Architecture and Fine Arts
GREAT ENGRAVERS: EDITED BY ARTHUR M. HIND
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. LOUISA, C.S. 159 [before 1]
VISCOUNTESS STORMONT (ROMNEY)
r r \
AND THE GREAT MEZ
TINTERS OF THE TIM
IRFDLRI K A. Tr, )kL COtMPIAN
NEW 1 ORK PLiI: IsIIER
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH
E IGHTEENTH-CENTURY mezzotint is England's chief
glory in the history of engraving. In line-engraving and
etching England had started a century behind the continent
of Europe, and even then much of the best work produced
for a considerable period was done by settlers from abroad. With
mezzotint, too, the initiative came from abroad, for its inventor,
Ludwig von Siegen, was a German amateur, and most of its earliest
practitioners were German or Dutch. But very soon after the
introduction of the new process, England became the chief centre of
attraction to the best mezzotinters of the period, though it was not
until the beginning of the eighteenth century that an entirely native
school thoroughly vindicated the title of la Manihre Anglaise, by
which the art was commonly known before the end of the seventeenth
Von Siegen's discovery was first taken up by the famous Prince
Rupert, and for a considerable period after John Evelyn's notice in
his Sculptura (1662) of the New way of engraving, or Mezzo
Tinto, invented and communicated by his Highnesse Prince Rupert,"
fame or flattery assigned to the Prince the actual invention of the
art. But though the discovery is now known not to have been his,
he is justly famous in the history of the art for the most magnificent
of the early mezzotints, the Great Executioner (after Ribera), which
shows a real flair, and a far finer artistic feeling than anything of
Von Siegen. It was no doubt Prince Rupert's interest in mezzotint
when settled in England at the beginning of the reign of Charles II,
that was the really determining factor in making England the centre
of the art.
The first century of mezzotint may be treated in a later volume
of this series, but in the present place we plunge in medias res, illus-
trating the period in which it reached its zenith. Van Dyck was
just too early to be represented in contemporary mezzotint, so that
the earliest mezzotinters largely reflect the paintings of Lely,
Kneller, Vanderbank, and the host of lesser lights (chiefly foreigners)
who still carried on the Van Dyck tradition. But the second part
of the eighteenth century saw the establishment of a true English
school of painting, and the great mezzotinters of this period find half
their glory, and nearly all their popularity, in being the noblest
translators into the less exclusive medium of engraving of the
canvases of Reynolds, Gainsborough, Romney, and Hoppner.
Mezzotint has only rarely been used by the engraver as a means
of original expression. The absence of lines and the peculiar rich-
ness and depth of its chiaroscuro make it the finest medium for the
reproduction of oil painting, and neither painters nor engravers have
been slow to recognize its special mission.
A brief description of the process as in use in the eighteenth
century may be some help towards its appreciation. To begin with,
the result is obtained in exactly the reverse direction to that of all
the other processes of engraving. The artist, having prepared a
plate that would print quite dark, proceeds to work out his lighter
portions. The instrument used to prepare the plate, called the
rocker, is a piece of steel with curved serrated edge, with thread
smaller or larger according to the quality of texture required. It is
held with its blade at right angles to the plate, and the curved edge,
rocked regularly over the whole surface at many angles, causes a
uniformly indented surface, with a burr, or curving piece of metal,
thrown up at each indentation. A print taken from this would print
black, much of the rich quality of the tone coming from the burr, as
in dry-point. Then, with a tool called the scraper, the engraver
removes those portions of the burr where the lights are to appear,
working from dark to light. The more the surface of the grain is
scraped away, the less will the ink be retained by what remains, and
if the scraping and burnishing be continued quite to the bottom of
the indentations, a smooth surface will be left which will hold no
ink and print white.
The name of John Raphael Smith has been put at the head of this
volume, as to our mind that of the greatest of the mezzotinters of the
Reynolds period. Other engravers, such as Valentine Green and
John Jones, may be no less brilliant, but none, except perhaps the
brothers Ward, shows equal strength and originality. J. R. Smith
was himself a fair portrait painter, and in this and his original
drawings and mezzotints of society genre, he is a thoroughly typical
representative of the two chief factors in the English school of the
late eighteenth century. But his original work is of small importance
beside his unrivalled power in the interpretation of Reynolds and
Romney. His female portraits after Romney, one of which stands
as the frontispiece to this volume, are among the most exquisite
productions in the whole range of mezzotint. Several of his portraits
of men, such as Dr. Richard Robinson (after Reynolds), might be cited
among his strongest achievements, but it is surprising how com-
paratively small is the market value of the best of these beside the
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH
more popular full-length portraits of ladies, such as the Mrs. Carnac,
(xxx) and Mrs. Musters (xxxv). While the former in brilliant state
might realise about _5, rare early impressions of either of the latter,
or of similarly popular portraits, such as Thomas Watson's Lady
Bampfylde, or Valentine Green's Ladies Waldegrave, might be fetching
many hundreds of pounds. No doubt the eye of the public is set on
the decorative quality of these magnificent full-lengths, and whatever
one's judgment of the comparative artistic value of the finest
mezzotint after Reynolds beside a line-engraving by Diirer, it must
be confessed that the mezzotint makes by far the more imposing wall
The enormous prices that have been realized by mezzotint in
recent years have of course only gone for brilliant impressions in
perfect condition, and the quality of impression is a more important
factor with mezzotint than with engravings in any other process
except dry-point. In fact the rarity of good impressions in the case
of both mezzotint and dry-point comes from the same reason, the
delicacy of the burr which gives to both their deep velvety tone.
Twenty or thirty printings may be quite enough to wear down this
burr, and leave the later prints as mere ghostly reminders of
their former glories. In spite of this many of the most famous plates,
such as J. R. Smith's Mrs. Carnac, and John Jones's Miss Kemble
(C. S. 42),* have yielded thousands of impressions. The Mrs. Carnac
in particular, which is still in the possession of Messrs. P. and D.
Colnaghi, has been reworked from time to time with such skill that
even some modern impressions are effective. But they have almost
lost all relationship with the original work, so drastic have been the
restorations, and their value is negligible on that account.
Modern photogravure gives marvellous results in reproducing the
tone of oil-paintings. But as a photo-mechanical process that relies
on etching for the work on the plate there is a complete absence of
the rich burr that lends mezzotint its incomparable qualities of
texture and tone.
The engravers illustrated in our plates are arranged roughly in
chronological order, and the two first, Thomas Frye and James
McArdell, represent the transition period of about 1750. The
transition from the fashions of the earlier half of the century to the
Reynolds period is very remarkable in McArdell's Duchess of Ancaster
after Hudson (n), and his ednne Day after Reynolds (Iv).
A different plate from the one reproduced here as xxix, though that
also is known, I believe, in modern impressions.
Valentine Green is, perhaps, the most popular of all the English
mezzotinters, particularly for his full-length portraits of ladies after
Reynolds. He is represented at his best in the Duchess of Rutland
(xix) and Countess of Salisbury (xx), but a very large number of his
full-lengths are empty in character and too smooth in tone to be
effective on so large a scale. The Ladies Waldegrave (xxi) is, per-
haps, his most beautiful print, and far finer in the quality of its tone
than most of his plates, which often tend to be hard and metallic.
But none of his works quite attains the variety of tone and certainty
of draughtsmanship generally shown by Thomas Watson, who is
best known for his Lady Bampfylde after Reynolds (xxII). Nor
did Valentine Green at his best produce anything so broad and at
the same time so delicate in style as the Mrs. Musters of his pupil
James Walker (xLII).
John Jones is on the whole the most convincing of the English
engravers in his method of rendering the qualities of the painter's
brush. His plates of MIiss Ktemble after Reynolds (one of which is
illustrated in xxix) and Mrs. Charlotte Davenport after Romney
(xxviii) are perhaps his most charming mezzotints. He is rather an
exception among his contemporaries in engraving far more men than
women, and his Edmund Burke after Romney (xxvii) is one of the
most superb examples. We have chosen our illustrations in several
cases from the interest or beauty of the sitter, as much as from the
value of the mezzotint, e.g. Fisher's David Garrick (vii) and Laurence
Sterne (viii), James Watson's Mrs. Bunbury (Goldsmith's Little
Comedy") (x), Finlayson's Elizabeth Gunning, Duchess of Argyll (one
of the sisters so famous for their beauty) (xv), John Jones's 7ames
Boswell (xxvi), J. R. Smith's Mrs. Montagu (the first of the "Blue-
Stockings) (xxxiv), Marchi's Oliver Goldsmith (xLvI), Doughty's
Dr. Johnson (XLV), and Charles Turner's Sir Walter Scott (LIx).
Several of the most attractive of all the English mezzotints are
done by engravers who produced comparatively little, e.g. Doughty's
Dr. Johnson, Henry Hudson's charming portrait of the unknown
M/rs. Curtis (XLVIII), and Elizabeth Judkin's portrait of the famous
actress, M2lrs. Abington (XLIII). In fact, mezzotint seems to me an
art in which lack of real artistic power is easily hidden in the
delightful results that even unpractised hands can achieve. How
poor even the greatest of the English mezzotinters can be when
wandering a little from the regular path is exemplified in the extra-
ordinary lack of structural coherence of John Jones's Fiew from
Richmond Hill, after Reynolds.
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH
With the Wards we enter on a greater variety of subject, landscapes
and rustic subjects after Morland becoming almost as numerous as the
portraits. Moreover both William and James Ward did a con-
siderable amount of original work, William producing some charming
fancy subjects and portraits, and James chiefly devoting himself to
rustic and animal studies. Unfortunately for mezzotint James Ward
turned almost entirely to painting in his later years. It is more
especially with the Wards, and the other engravers who worked after
Morland, that one finds mezzotints printed in colours. In the earlier
part of the eighteenth century J. C. Le Blon had experimented with
mezzotint and the three-colour process (i.e. using three or even four
plates in the printing), but his methods had not been taken up by
other English artists, and English mezzotints, when printed in
colour, are practically always printed from the single plate. This
means of course the laborious process of filling the plate with colour
between each printing, a very different matter to the washes of
colour with which late impressions are often tinted to pass as real
colour-prints. They are more correctly called coloured or tinted
impressions, not colour-prints, and though real colour-printing is often
combined with some hand-tinting in the impression, it may be taken
as a general 'rule that the less hand-tinting the better the print.
Colour in the eighteenth century was far more generally used for
stipple, and here as well as with the mezzotints it is chiefly the
fancy subjects, and only rarely the portraits, that are found printed
One of James Ward's plates, the Hoppner Children, is reproduced
here in an unfinished as well as a completed state (Lrv and Lv). It will
serve as a clear demonstration of the mezzotinter's method of scraping
out his lights from an original black ground.
With Charles Turner and S. W. Reynolds one reaches a turning-
point in the history of mezzotint. Both of these engravers produced
many splendid plates almost equal to the work of J. R. Smith and
the Wards, but one feels from time to time the beginning of the
decline. But the deterioration in quality is much more evident in
Samuel Cousins, who shows a greater tendency to the smooth and
mechanically laid surface, in which technical finesse entirely fails to
atone for the loss of the rich deep tones of the greater period.
Probably Lawrence and his weaker imitators, with their love of glossy
surfaces, are to blame for the decay in the quality of the tone of
mezzotint. Something also may be due to the use of steel instead of
copper for a short period from about 1820, a practice which was for
some time advertised as a matter of pride in the inscriptions on the
plates. But the hardness of surface and power of yielding extensive
editions, which was its objective, was soon found to be equally well
served by coating the copper-plate by electrolysis with a thin plating
of steel, and that is the regular method in use at the present day
when a copper-plate is put into commerce for a large edition.
With the decay of portrait, mezzotint was finding a fresh field in
landscape, and its vitality is shown in the splendid series of plates
that make up J.. M. W. Turner's Liber Studiorum. Turner himself
did the outline etching for the majority of this series, and generally
left it to more professional engravers, such as Charles Turner,
William Say, and Dunkarton, to add the tone by means of mezzo-
tint on the basis of his monochrome drawings. In a few cases
Turner was his own mezzotinter. Apart from the plates Turner
scraped for the Liber Studiorum, some eleven plates in pure mezzotint,
commonly called the Sequels to the Liber, were found in his studio at
his death. Original impressions from these are of extreme rarity,
but several of them have been printed from at later periods. The
impression we reproduce, the Study of Clouds (LxIII), is one of these,
pulled by the late Sir Seymour Haden.
Constable was even more successful than Turner in the repro-
duction of his landscape by mezzotint. In David Lucas he found
one of the most gifted of all the English mezzotinters, with an
extraordinary talent for interpretation. It is remarkable how much
of the quality of Constable's painting, even to its colour values, is
preserved in Lucas's plates.
The most interesting work in modern mezzotint has also been in
landscape, for it is here that the art is less fettered by tradition.
The late' Sir Seymour Haden and Sir Frank Short have perhaps
done the best work, but many recent etchers might be cited for
occasional plates in mezzotint. Some of Sir Frank Short's plates after
Peter De Wint and after unpublished drawings of the Liber
Studiorum quite equal the best mezzotints of Turner's contemporaries.
Nevertheless it has to be confessed that the growth of photo-
gravure has done its best to kill the art of mezzotint. The general
public calls for reproductions of pictures, and does not stop to
think of the quality of the tone, nor of the value of interpretation in
the hands of a real artist-engraver. What it demands is the fidelity
of the photographer, not a print which is in itself a real work of art.
.But in spite of these obstacles there are still a few mezzotinters
(apart from the original landscape etchers) who remain faithful to
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH
the old tradition. And it can at least be said that many of them far
surpass the average quality of mezzotints produced by the followers
of Lawrence and Landseer. For the sake of this remnant, and for
the sake of fostering discernment in the public taste, everything
should be done to keep the art alive. In spite of its glories
being largely in the past, we would be the last to speak of it as
BOOKS OF REFERENCE
CHELSUM, James. A History of the Art of Engraving in Mezzotinto.
LABORDE, Leon de. Histoire de la Gravure en Maniere Noire. Paris
RAWLINSOn, W. G. Turner's Liber Studiorum: a Description and a
Catalogue. London 1878. (2nd ed. 1906)
CHALONER SMITH, John. British Mezzotinto Portraits. 4 vols. London
1883. (The Standard Catalogue for British Mezzotinters until the
beginning of the Nineteenth Century)
WHITMAN, Alfred. The Masters of Mezzotint. London 1898
Valentine Green. London 1902
Samuel William Reynolds. London 1903
Samuel Cousins. London 1904
Charles Turner. London 1907
FRANKAU, Julia. John Raphael Smith, his life and works (with a portfolio
containing facsimile reproductions of fifty examples). London 1902
William Ward, A.R.A., James Ward, R.A., their lives and works.
GOODWIN, Gordon. James McArdell. London 1I03
Thomas Watson, James Watson, Elizabeth Judkins. London 1904
DAVENPORT, Cyril. Mezzotints (Connoisseurs' Library). London 1904
BRITISH MUSEUM. Guide to an Exhibition of Mezzotint Engravings,
chiefly from the Cheylesmore Collection. London 1905
LIST OF PLATES
The following abbreviations are used : C. S. = Chaloner Smith;
R. = Rawlinson ; W. = Whitman (see Books of Reference)
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. Louisa
Cathcart, Viscountess Stormont
(Romney). Frontispiece. C. S.
159 [before I]
THOMAS FRYE. Queen Charlotte,
Wife of George III. i. C. S.
I [before i]
Mary Panton, Duchess of Ancaster
(Hudson). ii. C. S. I
Lady Mary Coke (Ramsay). II.
C. S. 43 [before I]
Anne Day, afterwards Lady Fen-
houlet (Reynolds). iv. C. S.
53 [before I]
RICHARD HOUSTON. The Man with
the Knife (Rembrandt). v. C. S.
146 [between I and II]
Hon. George Seymour Conway,
afterwards Lord George Seymour
(Reynolds). vi. C. S. 10 [I]
David Garrick between Tragedy and
Comedy (Reynolds). vii. C. S.
Laurence Sterne (Reynolds). vIII.
C. S. 56, I
JOHN DIXON. William Robert
Fitzgerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster
(Reynolds). ix. C. S. 22, I
Mrs, Catherine Bunbury (Reynolds).
x. C. S 18, I
Mrs. Collier (Reynolds). xI. C. S.
WILLIAM PETHER. Artists drawing
from a statuette of a gladiator
(Wright). xi. C. S, 45, I
RICHARD EARLOM. The Life School
of the Royal Academy (Zoffany).
xiii. C. S. I [between I and ii]
Interior of the Pantheon, London
(Brandoin). xiv. C. S. 45
JOHN FINLAYSON. Elizabeth Gun-
ning, Duchess of Argyll (Read).
xv. C. S. I, n
Mrs. Maria Cosway (Maria Cosway).
xvi. C. S. 29 [I]
Valentine Green (Abbott). xvi.
C. S. 57, ii
Sir Joshua Reynolds (Reynolds),
xviI. C. S. I0, I
Mary Isabella Somerset, Duchess of
Rutland (Reynolds). xix. C. S.
Emily Mary Hill, Countess of
Salisbury (Reynolds). xx. C. S.
The Ladies Laura, Charlotte Maria,
and Anne Horatia Waldegrave
(Reynolds). xxi. C. S, 133, I
Catherine Moore, Lady Bampfylde,
(Reynolds). xxii. C. S. 2, i
George White, pavior and artist's
model, as "Resignation" (Rey-
nolds). xxIII. C. S. 43 [be-
Sir John Fielding (Peters). xxIv.
C. S. 20 [before 1]
Elizabeth Houghton, Lady Taylor
(Reynolds). xxv. C. S. 80
James Boswell (Reynolds). xxvI.
C. S. 8 [before I]
Edmund Burke (Romney). xxvin.
C. S. II [before I]
Mrs. Charlotte Davenport (Romney).
xxvIII. C. S. 17
Miss Frances Kemble (Reynolds).
xxix. C. S. 45
JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH
Mrs. Elizabeth Carnac (Reynolds).
xxx. C.S. 3 I
Katherine Mary and Thomas James
Clavering (Romney). xxxI. C. S.
41 [between I and In]
Emma Lyon, Lady Hamilton, as
Nature (Romney). xxxII. C. S.
76 [before I]
Lady Caroline Montagu (Reynolds).
XXXIII. C. S. 110, I
Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu (Rey-
nolds). xxxiv. C. S. 112, I
Mrs. Sophia Musters (Reynolds).
XXXV. C. S. 120, I
Hon. Mrs. Henrietta North
(Romney). xxxvI. C. S. 122, nI
Mrs. Philadelphia Payne-Gallwey
(Reynolds). xxxvu. C. S. 133, I
Miss Sneyd as Serena" (Romney).
xxxvII. C. S. 190 
Hon. Mrs. Eliza Stanhope (Rey-
nolds). xxxix. C. S. 158, 1
Louisa, Vicountess Stormont. C. S.
159 [before I]. See Frontispiece
Love in herEyes sits playing (Peters).
XL. C. S. 187, I
Margaret Caroline, Countess of
Carlisle (Romney). XLI. C. S. 2
Mrs. Sophia Musters (Romney).
XLII. C. S. 10, II
ELIZABETH JUDKINS. Mrs. Abington
(Reynolds). XLIII. C. S. I, I
CIIARLES HOWARD HODGES. Mrs.
Williams-Hope (Reynolds). XLIV.
C. S. 18, I
WILLIAM DOUGHTY. Dr. Samuel
Johnson (Reynolds). XLV. C. S.
GIUSEPPE MARCH. Oliver Gold-
smith (Reynolds). XLVI. C. S.
GEORGE KEATING. Georgiana
Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire
(Reynolds). XLVII. C. S. 3, I
HENRY HUDSON. Mrs. Curtis
(Walton). XLVIII. C. S. I
GAINSBOROUGH DUPONT. The Elder
Princesses (daughters of George
III) (Gainsborough). XLIX. C.S.
The Misses Marianne and Amelia
Frankland (Hoppner). L. C. S.
A Carrier's Stable (Morland). LI.
J. F. o5, III
The Pledge of Love (Morland). LII.
J. F. 222
Mrs. Elizabeth Margaret Hibbert
(Hoppner). LIII. C. S. 26, I
The Hoppner Children (Hoppner).
LIV. C. S. 27. Unfinished state
The same. LV. Fourth, and finished
Miss Frances Vane (afterwards Mrs.
Taylor) as Miranda (Hoppner).
Lvr. J. F. 289 (W. Ward)
The Bird-keeper's Repast. LVII.
C. S.44. J. F. 9
IN RAPHAEL SMITH
Lady Louisa Manners (Hoppner).
LVIII. W. 347, I
Sir Walter Scott (Raeburn). LIx.
SAMUEL WILLIAM REYNOLDS
Elizabeth Burrell, Marchioness of
Exeter (Lawrence). LX. W.
GEORGE CLINT. Mrs. Siddons
J. M. W. TURNER
Ben Arthur, from the "Liber Studi-
orum." LXII. R. 69,first published
state. Etched by Turner,finished in
mezzotint by Thomas Lupton
Study of Clouds. LXIII. An un-
published plate, from the series
generally called the Sequel to the
Liber Studiorum "
DAVID LUCAS. Spring (Constable).
The title-page border is from a title-page to Graglia's Martial," engraved
by Bartolozzi after Cipriani (1783).
The tail-pieces are from woodcuts by Luke Clennell after Thomas
Stothard for Roger's Pleasures of Memory 181o.
I. THOMAS FRYE. QUEEN CHARLOTTE, WIFE OF GEORGE III.
C.S. I [before i]
Mezzotint engraver, and painter on china; b. Dublin, 1710; d. 1762;
w. in London
J. R. S. I
II. JAMES McARDELL. MARY, DUCHESS OF ANCASTER
(HUDSON). C.S. i, i
Mezzotint engraver; b. Dublin, ab. 1729; d. 1765; w. in London
ISw-f *ksbu >.. ... -.mcTL..'_'. ..*^ *
. ,.r..Vy- -
III. JAMES McARDELL. LADY MARY COKE (RAMSAY). C.S. 43
IV. JAMES McARDELL. ANNE DAY, AFTERWARDS LADY
FENHOULET (REYNOLDS). C.S. 53 [before i]
' *. ~
I. ..I ,, c
V. RICHARD HOUSTON. THE MAN WITH THE KNIFE (REM-
BRANDT). C.S. 146 [between. i and iI]
Mezzotint engraver; b. Dublin, ab. 1721; d. 1775 ; w. in London
i:.4i ~ ."''-$
VI. EDWARD FISHER. THE HON. GEORGE SEYMOUR CONWAY,
AFTERWARDS LORD GEORGE SEYMOUR (REYNOLDS).
C.S. 10 [i]
Mezzotint engraver; b. Ireland, 1730; d. ab. 1785 ; w. in London
VII. EDWARD FISHER. DAVID GARRICK BETWEEN TRAGEDY
AND COMEDY (REYNOLDS). C.S. 20, i
VIII. EDWARD FISHER. LAURENCE STERN (REYNOLDS).
C.S. 56, I
IX. JOHN DIXON. WILLIAM, SECOND DUKE OF LEINSTER
(REYNOLDS). C.S. 22, I
Mezzotint engraver; b. Ireland, ab. 1730; d. after 18oo; w. in
J. R. S. 2
X. JAMES WATSON. MRS. CATHERINE BUNBURY (REYNOLDS).
C. S. 18, 1
Mezzotint engraver; b. Ireland, 1739 (.); d. 1790; w. in London,
L.. ( '- tr:
XL JAMES WATSON. MRS. COLLIER (REYNOLDS). C.S.32,1
I ' .
XII. WILLIAM PETHER. ARTISTS DRAWING FROM A STATU-
ETTE OF A GLADIATOR (WRIGHT). C.S. 45, I
Mezzotint engraver; b. Carlisle, ab. 178 ; d. 1821 i w. in Lonlon,
,#. . .
XIII. RICHARD EARLOM. THE LIFE SCHOOL OF THE ROYAL
ACADEMY (ZOFFANY). C.S. i [between i and n]
Mezzotint and stipple engraver, and etcher; b. 1743; d. 1822;
w. in London
....-- ------ --..-..-v'r r---- .-
XIV. RICHARD EARLOM. INTERIOR OF THE PANTHEON
LONDON (BRAN DOIN). C.S.45
XV. JOHN FINLAYSON. ELIZABETH GUNNING, DUCHESS OF
ARGYLL (READ). C. S. I, n
Mezzotint engraver b. ab. 1730; d. 1776; w. in London
XVI. VALENTINE GREEN. MRS. MARIA COSWAY (MARIA
COSWAY). C.S. 29 [i]
Mezzotint, stipple, and aquatint engraver; b. 1739; d. 1813;
w. in London
XVII. VALENTINE GREEN. PORTRAIT OF THE ENGRAVER
(ABBOTT). C.S. 57, n
V U I ; I NI.
. R. S. 3
XVIII. VALENTINE GREEN. SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS (REYNOLDS).
C.S. II0, I
XIX. VALENTINE GREEN. MARY, DUCHESS OF RUTLAND
(REYNOLDS). C. S. 5, I
XX. VALENTINE GREEN. EMILY, COUNTESS OF SALISBURY
(REYNOLDS). C.S. 16,!
XXI, VALENTINE GREEN.
(REYNOLDS). C.S. 33,
THE LADIES WALDEGRAVE
XXII. THOMAS WATSON. CAROLINE, LADY BAMPFYLDE.
C. S. 2, I
Mezzotint and stipple engraver; b. 1743 (or 1750 ?); d. 1781
w. in London
XXIII. THOMAS WATSON. GEORGE WHITE, PAVIOR AND
ARTISTS MODEL, AS "RESIGNATION." C. S. 43
XXIV. WILLIAM DICKINSON. SIR JOHN FIELDING (PETERS).
C. S. 20 [before 1]
Mezzotint and stipple engraver; b. 1746; d. 1823 ; w. in London.
I : ;F-. .s;_
XXV. WILLIAM DICKINSON. ELIZABETH, LADY TAYLOR
(REYNOLDS). C.S. 80
; I' I
. R. S. 4
XXVI. JOHN JONES. JAMES BOSWELL (REYNOLDS). C. S. 8
Mezzotint and stipple engraver; b. ab. 1745; d. 1797; w. in
XXVII. JOHN JONES. EDMUND BURKE (ROMNEY). C. S. ii
XXVIII. JOHN JONES. MRS. CHARLOTTE DAVENPORT (ROMNEY).
C. S. 17
XXIX. JOHN JONES. MISS FRANCES KEMBLE. C. S. 45
XXX. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS. ELIZABETH CARNAC
(REYNOLDS). C. S. 31, I
Mezzotint and stipple engraver, painter, and draughtsman ; b. Derby,
1752; d. 1812; w. in London
Vs '~; I "
XXXI. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. KATHERINE MARY AND
THOMAS JOHN CLAVERING (ROMNEY), C. S. 41
[between I and I]
XXXII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. EMMA, LADY HAMILTON AS
"NATURE (ROMNEY). C. S. 76 [before i]
*- .r. ':- '- -
XXXIII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. LADY CAROLINE MONTAGU.
C.S. 10o, I
j. R. S. 5
Irl~l.'~ I... I ~ I .;II ~.II
5'~ 7 .
XXXIV. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS, ELIZABETH MONTAGU
(REYNOLDS). C. S. iI2, I
XXXV. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS. SOPHIA MUSTERS
(REYNOLDS). C. S. 120, I
XXXVI. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. THE HON. MRS. HENRIETTA
NORTH (ROMNEY). C.S. 122, 11
XXXVII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS. PHILADELPHIA PAYNE-
GALLWEY (REYNOLDS). C. S. 133, i
XXXVIII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MISS SNEYD AS "SERENA"
(ROMNEY). C. S. 190 
XXXIX. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. THE HON. MRS. ELIZA
STANHOPE (REYNOLDS). C. S. 158,
XL. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. LOVE IN HER EYES SITS PLAYING
(PETERS). C. S. 187, I
XLI. JAMES WALKER. MARGARET CAROLINE, COUNTESS OF
CARLISLE (ROMNEY). C. S. 2 [before i]
Mezzotint engraver ; b. 1748 ; d. i808 ; pupil of Valentine Green;
w. in London, and for eighteen years after 1784 in St. Petersburg,
as engraver to the Empress Catherine
J. i. s. 6
XLII. JAMES WALKER. MRS. SOPHIA MUSTERS (ROMNEY)
C. S. 10, 1