
"it's better than silver and gold to know how to
read."
"Do the best you can," added his father; "it's
only a short time that you have to learn."
"I '11 try," replied the lad, then just seven years
old ; and he went off in high spirits.
There's not much need of telling him to do his
best," said his mother, as he started off, addressing
her remark to her husband; "he'll do that any-
how."
"It won't do him any hurt to jog his mind a little
B







THE PIONEER BOY.


on the subject," responded the father, whose good
opinion of his boy was not a whit below that of the
mother. "He's so set on learning' to read, that I
don't think there 's much danger of his not doing'
well."
"He would make a good scholar if he had a
chance," continued the mother; but there's noth-
ing here for poor white folks to enjoy, so we can't
expect much."
I don't mean to live a great many more years,
where we are known only as poor white trash '";
and the father said this with an emphasis that showed
determination. He did not refer so much to the
lack of intellectual advantages, however, as to the
oppression that the poor whites experienced from
the existence of slavery, though he appreciated the
fact that the advantages for acquiring knowledge
were far greater in the Free States.
You mean, if God wills," suggested his wife.
"Of course ; and I think it is his will that we
should do better if we can."
It would seem so; but our lot appears to be
cast in this part of the country, and our experience
is hardly so bad as that of our ancestors here."
It's bad enough; and it don't make my lot any
less hard to know that my father was hardly so well
off as I am. I was knocked about from pillar to
post year after year, and never had a chance to learn
the first letter of the alphabet."








FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.


Your father fared worse than that. And, now I
think of it, you must tell Abe all about your fa-
ther's experience; it will interest him. I begun to
tell him about it the other day, and his eyes were
big as saucers. You know more about it than I do,
and can tell it better."
"Those were dark days, and it pains me to speak
of them; but I think he ought to know about it,
and I will tell him the first chance I have."
Yes, every child ought to know about his ances-
tors, and learn to shun their vices and imitate their
virtues."
"I know that; but we were talking' about his
learning' to read. Hazel can't do much for him,
for he don't know much himself."
He may know enough to make him a reader,"
said his wife.
He might, if I could afford to send him to him
long enough; but the longest time will be only a
few weeks."
Perhaps that will do. Only get him started,
and he will go on learning himself, he is so eager.
Won't have to beat things into his head much."
That may be; but there's writing too; it's
about as necessary for him to learn to write as to
read. I know what it is to go without either."
Providence may open a way yet," continued his
wife. It ain't best to borrow too much trouble.
We must have faith in God."








THE PIONEER BOY.


I don't dispute that; but faith won't learn
Abe to read and write."
I'm not sure about that; it may open the way.
Faith kept Daniel out of the lions' jaws, and it may
keep Abe out of the jaws of ignorance."
A pretty good idea, after all," replied her hus-
band, somewhat amused at her manner of enforcing
the subject. It is pretty certain that faith will
keep folks in good spirits, even in hard times,"
referring to the hopeful, cheerful view that his wife
usually took of passing experience.
We will stop here to say, that this scene occurred
in Hardin County, Kentucky, forty-seven years ago.
The poor man and wife who conversed as above
lived in a log-house, that is represented in the fron-
tispiece, a dwelling without a floor, furnished
with four or five three-legged stools, pots, kettles,
spider, Dutch-oven, and something that answered
for a bed. The man's name was Thomas Lincoln,
and both he and his wife were members of the Bap-
tist Church, in good standing. Mrs. Lincoln, par-
ticularly, was a whole-hearted Christian, and the
influence of her godly example and precepts was
felt by each member of the family. She was a
woman of marked natural abilities, but of little cul-
ture. She could read, but was not able to write.
Her good judgment and sound common sense,
united with her strong mental powers and deep-
toned piety, made her a remarkable woman.







FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.


Mr. Lincoln was not so highly endowed by nature,
yet he was superior to most of his neighbors in all
the attributes of respectable manhood. He was of
rather a practical turn of mind, and a somewhat
close observer of men and things. He could neither
read nor write, with this exception, that he could
write his name so that some people could read it.
His father before him was poor, and, what was worse,
he was killed by the Indians when Thomas was a
boy, so that the latter was sent adrift to shift for
himself. Hard times and harder fortune oppressed
him everywhere that he went, and he had all he
could do to earn enough to keep soul and body
together, without going to school a single day. He
realized his deficiencies, and thought all the more
of learning, because he was deprived of it himself.
He was a kind, industrious, practical, pious man,
and his determination and perseverance enabled him
to accomplish whatever he undertook.
Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln had a son and daughter at
the time to which we refer, and another son died
in infancy a few years before. The daughter was
the eldest child, and the living son, whose name
was that staid, suggestive one of the Bible, ABRA-
HAM, -was next in age, and he was born February
12th, 1809. He was not often called by his real
name, either by his parents or other people, but by
that rather homely abbreviation, Abe." For some
reason, this nickname has stuck to him all the way







THE PIONEER BOY.


through life, in spite of learning, honor, and high
official dignity. This may arise from the fact that
his real name is long, homely, and difficult to utter,
while the abbreviation is short and easily spoken.
Also, of the two, we think the nickname is the more
attractive, although the real name is suggestive of a
moral beauty that challenges universal respect.
Abraham was seven years old when he was sent
to school, for the first time, to one Hazel, who came
to live in the neighborhood. There were no schools
nor school-houses in the region, and few of the people
around could read. But this Hazel could read and
write; but beyond this he made a poor figure. For
a small sum he taught a few children at his house,
and Abraham was one of the number. His parents
were so anxious that he should know how to read
and write, that they managed to save enough out of
their penury to send him to school a few weeks.
They considered Abraham a remarkable boy, and
the sequel will prove that they had reason to
think so.
The frontispiece shows Abraham with a dilapi-
dated book in his hand. It is a copy of Dilworth's
Spelling-Book, that had come into the family in
some way unknown to the writer. All the books
the family could boast were the Bible, a catechism,
and this old school-book.
He was not very well clad, but this was the best
suit of clothes that he had; indeed, he had no other.







FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.


His parents did well, in their poverty, to provide
him with one suit at a time. Few of their neighbors
could do better.
Abraham was delighted with going to school, and
he had much to say at the close of the first day.
"Much better off than I ever was," said his
father. I never went to school one day in my
life."
Why did n't you go some ?"
"Because my father was killed by the Injins, and
then I had to work for my bread, and besides I never
lived where there was any school."
"Now tell Abe," said his mother, speaking to
her husband, "about his grandfather. He was
named for him, and he ought to know about him."
Was I named for grandpa? the boy inquired.
"Yes, you was named for him, and you ought to
know what a hard time he had."
"Do tell me, father," said Abraham. "I want
to hear about him. Was he killed by the Injins ? "
Yes," answered his father; and I will tell you
all about it. He was born in Rockingham County,
Virginia, and removed from there to this State in
the year 1780, almost forty years ago. I was a
very little boy then."
How little? small as I? asked Abraham.
"Not so large as you are. I wa'n't more than
two or three years old. I was the youngest child.
Well, I was saying that your grandfather came








THE PIONEER BOY.


here when it was all a wilderness, and there wa'n't
any neighbors nearer than two or three miles for
some years, and there were many Injins all about,
and they hated white men, and-"
What made them hate the white men ?" in-
quired the boy, who had become intensely inter-
ested in the story.
"Because the white men first came to this coun-
try, and drove them away from their lands. As I
was saying, he had to clear up land for a farm, and
he did it as fast as he could, a little every year.
It was very hard work, and very dangerous work,
too, and he had to carry his gun with him into the
woods, so as to fight the Injins if they came. The
Injins were very cruel, and sometimes they attacked
a family, and killed them all with the tomahawk.
Once they killed a whole family within a few miles
of here, and all the white men around, got to-
gether, and went after them; but they couldn't
find 'em.
"Well, after your grandfather had lived here
about four years, and he was clearing up some land
a few miles off, he was killed by the Injins. He
was alone in the woods; and we thought they came
upon him suddenly, before he had time to get at
his gun."
How do you know that, if he was alone ? asked
Abraham.
"Because his gun was found where he probably








FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.


laid it down, and he was discovered right side of
a tree that he was cutting, some distance from
his gun."
Why did n't the Injins carry off his gun ?"
"They didn't see it, as it was a little distance
from him, and they did n't think, probably, that he
had one.
As he did n't come home at night as usual, we
thought that something' dreadful had happened, and
search was made, and the next morning' his dead
body was found. The Injins had scalped him, and
carried off his axe."
Mr. Lincoln continued: "You can't tell how we
felt when the worst was known. And when his
dead body was brought home, it seemed as if we
should die. He was our protector, and the family
depended on him for support. Where should we
look for bread? What would become of us in the
wilderness? We could n't help thinking' of these
things; and the future was dark enough."
What did you do ?" inquired Abraham, whose
deepest feelings were reached by the narrative.
"We did the best we could. Your grandmother
worked hard to support me, while my brothers and
sisters, who were older, went away to get a livin'
where they could. But two or three years after,
she was so poor that I had to go away, too, and I
had no home again till I married, and came to live
here. There is no tellin' how much I suffered for
2







THE PIONEER BOY.


several years, and how unhappy I was to be sent
away from home when I was not twelve years old.
Yet I had to go, -there was no other way to do.
I must go or starve. You can imagine, my boy,
how you would feel to lose your father, and then be
obliged to leave your mother, and go off among
strangers to earn your bread."
God be praised that you have a better lot," ex-
claimed Mrs. Lincoln. "" You would n't know how
to endure it, my dear child, and I should n't know
how to have you."
Abraham was too full to speak. The tears stood
in his eye, and his chin quivered as his mother
spoke.
Yes," continued his father, it would take me
a week to tell you all I have heard your grandpa
say about those dark days. The very year he came
here, in 1780, the Injins attacked the settlers in
great force. All the men were ordered to organize
into companies, and Daniel Boone, the great hun-
ter of Kentucky,' was made a lieutenant-colonel,
and all the forces were put under the charge of
General Clark. They started to meet the enemy,
and found them near the Lower Blue Licks. Here
they fought a terrible battle, and the Injins beat,
and cut up our men badly. Boone's son was
wounded, and his father tried to carry him away
in the retreat. He plunged into the river with him
on his back, but the boy died before he reached the







FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.


other side. By the time Boone got over the river,
he looked around and saw that the Injins were
swimming after him; so he had to throw down his
dead son, and run for his life. He got away, and
reached Bryan's Station in safety."
0, how thankful we ought to be that we do not
live in such trying times! exclaimed his mother,
addressing her remark to Abraham, who was filled
with wonder at the recital. Now," she continued,
" tell him about those children that the Injins car-
ried off. That was dreadful."
"Do tell it father," said Abraham.
"That was some little time before," his father
went on to say. "Three little girls, belonging to
the fort at Boonsboro, and one of them was Boone's
daughter, crossed the Kentucky River in a canoe
that they were playing with. When they reached
the other side, several Injins rushed out of the
bushes into the river, and drew the canoe ashore,
and seized the little girls to run off with them.
The girls were soared almost to death, and they
screamed so loud that they were heard at the fort.
The men there ran out to help them, but by the
time they reached the canoe, the Injins had run off
with the little girls. It was now about night, so
that it would be vain to follow them, and they
resolved to prepare all the men they could muster
at the fort, and start after them early in the
morning.







THE PIONEER BOY.


"At break of day a strong party of white men
started after the girls; but they did not overtake
them until near the close of the day. When they
had travelled about forty miles, they discovered
them at a short distance. They had encamped for
the night, and were cooking their supper. Fearing
that the Injins would kill the girls as soon as they
found that they were closely pursued, it was a part
of the white men's plan to shoot them before they
had a chance. Therefore, as soon as they got fair
sight of the Injins, they all fired at them at once,
taking good care not to hit the children. It was so
sudden to the red-skins,' that they were scared half
out of their wits, and run away, leaving the girls
and all their weapons."
"How glad the little children must have been
to see their fathers again!" said Mrs. Lincoln.
" Don't you think they were, Abe ?"
"Yes, indeed," replied the boy, with a glow of
satisfaction lighting up his intelligent face. Were
they in the woods all the night before ? "
Yes," replied his father; "and .they want more
pleased to see their fathers than their fathers were
to see them. The men might have followed the
Injins, and killed them all before they had gone a
mile, but they were so glad to find the girls that
they didn't care for anything else."
"Nobody will blame them," added Mrs. Lincoln;
"they did well to get their children again. But you







FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL.


have heard enough now," turning to Abraham,
" and I hope you will be thankful for your home."
So do I," continued his father; "the poorest
home is better than none : I know it by sad expe-
rience."
Abraham drew, a long sigh, as if relieved by the
thought that his little cabin was not surrounded
with such perils. He had listened with rapt atten-
tion to the thrilling stories of his grandfather's time,
and lie was glad the lines had fallen to him in
pleasanter places.
You see now, Abe, how much better you fare
than your father did; and you see, too, why he
never learned to read," said his mother.
I'm glad that such Injins don't live about here,"
he replied.
"And you should be thankful that you fare as
well as you do, and make the most of your opportu-
nities," continued his mother.
"Learn to read in a few weeks if you can, Abe,"
said his father; for it ain't long that you can have
Hazel to help you."
How long do you think, father? "
"Just as long as I can pay for. I want you
should know how to read and write, and not be so
ignorant as I am. Perhaps you can learn some-
thing about ciphering yourself when you are older."
Mr. Hazel says I can learn to read real quick if
I try."







80 THE PIONEER BOY.

"I have no doubt of it," replied his father.
"And then you can read the Bible, and all the
good stories in it that I have told you," were the
words of his mother.
And it will be a pleasure to you as long as you
live," continued his father. If I could live my
life over again, I would learn to read somehow."
A neighbor called, and the conversation with
Abraham was broken off. The next chapter will
disclose what followed.















THE NEIGHBOR'S CALL.

" TALL, neighbor Lincoln," said the man, "I
Called to tell you where you can sell your
place, I reckon. You know we talked about it
t' other day."
"I remember it," answered Mr. Lincoln; and I
want to sell out, and make my tracks to some place
where the curse of slavery is not found."
Where would you go ? "
"I would go to Indiana. Slavery is shut out from
there, and there is a chance for a poor white man to
be somebody. But who wants to buy ? "
A feller by the name of Cordy, I believe. I
was told about him to-day."
"Where does he live ? "
"Down the river somewhere ; I hain't seen him."
And you don't know anything about him ? "
No; only he wants to buy a place about here
somewhere, and I thought of you. I can find out
about him, and send him word that you will sell, if
you want I should."
I wish you would; though I sha'n't leave here
till fall, now I'm getting' my planting' in."







THE PIONEER BOY.


A good long time he '11 have, then, to make a
bargain."
"Yes; and Abe will have a chance to learn
something' this summer. He went to school to-day
for the first time."
"That's more than my boys have done. If I can
cover their backs and keep them from cryin' for
bread, it's all I can do."
"I can't do but little more than that," said Mr.
Lincoln; "but Abe takes so to books, that I want
he should learn to read and write."
"Could n't he get along as well as his father
without it?"
I never got along very well without it: I'd
give all I have now to know how to read and
write ? "
Pshaw! exclaimed the neighbor; I would n't
do any such thing. It don't give anybody victuals
and clothes."
I don't know about that. At any rate, I don't
want Abe to be as ignorant as I am. If his mother
could n't read, we should have a sorry time here."
"It's no worse for you than 't is for me."
"That may be: it's bad enough for all of us;
and it helps keep us down with the niggers."
"You don't think so?"
"Upon my word I do. It's for the interest of
slaveholders to promote ignorance, and hence there
is the most ignorance where there is the most








THE NEIGHBOR'S CALL


slavery. They can oppress poor ignorant white
men like us more than they can those who know
something. "
"I don't see it so."
"Well, I do; and I'm determined to go where a
man is not disgraced by his labor."
"If you can find such a place," answered the
neighbor.
"I can find such a place everywhere that free-
dom is, but nowhere that slavery is tolerated.
Slaveholders don't consider us any better, nor
hardly so good, as their niggers; and the niggers
never think of calling us anything but poor white
trash.' "
"I don't care for that."
"I do; and I shall get away from it as soon as
possible after the summer is through."
And your boy can read," added the man.
Yes; and that I mean shall happen anyhow. I
would rather have him read and write than to own
a farm, if he can't have but one."
"Ha ha! nonsense," retorted the neighbor.
"You don't mean it."
Whether my husband means it or not," said
Mrs. Lincoln, who had listened to the conversation,
"I would rather Abe would be able to read the
Bible than to own a farm, if he can't have but
one."
"The Bible, hey!" exclaimed the man, aecom-
2 0







THE PIONEER BOY.


paying the remark with an oath; "why didn't
you say a last year's almanac ? and he intended
this last remark as a slur upon the Word of God.
I am surprised, Mr. Selby" (this was the man's
name), at your talk," continued Mrs. Lincoln.
" The Bible is the word of God, and it becomes us
all to study it, and learn our duty. I want my
children to make it their daily companion."
Their daily fiddlestick answered Mr. Selby,
contemptuously, rising from his seat to go out.
" But what say you, Lincoln, shall I send that feller
word about your selling' out?"
I would like to have you. Perhaps he can get
around here in the course of the summer."
Mr. Selby left. He was an ignorant man, unable
to read or write, and also a despiser of religion.
Neither had he any idea of the value of knowledge,
and was satisfied that his children should grow up
with no more knowledge than he had himself. He
was content to live in degradation, with just enough
food and clothing to sustain existence. He was very
intemperate, also, and so profane that he seldom
conversed a minute without uttering an oath. In
this respect he was the opposite of Mr. Lincoln,
whose good sense and Christian principles made him
desirous of being in better circumstances. While
Selby never dreamed that slavery rendered his con-
dition more degraded, Lincoln was continually re-
volving the thought that his family suffered from







THE NEIGHBOR'S CALL.


the existence of slavery, and that in a Free State his
advantages would be greater.
He is to be pitied," said Mrs. Lincoln, when the
wicked man went out. "I hope you will take
warning from him, Abe, on three points."
I know what one of them is," said Abraham.
"What ?"
"He swears," answered the boy.
"That is one thing. He is a very wicked man to
take the name of God in vain. What Command-
ment did he violate ? "
The third," answered Abraham, who could
repeat the Ten Commandments readily.
Very well; and what does God say he will not
do with him who takes his name in vain."
He will not hold him guiltless that taketh his
name in vain," replied Abraham.
A very good reason for never using profane lan-
guage. And now, can you tell me either of the
other points on which I want his character to warn
you ? "
Abraham could not think of them, and so his
mother continued: "Ignorance is another thing.
Mr. Selby can't read, and, what is worse, he don't
want to. His ignorance makes .him appear alto-
gether more degraded. You don't want to be such
a man as he is, do you ? "
"No, mother, I don't mean to be."
"Then do the best you can to learn to read, and







THE PIONEER BOY.


be good. But now for the other thing against which
his example warns you, it is intemperance. Mr.
Selby gets drunk sometimes."
"Was he drunk to-night ? inquired Abraham.
"He wasn't sober, though he wa'n't very drunk.
But his intemperate habits have made him a miser-
able man."
"Does it make everybody like him ?" the boy
asked.
"It makes all intemperate men very degraded,
and it is a great sin against God. It destroys the
soul, too. The drunkard cannot inherit the king-
dom of God' I hope you will remember this, and
always avoid intemperance."
It should be remarked, that the custom of using
intoxicating drinks at that day was general. Mrs.
Lincoln did not expect her boy would refuse to taste
of the same, but she meant to warn him against
using strong drink immoderately. Whiskey was
the most common intoxicating beverage then drank,
and its baneful effects were widely spread. Mr.
Selby was a painful example of intemperate habits
for Abraham to view. His mother was wise in
pointing him to this cause of degradation in the
ruined man. It had its influence upon his after life,
as we shall see.
There is no doubt that the slaveholders had some
occasion to treat the poor whites with neglect, if not
with harsher measures, inasmuch as many of them







THE NEIGHBOR'S CALL.


were degraded like Selby, and for a pittance fur-
nished whiskey to the slaves. We have just met
with the following recital by an eyewitness, that
illustrates this point:--

The overseer appeared at the avenue of orange-
trees, and presently drew rein beside us, his coun-
tenance exhibiting marks of dissatisfaction.
"'I 've had trouble with them boys over to my
place, Colonel,' he said, briefly, and looking lower-
ingly around, as though he would be disposed to
resent any listening to his report on the part of the
negroes.
Why, -what's the matter with them ?' asked
his employer, hastily.
"' Well, it 'pears they got some rot-gut two gal-
lons of it from somewhere last night, and of
course all got drunk, down to the old shanty be-
hind the gin: they went thar so's I should n't sus-
picion nothing They played cards and quarrelled
and fit; and Harry's John, he cut Timberlake bad,
- cut Walkie, too, 'cross the hand, but ain't hurt
him much.'
"' Harry's John! I always knew that nigger had
an ugly temper! I'll sell him, by -! I won't
have him on the place a week longer. Is Timber-
lake badly hirt?'
"' He's nigh killed, I reckon. Got a bad stick in
the ribs, and a cut in the shoulder, and one in the







THE PIONEER BOY.


face. Bled like a dog, he did! Reckon he may
get over it. I've done what I could for him.'
Where did they get the liquor from ?'
"' I don't know. Most likely from old Whalley,
down to the landing. He's mean enough for any-
thing.'
If I can prove it on him, I '11 run him out of
the country! I'll- I 'll- I '11 shoot him!' And
the Colonel continued his imprecations, this time
directing them toward the supposed vender of the
whiskey.
These men are the curse of the country! the
curse of the country!' he repeated, excitedly,--
'these mean, low, thieving, sneaking, pilfering poor
whites They teach our negroes to steal; they sell
them liquor; they do everything to corrupt and
demoralize them. That's how they live. The
slaves are respectable, compared to them. They
ought to be slaves themselves.'"

Now this incident discloses the fact, that some
of the poor whites give occasion for the slaveholders
to treat them with contempt, on account of their
doling out liquor to negroes, and in other ways in-
citing them to evil deeds. Some of the oppression
experienced by the poor whites may arise from this;
and yet the views of Mr. Lincoln were correct in
the main, namely, that the whites were oppressed
on account of the disgrace that slavery attached to







THE NEIGHBOR'S CALL. 89

labor. One poor drunken white like Selby might
sell liquor to the negroes, and encourage them to
steal; but this would furnish no reason for treating
a temperate, honest, pious man like Lincoln with
contempt. It was only the presence of slavery that
could do this.
No wonder that Mr. Lincoln was hostile to the
system nor that he was resolved to get away from
it with his family as soon as possible For a series
of years he had been feeling more and more deeply
upon the subject, until he had fully resolved to
remove to a Free State.













III.


A BRIGHTER PROSPECT.

FOUR weeks passed.
I've seen Mr. Hazel to-day," said Mr. Lin-
coln to his wife.
And what does he say about Abe ?" she in-
quired.
That he is getting' along the best of any boy he
has had."
I knew that he was getting' along well, because
I have tried him. He will be able to read some
before long."
So Hazel said."
How about his conduct? "
"He don't want no better boy than he is."
"Did he say so ? "
"Yes, he gave him just as good a name as he
could."
I'm glad of that, though it is no more than I
expected."
So am I glad; I want he should learn to read
before we move away."
Then you really think you shall go."







A BRIGHTER PROSPECT.


Certainly I do, if I can sell out."
"You 've heard nothing from the man that Selby
told about ? "
Not a word, though he may get around yet."
"Suppose he does not ? "
There will be somebody to buy, I have no
doubt."
"I don't know about that; it is a hard place to
sell anything here. Perhaps we shall have to stay
awhile longer."
She was preparing his mind for disappointment,
in case they did not sell. He was so determined
in this regard, that a failure to dispose of his place
might dishearten him.
It will be better, then, to give the place away,
and begin new in free Indiana," answered Mr.
Lincoln.
"Well, time will prove all things: we must learn
to labor and wait."
We 've got that lesson pretty well learned now,
I should think," replied her husband.
And shall be none the worse for it," she an-
swered. But here comes Abe." And he came
in, saying: "Father, there's a man coming here."
"What man ? "
I don't know; but I saw him coming this way.
There he is now "; and he pointed across the field.
It's Selby, ain't it ? inquired his father, with-
out looking.







THE PIONEER BOY.


No, it is n't Selby," answered his wife, as she
looked towards him. It's a stranger, and he is
certainly coming here." The man was now ap-
proaching the house, and Mr. Lincoln stepped to
the door to meet him.
Is this Mr. Lincoln ?" inquired the stranger,
presenting his hand.
"That's my name."
"And my naipe is Colby," continued the man.
"0 yes, Mr. Selby was speaking of you some
weeks ago. Walk in." The man walked in and
took a stool (we can't say chair, since the house
was furnished with none).
You wish to sell your place, I understand," said
Colby.
"I 've been thinking' of it.'
So Mr. Selby tells me, and I've come to inquire
about it."
Then you wapt to buy, do you ?"
"If I can get suited, I do."
"I don't want to leave my place till fall, if I sell.
After my crops are gathered, I shall be ready to
quit."
I should n't object to that. I can wait till that
time for a place that suits me."
Then let us take a look about, and see how you
like." And Mr. Lincoln proceeded to show the
man his humble place. He took him out doors, and
directed his attention to whatever of interest there







A BRIGHTER PROSPECT.


was. He thought he now saw an opportunity to
dispose of his place, and he was gratified with the
prospect. He assured the man that he would sell
on the most reasonable terms.
It is only on such terms that I can think of buy-
ing," said Colby.
"Perhaps you want more of a place than this,"
replied Mr. Lincoln.
"No; I can't shoulder much of a homestead.
This is about what I want. Poor men must do as
they can, and not as they want to."
"I know that by my own experience," responded
Mr. Lincoln. "I 've tugged away ever since I was
big enough to work to get bread to eat."
So have I; and after many years of hard labor
I have not more than enough to buy such a place
as this."
And you ought to be thankful for as much as
that, in a Slave State. The fact is, the poor whites
have no better chance than the niggers here, and I
am sick of it."
That won't mend the matter, as I see."
"What?"
"Why, to be sick of it."
"Perhaps not; but I shall try what there is in a
Free State to do it."
"That's too venturesome for me."
"' Nothing venture, nothing win,' is the old say-
ing; and as for me, I 've not much to lose, though I
hope to gain much."







THE PIONEER BOY.


"Well, now, we are getting' off the subject.
What 's the damage for such a place?" said
Colby.
"I hardly know myself. I think we might as
well leave that till fall, when I get ready to sell.
I have no doubt that I shall suit you on the price."
So be it. I sha'n't press the matter."
"About the first of October, if you are here, I
shall be ready to strike a bargain," added Mr. Lin-
coln. "I don't think we shall have any trouble
about that."
And you will not sell to any one else till I have
had the offer of the place ? "
"No ; the first chance is yours."
I agree to that arrangement, and your wife and
this bright-eyed boy (patting Abraham on the head)
are witnesses to the plan."
"We '11 try to be faithful ones, too," said Mrs.
Lincoln, who felt, by this time, that her recent
words about not being able to sell the place would
prove false. We shall be glad to see you at the
time appointed, and trust that both parties will be
satisfied."
Mr. Colby bade the family good-by," and left,
with the promise to see them again the last of Sep-
tember or the first of October. He was as well
pleased as they, and both parties congratulated
themselves upon their promised good fortune. Mr.
Lincoln could see a brighter prospect.








A BRIGHTER PROSPECT.


A good sort of a man, I reckon," said Mr. Lin-
coln, though he seems well satisfied to stay in old
Kentucky. Slavery don't trouble him much, I
s'pose."
"It may be fortunate that we don't all think
alike," said his wife, or everybody would move
out of Kentucky, and leave it deserted."
Mr. Lincoln smiled at this remark, and contented
himself with looking what he thought.
Abraham went on with his school. Every day he
posted away with the old spelling-book to Hazel's
cabin, where he tried as hard to learn as any boy
who ever studied his Ab's. He carried his book
home at night, and puzzled his active brain over
what he had learned during the day. He cared for
nothing but his book now. His highest ambition
was to learn to read as well as his mother could.
As she gathered the family around her, and read the
Bible to them each day, and particularly as she read
it upon the Sabbath much of the time, he almost
envied her the blessed privilege of reading. He
longed for the day to come when he could read
aloud from that revered volume.' Beyond that
privilege he did not look. To be able to read was
boon enough for him, without looking for anything
beyond.
It is not strange that he made progress, and sat-
isfied both teacher and parents. Though a little
boy only seven years old, and living where teachers








THE PIONEER BOY.


themselves were so ignorant that seven-year-old boys
of New England at this day could instruct them,
yet he devoted himself to learning to read with an
energy and enthusiasm that insured success.
Not far from this time, Mr. Elkins, a preacher of
the Baptist denomination, who sometimes preached
in the vicinity, called to see them. He was one of
the genuine pioneer preachers, and a great favorite
with the family. Abraham cherished for him pro-
found respect, and loved to see his face.
"Why, Mr. Elkins, how glad I am to see you !"
exclaimed Mrs. Lincoln, shaking his hand heartily.
"Yes, the Lord has brought me around once
more," he answered ; and how are you and your
family ? I hope the Lord has been gracious to you."
More so than we deserve. But you are going to
preach here to-morrow, are you ? It was Satur-
day, and she inferred that he had come to preach in
the vicinity, according to his custom.
"I wish I was, but I am sorry to disappoint you.
I expect to be here one week from to-morrow, and I
came this way to-day to give the notice. I know
that if I tell you of an appointment, you will see
that people are notified. But here is my little boy ;
how do you do, Abe ? And he drew the child to
himself in his familiar and affectionate way. He
had not observed him before. Abraham replied in
his respectful and manly way.
Abe goes to school now," said his mother.







A BRIGHTER PROSPECT.


He does ? That's right, and I hope you '11 make
a scholar, my boy."
He is getting along finely," added his mother.
"I think he will be able to read the Bible in a few
weeks."
That will be capital," said Mr. Elkins. Then
you can do some of the reading for your mother,"
and he addressed this remark to the child. And
when you can read, you've got something that no-
body can get away from you. With the Bible, know-
ing how to read it, and having a heart to obey it, you
will make a good pioneer boy."
"What's a pioneer boy ?" asked Abraham.
Mr. Elkins was quite amused at this inquiry, and
after exercising his risibles for a minute, he replied,
"Well, he is a backwoods-boy, who can make the
best of things in this hard country, and cut his way
along in spite of all discouragements, helping his
father and mother, brothers and sisters, and live in
the woods, if you want to have him."
Abe can do that," said his mother, looking lov-
ingly at the boy, just as his father came in, surprised
to see his favorite preacher.
"I was just saying to your son," continued Mr.
Elkins, "that he would make a good pioneer boy."
He '11 have to be one, whether he makes a good
one or not," replied Mr. Lincoln. "I 'm thinking'
of going into the woods more than we are now."
Ah! Is that so? How can we spare you ? "







THE PIONEER BOY.


If nothing happens, another winter will find me
in Indiana. I've been thinking' of it a long time."
And all because you want to be free," said Mr.
Elkins, rather humorously. He had often conversed
with Mr. Lincoln in respect to slavery, and respected
his views, although he did not feel quite so strongly
upon the subject as Mr. Lincoln did.
Yes; I shall never have a better time than this.
If I'm ever goin', I'd better go now."
Had you better go at all ? Settle that question,
and ask the Lord to direct you. It is not in man
that walketh to direct his steps.' We all want wis-
dom from above."
"That is very true," said Mrs. Lincoln; "and I
trust that we shall take no step that He will not
approve."
That is the right spirit to have," said Mr. Elkins,
rising to go, and excusing himself from remaining
longer. "I 've quite a journey to take yet."
"I wish you were to preach here to-morrow,"
continued Mrs. Lincoln. "It is such a privilege to
hear the Gospel! "
"Your family scarcely need it," answered Mr.
Elkins, suggestively; "your sermons do very well
for your family on the Sabbath." He alluded here
to the manner of her keeping the Sabbath.
"I don't deserve your compliment, Mr. Elkins."
"I 'U leave that to your husband and children to
decide. I have no doubt they will agree with me.
So good by to you." And he left.







A BRIGHTER PROSPECT.


Mr. Elkins alluded, as we have said, to her cus-
tom of instructing her family from the Bible on the
Sabbath, when there was no preaching in the region.
Being the only person in the family who could read,
she improved the Lord's day to read much from the
Scriptures. Her method in this respect was so
excellent, and exerted such an influence in forming
Abraham's character, that we shall devote the fol-
lowing chapter to it.














IV.


THE SABBATH LESSON.

IT was Sabbath morning (the day after Mr.
Elkins called), and the simple breakfast had
been partaken, the dishes cleared away and washed,
and the room put in order for holy time. The
morning devotions had been enjoyed, the mother
reading the Scriptures, and the father leading in
prayer. And the angels had gone up to God on
shining wings, with tidings of a Sabbath well begun.
Come, my children," said Mrs. Lincoln, let
us honor the day by reading the Word of God."
And she took down the Bible from a shelf in the
cabin. "Would that we could hear Mr. Elkins
preach to-day! but that is impossible, and we must
keep the day as best we can."
"When will Mr. Elkins preach again ?" inquired
Abraham.
One week from to-day he expects to be here.
To-day God must preach to us out of his Word."
"No better preaching than that," said her hus-
band.
And well for us if we profit by it," responded
his wife.







THE SABBATH LESSON. 51

We have said that Mr. Elkins was a preacher of
the Baptist denomination, to which this pious couple
belonged. He visited that region as often as he
could; but there were many Sabbaths when they
had no preaching. At these times Mrs. Lincoln
gathered her children around her, and read and
expounded the Bible. As she could read, and her
husband could'not, she was obliged to bear a great
part of the responsibility of this form of religious
instruction.
"Where shall I read ? she asked.
"Read about Moses," replied Abraham. The
story of Moses, in common with others, had been
read and told to him over and over, so that he was
familiar with it, and was never weary of listening
to it.
"A good story that is," said his father; "and
you seem to like it, Abe."
"Yes, sir; but I like some others about as well."
"We '11 read about Moses first," said his mother;
"and I hope you '11 try to be like him. He was
just as good a boy as he was a man."
So she read through the whole record of Moses's
life ; and the children and their father listened with
breathless interest, though they had done the same
many times before.
"Wonderful! exclaimed Mrs. Lincoln. How
God kept him by his power, and saved him from all
harm "







THE PIONEER BOY.


That he might do his will, and lead his people,"
added her husband.
"Yes, that was it; and, though hosts of enemies
and great difficulties were in his way, his purposes
were executed."
"All things are possible with God," said Mr.
Lincoln.
"And a blessed thing it is for this wicked
world," replied his wife. "If man could have his
own way, there would be an end to all peace and
happiness very soon."
"Yes, the Psalmist could well say, 'The Lord
reigneth, let the earth rejoice.'"
"Now read about Joseph," said Abraham. This
was another of the Bible stories to which he loved
to listen. Before he could talk, these thrilling
sacred histories were related to him in the simple
language of maternal affection, and his young heart
was deeply impressed by them.
See how obedient he was," said his mother, as
she proceeded with the narrative. "No wonder
that God blessed him!"
Again she would say, How kind he was to his
brothers, even when they were cruel to him! "
And again, God will take care of one who is so
faithful."
Yet, again, as the narrative drew to its close,
" How good in him to treat his wicked brothers so
well! He might have punished them dreadfully







THE SABBATH LESSON.


for their wickedness, but he forgave them and pro-
- vided them with corn."
How would you feel, Abe, to be carried away
from your father and mother for so long a time ?"
How long was it? inquired Abraham.
"O, it was many years; I don't know exactly
how many."
And what a meeting it was with his father at
last!" said Mrs. Lincoln. "It brings tears to my
eyes to think of it."
In this way many Bible stories were read and
commented upon in their simple but devout man-
ner, so that the Sabbaths without preaching must
have been as profitable to the children as those
when Parson Elkins proclaimed the truth.
Her reading was not confined to the Old Testa-
ment, nor to the narrative portions of the Bible.
She- understood the Gospel because. she had a
Christian experience that was marked. She was
a firm, consistent disciple of the Lord Jesus, and
was qualified thereby to expound the Scriptures.
The story of the Cross, as it is recorded in the
twenty-seventh chapter of Matthew, was read over
and over at the fireside, accompanied with many
remarks that were suited to impress the minds of
her children.
"Yes, you ought to love him and serve him,"
she would say, "for all his love and mercy. He
died for you, and he has a claim on your hearts."








THE PIONEER BOY.


Sometimes the children would interpose a ques-
tion, as Did Jesus want to die ? " What did the
wicked men kill him for ? Why did God let the
wicked men kill him?" and other inquiries in
childhood's artless way; to all of which the pious
mother would reply as best she could. Her man-
ner of reading the Scriptures and commenting
thereon was well suited to call forth simple ques-
tions, and this she loved to see and encourage.
The practice is worthy of a place in every Christian
family.
The Ten Commandments were made an impor-
tant matter in the Sabbath Lessons, and Abraham
was drilled in repeating them. Four of them were
particularly pressed upon his attention, viz.: (III.)
" Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy
God in vain ; for the Lord will not hold him guilt-
less that taketh his name in vain." (IV.) "Re-
member the Sabbath day to keep it holy." (V.)
"Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days
may be long upon the land which the Lord thy
God giveth thee." (IX.) Thou shalt not bear
false witness against thy neighbor."
Of the Third Commandment'she would say, It
is God that speaks here. Never swear, my son."
"I never do," said Abraham.
And I hope you never will."
"How old Selby swore to father t' other day,"
added Abraham.







THE SABBATH LESSON.


"It was dreadful," replied his father. But
the old sinner knows no better. The fear of God is
not before his eyes."
Can you think of any good it does to swear,"
inquired his mother.
It can't do any good if it is wicked," answered
the boy, and many an older head would have failed
to answer as well.
"Exactly so; nobody can imagine any good it
can do."
"What do folks want to swear for, then ? he
asked.
Sure enough; that's hard telling; they don't
know themselves."
"It's just because they are wicked," added his
father.
Don't Mr. swear ? he asked, as if a man
of his respectability and influence could n't be very
wicked.
Perhaps he does sometimes; for some respecta-
ble people are wicked. Sin is no better because it is
done by respectable folks."
No, never swear because you hear some one else
do it," added his father. You should n't be wick-
ed because other folks are."
And then she passed to another commandment, the
Fourth, for instance, and sought to impress its im-
portance and value upon their minds.
One day in seven is none too much to give to







THE PIONEER BOY.


the Lord who gave his life for us," she would say.
"It is God's day, and you must remember it."
And so of the Fifth Commandment.
"There's a great promise to children who obey
their parents," she remarked. Honor thy father
and thy mother."
What is honor ?" inquired Abraham.
"It means to show your parents respect, and to
obey and love them," replied his mother. That
you can understand."
"Yes, I know what that means."
"And children who honor their parents do all
they can for their parents' comfort and support."
That is easy enough done," answered Abraham.
"I hope you will always think so, my child.
Boys are likely to want their own way, and spend
their time in idleness."
"I sha'n't," said Abraham.
You sometimes want your own way now; but
I hope you see the folly of it."
Abraham knew the last remark was correct, for
he had sometimes been disobedient, although he
was a remarkably good boy generally. But he
could recall instances when he failed to honor his
parents, and now he hung his head for shame.
Another point, derived from the Ninth Command-
ment, upon which she laid much stress, was truth-
fulness.
Always speak the truth, my son."







THE SABBATH LESSON.


"I do tell the truth," was Abraham's usual
reply, and he could say it without fear of being
disputed.
I think you do; but it is well to think of the
consequences if you don't."
What are the consequences ?"
God's displeasure."
"And be disgraced among men," added his
father. Nobody wants to see a liar about."
That is so," responded Mrs. Lincoln; and no-
body will believe a liar when he tells the truth.
But, after all, the anger of God is worse."
The Commandment don't say that God is angry
with a liar," said Abraham.
But the Bible says so many times, or what is
just the.same. Lying lips are abomination to the
Lord; but they that deal truly are his delight.'
'The king shall rejoice in God; every one that
sweareth by him shall glory; but the mouth of
them that speak lies shall be stopped.' A false
witness shall not be unpunished, and he that speak-
eth lies shall perish.' 'The fearful and unbe-
lieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and
whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and
all liars, shall have their part in the lake which
burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the
second death.' "
Abraham almost trembled sometimes before the
'array of Scripture texts that his mother would
3*







THE PIONEER BOY.


bring to enforce a subject. She was very familiar
with the Bible, and its authority was always ap-
pealed to as above on the sin of lying.
"No; my children must never lie. Better be poor
than be false. There is nothing worse than lying."
Ain't swearing worse ? asked Abraham, think-
ing that his mother made that appear the worst sin
there was.
"Both are bad enough, and God is displeased
with both," answered his mother, and that is
enough for us to know."
In this way many Sabbaths of Abraham's boy-
hood were spent, so that he became familiar with
the Bible. For a boy of his age, he was excelled
by few in his acquaintance with the Scriptures.
The Bible, catechism, and the old spelling-book
named being the only books in the family, at this
time, as we have said, and there being no papers,
either religious or secular, the Bible was read much
more than it would have been if other volumes had
been possessed. It was the first book that Abraham
ever read, that same old family Bible, kept very
choice because their poverty could not afford an-
other. It was the only Bible that his mother ever
possessed, her life-treasure, to which she was more
indebted, and perhaps, also, her son Abraham, than
to any other influence. It was certainly the light
of her dwelling, and the most powerful educator
that ever entered her family. We shall see all along -







THE SABBATH LESSON.


through this volume, that this blessed book, as the
text-book of home instruction, from which were
derived those important lessons relating to the Sab-
bath, profanity, lying, truth, obedience, and other
subjects, had much to do in forming the character
of Abraham. That same Bible is still in the pos-
session of a relative, in the State of Illinois.
Nor was prayer neglected. She was a praying
woman, and taught Abraham when a little child to
lisp his prayer. The Lord's Prayer was very early
taught him, and it became a part of his child-life to
repeat it.
God takes care of you, my children, and sends
you food and clothing. Every beast of the field is
his, and the cattle upon a thousand hills; and you
must not forget it."
I pray to Dod," Abraham would say, before he
could talk plain; and he did, as his pious mother
taught him to lisp the Lord's Prayer.
That is what everybody should do, -pray to
God. They should ask him to watch over them and
thank him for his goodness."
Won't he watch over me without asking? in-
quired Abraham.
"As to that, he requires us to ask him, and we
ought to do it."
Does everybody ask him ?"
"No; many people pay no regard to him."
"What does he watch over them for, then ? "







THE PIONEER BOY.


He knows; and it is best for us to do right
without asking any questions "; and this was the
best way she could reply to some of his inquiries.
It has been said, that a child will ask questions
that a philosopher cannot answer." Whether this
be so or not, it is certain that Mrs. Lincoln was
often puzzled by Abraham's questions. From a
child, he possessed a discriminating mind, and was
disposed to know the reason of things. Hence, he
asked many questions when his mother was teaching
him, and she answered them as well as she could.
This cabin of the Lincoln family was thus conse-
crated to God, and it was rather a remarkable one
among the dwellings around. At that time, and in
that region, there was found here and there a log-
house in which the most devoted servants of Christ
dwelt. Such was the case with the abode described.
God was honored there, and the children were reared
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.
Mrs. Lincoln knew that the influences to which
Abraham was exposed in that country were decid-
edly evil. There was much of profanity, Sabbath-
breaking, and falsehood practised, and she felt the
need of guarding him at these points. Hence her
faithful counsels in connection with the Command-
ments.
A Christian mother's culture always makes its
mark. Great and good men usually have good
mothers. Their fathers may not be men of mark,







THE SABBATH LESSON.


but their mothers are women of noble powers and
qualities of heart. John Randolph, whose name is
familiar to every school-boy, said," I used to be
called a Frenchman, because I took the French side
in politics; and though this was unjust, yet the truth
is, I should have been a French atheist, if it had not
been for one recollection, and that was, the memory
of the time when my departed mother used to take
my little hands in hers, and cause me, on my knees,
to say, Our Father which art in heaven.' "
John Quincy Adams was another American states-
man who bore similar testimony to the value of his
mother's influence. It is due to gratitude and
nature," he said, that I should acknowledge and
avow that, such as I have been, whatever it was,
such as I am, whatever it is, and such as I hope to
be in all futurity, must be ascribed, under Provi-
dence, to the precepts and example of my mother."
The American nation paid a high tribute to the
virtues of Washington's mother, and thereby ac-
knowledged its indebtedness to hei, when a monu-
ment was reared over her remains, bearing the
simple inscription, MARY, THE MOTHER OF WASH-
INGTON." It was honor enough to be the mother of
such a man, and distinction enough to be the son
of such a woman. And the nation, in this unosten-
tatious way, recognized the fact that she exerted a
mighty influence in deciding the destinies of the land,
by the pious culture she bestowed upon her boy.







THE PIONEER BOY.


Thus our country has been far more indebted
to mothers than many people imagine, verifying the
beautiful words of Mrs. Sigourney: -
In her own place, the hearth beside,
The patriot's heart to cheer,
The young, unfolding mind to guide,
The future sage to rear;
Where sleeps the cradled infant fair,
To watch with love and kneel in prayer,
Cheer each sad soul with pity's smile,
And frown on every latent wile
That threats the pure, domestic shade,-
Sister, so best our life shall aid
The land we love."

In the present crisis of affairs, our nation may be
nearly as much indebted to Abraham's mother, as
it was to the mother of Washington. Bearing in
mind his early culture, the reader cannot fail to see
that it exerted a moulding influence upon the whole
character and career of the son. And it is a fact
from which the youth and young men of our land
may learn a lesson of lasting good, causing them to
appreciate the fidelity of maternal affection, and to
profit by the counsels of piety that hallow the en-
dearments of HOME.
















THE SALE.

T was about the first of October, 1816. Abra-
ham had not been to school for some weeks;
and yet he could read quite well for a boy not yet
eight years old. He could read some when he left
school; and he persevered so well at home that he
was now able to read the Scriptures in the family.
This was doing much better than many boys do at
this day, even in highly favored New England; and
the fact becomes a key to his character.
It was the time for Colby to pay them a visit, and
negotiate for the place. They had not seen him
since he made them a call; but there was some-
thing in his appearance that caused them to think
he would come.- They had not much doubt of it.
And their expectations were realized. Scarcely a
week of October had passed before he made his
appearance.
"You're good as your word," said Mr. Lincoln.
That's what I meant to be," replied Colby.
"We've been expecting' you, and rather making
arrangements to sell the place. Have you found
any place you like better ? "







THE PIONEER BOY.


No; I have n't looked much. I'm satisfied
with this, if we can agree upon the price, and I
can find out a way to pay you."
It won't take you long to find out the price of
it, for I have settled it in my own mind; and I
s'pose it won't take me much longer to find out
whether you will buy."
I expect it is about so," answered Colby. "As
matters appear to stand, it will not be a long job
that is before us. What's your price ? "
I will sell out for three hundred dollars."
The reader will not be startled by this amount.
Think of a place worth three hundred dollars!
You could hardly call it a homestead; and yet it
was all that Abraham's father possessed in the
wilds of Kentucky. A farm for three hundred
dollars! House, land, and all for that! After
years of hard toil and harder privations, this was
all he had. Scarcely enough to supply a small
family with furniture to commence housekeeping in
Massachusetts But that was his price, and it was
all the place was worth.
How in regard to the pay ? asked Colby.
"That's important to me, of course. What do
you propose ? "
I have n't much money, I can tell you to begin
with, though I have what is good as money in the
market."
"What is it ? "







THE SALE.


"You see I 've been specilatin' a little since I
gave you a call in the summer. I used up my
grain for whiskey, and I bought some too, thinking'
that I should make a spec out of it; but I hain't
sold but a trifle on 't yet. Now, if I could pay you
mostly in whiskey, I would strike the bargain at
once; and may be that over in Indiana you '11 find
a ready market for it."
"I had n't thought of takin' pay in such an ar-
ticle," answered Mr. Lincoln; and I don't know
as I could ever sell it. I 'm going to strike right
into the wilderness."
"That may be; but you '11 have neighbors within
a few miles; and over there they hain't got the
knack of manifacturin' it, I s'pose, and this would
make it easier to sell it."
"It's awkward stuff to carry on such a trip,
though I expect to move on a flat-boat."
"Just the easiest thing in the world to carry
this; you' can carry it as well as not on a boat.
You won't have half a load of other stuff. And
it will bring you double there what it will here,
I'm thinking. "
That's all guess-work."
But don't it stand to reason that whiskey would
bring more where they can't make it, as they can
here ?"
Yes, I admit that it may probably bring more
there, and it ought to bring more to pay for the







THE PIONEER BOY.


trouble of takin' it there. But can't you turn it
into money in some way?"
"I don't see how I can; I've done the best I
could about it. The fact is that folks around hero
have laid in for whiskey largely. I can sell it in
time, I have no doubt, at a stiff price, but that
won't help me just now."
"It seems so; but this is unexpected, though
I'm determined to sell out at some rate. I must
see my wife about it, however, and get her judgment
on the matter."
Mr. Lincoln consulted his wife in regard to the
article with which Colby proposed to pay for the
place. She was somewhat disappointed on hearing
of this turn of affairs, as she had rather anticipated
that he would pay money for it, though it would
have been rather unusual, then and there, for a
man to pay money for the whole of a place. Traffic
was carried on largely by exchanging one thing for
another. But there was something about Colby's
appearance, when he first came to see the place,
that caused Mrs. Lincoln to expect that he would
pay cash for the farm. For this reason, the idea of
selling their place for whiskey struck her as alto-
gether novel and queer at first.
"But I must sell at some rate," said her hus-
band; "and this may be my last chance this sea-
son."
That is true, and the matter must be looked at.







THE SALE.


It may be that the whiskey could be sold in Indiana
more readily than we expect. I scarcely know
what to say. You must do as you think best."
Well, I think it is best to sell out at some rate,
and if I thought that this was my last chance to
sell this fall, I should take the whiskey, and run
the risk."
As to that, I think it likely that you won't have
another chance this fall. It is n't often that you can
sell a place in this part of the country."
"I 'm inclined to think, then," continued Mr.
Lincoln, musing, with his eyes fastened upon the
earth-floor of their cabin, as if scarcely knowing
what to do, that I shall take the whiskey if I can't
do any better with him."
"Just as you think best," answered his wife.
"You can judge better than I can whether it will
do or not."
After going to the man, and satifying himself that
he must take the whiskey, or fail to sell, Mr. Lincoln
introduced the subject of the price of it, about which
nothing had been said.
How much a gallon ? he inquired. You '11
of course sell it at a discount, seeing' I take such a
quantity."
Certainly; I shall sell it to you for five cents a
gallon less than the wholesale price of a barrel; and
you can't ask anything better than that."
That 's fair, I think; and now let me see, how







THE PIONEER BOY.


much will it take ? The reader must remember
that Mr. Lincoln never studied arithmetic, though
he could solve such a problem as this only give him
time. He had been obliged to think and act for
himself from boyhood, and of course, contact with
men and things had given him some knowledge of
figures, or, at least, the ability to perform some
problems mentally.
Mr. Lincoln continued: Seventy cents a gallon
that will be let me see seventy cents a
gallon that will "
Why, one hundred gallons would come to sev-
enty dollars," interrupted Colby, "and four hundred
would come to two hundred and eighty dollars."
Yes, I see it four hundred gallons, and the
rest in money."
That is it; it will make just ten barrels of forty
gallons each, and twenty dollars in money."
I see it. I will agree to that. Ten barrels, and
the balance in money. And when shall we close the
bargain ?"
Just as soon as you propose to leave."
"That will be about the first of November. I
shall want the whiskey and money, though, a week
before that, so as to be all ready to start."
A week before that it is, then. I agree to that,
and shall be here promptly at the time. Perhaps
I shall bring the whiskey before that, if it comes
right."








THE SALE.


Just as well, as soon as you please."
So the bargain was struck, and Colby left.
Let the reader stop here to ponder this trade. A
homestead sold for ten barrels of whiskey and about
twenty dollars in money Surely Abraham's father
could not boast much of this world's goods And
then what an article to take in exchange for a home-
stead What a prospect for his son! Many a
homestead is now bartered away for whiskey, or
some other intoxicating beverage, and haggard want
is all that remains. But not so in this case. Mr.
Lincoln did not countenance immoderate drinking.
He used whiskey to some extent, in common with
everybody else, but he frowned upon intemperance.
Such a transaction as the above was not thought
singular at that day. Good people sold and drank
whiskey. There was no temperance movement in
Kentucky at that time. Indeed, it was not until
about that time that the subject of temperance at-
tracted attention in New England, and then it did
not assume the form of total abstinence. The
pledge required persons to abstain from immod-
erate drinking. It was not till fifteen years after
that time that the pledge of total abstinence was
adopted.
At the present day, the sale of a place for whis-
key would excite surprise and amazement, and sub-
ject the character of the recipient of the whiskey
to suspicion, at least. People would make remarks







THE PIONEER BOY.


about it, and strongly suspect that the man loved
whiskey more than real estate. But not so at that
time, when the sale and use of it was regarded
right and proper all over the country. It is in this
light that the reader is to view the affair.
"You will have enough to do to get ready in that
time," said Mrs. Lincoln, if you are going to build
a flat-boat."
"Very like; but I think I can do it. It's no
great affair to build a flat-boat that will carry my
things to Indiana."
Mr. Lincoln worked at the business of a carpen-
ter when he had an opportunity, so that he could
readily turn his hand to boat-making. He had con-
siderable tact in that way, and it was this kind of
business that brought him in contact with slave-
holders and wealthy men, who looked down upon
him as a menial of hardly so much account as a
slave.
"You must give me a helping' hand, Abe," he
continued; "you are getting' old enough now to
take right hold of work; and when we get to In-
diana, we shall have a plenty of real pioneer work
for you to do."
"That I shall like," answered Abraham; "and I
can do something' now to help you get ready." -
Well, to-morrow we '11 make a beginning. We '11
go down on the Rolling Fork, and see what we can
find to make a boat of. And we've got that corn







THE SALE. 71

to harvest, too, and much more besides that to do,
before we can go."
Mr. Lincoln lived about one mile from the Roll-
ing Fork River, so that it was an easy thing to
move on a boat. He could launch his boat on the
river, and push right down into the broad Ohio.













VI.

PULLING UP STAKES.

ARRANGEMENTS were completed for mov-
ing. The flat-boat was finished, the whiskey
was received, a settlement made with Mr. Colby,
and the numerous little things that remain to be
done before "pulling up stakes," as Mr. Lincoln
called it, were attended to.
Parson Elkins had been round since the place
was sold, and they had heard him preach once
more; nor could they help thinking that it might
be for the last time. Very serious thoughts pos-
sessed their minds as they sat willing listeners to
him. They had enjoyed but few advantages in
Kentucky, and they were going where they would
have fewer still, at least for a time. They well
understood this. They were about to become
pioneers in a more important sense, and it was no
trifling business to grapple with the difficulties
before them. True, they were not going a great
way,--only about one hundred miles. But this
would take them into the wilderness, where neither
schools, churches, nor many people could be found.








PULLING UP STAKES.


It was a change for them, a great change, and,
as the time of their departure drew near, they real-
ized it more and more.
Some work to pull up stakes for good," said
Mr. Lincoln to Colby ; more than I thought
for."
I know that by experience,'" answered Colby.
"Well, this is my first experience, and I don't
know but I shall repent of my course."
"I hope not," said Colby. "I trust that both
of us will be benefited by the move."
They were now standing upon the bank of the
Rolling Fork River, and Mr. Lincoln was ready to
embark.
It had been arranged, finally, that Mr. Lincoln
should take all their heavy wares, like his carpen-
ters' tools, pots, kettles, furniture, whiskey, &c., &c.,
and proceed to Indiana, select a place to settle,
and then return for his family.
"Jump ashore, Abe," said his father; "you are
spry as a cat; and I must be off." The boy was
amusing himself on the boat.
"Where's my axe?" asked Abraham.
"It's all safe on board." His father had pur-
chased him an axe with which he was going to set
him to work in Indiana, as soon as they reached
their destination. The axe is the symbol of pioneer
work, so that he must have one to be a pioneer
boy. To Abraham it was a great prize, and it was
4







THE PIONEER BOY.


not strange that he thought of his axe first and
last.
Perhaps you won't think so much- of it after
you have been obliged to swing it awhile in the
woods," continued his father. "There's some
work in it, you '11 find."
Be careful, Abe, how you step," said his mother,
" or you will be into the water before you get
ashore."
"I '11 look out for that," replied the boy, as he
jumped to the bank.
How long will you be gone? asked Colby.
"Ten or twelve days if I have good luck,"
replied Lincoln.
If you upset in the river, we shall have to wait
h little longer for you," added Colby, dryly.
"Yes; but I don't expect that. I've fixed my
cargo so that I expect to keep right side up, and
sail along smoothly."
"I hope you will," added Mrs. Lincoln.
Having thus arranged everything, Mr. Lincoln
pushed off the craft into deeper water, and was
soon on his way down the river. The weather was
fine, and the boat floated along pleasantly, much to
the satisfaction of the adventurer.
We cannot stop to detail much that occurred on
the voyage. One incident, however, deserves atten-
tion.
He had sailed down the Rolling Fork into the







PULLING UP STAKES.


Ohio River, and proceeded quite a distance on his
voyage, experiencing no perils of wind or storm;
and he was congratulating himself upon his success,
when he met with an accident. By some mishap,
the boat tilted, and the whiskey rolled from its posi-
tion to the side, causing him to upset. He sprung
forward to the other side in order to save his boat,
but it was too late. The whiskey was heavy, and,
once started from its position, there was no saving
it or the boat. In a moment he was tipped into the
water, with all his cargo. It was a good place for
the whiskey, but not so pleasant for him. However,
he clung to the boat, and made the best of it.
"Hold on there!" shouted a man who was at
work with three others on the bank of the river.
" Hold on, and we '11 come to your help." He was
not more than three rods from the bank.
Quick as you can," replied Mr. Lincoln.
"We '11 be there in a jiffy," bawled one of them,
and all ran for a boat that was tied about twenty
rods below.
One of the number leaped into it, and plying the
oar with all his might, he soon reached the craft that
was upset, and took Mr. Lincoln on board.
Bad business for you," said the man.
Not so bad as it might be," answered Mr. Lin-
coln. Rather lucky I think to meet with such an
accident where help is close by."
"But you've lost your cargo, though we may
save some of it if we set about it."







THE PIONEER BOY.


Won't save much of it, I 'm thinking The wa-
ter is ten or fifteen feet deep there."
"Hardly that."
"Pretty near it, I '11 warrant."
By this time they had reached the bank of the
river, and the men were consulting together about
righting Lincoln's boat and saving his cargo. Such
accidents were not uncommon on the Ohio, and
those who lived along the bank had lent a helping
hand to many unfortunate adventurers. This was
the case with the men who came to Lincoln's rescue.
They were not long in laying their plans, nor dila-
tory in executing them.
In a short time they secured his boat, and suc-
ceeded in putting it right side up. They proceeded
also to save so much of his cargo as they could.
They called other men in the neighborhood, and
with such apparatus as the vicinity afforded, they
raked the river, and recovered a part of his car-
penters' tools, axes, a spider, and some other arti-
cles. By much perseverance and hard labor they
succeeded in saving three barrels of the whiskey.
All these articles were reloaded upon Lincoln's boat,
and, with many thanks to the kind-hearted men for
their assistance, he proceeded on his way.
Before starting again, however, he consulted the
men who aided him with regard to the future of his
way; and he decided, in view of the information de-
rived from them, to land at Thompson's Ferry, and








PULLING UP STAKES.


there secure a team to convey his goods into the in-
terior. He had previously settled in his mind what
part of Indiana he should make his home,- not the
exact spot, but about the distance he should go from
the Ohio River.
Accordingly he took his boat and goods to Thomp-
son's Ferry, and there he found a man by the name
of Posey, whom he hired to take him eighteen miles
into Spencer County. This Posey owned a yoke of
oxen, and was quite well acquainted with that sec-
tion of country.
No road into that county," said he. We shall
have to pick our way, and use the axe some at that."
I'm sorry for that," answered Lincoln. Are
there no settlers in that region ? "
"Yes ; here and there one, and they '11 be right
glad to see you. We can put it through, if you
say so."
"Put it through, then, I say," -a reply that
was characteristic of Mr. Lincoln, who possessed
remarkable resolution and force of character.
The man agreed to carry his goods to his place
of destination, and take his boat for pay. Lincoln
would have no further use for his boat, so that it
was a good bargain for him, and equally good for
Posey, who wanted a boat.
Accordingly the team was loaded with his effects,
and they were soon on their way.. But within a
few miles they were obliged to use the axe to make
a road.








THE PIONEER BOY.


Just as I expected," said Posey. I have been
through the mill."
"How far do you expect we shall have to cut
through places like this ?" inquired Lincoln.
"Far enough, I've no doubt; this is a real wil
derness."
Then we must go at it, if we'd see the end
soon."
"Yes; and hard work, too, it will be." And,
without wasting time or breath on words, they pro-
ceeded to cut a road before them.
"I've cut through miles of just such a wilder-
ness as this," said Posey; "and I shouldn't be
surprised if we had to cut a road half the way."
I hope not," answered Lincoln. "If I thought
so, I should almost wish myself back in Kentucky."
"Should, ha?"
"Yes; it would be an everlasting job to cut
through to where I'm goin'."
"Well, I don't suppose it will be as tough as this
much of the way, but bad enough, no doubt."
So with the resolution of veteran pioneers they
toiled on, sometimes being able to pick their way
for a long distance without chopping, and then com-
ing to a stand-still in consequence of dense forests.
Suffice to say, that they were obliged to cut a road
so much of the way that several days were employed
in going eighteen miles. It was a difficult, weari-
some, trying journey, and Mr. Lincoln often said,








PULLING UP STAKES.


that he never passed through a harder experience
than he did in going from Thompson's Ferry to
Spencer County, Indiana.
Some five or six miles south of their place of
destination they passed the cabin of a hospitable
settler, who gave them a hearty welcome, and such
refreshments as his humble abode contained. He
was well acquainted with all that region, too, and
suggested to Mr. Lincoln the spot upon which he
decided to erect his cabin, and also volunteered to
accompany them thither.
The settlers at that day delighted to see others
coming to their vicinity to dwell, thus increasing
their neighbors, and removing somewhat the lone-
liness of pioneer life. They were ever ready to lend
a helping-hand to new-comers, and to share with
them the scanty blessings that Providence allowed
them.
Mr. Lincoln was glad to reach the end of his
journey; and he found the spot suggested by his
new friend in the cabin, whose name was Wood, a
very inviting one.
"Better than I expected," said Lincoln. "I
would n't ask for a better place than this."
"I 've had my eye on it some time," replied
Wood.
"Chance for more settlers, though," continued
Lincoln. One cabin in eighteen miles ain't very
thick."







THE PIONEER BOY.


"That's so," added Posey. There 's elbow-
room for a few more families, and it won't be long
before they'll be here."
But you've neighbors nearer than that," said
Wood. "There's one family not more than two
miles east of here."
"Then I shall have two neighbors," said Lincoln.
And there are two other families within six or
eight miles, one of them is north, and the other
west," continued Wood. The fact is, people are
flockin' into this Free State fast."
"That's why I've come," answered Lincoln.
"I've got enough of slavery, if I live to be as old
as Methuselah."
That's it. I know just how you feel. I lived
in Kentucky myself, till about ten years ago."
We must not dwell. Posey returned with his
team to Thompson's Ferry, and Mr. Lincoln, hav-
ing deposited his goods and secured Mr. Wood's
promise to look after them, directed his steps on
foot back to his family. We have said that it was
about one hundred miles from his old home in
Kentucky to his new one in Indiana. This was
the distance, in a direct line. It was twenty-five
miles farther, the way Mr. Lincoln came. It was a
part of his plan to return on foot. A direct line,
about southeast, would bring him to Hardin
County, a three days' journey.
His family gave him a cordial welcome, and Abra-








PULLING UP STAKES.


ham was somewhat taken with the story of his fa-
ther's adventure, particularly the part relating to
his plunge into the Ohio River.
Hasty preparations were made to remove the
family, and such things as he did not take with
him on the boat. He took no bedding or apparel
with him on the boat. These were left to go with
the family, on horseback. Three horses were pro-
vided, all of which Mr. Lincoln owned. On these
were packed the aforesaid articles, and Mrs. Lin-
coln and her daughter rode one, and Abraham
another, while his father took charge of the third,
sometimes riding and sometimes walking.
They were seven days in performing the journey,
camping out nights, with no other shelter than the
starry skies over them, and no other bed than
blankets spread upon the ground.
It was a novel experience even to them, nor was
it without its perils. Yet they had no fears. In
that country, at that day, neither man nor woman
allowed themselves to cower in the presence of
dangers.
Females were not the timid class that they are
now. They were distinguished for heroism that
was truly wonderful. Inured as they were to
hardships and perils, they learned to look dangers
steadily in the face, and to consider great priva-
tions as incidental to pioneer life. Experiences
that would now destroy the happiness of most of
4* .







THE PIONEER BOY.


the sex then served to develop the courage and
other intrepid virtues that qualified them for the
mission God designed they should fulfil.
Many facts are found in history illustrating the
heroism of Western females, in the early settlement
of that part of our country. Soon after Abra-
ham's grandfather removed to Kentucky, an In-
dian entered the cabin of a Mr. Daviess, armed
with gun and tomahawk, for the purpose of plun-
dering it, and capturing the family. Mrs. Daviess
was alone with her children. With remarkable
presence of mind, she invited the Indian to drink,
at the same time setting a bottle of whiskey on the
table. The Indian set down his gun to pour out
a dram, and at once Mrs. Daviess seized it, and,
aiming it at his head, threatened to blow his brains
out if he did not surrender. The Indian dropped
the bottle, sat down upon a stool, and promised
to do no harm if she would not fire. In that pos-
ture she kept him until her husband arrived.
In another instance, about the same time, the
house of a Mr. Merrill was attacked in the night
by several Indians, and Mr. Merrill was seriously
wounded as he went to the door. The savages
attempted to enter the house, when Mrs. Merrill
and her daughter shut the door against them, and
held it. Then the Indians hewed away a part of
the door, so that one of them could get in at a
time. But Mrs. Merrill, though her husband lay








PULLING UP STAKES.


groaning and weltering in his blood, and her chil-
dren were screaming with fright, seized an axe,
when the first one had got partly into the room,
and dealt upon him a mortal blow. Then she
drew his body in, and waited for the approach of
another. The Indians, supposing that their com-
rade had forced an entrance, were exultant, and
proceeded to follow him. Nor did they discover
their mistake until she had despatched four of
them in this way. Then two of them attempted
to descend the chimney, whereupon she ordered
her children to empty the contents of a bed upon
the fire; and the fire and smoke soon brought
down two Indians, half suffocated, into the room.
Mr. Merrill, by a desperate exertion, rose up,
and speedily finished these two with a billet of
wood. At the same time his wife dealt so heavy
a blow upon the only remaining Indian at the door,
that he was glad to retire.
Volumes might be filled with stories that show
the heroism of Western women at that day. We
have cited these two examples simply to exhibit their
fortitude. Mrs. Lincoln was a resolute, fearless wo-
man, like her pioneer sisters, and hence was cool
and self-possessed amidst all exposures and dangers.
She was a pious heroine; and such nights as those
they spent on their way to Indiana only served to
fill her heart with thoughts of Him who watched
over them by night and day.







84 THE PIONEER BOY.

We said they were seven days on the journey.
Two miles from their destination they came to the
cabin of their nearest neighbor, Mr. Neale, who
treated them with great kindness, and promised to
assist them on the following day in putting up a
dwelling. It was a pleasant proffer of assistance,
and it served to make them happier as they laid
down in their blankets on the first night of their
residence in Spencer County, Indiana.
We have been thus particular, in this part of the
narrative, because this experience had much to do
with the development of that courage, energy, de-
cision, and perseverance for which Abraham was
thereafter distinguished.














VII.


THE PIONEER BOY.

"c OME, Abe," called his father, as soon as it was
Slight enough to see in the morning; "you
begin to be a pioneer boy in earnest to-day. Your
axe is waiting' for you. We must get us up a cabin
as soon as possible."
The quicker the better," said Mrs. Lincoln; "if
there should come a storm, we should be in a pretty
plight."
What can I do? asked Abraham, who by this
time was on his feet.
"Cut down the first tree you come to; all this
land will be cleared in time, and no matter how
quick the trees fall."
But you want trees cut first for the house, don't
you?"
"Yes, any of them will do for that. You can't
do much; but every little helps, and you must be-
gin, if you are going' to be a pioneer." And Abra-
ham went at it.
Sure enough, there he is, a boy only eight years
old, cutting away at a tree, to aid his father in rear-







THE PIONEER BOY.


ing a cabin to shelter them. Nor is he to stop when
the dwelling is completed, for there are acres of
land around that are to be cleared for a farm. On
that eventful morning he began to swing the axe,
and he continued at the business most of the time
until he was past twenty years of age.
He seems but a little boy to engage in such labo-
rious work; but the pioneer boys of eight years, at
that day, were as efficient for labor as boys are now
at fifteen. They were early put to labor, so that
tact and muscular power were early developed.
They were equally courageous too. Many thrilling
stories are told of their heroism, that would do
honor to experienced men. One of these historic
records is, that two boys by the name of Johnson,
one nine and the other twelve years of age, were
taken captive by two Indians near the present site
of Steubenville, Kentucky. At night, when the
Indians were fast asleep, one took a rifle and the
other a tomahawk, and simultaneously killed their
captors, and then escaped to their homes.
I will shoot a turkey for you, mother, to cook
before I go to choppin'," Mr. Lincoln continued.
The forest abounded in game, among which were
wild turkeys and deer, and the settlers depended
mainly upon their rifles for a supply of meat. "It
will take me but a few minutes."
Abe must learn to use the rifle next," said his
mother. "He can often do us good service in this
way, if he '11 make a good marksman."


















\ \* '


THE PIONEER BOY.


: -r

~p~.








THE PIONEER BOY.


"I should like that," answered Abraham, who
heard the remark.
"We 'll attend to that in season," said his father.
"You shall try your skill all you want to one of
these days." And Mr. Lincoln hurried away for his
game. It was not more than five minutes before
the discharge of his rifle was heard, and within five
minutes more he returned with a turkey.
By this time Mrs. Lincoln had some simple food
prepared for their morning meal, and just as they
had finished partaking of it, Mr. Neale, the neighbor
who promised to come and aid them in putting up
a cabin, made his appearance.
"Good morning Mr. Neale ? I hardly expected
to see you so early," was Mr. Lincoln's greeting.
Short days these, and when a family is without
shelter, we must make the most of time," replied
Mr. Neale. But here is a piece of venison which
my wife sent. She thought how good such a bite
would have tasted to her two years ago, when we
were doin' just what you are now."
She is very kind," answered Mrs. Lincoln, taking
the meat, and removing the cloth from it. And it
is all nicely cooked, too."
Yes, she thought she could do that better than
you can just now."
How thoughtful she is I hope we shall make
as good neighbors to her as she is to us."
I've just shot a turkey," said Mr. Lincoln,








THE PIONEER BOY.


" and my wife was goin' to try her hand at cooking'
it. Game must be very plenty here."
It can't be plentier; no danger of starvin' here;
you can shoot deer and turkeys enough by going' ten
rods for your family the year round."
"That's a fine thing for pioneers like us."
"We could n't do much if it wa'n't so."
That's certain; I should hardly dare to get so
far away from people if it wa'n't so."
"Nor anybody else. But I come to work; and
now just tell me where to go at it, and I'11 waste no
more time. By the way, ain't this a real pleasant
spot to camp down in ?"
I don't think we could have found a pleasanter
one," answered Mrs. Lincoln.
Mr. Lincoln and his new friend Neale, with little
Abraham, proceeded to chopping trees, and prepar-
ing the logs for the house. For a boy of his age,
Abraham exhibited remarkable tact and endurance,
so much so as to elicit remarks from all, together
with cautions against overdoing. His interest and
energy in the new work denoted that he would be
a pioneer boy of mark.
Better build your home like mine," said Neale;
" it 's easy made and handy. There 's nothing
better than a half-faced camp."
I 'd as quick have that as any; I want to get
our heads covered pretty soon. In fact, that was
the kind of cabin we had in Kentucky."







THE PIONEER BOY.


"It won't take long to do that. We can cut
nearly logs enough to-day; and then we can put
it through in a hurry."
Can you help me through with it ? "
0 yes; that's what I 'm goin' to do. I can do
it as well as not."
I '11 try that you sha'n't be a loser. Perhaps
you will want a good turn done you one of these
days."
No doubt I shall want a good many of them.
There 's Abe (and he glanced his eye at the boy,
who was listening, evidently intending to compli-
ment him), he '11 make such a worker that I shall
want to have him try his hand for me some time."
He '11 like to. do it, I 'm thinking Abe hain't a
lazy bone in him."
He 'd work 'em all out, if he had, pretty soon,
I reckon." Mr. Neale intended this remark for
Abraham's ear, and the lad received it in the same
spirit that it was given.
Thus chatting, working, and planning, the day
was spent, the first day of Abraham's actual pi-
oneer life,- and much was done towards rear-
ing an abode. On the following day, Mr. Wood,
who had learned of their arrival, tendered his as-
sistance.
We have not time to enter into particulars about
the house-building. We can say no more, than that
the house was ready to recei4b its tenants in two








THE PIONEER BOY.


days, although it was not then completed. It was
so far along, however, as to afford convenient shel-
ter. We will give a description of it, furnished by
one who often found shelter under its roof, and who
lived many years close by it.
It was sixteen by eighteen feet in size, without a
floor, the logs put together at the corners by the
usual method of notching them, and the cracks be-
tween them stopped with clay. It had a shed-roof,
covered with slabs or clapboards split from logs. It
contained but one room, except overhead slabs were
laid across the logs, so as to make a chamber, to
which access was had by a ladder in one corner. It
had one door and one window. The latter, however,
was so ingeniously constructed, that it deserves par-
ticular attention. Mr. Lincoln made a sash of the
size of four six-by-eight squares of glass, and, in
place of glass, which could not be obtained in that
region, he took the skin that covers the fat portion
of a hog, called the leaves, and drew it over the sash
tight. This furnished a very good substitute for
glass; and the contrivance reflected some credit
upon the inventive genius of the builder.
The cabin was furnished by Mr. Lincoln and
Abraham without other assistance, and we will give
some account of the way of doing it.
Bring me the auger, Abe," said his father,
"and that measure, too; we must have a bedstead
now."








THE PIONEER BOY.


I can bore the holes," answered Abraham, at
the same time bringing the auger and measure.
No, you can't. It's tough work to bore two-
inch holes into such logs as these. But you can go
and find me a stick for a post, and two others to lay
on it."
"That all?"
"Yes, that's all. I'll just make it in that
corner, and then I shall have but two holes to
bore, and one post to set up. It's not more than
an hour's work."
By making the bedstead in the corner, the work
was but small. He measured off eight feet on one
side, and bored one hole, then four and a half feet
on the end, and bored another hole. Then setting
up the post in its place, two sticks from each auger-
hole would meet on the post, thus making the
framework of the bed. This was soon done.
"Now for the bed-cord, Abe," said his father,
jocosely. "We must have something to lay the
bed on."
I thought you laid on slabs," answered Abra-
ham, not exactly comprehending the drift of his
father's remark.
"We have n't any other bed-cord, so pass me
some of those yonder." The slabs used to lay over
the bed-frame were like those on the roof.
"How many shall I bring ?" and he began to
pass the slabs.








THE PIONEER BOY.


"About six, I think, will do it."
They were soon brought, and the bed was com-
plete.
"Now a sackful of straw on that will make a
fine bed." Dry leaves, hay and husks were some-
times used for this purpose. Few had feathers in
that region.
"You must keep on with your cabinet-making,"
said Mrs. Lincoln. We need a table as much as
a bed."
"Of course. That comes next," replied her hus-
band. "The legs for it are all ready."
Where are they ?" inquired Abraham.
Out there," pointing to a small pile of limbs,
sticks, and slabs. Abraham went after them, while
his father sawed off a puncheon of the required
length for the table. A puncheon was made by
splitting a log eighteen inches, more or less, in
diameter, the flat side laid uppermost. Puncheons
were used in this way to make tables, stools, and
floors.
By the time Abraham had brought the sticks for
the legs of the table, his father had the table part
all ready, and was proceeding to bore the holes for
the legs.
Now you may bring some more of those sticks
in the pile, the shortest of them I shall want
next ?"
What for ? "







THE PIONEER BOY.


"0, we must have some chairs now; we've set
on the ground long enough. I want the sticks for
legs."
Enough for one stool each now will do. We '11
make some extra ones when we get over our hurry.
Four times three are twelve: I shall want twelve."
Must they be just alike ? "
"No; you can't find two alike, hardly. If they
are too long, I can saw them the right length."
All this time the work of making the table went
on. As Abraham had so large a number of stool-
legs to select and bring from the pile, the table was
nearly completed when his part of the work was
done.
"A scrumptious table, I'm thinking, said Mr.
Lincoln, as he surveyed it when it was fairly on its
legs. Pioneer cabinet-work ain't handsome, but
it's durable."
And useful, too," said his wife. Two of them
would n't come amiss."
No; and when I get time we'll have another.
Perhaps Abe can make you one some time. Can't
you make a table, Abe ?"
"I can try it."
Well, you ought to succeed, now you have seen
me do it. You can try your hand at it some day.
But now for the stools."
A good slab was selected, of which four stools
could be made; and before night the house was







THE PIONEER BOY.


furnished at small expense. A bed, table, and
stools constituted the furniture of this pioneer
home, in which Xbraham spent twelve years of his
eventful life.
Abraham occupied the loft above, ascending to
his lodgings by the ladder. It was his parlor-
chamber, where he slept soundly at night on the
loose floor, with no other bedding than blankets.
Here year after year he reposed nightly with as
much content and bliss as we usually find in the
mansions of the rich. He had never known better
fare than this; and perhaps, at that age, he did not
expect a larger share of worldly goods.
Here, reader, you have a view of the pioneer
boy's early home. Do you like it ? How does it
compare with our own ? There were not "many
attractions about it certainly. It does not look as
if the poor boy in that floorless, dismal cabin would
ever make his mark in the world. But where
there's a will, there's a way." His condition could
not be much more deplorable, so far as external
circumstances are concerned. But then he had
Christian parents to instruct and guide him, and
a high and noble purpose animated his soul. We
shall see how he came out.













VIII.

THE GRIST-MILL.


T HE pioneer families of that day needed the
means of converting their corn into meal.
Meal was a staple article of food, without which
they could scarcely survive. Yet there were few
grist-mills in all the region for many miles around,
and these were poor things compared with the
mills of the present day. They were worked by
horse-power, and could grind but little faster than
corn could be pounded into meal now with a mortar
and pestle.
The Lincoln family must have meal. Their
cabin was completed, and they had settled down to
spend the first winter of pioneer life in the Free
State of Indiana.
How far to a mill ? asked Abraham.
SNone nearer than the Ferry," replied his
father; and they say that's an old thing that ain't
wuth much."
I can go there to mill for you," continued the
boy.
"I 'm going to have a mill nearer home than
that, one of my own make."







THE PIONEER BOY.


How ?"
"You'll see when it is done. This goin' eigh-
teen miles to mill don't pay: we must have one
right here."
And it won't take you longer to make it than
it would to go to the Ferry once and back," said
Mrs. Lincoln.
It's an all-day job to go there, and a pretty
long day at that." She knew what kind of a mill
he referred to; for she had seen them.
We '11 have one before to-morrow night," added
Mr. Lincoln, with a shrug of the shoulder.
How will you make it ? inquired Abraham,
who was deeply interested.
You'll see when it's done; I shall need some
of your help, and if you do fust rate, you may try
the rifle next day." The boy had been promised
before that he should learn to shoot.
I '1 like that," said the lad.
And so shall I, if you make a marksman. You
can be a great help to us by killing game to cook.
When you get so that you can pop over a turkey
or a deer, I sha'n't need to hunt any."
Will you let me do it ?"
"Yes, and be glad to have you. The woods
are full of game, and you shall have a chance to
make a good shot."
Abraham was delighted with the prospect of
making a gunner, and he went to his hard bed that








THE GRIST-MILL.


night with glowing thoughts of the future. The
morrow's sun found him up, and ready to assist his
father in making a grist-mill.
"The first thing is a log," said his father; and
he proceeded to look for a tree of suitable dimen-
sions; nor was he long in finding one.
When I get it ready, I shall want you to make a
fire on 't, Abe," he continued.
What! burn it up?" screamed the boy, not
understanding what his father meant.
Ha! not quite so bad as that. It would n't be
wuth much for a mill if 't was burnt up."
"Did n't you say make a fire on 't ? "
"Yes, on the top of it; we must burn a hole in
it a foot deep, to put corn in; so get your fire
ready."
It was not long before the tree was prostrate, and
a portion of the trunk cut off about four feet long.
Setting it upon one end, Mr. Lincoln continued:
" Here, Abe, that's what I mean by making a fire
on 't. You must make a fire right on the top of it,
and burn a hole in it wellnigh a foot deep. I'11
help you."
The fire was soon kindled, and Abraham's curios-
ity was at the highest pitch. What was coming
next was more than he could tell,-and no
wonder !
"Now 'brhng some water; we must keep it
wet."







THE PIONEER BOY.


And put out the fire? said Abraham, inquir-
ingly.
No, no; we must keep the outside of it wet, so
that the whole of it won't burn. We don't want to
burn the outside, only a hole in the centre."
Abraham saw through it now, and he hastened to
get the water. The fire was kept burning while
Mr. Lincoln looked up a spring-pole, to one end of
which he attached a pestle.
What is that for ? asked Abraham.
"You '11 see when I get it into working order,"
replied his father. Keep the fire a-goin' till it's
burnt deep enough."
It never 'll burn deep as you say."
"Yes it will, only keep doin'. That's the way
pioneers have to make grist-mills."
It '11 take more than one day to burn it any-
how, at this rate."
No it won't. It will burn faster when it gets a
little deeper. We'll have it done before night.
You must have patience, and keep at it."
And they continued at the work. Mr. Lincoln
prepared the spring-pole somewhat like an old-fash-
ioned well-sweep; and it was ready for use before
the hole was burned deep enough in the log. Then,
with his additional help, the log was ready before
night, and the coal was thoroughly cleaned out of
the hole, and the pestle on the pole adapted thereto.
This was all the mill that he proposed to have.







THE GRIST-MILL.


It was the kind used by many settlers at that day.
It was a mortar and pestle on a large scale, and, on
the whole, was much better than to go twenty miles
to a horse-mill that could grind but little faster.
About two quarts of corn could be put into the hole
in the log at once, and a few strokes from the pes-
tle on the spring-pole would reduce it to meal. In
this way the family could be provided with meal at
short notice. The apparatus, too, corresponded
very well with all the surroundings. For a Dutch
oven and spider constituted the culinary furni-
ture of the cabin. All their other articles of iron-
ware were at the bottom of the Ohio River. The
spider was used for griddle, stew-pan, gridiron,
kettle, and sundry other things, in addition to
its legitimate purpose; proving that man's real
wants are few in number. It is very convenient
to be provided with all the modern improvements
in this line; but the experience of the Lincoln
family shows that happiness and life can be pro-
moted without them.
This mill served the family an excellent purpose
for many years. It was so simple that it needed no
repairs, and it was not dependent either on rain or
sunshine for the power to go. Any of the family
could go to mill here. Abraham could carry a grist
on his arm or back, and play the part of miller at
the same time.
A real saving," said Mrs. Lincoln ; "if we can't








THE PIONEER BOY.


do one way, God has another for us. It's so handy
to have a mill at the door. But you 'll have to go
to the Ferry before long for some other things.'.
"I've been thinking' of it," answered Mr. Lincoln.
We must have a little tea and a few things to
make our humble fare relish," continued his wife;
" and it's better goin' now than it will be two or
three weeks hence, when the snows come."
"I can't go for two or three days; I must get
things fixed up around the cabin first, and be all
ready for the winter."
That is best; and we ought to be thankful that
the snows keep off so long. We've had a fine time
to prepare our new quarters. And now we're
getting settled down, Abe," turning- to him, "you
must attend to your reading a little more, or you '11
forget all you've learned."
"And we can't have that," added Mr. Lincoln,
"for we '11 need your reading' more in the woods
here than we did in our old home."
I wish I could have some other book to read,"
said Abraham, in reply to his father's and mother's
words, referring to the fact that the Bible was the
only reading-book in the family.
Why, there can be no better book in the world
than the Bible," answered his mother ; and you
get one thing in it that you don't in any other
book."
"What's that, mother ?"




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