• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Title Page
 Acronyms
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Annotations and related refere...
 Sectoral listing of methods
 Appendix: List of contacts for...
 Back Cover














Title: Gender analysis tool kit
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080527/00011
 Material Information
Title: Gender analysis tool kit
Physical Description: 1 case : col. ill. ; 27 x 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: GENESYS Project
Futures Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Sex discrimination in employment -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Genesys.
General Note: "Genesys, a project of The Futures Group in collaboration with Management Systems International and Development Alternatives, Inc. and United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Dept. of State."
General Note: "Contains ten analytical tools"--GCID framework t.p.
General Note: "Under the GENESYS Project for USAID G/R&D/WID Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00"--GCID Framework t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080527
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31425196

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Preface
        Preface
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acronyms
        Section
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Annotations and related references
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Sectoral listing of methods
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Appendix: List of contacts for resources
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Back Cover
        Page 56
Full Text
GENESYS


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Preface

This Gender .n.i!'. is : To Kit contains ten anavtical tools which are intended to be clear, user-friendly devices for
police makers and prc-'e.t .pr.lemer.:rs to use in a ddressi-.g g.-. Je issues in their development efforts. The tool kit
was developed by the :fof the E NESYS (Gender in E u~.:rr.:: and .ociai S,.stem"' Proiect. GENESYS is a project
funde.- by the L 'AI D Oie .- \''mer. in 'D'.e'. .'Fm-.: to support the .en.,v's effo:rtsi to institutionalize gender con-
siderationsins e e n'. assistance worldwide. -- too kit r-.:'. ides ract::3aI approaches to use in accomplishing
thait : -ect!i e Below are the s of the ten tools.

GCID Framework

GCD Frr-.e.,;':r-. A T-o.v for -; !cn_ -..::a:.na.:: :: of Gender Concerns in Development
Orgar.i z tjr.'

Quantitative Tools

yi ^':..-",c-..: .- Ie: ;'- :-c_-. A 7: .. for '" Quanittive -. in Gender kc'ai\''i'
1 Slide 3e:er.:a.3l -

Country Ge-ck : F::,-:is A Tool for -.:..:-.: ;-:.. i ..... l :'-- .\-Disaggregated Data

Genr and Household '--.'.- .:. AT :.: ..-. :- Incoe and E.... i.mer.: Data from ur'.ev

Dia-gnostic Tools

Gender and P?.::-. I..er.er :a::.-. A .. : Assment of P: .. -Derived Impacts on Women and Men

Sexand eider--,.r,a:,: the.- '.f. : A olfor L.-..-.:.>: the S-o. :.Utu:r al Context of Sex Dfferenes

Planning An d MA&E To ols

.c,,j:-. and ..c. : Conditios for -.,:...*'.. Development: A 7- "' ,:r endeJr-Infoirmed
Pr,:ric : P..nn..r.g

Gender in \M..r.i': Trn and Evluaton: ATool -:i- '.i--.- ,INt M&E Plans

'.;-rr: : !: c. D .': r.: P- : "I... -":; D. ere.- .a. Effectson Men and \,'men

Reference

Gender Reearh u..ce : :he A.: ci:- :- rr.:.-. -:" and Natural Resource Sect:r.. A Tool for
.. ,2, i 2.-. ,' 7,,2,~c 5







Gender Research Guide
for the Agriculture,
Environment, and
Natural Resource Sectors:
A Tool for Selecting
Methods
Prepared by Dr. Deborah Caro
and Ame Stormer


















April 1994
Under the GENESYS Project for USAID/G/R&D/WID
Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00


I I(HGENESYS














Acronyms


ADB African Development Bank
AIDAB Australian International
Development Assistance Bureau
AP Action Plan
CDSS Country Development
Strategy Statement
CGIAR Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research
CIDA Canadian International
Development Agency
CIAT Centro Internacional de
Agriculture Tropical
DANIDA Danish International
Development Agency
DESFIL Development Strategies
for Fragile Lands
DGIS Directorate General for
Development Co-operation
DIAND Department of Indian
Affairs and Northern Development
ECOGEN Ecology, Community
Organization and Gender
FAO Food and Agriculture
Organization
FEMNET African Women's
Development and Communication
Network
FINNIDA Finnish International
Development Agency
FSR/E Farming Systems
Research/Extension
GAD Gender and Development
GAM Gender Analysis Matrix


GIF Gender Information
Framework
GTZ Gesellschaft fur Technische
Zusammenarbeit
ICRAF International Center for
Research on Agro-Forestry
ICRW International Center for
Research on Women
IDS Institute of Development
Studies
IFPRI International Food Policy
Research Institute
INSTRAW International Research
and Training Institute for the
Advancement of Women
IRRI International Rice Research
Institute
IUCN International Union for
Conservation of Nature
JICA Japanese International
Cooperation Agency
MUCIA/WID Midwestern
Universities Consortium on
International Agriculture/Women
in Development
NGO Non-Governmental
Organization
NORAD Norwegian Agency for
Development
ODA Overseas Development
Administration
ODG Overseas Development
Group
OECD/DAC Organization for
Economic Cooperation and
Development/ Development
Assistance Committee
PID Project Identification
Document
PP Project Paper


SGA Social and Gender Analysis
SIDA Swedish International
Development Agency
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
UNCED United Nations
Commission on Economic
Development
UNDP United Nations
Development Programme
UNEP United Nations
Environmental Programme
UNIFEM United Nations
Development Fund for Women
USAID United States Agency for
International Development
UNFPA United Nations Population
Fund
WHO World Health Organization
WID Women in Development
ZAPI Zones d'Action Prioritaire
Integrees de 1'Est












TABLE OF CONTENTS

I Introduction I
Rationale for Developing the Tool 1
Purpose and Usefulness of the Tool 1
Target Audience 2
Layout of the Document 2

0Annotations And Related References 3
A. Checklists 4
B. Farming Systems Research 8
C. Gender Analysis, Planning, and Training 12
D. Guidelines 21
E. Monitoring And Evaluation 28
F. Participatory Research 33
G. Time Allocation 38

B Sectoral Listing Of Methods 41
A. Agriculture 42
B. Environment And Natural Resource Management 45
C. Development Policy: Multilateral and Bilateral 47
Development Organizations

I Appendix: List Of Contacts For Resources 51


'I ENESYSI
















I. Introduction

Rationale for Developing the Tool
There comes a point in the maturation of any field of study when it becomes necessary to take stock of
where the field has come from and where it is going. Two general trends in the literature indicate that the field of
Women in Development (WID) and gender analysis currently is at just such a juncture. The first trend is toward
a focus on reviewing the historical development of theory and practice. Much of this literature traces changes in
development approaches that have characterized the evolution of thinking from Women and Development to
Gender and Development over the last 20 years. A second trend is an increase in the attention given to developing
research and planning methods and tools for gathering, analyzing, and operationalizing information on gender
differences for development action.
The first trend addresses the desire of many WID/gender specialists to reconcile political, ethical, and scientific
issues and to grapple with the diversity of perspectives that characterize the field in both approach and theory. The
second trend responds to demands from outside the field, from a growing number of development professionals
who are both gender aware and knowledgeable. They are requesting information on ways to identify and respond
to gender differences in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of development policies, programs, and
projects.

Purpose and Usefulness of the Tool
This reference guide addresses the growing demand by people working in the agriculture, environment, and
natural resource sectors for how-to methods by reviewing existing published and unpublished gender analysis,
planning, and research methodologies and tools. The guide provides users with access to methodological
approaches appropriate for a variety of purposes, including developing scopes of work and terms of reference,
designing gender-inclusive programs and projects, involving community groups in participatory research and
planning, and monitoring and evaluating the impact of development activities on women and men.
The guide includes annotations of roughly 30 methods and provides citations for nearly 100 additional
sources. It critically reviews what is available, in what form, and for whom. Each annotation presents the stated
objectives of the method; a description of the approach; and an assessment of what the method is useful for,
what types of skills and knowledge are required to use it successfully, whether it is appropriate for policy, pro-
gram, or project analysis, and if it is useful for WID (i.e., focused on women) or gender (focused on men and
women) analysis.
Although the guide reviews materials from a broad spectrum of institutions, it is not all encompassing. A
number of somewhat arbitrary criteria were used to select the references for annotation. Some methods were




PAGE


GENESYS















reviewed because they are considered classics or pathbreaking (e.g., some of the farming systems research and
extension approaches, gender analysis and training manuals, and guidelines); others because they are specific to
particular subsectors (e.g., the checklists focused on fisheries and forestry, and guidelines on livestock projects);
and others for their innovative qualities, such as many of the participatory research tools and some of the gender
analysis training materials. An effort was also made to include references from different institutions and parts of
the world.


Target Audience
The guide was designed as a reference tool accessible to different types of users. Foremost, it was developed
for agricultural and environmental officers and managers who are committed to considering gender issues in
the design, implementation, and evaluation of programs and projects but who lack knowledge of or access to
the best methods for doing so. It is also intended as a resource for Women in Development and Gender advisors
and officers who are often in the position of recommending that others within their agencies take actions to be
more cognizant of gender concerns. The guide provides them ready access to targeted methods that they can
recommend to sectoral specialists, and a number of more generic approaches for integrating gender into strate-
gic planning. The breadth of the guide's scope will assure policymakers that their commitment to institutional-
izing consideration of gender within their organizations is backed by practical methods providing the capability
to implement policies. Finally, the guide is designed as a resource for social scientists who conduct applied
research on development issues, to familiarize them with ways to take gender differences into account when
formulating research problems and selecting appropriate methods and analytical frameworks.

Layout of the Document
The annotations are separated into seven methodological categories: checklists, farming systems research,
gender analysis, guidelines, monitoring and evaluation, participatory research, and time allocation. These cate-
gories follow the denominations established by the methods' authors. The number of sources reviewed in each
section roughly corresponds to the availability of materials. Therefore, there are a greater number of annotations
in the categories of gender analysis, guidelines, and checklists than in the time allocation or monitoring and
evaluation categories.
In addition to the annotations, the guide lists related references at the end of each section, and provides two
comprehensive sectoral bibliographies on agriculture and environment and natural resource management. A
final bibliography includes references of WID/gender policy statements and guidelines from multilateral and
bilateral lending agencies. These are intended to complement the methodologies by giving users access to the
donor policies that many of these methods address.




PAGE 2








motion II:
Annotations
and Related
References


I I n rGE NESYS














II. Annotations And Related References


A. Checklists
* Directorate General
for Development
Co-operation (DGIS)
Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, Netherlands.
1989.
Women and Agriculture:
Policy on an Operational
Footing. Main Points and
Checklist. Sector Papers,
Women and Development
No. 1. 16 pp.
* DGIS.
1989.
Women, Water and
Sanitation: Policy on an
Operational Footing. Main
Points and Checklist.
Sector Papers, Women
and Development No. 2.
16 pp.
* DGIS.
1990.
Women, Energy, Forestry
and Environment: Policy
on an Operational
Footing. Main Points and
Checklist. Sector Papers,
Women and Development
No. 4. 16 pp.

Each of the sector papers listed
above is one of several instruments
designed to increase and improve
the implementation of the
Netherlands' women and develop-
ment policy. They are intended to
serve as field guides for members of
short-term technical assistance mis-
sions, as operational guides for pro-
ject staff, and as outlines for draw-
ing up terms of reference. The
objectives of the papers are to help


project technical staff, managers,
and advisors to: 1) improve
women's access to and control over
production factors, services, and
infrastructure facilities; 2) reduce
women's work load; 3) improve the
enforcement of laws that provide
equal rights for women; 4) increase
the involvement of women in deci-
sion-making at domestic, local,
national, and international levels; 5)
improve the organization of women
at all levels; 6) encourage the
exchange of information and com-
munication between women and
women's groups; 7) improve
women's knowledge and self-aware-
ness; and 8) combat physical vio-
lence and sexual abuse.
Each paper provides a frame-
work for identifying critical gender
issues and their consequences for
development interventions in a par-
ticular sector. The standard format
combines a core overview chapter
organized around a series of sub-
stantive issues and a corresponding
checklist of guide questions. The
Women, Water and Sanitation core
chapter reviews the general situa-
tion of women in this sector and
examines specific topics such as,
entry points for women's involve-
ment; construction, maintenance,
management, and use of infrastruc-
ture; steps toward women's involve-
ment; and preconditions, benefits,
and incentives. The checklist,
arranged around these general
issues, includes a list of questions
designed to elicit responses on the
views of those in power; whether


gender-disaggregated data is gath-
ered; women's participation and
consultation; women's time con-
straints; and the effects of the pro-
ject on women. The Women,
Forestry and the Environment core
chapter and checklist are organized
around a different set of issues,
including a general overview of the
sector; women, environment, and
trees; the biomass crisis and
women's work load; the energy cri-
sis; participation of women in
forestry; and women's access to
resources and opportunities. The
Women and Agriculture core chapter
and checklist cover similar topics: a
general overview; work load and
division of labor; access to and con-
trol of the means of production, ser-
vices, and facilities; participation in
decision-making; and benefits and
incentives.
The Women and Development
Sector Papers are easily accessible
and are useful guides for under-
standing and identifying sector-spe-
cific issues that affect women. They
are helpful tools for developing
scopes of work for project design
and evaluation as well as for moni-
toring project activities. The core
overview chapters add a contextual
and explanatory dimension often
absent from gender analysis check-
lists. For people interested in gen-
der issues more broadly, the ques-


PA G

















tions can be used for both women
and men and supplemented with an
analysis of how gender differences
condition, impinge upon, or sup-
port development opportunities
and impacts. To maximize the ben-
efits of the checklists, as the intro-
ductions to the papers point out,
users should consult other sources
for additional background informa-
tion and make use of other data col-
lection and analytical tools.
* FAO.
1989.
Women in Community
Forestry:
A Field Guide for
Project Design and
Implementation. Rome,
Italy: FAO. 45 pp.

This field guide transposes theoreti-
cal issues in an earlier FAO publica-
tion, Restoring the Balance: Women
and Forest Resources, into an opera-
tional manual for designing and
implementing forestry projects. It is
intended as a practical tool for facil-
itating the integration of women
into forestry projects. The objective
of this method is to enhance the
design and implementation of com-
munity forestry projects by more
actively considering women. It
assumes that the reader is familiar
with data-gathering tools and pro-
ject design. It is not a manual of
rapid appraisal or project formula-
tion techniques.
The guide is divided into five
sections. The first addresses the
questions of what community
forestry is and why women should
be included. Community forestry is
described as a systems approach
that is multidisciplinary and focuses
on the interaction of people, trees,


and forests. It advocates an
approach and activities that recog-
nize and build upon local women's
and men's knowledge, needs, uses,
and benefits from forest resources.
In answer to why women's needs
require special consideration, the
authors respond that: 1) women are
active users and managers of forests
and trees, but their roles are often
invisible to project designers and
policy makers; 2) women and men
often make use of forest resources
differently; 3) women experience
unique constraints with regard to
land and natural resources that may
impede their active participation in
project activities.
The second section addresses
ways to make women's concerns
and activities more visible by pre-
senting a series of questions
designed to elicit information on
women's roles, responsibilities, and
rights at the town, village, commu-
nity, and household levels with
regard to livestock, wildlife, crops,
and natural vegetation and trees. It
also summarizes how the perspec-
tives of anthropology, nutrition,
education, and law can help
foresters make women more visible.
The third section, "Asking
Women the Right Questions," pro-
vides a contextual framework for
eliciting women's knowledge. It
describes a number of examples of
what women from different coun-
tries and environments know about
forest resources and identifies com-


mon constraints that women face
such as time, mobility, customs, and
land.
The fourth section sketches an
eight-step process for including
women: 1) explore gender issues;
2) investigate customs, taboos, and
time constraints; 3) promote the
role that women do and can play;
4) exchange information with indi-
viduals at every level; 5) support
women's groups; 6) work together
to provide access to land and trees;
7) consult with women before
introducing new technologies; and
8) collaborate to make credit and
income available to women either
individually or through women's
groups.
The final section contains two
annexes. The first annex lists sug-
gestions for gaining the support of
women, and another list for gaining
the support of men. The second
annex associates gender-based
planning issues with gender-specific
information needs and gender-
responsive design features. These
issues are arranged by subsectors,
such as tree planting and agro-
forestry, community woodlots and
forest plantations, watershed and
wasteland management, extension,
and improved wood-burning
devices. A matrix provides guidance
on how to obtain the necessary


PAGE


_1 a GENESYSI

















information, by subsector, through
existing data sources, quick surveys,
or special studies.
The FAO Field Guide is a useful
introduction for planners and field
staff involved in the design and
implementation of forestry pro-
jects. The guidelines provide a
series of concerns and questions
but do not give instructions on how
to gather and analyze data, or how
to design projects. The most innov-
ative section is Annex 2, which
attempts to link gender-based ques-
tions, answers, and design ele-
ments. This helps the user translate
knowledge about women's and
men's differential constraints and
opportunities into strategies to
promote a gender-balanced and
equitable use of resources.
* FAO.
1988.
Women in Fishing
Communities. Rome,
Italy: FAO. 63 pp.

The purpose of these guidelines is to
ensure that FAO fisheries projects
and programs fully recognize and
support women's roles and activities
and help women to realize their
economic and human potential.
The guidelines are also designed to
be used by other international and


national organizations concerned
with fisheries development.
The guidelines are divided into
three chapters. The first discusses
the purpose, application, and orga-
nization of the guidelines. The sec-
ond reviews policy objectives and
principles, and lists a number of
actions necessary for achieving the
goal of making women in fisheries
"equal partners, and productive and
self-reliant participants." The
actions include providing education
and literacy; easing the burden of
domestic chores; improving food
preparation methods; improving
technologies supportive of women's
economic activities; making women
direct beneficiaries of training and
extension activities; increasing the
number of women trainers and
extensionists; guaranteeing women
equal legal rights in property and
assets; ensuring that women have
equitable access to credit; diversify-
ing economic opportunities; includ-
ing women in project planning,
implementation, monitoring, and
evaluation; and encouraging
women to be more active partici-
pants and decision-makers in com-
munity organizations. The remain-
der of the chapter describes each
area of activity and prescribes which
checklist is most appropriate for
each.
The third chapter presents a
summary checklist and 18 targeted
checklists organized under nine
activity domains: fish production;
processing; marketing; non-fisheries
activities; community activities;
social services; organizational, tech-


nical, and financial support; house-
hold food security; and population
activities. The summary checklist is
intended for cursory assessments
when the use of more specific
checklists is precluded due to lack of
resources, time, or information.
Two checklists are provided for each
activity domain, one that elicits cri-
teria for assessing the current situa-
tion, and another that focuses on
project design elements.
The major value of this check-
list method is its specificity to fish-
eries programs and projects. The
questions in the current situation
checklists are more useful than the
questions on project design. For the
most part, the questions on project
design are diagnostic yes/no ques-
tions, rather than questions that
help project designers to use infor-
mation elicited through the current
situation checklist for formulating
projects that are responsive to the
differential needs of men and
women. The questions are focused
almost exclusively on women's
activities. Therefore, the project
design checklist does not provide
the user with an understanding of
how women's activities and needs
relate to men's, nor of how women's
and men's activities, rights, and
responsibilities vary by other
socioeconomic characteristics such
as age, location, ethnicity, class, or
household structure.


PA G E 6

















Checklists generally do not
instruct users on how to analyze or
collect data. Thus they are most
useful to project managers as guides
for developing scopes of work and
monitoring and evaluation systems.
For social scientists, who are trained
to translate the descriptive check-
lists into questions that elicit infor-
mation from project participants,
they provide a reference guide of
gender-differentiated categories.


* ODA.
Checklist for the
Participation of Women
in Development Projects.
London, England: ODA.
5 pp.
This checklist was designed to help
staff of the ODA when they prepare,
monitor, and evaluate projects. The
purpose of the tool is to aid ODA
staff in assessing the extent to which
projects address the strategic and
practical needs of women.
Part 1 provides an illustrative
list of activities that address practical
needs (e.g., reducing women's work
load, improving their health,
obtaining improved services for
their families, and increasing
incomes) and strategic needs (e.g.,
equalizing opportunities for educa-
tion, employment, and control over
resources and decision-making). It
also lists a number of ways that pro-
jects might affect women adversely
if their needs are not adequately
considered.


Part 2 outlines a series of
women-specific questions to be
considered when designing projects.
A second set of questions refers to
the type of information about
women's and men's roles and rela-
tions that is necessary for address-
ing the first set of questions. Part 3
is a checklist of yes/no questions
designed to assist ODA in reporting
to the OECD/DAC on how well it is
meeting its policy to integrate
women into project design and
implementation.
The list is of extremely limited
utility. It is too general to provide
any real guidance for people actually
engaged in project design or imple-
mentation. The short paper provides
a number of general checklists but
does not adequately discuss who can
collect and analyze the information,
how to evaluate the information, or
how to make the necessary changes
in project design and implementa-
tion. It also fails to provide sufficient
rationale for linking the women-
specific questions to concerns about
gender roles and relations.


PAGE 7


I GENESYS1

















B. Farming Systems
Research
* Feldstein, Hilary Sims,
and Susan V. Poats.
1989.
Working Together:
Gender Analysis in
Agriculture Vols. 1 & 2.
West Hartford,
Connecticut: Kumarian
Press. Vol. 1, 271 pp.;
Vol. 2, 258 pp.

The objectives of this two-volume
book are to provide agricultural
researchers, planners, and exten-
sionists with a conceptual frame-
work for analyzing gender issues in
farming systems; case studies to
facilitate application of the frame-
work; and concomitant teaching
notes for facilitators or self-study.
The conceptual framework provides
guidelines through which informa-
tion on gender roles and intra- and
interhousehold roles and decision-
making can be analyzed and applied
to improving agricultural technolo-
gies. The authors argue that under-
standing the "cross-culturally vari-
able social roles of men and
women" requires more than simple
checklists of questions to guide data
collection. Rather, it demands a


gender-focused analytical frame-
work to enhance Farming Systems
Research/Extension's (FSR/E) capac-
ity to: specify desirable characteris-
tics of new varieties and technolo-
gies; screen for compatibility of pro-
posed changes with existing prac-
tices and incentives; identify farmers
who will benefit from the experi-
mentation; and assess the relative
advantages of alternative solutions.
Working Together is divided into
three sections. The first volume
contains the conceptual framework,
which ties together the logic of
FSR/E and gender analysis; work-
sheets for conducting gender analy-
sis in on-farm research; an intro-
duction to the case study method;
and seven case studies. The second
volume provides teaching notes to
guide the use of each case.
According to the authors, the
conceptual framework provides
"categories for inquiry and analysis
which help agricultural researchers
identify relevant information on
who does what and factors underly-
ing farmers' decisions." The frame-
work is based on four areas of
analysis: labor or activities,
resources, benefits and incentives,
and inclusion. "Activities analysis"
examines how the tasks that are
undertaken by men, women, and
children contribute to farm produc-
tion, household production, child-
bearing and rearing, and other pro-
ductive enterprises. The "Resources
Analysis" provides guidance on how
to gather information that disaggre-
gates by gender and age (and other


social variables) who has access to
and control of critical resources.
"Benefits Analysis" examines who
has access to or control of the out-
puts of production. "Incentive
Analysis" provides the analytical
context for assessing preferences
that underlie farmers' incentives to
continue or to change what they do.
A final stage of the analytical frame-
work, "Inclusion Analysis," investi-
gates who is included at each stage
of farming systems research, by
what criteria, and how.
The methodological chapter is
followed by worksheets that corre-
spond to each stage of the analysis
and a short chapter on how to use
the case studies effectively to learn
how to apply the analytical frame-
work. The remainder of the book
presents case studies from
Botswana, Burkina Faso, Colombia,
Indonesia, Kenya, the Philippines,
and Zambia.
The major strength of this
approach is that it provides a sys-
tematic process for integrating gen-
der analysis-the examination of
the socially constructed roles of
men and women-into agricultural
research. It is most useful for social
scientists who are members of farm-
ing systems teams but who are not
versed in how to formulate a
gender-informed research agenda.
As a training methodology, Working
Together provides non-social scien-
tists with concepts and tools for


PAGE
















understanding how gender relations
impinge on their research objec-
tives. It does not, however, instruct
non-social scientists on how to
translate analytical questions into
data-gathering instruments. The
authors assume that users are famil-
iar with a variety of research meth-
ods such as surveys, participant
observation, and rapid appraisal
techniques. The case studies are
particularly useful in pointing out
that researchers must adapt their
information-gathering techniques
to the local context. The self-study
notes help non-specialists under-
stand the limitations of gender-blind
research as well as the opportunities
provided by the inclusion of gender
considerations in research design
and implementation.


* Poats, Susan V.,
Marianne Schmink, and
Anita Spring.
1989.
Gender Issues in
Farming Systems
Research and Extension.
8n-oulder, Clr orado:
Westview Press. 450 pp.

This book is a collection of selected
papers presented at an international
conference on intra-household
dynamics in farming system
research and extension (FSR/E) at
the University of Florida in 1986.
Its objective is to present different
points of view on how to conceptu-
alize and carry out gender-inclusive
farming systems research. The
authors argue that rather than pre-
senting a recipe for action, the
papers demonstrate that "it is both
possible and practical to use gender
analysis as a tool in the work of
agricultural development."
Part 1 of the book covers a wide
range of theoretical and method-
ological topics including the whole
farming system; intra-household
dynamics; institutional and policy
concerns; definition of research
domains; on-farm research and
extension; and monitoring and eval-
uation. Papers were selected based
on the extent to which they present-
ed new methodological approaches
to integrating gender into farming
systems research. They suggest spe-


cific changes to the farming systems
research protocol and address
methodological issues that are spe-
cific to research design, implementa-
tion, evaluation, and improving
communication with and participa-
tion of both women and men farm-
ers. In addition, several chapters
examine policy and institutional fac-
tors that affect gender issues in
FSR/E. In parts 2, 3, and 4, the
methodological chapters are com-
plemented by case studies from
Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The
regional chapters apply many of the
theoretical and methodological
issues discussed in part 1 to specific
sociocultural contexts. These chap-
ters demonstrate how including gen-
der considerations affects both the
FSR/E process and outcomes.
The book is valuable back-
ground reading for anyone interested
in incorporating gender analysis into
agricultural development projects. It
is especially useful for agricultural
researchers and social science mem-
bers of FSR/E teams. It is not a
"how-to" manual, but is essential for
contextualizing the appropriate use
of other gender analysis methods.


PAGE .
i?


I I GENESYSUK
















M Poats, Susan, Hilary
Sims, and Cornelia
Butler Flora.
1988.
The Gender Variable in
Agricultural Research.
Ontario, Canada:
International
Development Research
Center.

This report suggests how to incor-
porate gender analysis into agricul-
tural research. It provides research
questions and matrices designed to
collect and analyze gender-disaggre-
gated information throughout the
planning, design, and testing of
agricultural research. The authors
present guidelines and examples of
different types of data-collection
methods, as well as a discussion of
the potential implications and
applications of the findings to agri-
cultural policy and program formu-
lation and design.
Part 1 of the document
describes the rationale for gender
analysis and calls for a reorientation
in the focus of agricultural research
from one that is technology-driven
to one that is user-driven. Another
key element of part 1 is a descrip-
tion of five general patterns of gen-
der responsibility (male and female
separate crops, separate fields, sepa-
rate tasks, shared tasks, and women-
managed farms) and their implica-
tions for agricultural research.


Part 2 provides an overview of
gender analysis tools that are
applicable to farming systems
research. The authors describe and
summarize in tabular form several
tools for examining on-farm and
off-farm activities by crop and sea-
son, access and control over
resources for farm production, and
who receives both incentives and
benefits. The second section of part
2 discusses how to apply the results
of gender analysis. The authors
assert that gender analysis frequently
ends in diagnosis by simply describ-
ing men's and women's tasks. They
argue that "the utility of gender
analysis comes with its application
to the design and evaluation of on-
farm research" and that those
responsible for conducting gender
analysis should be involved from the
beginning to the end of the research
effort. The third section of the
chapter on tools provides illustra-
tive criteria for choosing appropri-
ate methods for gender analysis.
The fourth section presents some
possible strategies for ensuring that
women are integrated into and ben-
efit from on-farm trials. The final
section examines the implications of
agricultural research in the wider
political and institutional context. It
raises questions about institutional
constraints to adopting technology,
which might be gender specific,
such as access to credit or land.
Additionally it focuses on staffing
and training as important vehicles
for promoting attention to gender
in agricultural research. An appen-
dix provides a list of training and
bibliographic resources.


This is a methodical and
focused set of guidelines that can be
of great use to teams of agricultural
researchers. It is most appropriate
as a guide for social scientists on
farming systems teams who have
good data-collection and analytical
skills but lack knowledge of how to
integrate gender considerations into
research identification, planning,
design, and evaluation. It is also
useful for educating agriculturalists
and development planners about
the type of gender-specific informa-
tion that is necessary to collect and
analyze to identify appropriate solu-
tions for men's and women's critical
agricultural constraints and oppor-
tunities. Its strength is that it speaks
to a targeted audience-agricultural
researchers-through a process and
language that are familiar.


PAGE 10























Farming Systems
Research

Falch, Marianne. 1991. Cameroon:
Specific Problems and Constraints
of Women Farmers Towards The
Permanent Farming System.
Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.

Flora, Cornelia Butler. 1987. Intra-
Household Dynamics: The Need for
Whole Farm Monitoring in Farming
Systems Research. The Rural
Sociologist 7, no. 3.

Henderson, Helen K. 1989. Book
Review-Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension.
Applied Anthropology 91.


International Rice Research Institute.
1987. Women in Rice Farming
Systems: An Operational Research
and Training Program. Manila,
Philippines: International Rice
Research Institute.

Moock, Joyce L. 1986.
Understanding Africa's Rural
Households and Farming Systems.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Paris, Thelma R. 1990. Incorporating
Women's Concerns in Crop-Animal
Farming Systems Research
Methodology. No. 90-30. Manila,
Philippines: International Rice
Research Institute.

Poats, S., and J. Gearing. 1989.
Executive Summary of Gender
Issues in Farming Systems Research
and Extension: A Survey of Current
Projects. Washington, D.C.: USAID.

Rocheleau, Diane. 1985. Criteria for
Re-Appraisal and Re-Design: Intra-
household and Between Household
Aspects of FSRE in Three Kenyan
Agroforestry Projects. Worcester,
Massachusetts: Clark University.


Saunders, Janice. 1991. Book
Review-Poats, Schmink, and
Spring book. "Gender Issues in
Farming Systems Research and
Extension." Rural Sociology 56,
no. 1.

Staudt, Kathleen. 1981. Women
and Household Issues in Farming
Systems Research. Manhattan,
Kansas: Kansas State University.


PA GE E


RELATED REFERENCES~~I

















C. Gender Analysis,
Planning, and
Training
* Caye, Virginia M.
1989.
The Gender Information
Framework: Gender
Considerations in
Design. Washington,
D.C.: USAID. 102 pp.
* Mayatech
Corporation.
1991.
The Gender Information
Framework. Silver Spring,
Maryland. (Prepared for
the Office of Women in
Development, USAID).
90 pp.
* USAID Office of
Women in Development.
1991.
The Gender Information
Framework: Pocket
Guide. 10 pp.

The Gender Information
Framework (GIF) is a methodology
designed to assist USAID in incor-
porating gender considerations into
program and project design, adap-
tation, evaluation, and review. It is a
set of tools, information, and guide-
lines developed as a reference and
training resource guide. The frame-
work contains three components:
1) Gender Variable Matrix, 2)
Gender Considerations in Design,
and 3) Summary of Guidelines for
Document Review. It was designed
to accompany a training program
on gender issues and to serve as a
post-training reference manual on


how to include gender issues in
USAID's project and program
design and reporting documents.
The framework has a two-part pur-
pose: 1) to strengthen the analysis of
development issues in such a way
that gender becomes an automatic
consideration in the programming
process, and 2) to provide tools that
assist USAID to incorporate infor-
mation yielded by analysis into pro-
gram design, adaptation, evalua-
tion, and review.
The GIF is available from the
USAID Office of Women in
Development in two different for-
mats: as a pocket guide (in pam-
phlet form) and as a more in-depth
reference manual. The pocket guide
is really two guides, a gender analy-
sis guide, which summarizes the
two-step gender variable matrix,
and a document review guide. Step
1 of the gender analysis guide lists
four areas where gender might be a
variable (allocation of time, sources
of income, financial responsibilities,
and access to and control over
resources) and a set of key questions
under each area. Step 2 is designed
to analyze the implications of signif-
icant gender differences for project
or program activity design or adap-
tation. It queries the user to identify
and compare the constraints and
opportunities to women's and men's
participation in development activi-


ties. The document review guide
presents a series of actions necessary
for incorporating gender issues into
USAID project and non-project
assistance. It includes four separate
cards specifying tailored actions for
the Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), the Action Plan
(AP), the Project Identification
Document (PID), and the Project
Paper (PP).
The GIF reference manual pre-
sents both guides in a more detailed
format with accompanying explana-
tions and examples. It includes a
more complete description of the
gender variable matrix (also called
the gender analysis map). The
matrix is in three columns. The first
column lists areas where gender
might be a variable. The second col-
umn presents questions on whether
and how gender affects the areas
listed in column one. The third col-
umn provides space for the user to
chart information from the analysis.
The Document Review Guidelines,
which follow the standard stages of
the CDSS, AP, PID, and PP, describe
and chart actions for including gen-
der issues in these key documents.
The charts are divided into two
columns. The left column is titled
"gender considerations," which are a
series of steps to be taken at each
stage in the design and document
preparation process. The right col-
umn lists "key questions" to indi-
cate in more detail how the consid-
eration might be examined. The ref-
erence manual also includes appen-
dices that provide profiles of small-
scale enterprise and farming systems
research and extension projects.


PAGE 12
















An abbreviated form of the GIF
has been used extensively in Gender
Considerations in Development
training within USAID. The GIF
reference manual has not received as
much exposure as the pocket guide
due to its bulk-the executive sum-
mary alone is 18 pages. The alterna-
tive, the short pocket guide, is com-
posed of questions that are too gen-
eral to serve as anything more than
a mnemonic device for those who
have been exposed to the methodol-
ogy through training. The pamphlet
outlines components of the matrix
and gender considerations charts,
but does not provide sufficient
information on how to collect and
analyze the data. The real value of
the GIF is for USAID staff engaged
in reviewing key reporting docu-
ments. It is less useful for those
who write them.


0 Coady International
Institute.
1991.
A Handbook for Social/
Gender Analysis. "u :;
*lradidaa CIDA. 3 vols.
191 pp.
The purpose of this handbook is to
introduce CIDA staff and consul-
tants to the principles of social and
gender analysis (SGA). It presents a
framework for implementing
CIDA's objectives of directing the
benefits of development to the dis-
advantaged and ensuring that the
benefits are technically, economical-
ly, and socially sustainable. It aims
to combine SGA with participatory
development approaches. This
approach is based on the rationale
that SGA helps to identify the disad-


vantaged in a society, and to explain
the structural causes of their disad-
vantage and the fact that women are
often disadvantaged differently than
men. The handbook suggests that a
participatory process that empowers
the disadvantaged is necessary to
sustain changes begun through
development efforts.
The handbook is organized into
four chapters: 1) Introduction,
2) Conceptual Framework,
3) Application to the Project
Development Process, and
4) Research Tools. The introduc-
tion outlines the purpose and
intended audience of the handbook,
as well as the relationship between
CIDA's development strategy and
SGA.
The second chapter defines
SGA, states its assumptions and
rationale, and presents an analytical
framework. The SGA analytical
framework is guided by four key
questions that help to identify the
disadvantaged: 1) What is the
nature of their disadvantage?;
2) What are the social relations
(structures and organizations)
which maintain their disadvantage?;
3) What are the historical patterns
and trends in social relations?;
4) What are the relationships
between the local, national, and
international levels in creating and
perpetuating poverty? The authors
advocate looking at the answers to
these questions in light of change


over time and disaggregating the
information by both gender and
class.
A key element of this chapter is
its focus on participation, including
discussions of levels, indicators, and
ways to mobilize people. Finally, the
chapter discusses CIDA's method-
ological principles of moving
toward an iterative process for pro-
ject design, implementation, and
management; learning at each step
what works and then making
adjustments; and adopting an inter-
nal/external approach that com-
bines the knowledge of participants
and local consultants with the
analysis and observations of outside
development professionals.
The third chapter applies the
SGA framework to project identifi-
cation, planning, approval, imple-
mentation, monitoring, and evalua-
tion. It provides sets of key ques-
tions designed specifically for each
stage.
The final chapter is a research
tool kit, which presents and reviews
a number of different research
methods. It provides information
on when, where, and how to use
each method. This is an extremely
detailed and useful handbook.
Although it was designed for CIDA,
it is equally applicable to other
bilateral, multilateral, national, and
non-governmental institutions. It
has a number of advantages over
similar guidelines and checklists.
First, it addresses the concerns of


PAGE '3


I I ENESYS

















both planners/managers and opera-
tional field staff. Second, the chap-
ter on research tools goes beyond
descriptive presentation by critically
assessing how, when, and where the
method can be applied most opti-
mally. Third, it combines gender
and social analysis with participato-
ry action research, incorporating
social science analysis with local
knowledge and decision-making.
Thus it reveals a more dynamic pic-
ture of gendered social relations
than other approaches. At every
stage of the development process,
this form of analysis requires dis-
cussion, interviews, and knowledge
of the project area, as well as active
and honest participation by target
groups.


* Hannan-Andersson,
Carolyn.
1992.
Gender Planning
Methodology: Three
Papers on Incorporating
the Gender Approach in
Development Cooperation
Programmes. Lund,
Sweden: SIDA.
50 pp.

This report is a collection of three
papers that comprise a gender-
informed approach to development
planning. The methodology
attempts to go beyond most gender
analyses by addressing the issue of
"how to integrate gender planning
methodology within a donor organi-
zation." The objective of this
methodology is to ensure that
women as well as men are integrated
into development processes. To
achieve this, the author states that a
social groups analysis is needed, and
that gender is only one of the vari-
ables required. Other variables
include age, ethnic group, class, and
religious affiliation. This gender
approach attempts to develop a plan-
ning methodology that can apply the
insights gained through research to
policy formulation and program-
ming in mainstream development.
The first paper introduces and
examines the concept of gender and
development, compares it with the
WID approach, and addresses some
of the criticisms and reluctance to
adopt a gender approach by WID
specialists and development agen-
cies. The author argues that a gen-


der approach goes beyond dealing
with the symptoms of women's
problems to dealing with the causes.
This entails grappling with the
social relationships between men
and women that condition their dif-
ferential access to power and
resources. She concludes that a gen-
der approach requires "a rethinking
of the whole [development] plan-
ning methodology."
The second paper addresses
how to institutionalize and opera-
tionalize a gender approach in
development organizations. This
paper is structured around three
essential elements that include
development of: 1) a gender policy
(the ideological framework); 2) a
gender-based strategy and method-
ology (linked to normal planning
processes); and 3) gender-sensitive
tools and instruments. Effective
development of all three of these is
dependent on high-level institution-
al support and political pressure.
Hannan-Andersson highlights the
specific requirements for developing
each one of these key elements so
that men and women can be suc-
cessfully incorporated as actors and
decision-makers. She also critically
reviews why some earlier approach-
es have not been very effective. For
instance, she points out that much
of the material written on women in
development is gender-blind
because, by omitting information


PAGE 14

















on men, it fails to provide the neces-
sary information on gender roles
and relationships. Similarly, check-
lists, viewed as an expedient route
to achieving WID goals, are often of
little value because they are too
vague and inflexible to apply to the
broad spectrum of development
contexts. Instead, she advocates
tools and methods that are partici-
patory, context specific, and inclu-
sive of all members of target and
participating populations.
In the final paper, Hannan-
Andersson discusses the potential of
the gender perspective for improv-
ing development planning. First, it
heightens awareness of both
women's and men's roles as actors in
development. Second, it focuses
attention on participation of local
groups and the need and potential
for their involvement in develop-
ment planning. The major focus of
the paper is a critique of the inade-
quacies in standard approaches to
development planning, many of
which are impediments to integrat-
ing a gender perspective.
The three papers in this collec-
tion provide a thought-provoking
framework for incorporating a gen-
der perspective into development
planning. While the papers do not
meet their aims of presenting a
"how-to" methodology, they do
provide the conceptual architecture
for developing such an approach.
Such an endeavor would require
additional knowledge and skills in


collection and analysis of sex-disag-
gregated data, reaching and involv-
ing both men and women in devel-
opment planning, incorporating
research findings and local concerns
and knowledge into project design
and implementation, and training
staff effectively in gender skills.
Hannan-Andersson provides a
strong rationale for development
agencies to invest in the process.

The ECOGEN Tools (see page 35)
and the sectoral checklists, developed
by the Netherlands Ministry of
Foreign Affairs (see page 4), comple-
ment this framework by providing
more targeted "how-to" methods.


0 Kabira, Wanjiku
Mukabi, and Masheti
Masinjila.
1993.
Gender and
Development: The
Femnet Modei for
Gender Responsive
Planning, Programming
Advocacy and
Sensitization. Nairobi,
Kenya: African Women's
Development and
Communication Network.
12 pp.

Gender and Development is a par-
ticipatory model developed by the
Kenyan organization Femnet for
training development professionals
to conduct "gender responsive plan-
ning, programming, advocacy and
sensitization." The model translates
Femnet's philosophy of advancing
"the equal position of women and
men in society and as equal
participants in the development
process" into a five-step training
methodology.


The five sections of the model
include modules on: 1) concepts of
gender and development; 2) presen-
tation of data differentiated by gen-
der; 3) social construction of gen-
der; 4) identification of gender con-
cerns; and 5) application to project
analysis. The first section places the
concept of gender and development
in a historical context by helping
trainees understand the differences
between sex and gender, Women in
Development (WID), and Gender
and Development (GAD). It
explains that the value of GAD is
that it examines the root causes of
women's subordination in different
sociocultural settings.
Section 2 discusses the premise
that unequal and often exploitative
relations between men and women
are based on sociocultural and his-
torical factors that are perpetuated
by gender-based ideologies. By
using the Harvard case study
methodology, this section of the
training requires participants to
analyze data on men's, women's,
boys', and girls' activities, and to
examine the allocation of tasks in
relation to the distribution of bene-
fits. The facilitators encourage par-
ticipants to question the legitimacy
of these disparities in order to ana-
lyze and understand how gender-
based power relations influence the
design and implementation of
development projects.


PA GE 1


GENESYSjlFfi
















Section 3 addresses the impor-
tance of culture and society as
shapers of gender roles, rights, and
responsibilities. It confronts directly
the notion that gender relations are
immutable. This section draws out
the distinction between sex and
gender in some detail and discusses
the role of ideology in perpetuating
unequal distribution of wealth and
power. The major objective of this
section is to help the participants
understand that gender roles are not
permanent and that "they can be
and are changing." The purpose of
Section 4 is to provide a framework
for more systematically identifying
and analyzing gender-based dispari-
ties in activities, and resource access
and control. It is also a bridging
exercise that links the identification
of these disparities to an assessment
of how to design projects to over-
come them. Section 5 completes
this process by engaging the partici-
pants in applying their newly
acquired analytical skills to their
own projects.
The Femnet method presents an
extremely useful training sequence
for developing gender awareness
and analysis skills in development


planning. This publication, howev-
er, is only an outline of a method-
ological tool, not a step-by-step set
of instructional materials. Thus, its
optimal application requires train-
ers who are highly skilled in gender
and development theory and gender
analysis methods. Its focus on gen-
der as an unequal relation of power
and control sets it apart from most
gender training methodologies.


SMIoffat, L.-,.:: Yande
Geadah, and Rieky
Stuart.
1991.
Two Halves Iake a
Whole: Balancing Gender
Relations in
Development. : ?-
Canada: Canadian
Council for International
Cooperation. 178 pp.

This handbook is a kit of three
interrelated manuals: an overview of
gender and development and gen-
der analysis tools; a training manu-
al; and two sets of case studies. It
was developed by the Canadian
Council for International
Cooperation, with funding from
CIDA, to help Canadian NGOs
design and implement more effec-
tive and equitable development pro-
grams. Written from a feminist per-
spective, it aims to identify the
"potential in development initia-
tives to transform unequal
social/gender relations and to
empower women" in order to
achieve the long-term goal of devel-
oping an "equal partnership of
women and men in determining
and directing their own future."


Section 1, "Gender and
Development," includes three chap-
ters on theory, tools, and implica-
tions. The first chapter, "Gender
and Development: An Alternative
Approach," explores why most
development approaches have not
been very successful in improving
women's lives. It focuses on four
issues: equality vs. equity; gender as
a social construction; power; and
the limits of development. The dis-
cussion of equality vs. equity con-
trasts equality of opportunity with
equity of impact, arguing that the
two issues are not synonymous and
that equality of opportunity (the
objective ofWID efforts) does not,
by and large, result in equity of
impact for men and women.
The segment on the social con-
struction of gender emphasizes
cross-cultural variability and the
potential for change in gender rela-
tions over time. The discussion of
power raises issues about how
women experience subordination
differently, depending on their age,
class, ethnicity, race, or sexual ori-
entation. It challenges the assump-
tion that all women have singular or
unified interests and recognizes that
development actions may increase
divisions and conflict. The section
on the limits of development is a
sobering caution to development
planners that they cannot define or
solve development problems in


PA G E 6
















isolation of the people whose lives
they affect. It also challenges the
development community to broaden
its concept of development beyond a
solely economic perspective empha-
sizing growth and redistribution.
The second chapter, "GAD
Analytical Tools: Program, Project
and Policy Applications," presents
eight gender-analysis tools designed
to increase attention to gender
issues in development. The first
four tools, based on the Harvard
Analytical Framework (see Rao
below), are intended for analyzing
gender relations within a communi-
ty. These include: 1) Sexual/Gender
Division of Labor; 2) Types of Work;
3) Access to and Control Over
Resources; and 4) Influencing
Factors. The second set of four tools
are designed to help development
workers analyze the implications of
sex-disaggregated data. They pro-
vide a series of questions focused
on: improved conditions of men
and women and changes in their
relative positions in society (tool
#5); the extent to which develop-
ment activities address men's and
women's practical and strategic
needs (tool #6); the nature, degree,
and benefits of participation by
women and men (tool #7); and how
programs contribute to the trans-
formation of relations between the
sexes and between the advantaged
and disadvantaged (tool #8). The
third chapter, "Implications and
Strategies for NGOs," discusses the


limitations of GAD training in mak-
ing real institutional changes with-
out a parallel commitment to struc-
tural and conceptual changes within
an organization.
Section 2, "Gender and
Development Training," is a manual
for developing a GAD training pro-
gram. The training manual guides
trainers on how to present the GAD
approach and to train participants
in the use of the gender analysis
tools. Section 3, supplemented by
an addendum published in 1992,
provides short and long case study
materials to use in training. The
case studies provide a range of ana-
lytical material for people with
varying degrees of expertise in gen-
der considerations.
Two Halves Make a Whole brings
an entirely new dimension to gender
analysis and training. It focuses on
the relative position and power of
women and men to effect structural
changes in their lives. Optimum
use of this handbook requires both
time and study on the part of the
user, but it is time and effort that is
well invested. The handbook's
treatment of power and the limits of
development are among the most
innovative discussions of these
issues in any gender analysis frame-
work. The tools provide a focused
set of questions for pursuing the
theoretical issues raised by the
authors. They help development
planners go beyond the "add
women and stir" model advocated
by many other WID and gender
analysis approaches to begin a
process of gendered development.


* Poats, Susan V.
1989.
Invisible Women: Gender
and Household Analysis
in ASqI r <-* .,"t :ral Research
and Extension.
,r.l -, .. Florida:
Tropical Research and

I pp.

This is a scripted slide presentation
prepared to assist agricultural
researchers, extension workers, and
managers of research and extension
projects learn about gender issues in
agriculture. Its other purpose is to
develop an understanding of how to
use gender analysis as a descriptive
and analytical tool in agriculture
projects. It does not present a
research methodology per se, but
articulates a coherent set of gender
issues relevant to agricultural
research, extension, and develop-
ment planning. The presentation
argues that "learning to 'see' women
in agriculture will assist research
and development workers to better
understand the different roles that
men and women play in production
and to improve the design and
delivery of technology meant to
assist farmers-both male and
female."


PAGE


I ~HGENESYSI
















The slide presentation raises a
number of specific issues that have
prevented researchers and planners
from considering women's roles in
agriculture to the same degree that
they consider men's. These include:
1) omitting from information-gath-
ering interviews female farmers who
may perform agricultural tasks and
control resources; 2) researchers'
stereotypical notions about gender
work roles, which prevent them
from seeing women's production
roles; 3) communications barriers
and sociocultural conventions that
limit interaction between male
researchers and female farmers;
4) economic models that do not
easily accommodate information on
different members of households or
extended or polygynous households
where females manage their own
income; 5) inadequate attention to


the needs of women of different ages
(i.e., young women with small chil-
dren who may have different agri-
cultural needs and limitations than
older women with adult children).
The presentation also notes
recent changes that facilitate the
inclusion of gender issues in agri-
cultural research and development:
1) research teams with males and
females that proactively interview
male and female farmers; 2) male
field team members better versed in
techniques for interviewing females;
3) diagnoses conducted all along the
food chain in order to include
women's post-harvest and market-
ing activities; 4) women's collectives
participating in on-farm experi-
ments; and 5) women being taught
how to use non-traditional tech-
niques to expand their involvement
in production.
Although many of the issues
raised in this presentation are no
longer as novel as they were at the
time of its publication, it is still use-
ful for stimulating discussion in
gender training courses. WID offi-
cers and advisors within develop-
ment and agricultural research
organizations will also find it useful
for reaching technical audiences
that are not yet attuned to how to


include gender considerations in
their work. It needs to be paired,
however, with more rigorous gender
analysis methodologies, such as the
ECOGEN Tools (see page 41) or the
methodological chapter of Working
Together (see page 12), if viewers are
to be able to act on the presenta-
tion's suggestions in their research,
extension, and project management
work. Spanish and French versions
are available.


PAGE 18
















* Rao, Aruna, Mary B.
Anderson, and C.
Overholt.
1991.
Gender Analysis in
Development Planning:
A Case Book. West
Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press. 103 pp.

This case book is intended primarily
for national development planners
and practitioners as well as staff of
international development agencies.
It is intended as a pedagogical tool
for those interested in a set of con-
cepts and analytical techniques to
deal with gender issues in a variety
of development interventions. The
first chapter is an analytical frame-
work aimed at "building a gender-
differentiated data base on activities
and access and control over
resources." The remaining chapters,
which are case studies of various
Asian development projects, pro-
vide raw material for analysis by
training participants.
The gender analysis framework,
reproduced from Gender Roles in
Development Projects (Overholt, et
al., 1985), is designed to facilitate
the integration of women into pro-


ject analysis. The framework has
four components: 1) activity profile;
2) access and control profile;
3) analysis of factors influencing
activities, access, and control; and
4) project cycle analysis. The activi-
ty profile is designed to delineate
the economic activities of the popu-
lation in the project area by age and
gender, ethnicity, social class, and
other socioeconomic variables. The
purpose of the access and control
profile is to discern who controls
what resources and to examine who
benefits from a particular set of
activities. The analysis of the influ-
encing factors and resources focuses
on the broader economic and
cultural elements that condition the
gender division of labor and gen-
der-related control over resources
and benefits. The project cycle
analysis examines the implications
of data obtained from the initial
three analyses for the different phas-
es of the project cycle.
The remaining chapters of the
book are case studies on projects in
Asia, ranging from irrigation educa-
tion to employment schemes. They
do not systematically follow the
gender analysis framework, but
rather offer raw data for training
participants to practice applying the
framework.


Gender Roles in Development
Projects, upon which this book is
based, was one of the first gender
analysis frameworks to be devel-
oped. It has since been surpassed by
others that are more user friendly
and sectorally focused. Many of the
subsequent methodologies, howev-
er, owe their intellectual roots to
this approach. It is most useful for
trainers who desire case study mate-
rial on Asia. The case studies offer
raw material that can be used to
practice a broad range of analytical
tools.


PAGE 19


'I GENESYS1





















IRA R


Gender Analysis,
Pla t n ing, and
Training

African Development Bank. 1990.
Symposium on Household Food
Security and the Role of Women:
Collected papers. Washington, D.C.:
ADB.

Alberti, Amalia M. 1979. Metodologia
apropriada para el studio de la mujer
rural en los Andes del Ecuador. Quito,
Ecuador: CEPLAES/Ford Foundation.

Aulette, Judy. 1991. "Women and
Social Welfare: A Feminist Analysis."
Rural Sociology 56, no. 1.

Australian International Development
Assistance Bureau. 1992. Women in
Development: A Resource
Handbook. Australia: AIDAB.

Boonsue, Kornvipa. 1992. Women's
Development Models and Gender
Analysis: A Review. Bangkok,
Thailand: Asian Institute of
Technology.

Eichler, Magrit. 1988. Non-Sexist
Research Methods: A Practical
Guide. Boston, Massachusetts:
Unwin Hyman.

Evans, Alison. 1989. Women: Rural
Development Gender Issues in Rural
Household Economics. Sussex,
England: IDS.

Gittinger, J. Price. 1990. Household
Food Security and the Role of
Women. World Bank Discussion
Paper 96. Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank.


Hannan-Andersson, C. 1992.
Experiences with Gender Training:
How Did it Work and How Was it
Used: Some Experience from the
Swedish International Development
Authority 1988-1991. Lund, Sweden:
SIDA.

Howard-Borjas, P. Karl M. 1991.
Gender Analysis Workshop for
Professional Staff: FAO's Mid-Term
Review of Lessons Learned. Working
Paper Series No. 7. Rome, Italy:
FAO.

INSTRAW. 1988. Modular Training
Package for Women in Development.
Dominican Republic: INSTRAW.

Kabeer, Naila. 1991. Gender,
Production and Well-Being:
Rethinking the Household Economy.
Discussion Paper 288. Sussex,
England: IDS.

Loudiyi, Dounia, and Alison Meares.
1992. Women in Conservation: Tools
for Analysis and a Framework for
Actions: An Annotated Bibliography.
Washington, D.C.: IUCN.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The
Netherlands. 1990. Collected
Papers. Symposium on Household
Food Security and the Role of
Women. Harare, Zimbabwe: Ministry
of Foreign Affairs.

Molnar, Augusta. 1981. The
Dynamics of Traditional Systems of
Forest Management in Nepal:
Implications for the Community
Forestry Development and Training
Project. Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank.


Moser, Caroline 0. 1993. Gender
Planning and Development Theory,
Practice and Training. New York,
N.Y.: Routledge.

Overholt, C., M. Anderson, K. Cloud,
and J. Austin. 1985. Gender Roles in
Development Projects: A Casebook.
West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press.

Parker, J. Kathy. 1989. Integrating
Gender Concerns into the Asia and
Near East Environmental and Natural
Resource Strategy in the 1990s.
Gainesville, Florida: Tropical
Research and Development Program.

Parker, Rani. 1993. Another Point of
View: A Manual on Gender Analysis
Training for Grassroots Workers.
New York, N.Y.: UNIFEM.

Poats, Susan, and S. Russo. 1989.
Training in WID/Gender Analysis in
Agricultural Development: A Review
of Experiences and Lessons Learned.
Working Paper Series No. 5. Rome,
Italy: FAO.

UNIFEM. 1991. Gender Training:
Experiences, Lessons and Future
Directions. New York, N.Y.: UNIFEM.

UNIFEM. 1990. Drawing Lesson, Vols.
1,2,3. Washington, D.C.: UNIFEM.

USAID. Intrahousehold Allocation of
Resources and Roles: An Annotated
Bibliography of the Methodological
and Empirical Literature.
Washington, D.C.: USAID.

Van Herpern, Dorien. 1991. Gender
Analysis in Agricultural Research.
Palmira, Colombia: CIAT.


PAGE .J
Sim s
















D. Guidelines
* Clones, Julia
Panourgia.
1993.
Gender and the
Environment in Sub-
Saharan Africa:
Guidelines for Integrating
Gender Issues into Bank
Group Projects with
Significant
Environmental
Implications.
Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank. 39 pp.

These guidelines stress the need "to
make development a process of
change which safeguards the natur-
al resource base, enables women's
empowerment, and balances social
and economic objectives." They are
designed as a gender and environ-
ment training module for manage-
ment and staff in the World Bank's
Africa region, and to assist task
managers to design projects that are
more responsive to the natural and
human environments.
The guidelines, intended for
use by a variety of audiences, are
organized to meet the needs of the
different users working in Sub-
Saharan Africa (SSA). The chapter
"Gender and the Environment in
SSA: Conceptual Underpinnings A,"
is intended as a short version for
top managers that presents a con-
ceptual and policy framework and
describes specific links between
gender and environmental issues.
Chapter 3, "Conceptual


Underpinnings B," advocates an
expanded notion of sustainable
development that accounts for gen-
der differences that affect "the
human presence in the ecosystem."
This section is intended for nonspe-
cialists. It discusses the principles of
gender and development and pro-
vides examples of constraints and
consequences women often face in
managing the environments in
which they live. Chapter 4,
"Conceptual Underpinnings C
(Summary of Key Links)," lists a
number of key gender differences
that the author believes are charac-
teristic of the region.
Chapter 5 presents a set of
guidelines for integrating gender
issues into projects with significant
environmental implications. The
guidelines follow the World Bank's
project development cycle. The pro-
ject identification guidelines call for
collecting information on pre-pro-
ject gender roles and relations, and
access to and control over resources.
The author also prompts project
identification teams to examine the
potential effects of the project on
women's and men's roles, responsi-
bilities, access to and control over
resources, and participation (also
differentiated by class, ethnicity, and
other relevant characteristics). At
the project preparation level, the
guidelines state the need for collect-
ing information on gender and the
project area. The project compo-
nent level guidelines focus on for-
mulating gender inclusive strategies,
on ascertaining whether women
have participated or been consulted


in planning the project, and exam-
ining whether women have equal
access to training opportunities.
The project appraisal level's sugges-
tions include providing summary
information on how women's needs
have been taken into account in the
project, the project's potential direct
and indirect impacts on women,
and women's participation in the
implementation of the project. At
the project implementation/super-
vision and gender impact monitor-
ing levels, the guidelines suggest dis-
cussing with member governments
issues of women's employment,
management, staffing, and opportu-
nities to bid on procurement con-
tracts. Following USAID guidelines,
the author advocates complete dis-
aggregation of information for
monitoring and evaluation.
The final section of the report
offers several case studies of gender-
responsive environmental projects
based on presentations at the Global
Assembly of Women and at
UNCED. A checklist in an appen-
dix provides a series of what the
author terms "indicative questions"
under the categories of gender:
1) division of labor; 2) aspects of
investment and control of resources;
3) aspects of providing for family
needs; and 4) gender aspects of con-
trol over output and income. The













PAGE21


I lGENESYS1
















checklist also includes questions for
specific types of projects such as
food crop projects, irrigation pro-
jects, livestock projects, agricultural
research activities, agricultural
extension activities, and fisheries
(within traditional fishing commu-
nities and fish farming). A second
appendix provides summaries of
World Bank environmental projects
in Sub-Saharan Africa that address
gender issues.
The main value of this method
is that it is specific to World Bank
operations. Thus it provides World
Bank staff and consultants with an
accessible guide to key gender and
environmental issues relevant to
each stage of the project cycle. It is
not, however, either original or a
hands-on guide to collecting and
analyzing gender information.
Although its author calls it a train-
ing module, it is lacking in both
content and process when com-
pared with some of the other train-
ing approaches reviewed above.


* Gaesing, Karin, and
Carola V. Morstein.
1991.
Women in Development
and Animal Production:
How to Go About It.
Eschborn, Germany:
GTZ. 18 pp.

These guidelines present criteria for
assessing women's inclusion in ani-
mal production projects. Their
purpose is to help project managers
ensure that women participate in
and benefit from animal production
and veterinary projects. The guide-
lines provide illustrative lists of
issues to consider when planning,
appraising, and implementing pro-
jects. The authors do not provide
either exhaustive or focused sets of
questions, therefore users must
choose the ones that are relevant to
a given situation and amend or sup-
plement where necessary.
The guidelines are organized in
three sections to coincide with the
project cycle. The first section
focuses on different types of analy-
ses appropriate for gathering infor-
mation during the project identifi-
cation and design phases. The
analyses presented in this section
focus specifically on roles, interests,
responsibilities, and concerns of
women with regard to livestock pro-
duction.
The second section provides
gender-specific criteria for develop-
ing terms of reference for a project
appraisal team. The authors agree
that it is necessary to collect all data
and information by gender in order
to adequately meet the problems
and needs of the entire population.


They organize the questions in
seven categories: 1) demography
and household structure; 2) access
to and control over resources;
3) socioeconomic patterns;
4) women's work and responsibility;
5) forms of women's organizations;
6) needs and expectations of
women; and 7) existing approaches
to women's promotion.
The third section establishes
terms of reference and provides
questions for monitoring and evalu-
ating the progress and impact of
incorporating women into animal
production projects. The questions
are arranged in five conceptual cate-
gories: 1) division of labor and work
load; 2) economic impacts:
3) social, cultural, and legal status;
4) extension services; and 5) partici-
pation in planning, implementa-
tion, and benefits.
Women in Development and
Animal Production provides a ready
set of criteria for project managers
to use in developing terms of refer-
ence for project design, appraisal,
and evaluation. Its major contribu-
tion is that it provides a set of gen-
der-based questions specific to ani-
mal production. It is not, however, a
research method for collecting and
analyzing information. It assumes
that project managers or members
of the project design and evaluation
teams have the skills to evaluate
gender integration, to gather and


PAG22
















analyze gender-disaggregated data,
and to suggest how proposed
changes can be made. The title is
somewhat misleading because the
guidelines do not describe "how to
go about it" as much as they
describe the issues to consider. It is
specifically a WID approach and
therefore lacks questions that focus
on comparisons between women
and men across different socioeco-
nomic strata, age-groups, ethnicity,
and marital status.


I Murphy, Josette.
1989.
Women and Agriculture
in Africa: A Guide to
Bank Policy and
Programs for Operations
Staff. Washington, D.C.:
The World Bank. 10 pp.

This paper was prepared for the
agricultural divisions in the World
Bank's Africa Region (AFR). The
stated objectives of the paper are "to
provide AFR agricultural staff with
a summary of current Bank policy
and programs on Women in
Development, and with a brief
review of gender-related issues
which task managers may need to
take into consideration when
appraising and supervising agricul-
ture operations."
The guidelines are presented in
four sections: 1) Introduction;
2) Section 2: A Summary of World
Bank policy on Women in
Development; 3) Section 3: A
Review of Key Issues Faced by
African Women Farmers; and


4) Section 4: An Outline of Steps
AFR Agricultural Staff Need to
Consider in the Appraisal and
Supervision of Sectoral Lending and
Projects. A list of Bank publications
on gender issues in agriculture is
provided in the appendix. Section 2
summarizes Bank WID policy and
the institutional support available to
Bank staff for incorporating gender
concerns into Bank lending.
Section 3 discusses obstacles
faced by women farmers in Africa
because of their limited access to
productive resources, including land,
capital, credit, marketing channels,
time, and appropriate equipment
and technology. It also discusses
restrictive land tenure legislation that
precludes women's land ownership
and access to agricultural credit. The
final section lists areas that should be
improved or changed in order to
reform agricultural projects. They
are legal formalization of women's
access to land tenure; labor saving
technology on all types of household
and farming work; research that
takes women's role in the farming
system into account; access to agri-
cultural training; access to external
services; access to credit; encourage-
ment and support of female groups
for information dissemination and
credit; access to basic education; and
disaggregation and analysis of statis-
tical data by gender.


This report is a useful short-
hand guide for those involved in
planning agricultural programs in
Africa, especially for World Bank
staff and consultants. The guidelines
provide helpful information on how
to rethink the role of women farmers
in light of their multiple responsi-
bilities in agricultural production,
and in other types of productive
and reproductive activities.
The paper makes an important
contribution by highlighting that
the general information needs for
project design, appraisal, supervi-
sion, and evaluation "should not be
seen as a list of 'what we need to
know about women, but of the
information on the local population
without which strategies are selected
or a project is designed in a vacuum."
It emphasizes the importance of
understanding the technology and
resources used by farms within the
local sociocultural and economic
context, without providing guid-
ance on how to collect or analyze
the data.


PAGE


GENESYS1

















* Russo, Sandra, Susan
Poats, and Jennifer
Bremer-Fox.
1989.
Gender Issues in
Agriculture and Natural
Resource Management.
Washington, D.C.: USAID.
72 pp.

The objective of this manual is to
provide methods, guidelines, and
examples for facilitating the integra-
tion of women into agriculture and
natural resource development pro-
jects. The manual makes use of lists
and question guide sheets to high-
light key gender issues. It reviews
several evaluation and monitoring
techniques and discusses their rela-
tive advantages and disadvantages.
The first chapter is an introduc-
tion and overview of how to use the
manual. In the second chapter, the
authors provide guidelines for inte-
grating gender issues into USAID's
principal reporting documents,
including the Country Development
Strategy Statement (CDSS), Action
Plan (AP), Project Identification
Document (PID), and Project Paper
(PP). Additionally, a section of the
chapter focuses on non-project
assistance such as policy reform ini-
tiatives. The manual lists ten sug-
gested steps in the gender analysis
process: 1) clarify gender roles and
their implications for project strate-
gies; 2) analyze eligibility to receive


project inputs; 3) define prerequi-
sites for participation in project
activities; 4) examine outreach
capabilities of institutions and
delivery systems; 5) assess the
appropriateness of proposed techni-
cal packages; 6) examine the distrib-
ution of benefits and its effect on
incentives; 7) consider the reliability
of the feedback mechanisms;
8) anticipate probable changes in
the roles and status of women;
9) link changes in the roles and
status of women with the expected
project impact; and 10) identify
needed adaptations. The chapter
also lists issues for gender consider-
ations in non-project assistance.
The third chapter delineates
elements to include in a gender-
informed scope of work for a
project design team.
The guidelines follow each step
of the standard USAID project
paper process. They lay out specific
issues and questions for different
technical analyses, subsectors, and
components, including questions
relating to credit, research, exten-
sion, farmer organization, land
reform and tenure, livestock, irriga-
tion, marketing, project manage-
ment, post-harvest storage and pro-
cessing, agroforestry, and natural
resource management.
The manual's final chapter pro-
vides guidance on how to incorpo-
rate gender considerations into pro-
ject implementation, monitoring,
and evaluation. This chapter
includes criteria for selecting gen-
der-informed implementing organi-
zations, technical staff, and delivery


systems. It also suggests several
techniques for evaluating women's
participation in agricultural devel-
opment projects, including direct
observation, community interviews,
informal surveys, consumption-
focused surveys, household record
keeping, and purposive sampling.
Each method is described in a para-
graph. The purposive sampling
overview is supplemented by a
descriptive list of sampling strate-
gies. The appendices include a list of
other USAID WID Office resources
and a bibliography.
The manual provides detailed
guidelines for identifying gender-
based issues. It is well targeted to
USAID procedures and is written in
a language that is accessible to
Bureau and Mission management
and technical staff. As with other
guidelines, however, it provides lit-
tle direction on how to actually ana-
lyze and apply the results of targeted
research and evaluation.


PAGE24
















* Saidu, Sharif.
1992.
Report on Advancement
of Women and Livestock
Production: Proceedings
from an International
Seminar November 23,
1991. Eschborn,
Germany: GTZ. 18 pp.

These proceedings are the outcome
of an international seminar on link-
ing women in development with
livestock production and veterinary
issues. The main objectives of the
conference for animal production
and veterinary project field staff
were to: 1) sensitize participants to
the importance of women in animal
production; 2) highlight implica-
tions of women's roles in animal
production for livestock projects;
and 3) expose participants to gen-
der-sensitive data collection
methodologies.
The most useful sections of the
document are an introductory
chapter that summarizes the results
of the conference, project sum-
maries that present lessons learned,
and a section that includes topical
and methodological papers. The
topical and methodological section
contains two papers on gender
analysis and data collection, a case
study, and a fourth paper that
reviews progress on integrating
WID into GTZ. The first paper, by
Carola von Morstein, advocates
viewing the household as a survival


community where each individual
manages his/her affairs for both
individual and common purposes
rather than as a resource-pooling,
consensus, and joint decision-mak-
ing entity. It argues furthermore for
the need for a "gender-specific
analysis [that] takes into account
the unequal relationships between
men and women, their different
starting situations, specific interests,
problems and needs." It applies this
perspective to an examination of the
division of labor, decision-making,
access to the means of production,
and the special situation of female-
headed households in communities
engaged in animal production.
The methodological chapter, by
Christine Martins, presents an
overview of how to collect and
apply sex-disaggregated data in ani-
mal production and veterinary pro-
jects. It addresses how to collect
information, how to use it, and why
it should be gender specific.
Additionally the paper reviews the
advantages and disadvantages of
formal surveys, rapid rural appraisal
techniques, and action or participa-
tory methods. The author recom-
mends non-formal methods of data
collection because they demand
fewer resources and are flexible
enough to allow for greater commu-
nity participation. The report sug-
gests that information be obtained
from both men and women from
different social classes, different age
groups (married and unmarried),
and different ethnic groups.


The GTZ conference proceed-
ings provide some interesting guide-
lines for tailoring sex-disaggregated
data collection and analysis to live-
stock production, husbandry, and
health projects. This is not a step-
by-step "how-to" manual, but
rather a list of recommended cate-
gories and methods. Although it is
not an operational guide, it provides
interesting background reading for
livestock specialists looking for sug-
gestions on how to integrate gender
considerations into projects.


PAGE 2


GENESYSIIMPR

















* White, Karen, Maria
Otero, and Margaret
Lycette.
1986.
Integrating Women into
Development Programs: A
Guide for Implementation
for Latin America and the
Caribbean. Washington,
D.C.: ICAFVw. 88 pp.

This report critiques USAID's
efforts in complying with the
requirements of the Percy
Amendment. It notes where USAID
has not been successful in targeting
women in development projects
and offers suggestions on how to
better integrate gender issues into
development. The purpose of the
report is to help mission staff inte-
grate concerns about women's eco-
nomic participation into project
design, implementation, and evalu-
ation. The authors argue that by
implementing the report's sugges-
tions, USAID programs and pro-
jects will be more effective in reach-
ing and benefiting women.
The guide is arranged in four
discrete sections. The first lists sta-
tistical data on the situation of
women in Latin America and the
Caribbean. The second section lists
constraints to women's participa-


tion and suggests how women can
be integrated into USAID's policies
and operational procedures. It pro-
vides specific suggestions on how to
overcome policy-level, institutional
(structural and procedural), and
technical and informational con-
straints. The third section offers
general guidelines for integrating
women into all phases of the project
cycle. The guidelines consist of a set
of general principles and factors
that should be considered in project
design, implementation, and evalu-
ation. The fourth section contains
sector-specific guidelines for inte-
grating women into microenterprise
development, agriculture, vocation-
al and participant training, and
housing projects. This section pre-
sents a much more detailed set of
constraints and solutions. A project
design and implementation matrix
for each sector outlines possible
project features and women-sensi-
tive alternatives and rationales for
the changes.
The guide is useful for USAID
policy makers and project and pro-
gram managers who are interested
in addressing why it is important to
consider gender issues in develop-
ment and what issues might be rele-
vant for people working in Latin
America. The report does not pro-
vide adequate guidance on how to
implement the changes suggested,
nor does it adequately discuss how


to deal with sociocultural con-
straints, as opposed to economic
and legal limitations. Although the
guide provides specific recommen-
dations and suggestions for reach-
ing women in every stage of the
project cycle, it rarely suggests
involving the participants (women
and men) in working with develop-
ment professionals and host coun-
try governmental and non-govern-
mental organizations to develop
their own solutions.


PAGE26






















Guidelines

African Development Bank/
GENESYS. 1992. Guidelines for
Integrating Gender Issues into Bank
Group Agricultural Sector Projects.
Washington, D.C.: GENESYS.

CIDA. 1986. Guidelines for
Integrating WID into Project Design
and Evaluation. Ottawa, Canada:
CIDA.

FAO. 1982. Participaci6n de la Mujer
en la Comercializaci6n Agricola en
Guatemala. New York, N.Y.: FAO.

FAO. 1984. Women in Agricultural
Production. Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development
Services. Rome, Italy: FAO.

FAO. 1989. Women's Role in Forest
Resource Management: A Reader.
Regional Wood Energy Development
Program in Asia. Rome, Italy: FAO.

FINNIDA. 1991. Guidelines for
Project Preparation and Design.
Helsinki, Finland: FINNIDA.

Harvard Institute for International
Development. Techniques for a
Better Analysis and Incorporation of
the Women Component in
Development Projects.
Massachusetts: African
Development Bank.

Mehra, Rekha, David Burns, Paul
Carlson, and Geeta Rao Gupta.
1991. Integrating Women Into
Development Policies and Programs:
A Guide for the Asia and Near East
Regions. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.


Millard, Ann V. 1990. Scopes of
Work, MUCIA/WID Women in
Development Program in Technical
Assistance: Cameroon, Guatemala,
Indonesia, Uruguay. Columbus,
Ohio: MUCIA/WID.

Ministry of Agriculture, Malawi. 1983.
Reaching Female Farmers Through
Male Extension Workers. Extension
Aids Circular No. 2. Lilongwe,
Malawi: Ministry of Agriculture.

Molnar, Augusta. 1989. Women and
Forestry: Operational Issues.
Working Paper Series 184.
Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Navia-Melbourn, 0., and J.
MacKenzie. Women in Development
and the Project Cycle: A Workbook.
Ottawa, Canada: CIDA.

Rivera, William M., and Susan L.
Corning. 1991. Empowering Women
Through Agriculture Extension: A
Global Perspective. College Park,
Maryland: University of Maryland.

Rojas, Mary. 1993. Looking at
Gender and Forestry: Operational
Issues for Project Planners,
Implementors and Administrators.
Helsinki, Finland: WIDAGRI
Consultants Ltd. for FINNIDA.

Saidu, Sharif. 1991. Advancement of
Women and Livestock Production.
Pakistan: GTZ.

Saito, Katrine A., and Daphne
Spurling. 1992. Developing
Agricultural Extension for Women
Farmers. World Bank Discussion
Paper 156. Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank.


Schneider, Regina Maria, and
Winfried Schneider. 1991. Women
and Rural Development: Guiding
Principles. Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.

Sheehan, Nancy. 1991. Workshop
Proceedings for Gender and Natural
Tenure Research. October 3, 1991.
Madison, Wisconsin: Land Tenure
Center.

UNEP. 1993. Arid and Semi-Arid
Lands. Advancing Women in
Ecosystem Management Seminar,
October 4, 1991. Washington, D.C.:
UNEP.

UNEP. 1993. The Greenbook: A
Manual to Support Organizing a
National Assembly of Women and
the Environment. Washington, D.C.:
UNEP.

UNFPA. 1992. Manual Sobre el
M6todo y el Proceso de
Planeamiento Participativo en
Proyectos de Desarrollo Rural con
Mujeres Rurales. New York, N.Y.:
UNFPA.

The World Bank. 1992. Designing
and Implementing Agricultural
Extension for Women Farmers:
Technical Note. Washington, D.C.:
The World Bank

World Wildlife Fund. Integrating
Women in WHNP Projects. Planning
Paper No. 6. Washington, D.C.:
World Wildlife Fund.


PAGEf p


I


Cnl


RELATED REFERENCES

















E. Monitoring And
Evaluation
* Abt Associates, Inc.
1989.
Agricultural Policy
Analysis: A Manual for
AID Agricultural and
Rural Development
Officers. Washington,
D.C.: USAID. 43 pp.
* Bremer-Fox, Jennifer.
1987.
Policy and Programming
for Women in
Agriculture. AID Nairobi
Conference on Women in
African Agriculture
September 1987.
Nairobi, Kenya: Robert
Nathan Associates. 26 pp.

The Agricultural Policy Analysis
manual discusses the impact of
USAID policies and policy reform
on women in the agricultural sector.
The objective of the method is to
outline a strategy for rapid appraisal
of agricultural policies to determine
if policies benefit or harm women
farmers differently from men. The
method states that women can be
viewed as a proxy for low-resource
farmers and small entrepreneurs, as
most women farmers are low-
resource farmers and most women
entrepreneurs are small entrepre-
neurs. The approach suggests disag-
gregating all project or survey data
by sex, so that planners can gain


information not only on differences
between men and women, but also
on program and policy impacts. By
reaching women farmers and entre-
preneurs, it is expected that policies
that have a positive effect on women
will also benefit low-resource farm-
ers and small rural entrepreneurs in
general. The authors also contend
that policy makers must consider
seriously the impact of agricultural
policies on women because women
are important producers of food
and other products.
In evaluating policy, the authors
cite several essential questions:
1) What is the policy?; 2) What is
the main purpose of the policy?;
3) What institutions are responsible
for deciding on and implementing
the policy?; 4) What is the impact of
the policy on key variables of inter-
est?; 5) What are the explanations
for the main policies and primary
mechanisms that affect the econom-
ic variables of interest?; and 6) What
are alternatives that might be con-
sidered in designing and imple-
menting a reform program? The
authors note that women's income
and production is a category that
should be added to the five areas
that are almost always studied: agri-
culture, producer incomes,
consumer incomes, trade, and
government budgets.
The policy assessment frame-
work sketches a three-step process to
evaluate the impact of policies on
women: a description of their activi-
ties; definition of the policies that
affect these activities; and determina-
tion of the impact of these policies
on women's activities and income.
The method examines women's par-


ticipation in agriculture from the
perspective of four basic roles: farm
managers, laborers, traders, and con-
sumers. The authors caution that
successful application of the frame-
work is limited by a general lack of
economic data on women's agricul-
tural production and other econom-
ic activities.
The authors of the manual con-
tend that reforms have not yet
addressed the main constraints to
women and low-resource farmers,
which include poor access to credit
due to lack of formal land titles and
limited access to inputs and tech-
nology. Sources of possible data to
use in rectifying this problem
include anthropological studies on
the relative importance of plots
managed by men and women, area
surveys conducted as a part of pro-
ject design or for other purposes,
extension reports, and informal
judgments by extension agents and
researchers. The authors discuss the
implications of such information
for programming agricultural activ-
ities for women, as well as for data
collection and analysis, agricultural
sector projects, project design, pro-
ject evaluation, monitoring, and
implementation and programming.
The manual includes a sample
scope of work for developing an
inventory of gender-relevant poli-
cies. The presentation by Bremer-
Fox is useful as a training module


P A G E 28
















for those interested in learning the
methodology.
The agricultural policy analysis
manual is designed to encourage
and improve the ability of USAID
policy makers and agricultural sec-
tor planners to assess the impact of
agricultural policies on women
farmers. It is meant as a bridge
between the project and policy lev-
els; however, it is not wholly effec-
tive in linking intra-household
impact assessments to the effects of
policy reforms. The presentation by
Bremer-Fox is useful for raising
policymakers' awareness of the need
to measure the effects of policy
reforms on different segments of the
population, but neither the presen-
tation nor the manual describes a
specific methodology for assessing
impact. There is still a need, which
remains unfulfilled by the policy
manual, for a sequenced method to
measure how agricultural policies
affect the different conditions,
opportunities, and constraints faced
by men and women farmers.


* Baster, Nancy.
1981.
The Measurement of
Women's Participation in
Development: The Use of
Census Data. Sussex,
England: IDS. 54 pp.
This discussion paper examines how
census data can be used to measure
women's participation in develop-
ment. The objectives of the method
are to assess women's participation
in development activities, and to
examine the socioeconomic status
of women in a country through the
analysis of census data.
The first section discusses how
to analyze long-term changes in
employment structure, migration
patterns, and population growth
and structure. This section lists the
measures and indicators of women's
participation in development that
are readily available from census data.
The second section of the paper
discusses patterns and trends in
women's participation, and high-
lights studies using census data to
track changes in women's participa-
tion in national social and econom-
ic development. The paper also sug-
gests ways of disaggregating indica-
tors according to socioeconomic
variables such as age, sex, social and
family status, education, employ-
ment and occupation, income, place
of residence, and class.
The approach offered in the
paper is most useful for analyzing
national and regional trends. The
author correctly argues that census
data is most appropriate for analyz-


ing long-term structural changes
affecting women's participation and
for developing a few key monitoring
indicators of women's participation.
The census data provides an
overview of broad trends by sex. To
understand real gender differences,
however, a contextual analysis is
needed as a complement. A second
use of census data suggested by the
author is to provide indicators of
changes in women's participation
over time and for interregional
comparisons. The use of census data
discussed by Baster assumes that a
reliable and complete data set is
available, but that is rarely the case
in most developing countries.
Nevertheless, this article provides
the user of census data with a num-
ber of good suggestions on how to
analyze sex-linked differences in
socioeconomic status and participa-
tion in development. In conjunction
with other gender analysis tools, it
can also help development planners
formulate gender-specific questions
and needs to guide policy and pro-
gram formulation and to measure
development impacts.


PAE 29


z

-


0
2
Ci


GENESYS~n

















* Collette, Marilyn
Elizabeth.
1986.
The Community
Interaction Model in the
Evaluation of the
Integration of Women in
Development. Canada:
Carleton University.
108 pp.

This methodology adapts the
Community Interaction Model
developed by the Department of
Indian Affairs and Northern
Development (DIAND) in Canada
for measuring the impact of rural
development projects on women.
The objective of the DIAND model
is to measure the impact of develop-
ment projects on community insti-
tutions with particular attention to
"economic viability, social vitality,
and political efficacy." Collette
modifies the approach to assess
overall changes in women's status
and their ability to arbitrate for
greater control over community
resources and political decisions. It
differs from most evaluation
methodologies, which collect and
analyze data to assess whether a
series of independent objectives
have been met without looking at
the overall impact on communities
as viable organizations that can sus-
tain development efforts. By advo-
cating evaluation criteria that mea-
sure whether a project contributes
to women's collective abilities to


improve their position within their
communities as leaders and
resource managers, Collette
attempts to link improvements in
women's status to more effective
and sustainable development.
The model provides guidelines
for collecting critical information
on the aggregate benefits and draw-
backs of project interventions to
women as a group. The author out-
lines ten steps in data collection and
provides a detailed description of
the DIAND model and her adapta-
tion. In addition she presents a
detailed list of indicators for assess-
ing economic viability, social vitali-
ty, and political efficacy. The model
incorporates ethnographic informa-
tion, collected from women com-
munity members and from project
officials, on the economic and polit-
ical positions of women, their per-
ceptions of improvements in their
whole social environment, and a
historical perspective on project
interventions. The author presents
a case study that applies the model
to an evaluation of the World Bank's
Zones d'Action Prioritaire Integrees
de l'Est (ZAPI) project in
Cameroon.
Collette's model is an innovative
first step in developing a methodol-
ogy to measure systematically
changes in women's status. It would
be an even more powerful tool if it
provided the means to examine
changes in women's status relative
to that of men and made clearer
how status is affected by different
socioeconomic variables such as
class, ethnicity, and age. As a
method, it is most accessible to pro-


fessionals trained in the behavioral
social sciences because it assumes
knowledge of ethnographic and sur-
vey research methodologies. It is,
however, an extremely useful con-
ceptual framework for designing
and conducting baseline studies and
evaluations. It is also a useful per-
spective for project designers and
managers who desire a framework
for measuring both project impact
and sustainability.


* Hannan-Andersson,
Carolyn.
1990.
The Challenge of
Measuring Gender
Issues in Water and
Sanitation. Workshop on
Goals and Indicators for
Monitoring and
Evaluation for Water
Supply and Sanitation.
June 25, 1990 Geneva,
Switzerland: SIDA. 30
PP.
This paper is an application of
Hannan-Andersson's gender plan-
ning methodology to measuring the
impact on gender relations of water
and sanitation projects. The objec-
tive of this paper is to help develop-
ment planners integrate women as
actors and decision-makers into
water and sanitation projects.
In the first section, the author
specifies that "integration" means
the "involvement of women along-
side men in mainstream develop-
ment programmes/projects... as


PAGE30
















actors ... rather than as simply
passive beneficiaries." The basic ele-
ments of the approach, as outlined
in her previously mentioned publi-
cation Gender Planning
Methodology (see review of 1992,
p. 18), are: 1) integration of women
into mainstream development pro-
jects; 2) a gender rather than a WID
approach; 3) identification of staff
within an organization who are
responsible for gender integration;
4) routine integration of gender
concerns into planning procedures;
and 5) requiring all personnel, not
only gender specialists, to develop
gender awareness and skills. In the
second section, Hannan-Andersson
relates the need for gender integra-
tion to how one goes about achiev-
ing it through development of gen-
der-informed strategies and tools.
The third section focuses on
monitoring and evaluation as a
process linked to overall project and
program planning, implementation,
and policy formulation. In her
attempt to make standard the indi-
cators used by WHO and UNDP for
measuring the impact of water and
sanitation projects, Hannan-
Andersson emphasizes three key
factors: effective use, sustainability,
and replicability. But she argues that
developing such indicators is proba-
bly not sufficient for encouraging
development professionals to actu-
ally use sex-disaggregated informa-
tion. Therefore, she advocates gen-
der awareness and skills-building
training programs, and develop-


ment of other gender-specific
indicators that track long-term
strategic impacts on women at the
household, community, and project
levels. Her method identifies three
types of information: baseline
information on gender issues at the
household and community levels,
information on strategy/method-
ological approaches to integrating
women in project implementation,
and gender-specific indicators to be
included in ongoing monitoring
and evaluation. At all levels, the
method specifies collecting
information on access to and
control over resources, control over
decision-making, human resources
development, stimulation of other
development activities, and devel-
opment of skills and competence.
The indicators suggested by this
approach also help to assess project
impact on: gender status in the
community, self-perception, work
situations, health, and the
likelihood of sustainability and
replicability of project effects.
The annexes provide supple-
mentary guides. Annex 1 presents a
matrix that contrasts conventional
approaches to integrating women
with alternative approaches that
emphasize collecting information
on women and men and that focus
on the more active involvement of
women as key actors and decision-
makers. Annex 2 is a list of illustra-
tive questions for assessing women's


involvement, potential benefits, and
their own perceptions of the useful-
ness of water and sanitation pro-
jects. Annex 3 provides a list of indi-
cators for measuring sustainability,
replicability, and effective utiliza-
tion, along with suggested gender
aspects to be included when assess-
ing these three factors.
This approach is most useful as
a tool for raising awareness. It is
more an outline of topics and issues
to consider when evaluating the
gender impact of water and sanita-
tion projects than a handbook on
how to evaluate such projects. The
author assumes that implementors
know how to collect and analyze
data, run a monitoring system, and
train workers. Although the method
focuses on water and sanitation
projects, there is very little in the
approach that is specific to those
projects.


PAGE31


GENESYS























Monitoring
and Evaluation

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer. 1987. Policy
and Programming for Women in
Agriculture. AID Nairobi Conference
on Women in African Agriculture,
September 1987. Nairobi, Kenya.

FAO. 1991. Conceptual Framework
for the Development of Statistics and
Indicators on Women in Agriculture
and Rural Development. Rome, Italy:
FAO.

FAO. 1988. Guidelines on Socio-
Economic Indicators for Monitoring
and Evaluating Agrarian Reform and
Rural Development. Rome, Italy:
FAO.

Jiggens, Janice. 1986. Gender-
Related Impacts and the Work of the
International Agricultural Research
Centers. Study Paper No. 7.
Washington D.C.: Consultative
Group on International Agricultural
Research.


Johnston, Dennis. 1985. "The
Development of Social Statistics and
Indicators on the Status of Women."
Social Indicators 16.

Narayan-Parker, Deepa. 1989. A
Planning and Evaluation Framework
in Partnership with People. New
York, N.Y.: UNDP.

Palmer, I. 1985. The Impact of
Agrarian Reform on Women,
Women's Roles and Gender
Differences in Development Cases
for Planners. West Hartford,
Connecticut: Kumarian Press.

Perucci, Francesca. 1992. Collecting
Gender-Specific Data Through
Agricultural Censuses. Draft. Rome,
Italy: FAO.

Staats, John, and Carl Eicher. 1990.
Women in Agriculture: What
Development Can Do: Agricultural
Development in the Third World.
Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins
University Press.

Stallings, James L. 1985. Data
Collection in Subsistence Farming
Systems: A Handbook. Alabama:
Auburn University.


UNDP. 1980. Action Oriented
Assessment of Rural Women's
Participation in Development. New
York, N.Y.: UNDP.

von Harder, Gudrun Martius, and
Regina Maria Schneider. 1986.
Women-Related Impact Analysis of
Rural Development Projects, Partial
Report Summary of Findings.
Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.


PAGE32


I RELA ED REFRENCE
















F. Participatory
Research

* Buenavista, Gladys,
and Cornelia Butler
Flora.
Participatory
lMethodologies for
A p.ilyzr g Household
Activities, Resources,
and Benefits. *** ,
Massachusetts: i.-.i
University. 6 pp.
This brief article presents a
sequenced application of several
participatory research methodolo-
gies for analyzing gender considera-
tions in natural resource manage-
ment. The purpose of the approach
is to distinguish the different pro-
ductive and reproductive roles and
responsibilities of men, women, and
children in the household in order
to understand how gender influ-
ences access to and control over
resources and labor. The authors
selected research methods that: 1)
focused data collection and analysis
on gendered differences in the divi-
sion of labor and control over
resources; 2) were participatory and
interactive; and 3) were fun, engag-
ing, and useful for the participants.
The authors suggest a sequence
for data collection that first relies on
a wealth-ranking method developed
by Barbara Grandin (1988) to
define social categories according to
the perceptions of community


members rather than by groupings
imposed by the researchers. The
article describes how the researchers
applied this method in a Philippine
community. They complemented
the wealth-ranking analysis with in-
depth studies of gendered differ-
ences in activities, resource access
and control, and distribution and
control of benefits. The final stage
of the research sequence entailed
trend analysis of resource condi-
tions, community problem-solving,
and responses to scarcity. The pur-
pose of the sequenced use of these
research tools is to determine the
different roles women and men play
in managing and directing resource
use. The authors anticipate that
research findings will aid in under-
standing how women and men are
affected differently by resource
decline and can contribute to devel-
oping strategies for sustainable
resource use.
The sequence of methodologies
presented by Buenavista and Flora is
a useful set of tools for people
engaged in community-level natural
resource management projects. It
provides a wealth of information for
planning, and has the added advan-
tage that it involves community
members in problem identification
and solving from the conception of
a project. The information in the
article is adequate for designing a
project identification and planning
process. Implementing the research,
however, requires people trained in
the research methodologies, with
adequate social analytical skills, and


with sufficient familiarity with the
local culture to interact comfortably
with community participants. The
five different research methodolo-
gies described in the article can pro-
vide a wealth of information on
gender differences in resource allo-
cation, use, and control. The
authors also acknowledge that gen-
der experiences vary across house-
holds according to differences in
class, age, ethnicity, race, and reli-
gion. Unfortunately, in this short
article, the authors are not able to
follow through on this insight to
provide more detailed guidance on
findings for a better understanding
of how variations in gender across
other socioeconomic variables affect
resource use.


PAGE


4


GENESYS

















* Commonwealth
Secretariat.
1992.
Women, Conservation
and Agriculture. London:
Commonwealth
Secretariat. 199 pp.

The purpose of this manual is to
provide trainers and extension
workers with the skills and tech-
niques necessary to train and involve
women in conservation activities. It
is designed to provide users with a
number of participatory research
techniques that facilitate learning
between agriculturalists, conserva-
tionists, and rural women and men.
The book is organized so that it can
be used either by community exten-
sion workers as a reference book, or
by trainers as a manual/workbook
for workshops on gender and natur-
al resource management.
The manual is divided into four
sections. The first is an introduction
and overview that sets out the
objectives, aids, intended audience,
and key issues and concepts. The
second section, "Learning from
Rural Women," introduces users to
participatory research methods. It is
structured around descriptions of
the methods, case studies, and exer-
cises. It orients readers and trainers
on how to elicit and understand
information on local women's and
men's knowledge and perceptions of
their environment, activities and
work load, and preferences for
resource use. Additionally, this sec-
tion explores ways to learn about


conflicts of interest over resource
use, environmental changes, and
local institutions. At the end of the
chapter are detailed notes for train-
ers and a list of additional resources.
The third section, "Women's
Organizations for Conservation'"
presents case studies that the
authors consider successful attempts
to mobilize women for rural devel-
opment. Each case study is followed
by a list of criteria or indicators of
its success. The fourth section is an
overview of different conservation
techniques and illustrative examples
of their application.
Women, Conservation and
Agriculture is a comprehensive
guide to women and community
conservation planning and action.
It focuses on Africa, but with some
adjustments for political, social, and
cultural considerations it is equally
useful for other parts of the world.
Its one shortcoming is that in trying
to give guidance on "culturally
appropriate" ways to conduct
research and participatory activities,
it overgeneralizes. Users should rec-
ognize this limitation and attempt
to tailor those discussions to the
cultural context in which they work.
As a hands-on guide, the manual is
most useful for community work-
ers, trainers, and project implemen-
tors. It is also a valuable reference
book for people engaged in project
design and management. One of the
most unique features of this manual
is that it provides methods for col-
lecting information on gendered
perspectives about conflict over
resource control and use, and on
changes in environmental condi-
tions over time.


* Parker, Rani.
1990.
A Gender Analysis Matrix
for Development
Practitioners. Praxis,
Somerville,
Massachusetts: The
Fletcher School, Tufts
University. 10 pp.
* Parker, Rani.
1993.
Another Point of View: A
Manual on Gender
Analysis Training for
Grassroots Workers. New
York, N.Y.: UNIFEM. 110
pp.
This article and manual provide
instruction on how to use the gen-
der analysis matrix (GAM), a quick,
low-cost, and simple tool devised by
the author for development practi-
tioners working at the community
level. The purposes of the GAM are
to: 1) assess differential develop-
ment impacts resulting from differ-
ences in gender roles; and 2) initiate
a critical, yet constructive, process
within communities that identifies
and challenges assumptions about
gender roles. It is intended to serve
as a supplementary tool for design-
ing, monitoring, and evaluating
projects at the community level.
A Gender Analysis Matrix for
Development Practitioners is an
overview of the method and its
applications. Another Point of View
is a training manual that describes a
step-by-step process for conducting
a four-day workshop to teach, apply
and evaluate the GAM.
The matrix has four levels of
analysis and four categories of
analysis. The four levels of analysis


PAGE34

















are women, men, household, and
community. The four categories are
potential changes in labor, time,
resources, and sociocultural factors
for each level of analysis. The
method is designed for use by a field
representative or community-level
worker in facilitating a community
meeting in which both women and
men use the matrix to review their
expectations of how development
activities will affect them. After
charting the responses, the facilita-
tor elicits replies on whether the
expected outcomes (and subse-
quently real outcomes) are consis-
tent with the goals of the project.
The author argues that successful
application of the GAM requires the
participation of both men and
women, as well as repetition of the
GAM analysis over time. Therefore,
she recommends repeating the
GAM analysis at least once per
month for the first three months of
a project and every quarter there-
after. The purpose of repeating the
GAM is to clarify gender issues that
appear to be unclear and to uncover
erroneous assumptions about gen-
der roles.
The real value of this tool is to
provide a standardized matrix for
capturing community members' -
men's and women's reactions to
proposed and actual development
interventions. Its usefulness, how-
ever, is limited by two factors. First,
it is only a diagnostic tool, not a
problem-solving tool. The author
provides little guidance on how to
evaluate the information contained
in the matrix, especially when men
and women disagree. Second, it suf-


fers from "unresolved subjectivity"
(i.e., it is unclear, at both the house-
hold and community levels, whose
opinions prevail.) The author does
not make clear whose opinion
determines whether the household
or community benefits is it the
husband, wife, a joint opinion, or
the facilitator's sense of the group?
The author has cautioned that the
GAM is still in the testing stage, so
many of these problems are likely to
be addressed in the future. At this
point, it warrants testing by as wide
an audience as possible. It is one of
the few interactive community-level
diagnostic tools that focuses on gen-
der and that is also readily accessible
to non-social scientists.


* Thomas Slayter,
Barbara, and Diane
Rocheleau.
1993.
Introducing the ECOGEN
Approach to Gender,
Natural Resource
Management and
Sustainable
Development.
Worcester,
Massachusetts: Clark
University. 12 pp.
E Thomas Slayter,
Barbara, Andrea Lee
Esser, and M. Dale
Shields.
1993.
Tools of Gender
Analysis: A Guide to
Field Methods for
Bringing Gender into
Sustainable Resource
Management. Worcester,
Massachusetts: Clark
University. 44 pp.


* Shields, M. Dale, and
Barbara Thomas Slayter.
1993.
ECOGEN Case Study
Series. Gender, Class,
Ecological Decline, and
Livelihood Strategies: A
Case Study of Siquijor
Island, the Philippines.
Worcester,
Massachusetts: Clark
University. 52 pp.

Together these three papers present
the concepts, tools, and applications
of the ECOGEN approach to gender
analysis and natural resource man-
agement. The stated objectives of
the tools are to provide insight into
local situations, provide a more
comprehensive understanding of
the community's situation, and
facilitate the creation of more effec-
tive and equitable development pro-
grams. The authors contrast their
approach to other gender analysis
approaches, which have a single sec-
tor focus and emphasize only those
differences between men and
women that are pertinent to pro-
gram and project planning. The
ECOGEN approach focuses,
instead, on the interconnected
aspects of gender and class relations,
emphasizing how different cate-
gories of people cooperate, comple-
ment, coexist, compete, and conflict
with one another.


PAGE35


GENESYS~
















The first report is an overview
of concepts, issues, and the theoreti-
cal framework, which highlights the
interdependence of men, women,
and the ecological and institutional
settings in which they live. It pro-
vides a rationale for gender analysis
in natural resource management
and discusses the ecological frame-
work and institutional context with-
in which ECOGEN researchers
examine gender relations and nat-
ural resource management. The
ECOGEN framework for under-
standing gender in natural resource
management analyzes interactive
processes in gender, resource and
environmental issues; linkages
between micro and macro struc-
tures in social and ecological sys-
tems; diversity of ecosystems and
communities; the relevance of
strong viable local institutions and
organizations; and the ways in
which local organizations and their
resource management activities are
structured by gender.


The second paper, on tools and
gender analysis, is a descriptive
manual of data collection methods
used by ECOGEN researchers. Its
primary purpose is to make devel-
opment specialists aware of a num-
ber of "simple and inexpensive tools
to incorporate gender concerns
directly into development action."
The tools discussed in this publica-
tion offer ways of gathering data
and analyzing gender as a variable
in household and community orga-
nization for natural resource man-
agement. They include methods for
conducting individual and group
interviews, ranking households by
wealth (see Buenavista and Flora
above), resource mapping, elaborat-
ing seasonal calendars, conducting
resource activities and benefits
analysis, and conducting confirma-
tion surveys. There is also a brief
discussion on how to apply these
and other techniques to project
management and monitoring and
evaluation.
The third report is a case study
of two communities on Siquijor
Island in the Philippines, based on
data collected using several of the
ECOGEN tools.
The package of ECOGEN mate-
rials offers researchers and develop-
ment planners practical guidance
on how to integrate gender con-
cerns into natural resource program
and project planning. The distinc-


tion that the authors draw between
their perspective on gender relations
and those of earlier approaches is
important. Examining these rela-
tions as linkages across class, ethnic-
ity, ecological setting, and so on, is
fundamental to understanding how
people in particular development
contexts act and make decisions.
Future materials promise to take
this step further to involve local
people in project planning and
implementation. Experienced
researchers and community devel-
opment specialists will find these
tools extremely useful. Others can
benefit from training sessions con-
ducted by knowledgeable users.


PAGE




















RELATED EFERENCE


Participatory
Research

Asamba, I., and B. Thomas Slayter.
1991. From Cattle to Coffee:
Transformation in Rural Machakos.
ECOGEN Case Study Series.
Worcester, Massachusetts: Clark
University.

Byers, Elizabeth. 1993. Mountain
Ecosystems and Women:
Opportunities for Sustainable
Development and Conservation.
Conference Paper. Advancing
Women in Ecosystem Management,
October 4-6, 1993. Washington, D.C.

David, Rosalind. 1993. Integrating
Women into Environmental
Management: Some Proposals.
Conference Paper. Advancing
Women in Ecosystem Management,
October 4-6, 1993. Washington, D.C.

Mehra, Rekha. 1993. Gender in
Community Development and
Resource Management: An
Overview. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.


Mehra, Rekha, Margaret Alcott, and
Nilda S. Baling. 1993. Women's
Participation in the Cogtong Bay
Mangrove Management Project: A
Case Study. Washington, D.C.:
ICRW.

ODA. 1992. Women as Partners in
Innovative Agriculture-An IBFEP
Endeavor. Calcutta, India: ODA.

Potash, Betty. 1985. Female
Farmers, Mothers-In-Law, and
Extension Agents: Development
Planning and a Rural Luo
Community. Working Paper 50. East
Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State
University.

Rocheleau, Diane E. 1991. Gender
Complementarity and Conflict in
Sustainable Forest Development: A
Multiple User Approach. Montreal,
Canada: IUFRO.

Scherr, Sara J. 1991. Methods for
Participatory On-Farm Agroforestry
Research. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF.

Shrestha, Rabindra Kumar, and
Meenu Shresta. 1992. Women
Farmers: How to Involve Them in
Agricultural Research. 12th Annual
Farming Systems Symposium/
Association of Farming Systems
Research and Extension. East
Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State
University.


Spens, Theresa. 1986. Studies on
Agricultural Extension Involving
Women: Including a Suggested
Framework for the Analysis of
Gender Issues in Agricultural
Extension Programmes. Occasional
Paper No. 3. New York, N.Y.:
UNIFEM.

Thomas Slayter, Barbara, and Diane
E. Rocheleau. 1991. Concepts and
Issues Linking Gender, Natural
Resources Management and
Sustainable Development.
Washington, D.C.: ECOGEN and
USAID/WID.


PAGE37

















G. Time Allocation

* Golfer, Carol. Women,
Men, and Time in the
Forests of East
Kalimantan.
Honolulu, Hawaii: East-
West Environment and
Policy Institute. 11 pp.

This paper discusses the application
of time allocation methodology for
examining the differential impact of
men's, women's, and children's
(male and female) activities on
deforestation in East Kalimantan,
Borneo. Colfer adapts a time use
method developed by Allen Johnson
(1975). The approach relies on ran-
domly scheduled visits (varying
according to time of day and year)
to randomly selected households.
Colfer argues that the approach of
using randomly scheduled visits
provides better access to people,
their patterns of behavior, and their
viewpoints than other time use
methods based on participant recall.
The method groups male and
female community participants into
six age categories to determine sex-
and age-specific variations in activi-
ties. By observing what each house-
hold member was doing at the time
of randomly scheduled visits, the


author was able to provide quantita-
tive evidence that women aged 15
and older were more active in agri-
cultural and garden production
than men, who divided their time
fairly equally between agriculture
and wage labor activities. At the
time of the study, however, women's
access to the benefits of their labor
was decreasing due to government
resettlement schemes and policies
that targeted men for new agricul-
tural technology and inputs, and
increasing pressure from other eth-
nic groups in the region to conform
to their more hierarchical gender
systems. It is likely that these com-
bined pressures have decreased
women's decision-making about
and management of agroforestry
resources, to the detriment of the
environment.
Colfer's methodology provides
extremely useful data for analyzing
gender relations with regard to
agroforestry use. It is particularly
unusual in that it disaggregates the
data by both sex and age, demon-
strating clear differences in activities
between men and women and
across age groups. The richness of
her presentation is limited, however,
by her failure to make explicit how
the time use data are linked to
ethnographic, economic, and eco-
logical research to show how she
arrived at her analytical conclu-
sions. The approach described by
Colfer is really only accessible to
researchers who know how to con-


duct time use studies. It provides
neither adequate information to
design such a study, nor a descrip-
tion of the types of analytical ques-
tions that can be asked of the data.
The real use of the paper is to high-
light that men's and women's roles
as decision-makers, managers, or
benefactors of resources are not a
simple function of time spent in
particular activities.


PAGE38

















H Kumar, Subh K., and
David Hotchkiss.
1988.
Consequences of
Deforestation for
Women's Time
Allocation, Agricultural
Production, and Nutrition
in Hill Areas of Nepal.
Washington, D.C.: IFPRI.
72 pp.

This methodology is intended to
measure the effects of deforestation
on competing demands for
women's labor and its impact on
the availability of household labor
for farming. The authors designed a
time allocation methodology to test
the hypothesis that "deforestation
reduces agricultural output from
existing cultivated land by increas-
ing time spent in collecting essen-
tial forest products, which shifts
time away from agriculture."
Information on women's, men's,
and children's labor time was col-
lected by designing a series of
instruments for recalling specific
types of activities, and analyzed by
applying logarithmic formulas for
measuring the magnitude of
changes in time spent collecting
firewood and farming.
In their study on fuelwood
gathering in Nepal, the authors
conducted four quarterly surveys to
account for seasonal differences.
The main drawback of the
approach, as identified by the


authors, is that the recall period for
most of the routine collection and
food-processing activities (one
week) did not match the recall peri-
od for agricultural production tasks
(one day disaggregated by tasks per
crop). The recall data for both sets
of activities were then extrapolated
to represent a period of three
months. The authors compared
these results with those from a sub-
sample of 12 households using a
more intensive direct observation
and time-sampling method, and
with results from an in-depth study,
The Status of Women in Nepal.
Descriptive analysis of the data
revealed that both men's and
women's labor increased corre-
spondingly with household income,
although income differentials
affected women's labor inputs less
than men's. In order to understand
the wider implications of deforesta-
tion on labor, the researchers,
through a regression analysis,
examined changes in fuel consump-
tion patterns. They used a similar
approach to examine the ramifica-
tions of deforestation for time allo-
cation of labor, production, and
household food consumption.
Their final step in the analysis was


to assess the probable outcomes of
several policy and program options.
This methodology, although
highly technical, is a good example
of how to carry through a
sequenced analysis of environmental
change, its impact on intra-house-
hold relations, and the policy impli-
cations. Application of the method
assumes knowledge of economics,
participant observation and survey
techniques, and ecology. The
method analyzes men's, women's,
and children's activities, and pro-
vides a quantitative framework for
examining how activities of one set
of actors affect others. It would ben-
efit from disaggregating children's
labor by sex and including the elder-
ly, to more fully understand the gen-
der implications of deforestation
across age groups. This is a useful
tool for collecting baseline informa-
tion and evaluating periodic
changes.


PAGE39


L I IGENESMRY






















Time Allocation
Farouk, A. 1980. Time Use of Rural
Women: A Six-Village Survey of
Bangladesh. Dacca, Bangladesh:
Bureau for Economic Research,
SAID.

Kennedy, Eileen T., and Bruce Cogill.
1988. The Case of Sugarcane in
Kenya: Part I Effects of Cash Crop
Production on Women's Income,
Time Allocation, and Child Care
Practices. Working Paper 167.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Kennedy, Eileen T., Deborah Rubin,
and David Alnwick. 1992. A
Comparison of Time Allocation
Methods and Implications for Child
Nutrition. Washington D.C.: IFPRI.


McSweeney, B.G. 1979. Collection
and Analysis of Data on Rural
Women's Time Use. Studies in
Family Planning 10, no. 11/12.

Messer, Ellen, and Marianne N.
Bloch. 1983. Women's and
Children's Activity Profiles in Senegal
and Mexico: A Comparison of Time
Allocation and Time Allocation
Methods. Working Paper 42.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Operations Research Group/SIDA.
1984. Case Study on Fuel Availability
and Its Impact on Women's Time
Disposition and Lifestyle. Orissa, India:
SIDA.


King-Quizon, Elizabeth. 1978. Time
Allocation and Home Production in
Rural Philippine Households.
Philippine Economic Journal 17,
no. 36.



























PAGE^4


I REATEDREFEENCE








actionn III:
ctoral
Listing of
Methods


GENESYSI














III. Sectoral Listing Of Methods


A. Agriculture

Abt Associates, Inc. 1989.
Agricultural Policy Analysis: A
Manual for AID Agricultural and
Rural Development Officers.
Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Monitoring and Evaluation

African Development
Bank/GENESYS. 1992. Guidelines
for Integrating Gender Issues into
Bank Group Agricultural Sector
Projects. Washington, D.C.:
GENESYS Library/ADB. Guidelines

African Development Bank. 1990.
Symposium on Household Food
Security and the Role of Women:
Collected Papers. Washington, D.C.:
ADB. Gender Analysis, Planning,
and Training

Alberti, Amalia M. 1979.
Metodologia apropriada para el estu-
dio de la mujer rural en los Andes del
Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador:
CEPLAES/Ford Foundation.
Gender Analysis, Planning, and
Training

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer. 1987. Policy
and Programming for Women in
Agriculture. AID Nairobi Conference
on Women in African Agriculture,
September 1987. Nairobi, Kenya.
Monitoring and Evaluation


Bremer-Fox, Jennifer, Rekha Mehra,
and Laurene Graig. 1987. The Policy
Inventory: A Manual for Rapid
Appraisal of Policies Affecting the
Agricultural Sector with
Disaggregation of Impacts by Gender.
Washington, D.C.: WID, USAID.
Monitoring and Evaluation

Collette, Marilyn Elizabeth. 1986.
The Community Interaction Model
in the Evaluation of the Integration
of Women in Development. Canada:
Carleton University.
Monitoring and Evaluation

Directorate General for
Development Co-operation (DGIS)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Netherlands. 1989. Women and
Agriculture: Policy on an
Operational Footing: Main Points
and Checklist. Sector Papers,
Women and Development No. 1.
The Hague, Netherlands: DGIS.
Checklists

Evans, Alison. 1989. Women: Rural
Development Gender Issues in Rural
Household Economics. Sussex,
England: IDS. Gender Analysis,
Planning, and Training

Falch, Marianne. 1991. Cameroon:
Specific Problems and Constraints of
Women Farmers Towards the
Permanent Farming System.
Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.
Farming Systems Research

FAO. 1991. Conceptual Framework
for the Development of Statistics and
Indicators on Women in Agriculture
and Rural Development. Rome,
Italy: FAO, 1991. Monitoring and
Evaluation


FAO. 1988. Guidelines on Socio-
Economic Indicators for Monitoring
and Evaluating Agrarian Reform and
Rural Development. Rome, Italy:
FAO. Monitoring and Evaluation

FAO. 1982. Participaci6n de la Mujer
en la Comercializaci6n Agricola en
Guatemala. New York, N.Y.: U.N.
Guidelines

FAO. 1984. Women in Agricultural
Production. Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development
Services. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Guidelines

Farouk, A. 1980. Time Use of Rural
Women: A Six-Village Survey of
Bangladesh. Dacca, Bangladesh:
Bureau for Economic Research,
USAID. Time Allocation

Feldstein, Hilary Sims, and Susan V.
Poats. 1989. Working Together:
Gender Analysis in Agriculture, Vols.
1 & 2.. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press. Farming Systems
Research

Flora, Cornelia Butler. 1987. Intra-
Household Dynamics: The Need for
Whole Farm Monitoring in
Farming Systems Research. The
Rural Sociologist 7, no. 3. Farming
Systems Research

Gittinger, J. Price. 1990. Household
Food Security and the Role of
Women. World Bank Discussion
Paper 96. Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank. Gender Analysis,
Planning, and Training


PAGE 42

















Henderson, Helen K. 1989. Book
Review. "Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension."
Applied Anthropology vol. 91.
Farming Systems Research

Jiggens, Janice. 1986. Gender-
Related Impacts and the Work of the
International Agricultural Research
Centers. Study Paper No. 7.
Washington, D.C.: Consultative
Group on International
Agricultural Research. Monitoring
and Evaluation

King-Quizon, Elizabeth. 1978. Time
Allocation and Home Production
in Rural Philippine Households.
Philippine Economic Journal 17, no.
36. Time Allocation

McSweeney, B. G. 1979. Collection
and Analysis of Data on Rural
Women's Time Use. Studies in
Family Planning 10, no. 11/12.
Time Allocation

Messer, Ellen, and Marianne N.
Bloch. 1983. Women's and Children's
Activity Profiles in Senegal and
Mexico: A Comparison of Time
Allocation and Time Allocation
Methods. Working Paper 42.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Time Allocation

Ministry of Agriculture, Malawi.
1983. Reaching Female Farmers
Through Male Extension Workers.
Extension Aids Circular No. 2.
Lilongwe, Malawi: Ministry of
Agriculture. Guidelines


Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The
Netherlands. 1990. Collected
Papers. Symposium on Household
Food Security and the Role of
Women. Harare, Zimbabwe. Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training

Molnar, Augusta. 1989. Women and
Forestry: Operational Issues.
Working Paper Series 184.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Guidelines

Moock, Joyce L. 1986.
Understanding Africa's Rural
Households and Farming Systems.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Farming Systems Research

Murphy, Josette. 1989. Women and
Agriculture in Africa: A Guide to
Bank Policy and Programs for
Operations Staff. Washington, D.C.:
The World Bank. Guidelines

ODA. 1992. Women as Partners in
Innovative Agriculture-An IBFEP
Endeavor. Calcutta, India: ODA.
Participatory Research

Palmer, I. 1985. The Impact of
Agrarian Reform on Women,
Women's Roles and Gender
Differences in Development Cases for
Planners. West Hartford,
Connecticut: Kumarian Press.
Monitoring and Evaluation


Paris, Thelma R. 1990.
Incorporating Women's Concerns in
Crop-Animal Farming Systems
Research Methodology. No. 90-30.
Manila, Philippines: International
Rice Research Institute. Farming
Systems Research

Perucci, Francesca. 1992. Collecting
Gender-Specific Data Through
Agricultural Censuses. Draft. Rome,
Italy: FAO. Monitoring and
Evaluation

Poats, S., and J. Gearing. 1989.
Executive Summary of Gender Issues
in Farming Systems Research and
Extension: A Survey of Current
Projects. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Farming Systems Research

Poats, Susan V. 1989. Invisible
Women: Gender and Household
Analysis in Agricultural Research
and Extension. Gainesville, Florida:
University of Florida. Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training

Poats, Susan, Hilary Sims, and
Cornelia Butler Flora. 1988. The
Gender Variable in Agricultural
Research. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC
Farming Systems Research

Poats, Susan V., Marianne Schmink,
and Anita Spring. 1991. Book
Review. Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension.
Rural Sociology 56, no. 1. Farming
Systems Research


PAGE43


44


GENESYS1

















Poats, Susan, and S. Russo. 1989.
Training in WID/Gender Analysis in
Agricultural Development: A Review
of Experiences and Lessons Learned.
Working Paper Series No. 5. Rome,
Italy: FAO. Gender Analysis,
Planning, and Training

Potash, Betty. 1985. Female Farmers,
Mothers-In-Law and Extension
Agents: Development Planning and a
Rural Luo Community. Working
Paper 50. East Lansing, Michigan:
Michigan State University.
Participatory Research

Rivera, William M., and Susan L.
Corning. 1991. Empowering Women
through Agriculture Extension: A
Global Perspective. College Park,
Maryland: University of Maryland.
Guidelines

Rocheleau, Diane. 1985. Criteria for
Re-Appraisal and Re-Design: Intra-
household and Between Household
Aspects ofFSRE in Three Kenyan
Agroforestry Projects. Worcester,
Massachusetts: Clark University.
Farming Systems Research

Russo, Sandra, Susan Poats, and
Jennifer Bremer-Fox. 1989. Gender
Issues in Agriculture and Natural
Resource Management. Washington,
D.C.: USAID. Guidelines

Saito, Katrine A., and Daphne
Spurling. 1992. Developing
Agricultural Extension for Women
Farmers. World Bank Discussion
Paper 156. Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank. Guidelines


Saunders, Janice. 1991. Book
Review. "Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension."
Rural Sociology 56, no. 1. Farming
Systems Research

Scherr, Sara J. 1991. Methods for
Participatory On-Farm Agroforestry
Research. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF.
Participatory Research

Schneider, Regina Maria, and
Winfried Schneider. 1991. Women
and Rural Development: Guiding
Principles. Eschborn, Germany:
GTZ. Guidelines

Sheehan, Nancy. 1991. Workshop
Proceedings for Gender and Natural
Tenure Research. October 3, 1991.
Madison, Wisconsin: Land Tenure
Center. Guidelines

Shrestha, Rabindra Kumar, and
Meenu Shresta. 1992. Women
Farmers: How to Involve Them in
Agricultural Research. 12th Annual
Farming Systems Symposium/
Association of Farming Systems
Research and Extension. East
Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State
University. Participatory Research

Spens, Theresa. 1986. Studies on
Agricultural Extension Involving
Women: Including a Suggested
Framework for the Analysis of Gender
Issues in Agricultural Extension
Programs. UNIFEM Occasional
Paper No. 3. New York, N.Y.:
UNIFEM. Participatory Research


Staats, John, and Carl Eicher. 1990.
Women in Agriculture: What
Development Can Do: Agricultural
Development in the Third World.
Baltimore, Maryland: Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Monitoring and Evaluation

Stallings, James L. 1985. Data
Collection in Subsistence Farming
Systems: A Handbook. Alabama:
Auburn University. Monitoring and
Evaluation

Staudt, Kathleen. 1981. Women and
Household Issues in Farming Systems
Research. Manhattan, Kansas:
Kansas State University. Farming
Systems Research

The World Bank. 1992. Designing and
Implementing Agricultural Extension
for Women Farmers: Technical Note.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank
Guidelines

UNDP. 1980. Action Oriented
Assessment of Rural Women's
Participation in Development. New
York, N.Y.: UNDP. Monitoring and
Evaluation

Van Herpern, Dorien. 1991. Gender
Analysis in Agricultural Research.
Palmira, Cali, Colombia: CIAT.
Gender Analysis, Planning, and
Training

von Harder, Gudrun Martius, and
Regina Maria Schneider. 1986.
Women-Related Impact Analysis of
Rural Development Projects, Partial
Report Summary of Findings.
Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.
Monitoring and Evaluation


PAGE '
-4,
















B. Environment
And Natural
Resource
Management

Asamba, I., and B. Thomas Slayter.
1991. From Cattle to Coffee:
Transformation in Rural Machakos.
ECOGEN Case Study Series.
Worcester, Massachusetts: Clark
University. Participatory Research

Blockhus, Jill, and Najma Siddiqui.
Temperate and Tropical Forests.
Advancing Women in Ecosystem
Management. October 4-6, 1993.
Washington, D.C. Natural Resource
Management

Buenavista, Gladys, and Cornelia
Butler Flora. Participatory
Methodologies for Analyzing
Household Activities, Resources, and
Benefits. Worcester, Massachusetts:
Clark University. Participatory
Research

Byers, Elizabeth. 1993. Mountain
Ecosystems and Women:
Opportunities for Sustainable
Development and Conservation.
Advancing Women in Ecosystem
Management. October 4-6, 1993.
Washington, D.C. Participatory
Research

Clones, Julia Panourgia. 1993.
Gender and the Environment in Sub-
Saharan Africa: Guidelines for
Integrating Gender Issues into Bank
Group Projects with Significant
Environmental Implications.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Guidelines


Colfer, Carol. Women, Men and
Time in the Forests of East
Kalimantan. Honolulu, Hawaii:
East-West Environment and Policy
Institute. Time Allocation

Commonwealth Secretariat. 1992.
Women, Conservation and
Agriculture. London:
Commonwealth Secretariat.
Participatory Research

David, Rosalind. 1993. Integrating
Women into Environmental
Management: Some Proposals.
Advancing Women in Ecosystem
Management. October 4-6, 1993.
Washington, D.C. Participatory
Research

Directorate General for
Development Co-operation,
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Netherlands. 1990. Women, Energy,
Forestry and Environment: Policy on
an Operational Footing: Main Points
and Checklist. Sector Papers Women
and Development No. 4. The
Hague, Netherlands: DGIS.
Checklists

Directorate General for
Development Co-operation,
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Netherlands. 1989. Women, Water
and Sanitation: Policy on an
Operational Footing: Main Points
and Checklist. Sector Papers Women
and Development No. 2. The
Hague, Netherlands: DGIS.
Checklists


FAO. 1988. Women in Fishing
Communities. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Guidelines

FAO. 1989. Women in Community
Forestry: A Field Guide for Project
Design and Implementation. Rome,
Italy: FAO. Checklists

FAO. 1989. Women's Role in Forest
Resource Management: A Reader.
Regional Wood Energy Development
Program in Asia. Rome, Italy: FAO
Guidelines

Gaesing, Karin, and Carola V.
Morstein. 1991. Women in
Development and Animal
Production: How to Go About It.
Eschborn, Germany: GTZ.
Guidelines

Hannan-Andersson, Carolyn. 1990.
The Challenge of Measuring Gender
Issues in Water and Sanitation.
Workshop on Goals and Indicators
for Monitoring and Evaluation for
Water Supply and Sanitation. June
25, 1990. Geneva, Switzerland:
SIDA. Monitoring and Evaluation

Kennedy, Eileen T., and Bruce
Cogill. 1988. The Case of Sugarcane
in Kenya: Part L Effects of Cash Crop
Production on Women's Income,
Time Allocation, and Child Care
Practices. Working Paper 167.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Time Allocation


PAGE45


4


GENESYS

















Kumar, Shubh, and David
Hotchkiss. 1988. Consequences of
Deforestation for Women's Time
Allocation, Agricultural Production
and Nutrition in Hill Areas of Nepal.
Washington, D.C.: IFPRI. Time
Allocation

Loudiyi, Dounia, and Alison
Meares. 1992. Women in
Conservation: Tools for Analysis and
a Framework for Actions. An
Annotated Bibliography.
Washington, D.C.: IUCN. Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training

Mehra, Rekha. 1993. Gender in
Community Development and
Resource Management: An Overview.
Washington, D.C.: ICRW.
Participatory Research

Molnar, Augusta. 1981. The
Dynamics of Traditional Systems of
Forest Management in Nepal:
Implications for the Community
Forestry Development and Training
Project. Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank. Gender Analysis,
Planning, and Training

Operations Research Group/SIDA.
1984. Case Study on Fuel Availability
and Its Impact on Women's Time
Disposition and Lifestyle. Orissa,
India: SIDA. Time Allocation


Parker, J. Kathy. 1989. Integrating
Gender Concerns into the Asia and
Near East Environmental and
Natural Resource Strategy in the
1990s. Gainesville, Florida: Tropical
Research and Development. Gender
Analysis, Planning, and Training

Rocheleau, Diane E. 1991. Gender
Complementarity and Conflict in
Sustainable Forest Development: A
Multiple User Approach. Montreal,
Canada: IUFRO. Participatory
Research

Rojas, Mary. 1993. Looking at Gender
and Forestry: Operational Issues for
Project Planners, Implementors and
Administrators. Helsinki, Finland:
WIDAGRI Consultants. Guidelines

Russo, Sandra, Jennifer Bremer-Fox,
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Saidu, Sharif. 1992. Report on
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Saidu, Sharif. 1991. Advancement of
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Shields, M. Dale, and Barbara
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Participatory Research


Thomas Slayter, Barbara, and Diane
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Natural Resource Management and
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Participatory Research

Thomas Slayter, Barbara, Andrea
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Thomas Slayter, Barbara, and Diane
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UNEP. 1993. Arid and Semi-Arid
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UNEP. 1993. The Greenbook: A
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UNEP. Guidelines


PAGE 64
















C. Development
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Australian International
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Australian International
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Australian International
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Blockhus, Jill, and Najma Siddiqui.
1993. Temperate and Tropical
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CIDA. 1989. Renewing Our
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CIDA. 1992. Women in
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Clones, Julia Panourgia. 1991.
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Clones, Julia Panourgia. 1992. The
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Commission of the European
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Commission of the European
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DANIDA. 1992. From the Margins to
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Share its Outcome. Copenhagen,
Denmark: DANIDA.


FAO. 1991. Integration of Women in
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Rome, Italy: FAO.

FAO. Rural Women and Sustainable
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FAO. 1990. Women in Agricultural
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FINNIDA. 1993. Looking at Gender
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Germain, Adrienne. 1976. "Poor
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GTZ. 1993. Technical Cooperation
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Holden, Patricia M. 1988.
Constraints to Increasing the
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from ODA-Funded Training Awards.
London, England: ODA.

ICRW. 1991. Women, Poverty and
the Environment in Latin America.
Washington, D.C.: ICRW.


44


PAGE47


GENESYS~;

















Horenstein, Nadine R. 1987.
Supporting Women's Involvement in
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Selected Agencies' Approaches.
Washington, D.C.: International
Center for Research on Women.

INSTRAW. Informal Sector: Working
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INSTRAW.

INSTRAW. 1992. Women,
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Inter-American Development Bank.
1987. Operating Policy on Women in
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IADB.

Inter-American Development Bank.
1991. Women in Development: A
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Kardam, Nuket. 1989. Bringing
Women In: Women's Issues in
International Development
Programs. Boulder, Colorado: L.
Rienner.


Lexow, Janne. 1988. WID Issues in
Nordic Development Assistance.
Oslo, Norway: NORAD.

Jahan, Rounaq. 1992.
Mainstreaming Women in
Norwegian Development Assistance.
Oslo, Norway: NORAD.

JICA. 1991. Study on Development
Assistance for Women In
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JICA.

Murphy, Josette. 1989. Women and
Agriculture in Africa: A Guide to
Bank Policy and Programs for
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The World Bank.

Narayan, Deepa. 1993. Assessing
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Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

NORAD. 1989. Nordic Seminar on
Women in Development. Oslo,
Norway: NORAD.

NORAD. 1985. Norway's Strategy
for Assistance to Women in
Development. Oslo, Norway:
NORAD.

NORAD. 1985. Women and
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Perspectives on Development, Gender
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Norway: NORAD.


ODA. 1992. Report on Progress in
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London, England: ODA.

ODA. 1992. Women in Development.
London, England: ODA

Ostergaard, Lise. 1992. Gender and
Development: A Practical Guide.
New York, N.Y.: Routledge Press.

Oxfam. Introductory Remarks on
Gender Issues from GADU and an
Outline of Our Role in Oxfam.
Oxford, England: Oxfam.

Palmer, I. 1985. The Impact of
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Women's Roles and Gender
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Connecticut: Kumarian Press.

Paolisso, Michael, Sally Yudelman.
1991. Women, Poverty and the
Environment in Latin America.
Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Poats, Susan. 1991. The Role of
Gender in Agricultural Development.
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Group on International Agricultural
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Sala, Maija. 1992. Practical Women
in Development Programme.
Helsinki, Finland: FINNIDA.


PAGE4IA
















Serageldin, I. Inter-Agency
Consultation on Promoting Women
in Natural Resources Management.

SIDA. 1990. Striking a Balance:
Gender Awareness in Swedish
Development Cooperation.
Stockholm, Sweden: SIDA.

SIDA. 1985. The Women's
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Stockholm, Sweden: SIDA.

Staats, John, and Carl Eicher. 1990.
Women in Agriculture: What
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Baltimore, Maryland: Johns
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Tisch, Sarah J. 1990. Women in
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UNDP. 1991. Promotion of the Role
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New York, N.Y.: UNDP.


UNEP. Women and the
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New York, N.Y.: UNEP.

United Nations Economic and
Social Council Commission on
Status of Women. 1992.
Development: Integration of Women
in the Process of Development. New
York, N.Y.: U.N.


PAGE49


_ I I IGENESYSY











actionn IV:
Appendix: List
Of Contacts
For Resources


GENESYSY















IV Appendix: List Of Contacts For Resources


African Development Bank
2001 Pennsylvania Ave., N. W.,
Suite 350
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Phone: (202) 429-5160

Asia Institute of Technology
G.P.O. Box 2754
Bangkok 10501, Thailand
Phone: (66-2) 5160110-29,
5160130-44
Fax: (66-2) 516-2126

Australian International
Development Assistance Bureau
Peter Batten
GPO Box Canberra ACT 2601
Phone: (06) 276 4000
Fax: (06) 276 4880

CARE
151 Ellis Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30303 USA
Phone: (404) 681-2552

CIDA
200 Promenade du Portage,
HULL
Quebec, Canada.
Phone: (819) 997-1536

Clark University
Program for International
Development and Social Change
950 Main Street
Worcester, MA 01610-1477 USA
Phone: (508) 793-7201
Fax: (508) 793-8820


Coady International Institute
St. Francis Xavier University
Antigonish, N.S., Canada B2G1C
Phone: (902) 867-3961
Fax: (902) 867-3907

Commonwealth Secretariat
Marlborough House, Pall Mall
London SW1Y5HX

DANIDA
Asiatisk Plads 2
1448 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: 45 33 92 0000

DESFIL/Chemonics
1001 22nd St., N.W, Suite 500
Washington, DC 20036 USA
Phone: (202) 331-1860

Directorate General for Development
Cooperation (DGIS) the Netherlands
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Development Cooperation
Information Department
Anita Veldkamp
P.O. Box 20061
2500 EB The Hague
Netherlands
Phone: 31 70 348 4350

East-West Environment and
Policy Institute
1777 East-West Road
Honolulu, HI 96848 USA
Phone: (808) 944-7266
Fax: (808) 944-7298

FAO
Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service
Human Resources
Institutions and Agrarian Reforms
Division
Community Forestry
Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100
Rome, Italy
Phone: 39-6-5225-2938
Fax: 39-6-5225-5514


FEMNET
P.O. Box 54562
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone: 254-2-440299
Fax: 254-2-443868

FINNIDA
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Herbert Nyqvist
Katajanokanlaituri 3,
FIN-00160 Helsinki, Finland
Phone: 358 0-134 16354
Fax: 358 0-622 2576

Ford Foundation
320 E. 43rd Street
New York, NY 10017 USA
Phone: (212) 573-5000

GTZ
Ute Krahl
Postfach 5180
65726 Eschborn, Germany
Phone: 49 61 96 790

IDS
The University of Sussex
Brighton, Sussex,
BN19RE, England, U.K.
Phone: (0273) 678420
Fax: (0273) 606261

Institute de la Mujer
Sra. Isabel Pastor
Almagro, 36-2A Planta
28010 Madrid, Spain
Phone: 347-8000
Fax: 319 9178

Interaction
Gerry Dyer
Administrative Assistant
1717 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. #801
Washington DC 20036 USA
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236


PAGE52
















International Center for Research
on Women
Publications Department
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Suite 302
Washington DC 20036 USA
Phone: (202) 797-0007

International Development
Research Center
Eva Rathgeber
250 Albert
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1P6M1
Phone: (613) 236 6163

International Food Policy Research
Institute
Tricia Klosky
1200 17th St., N.W., Suite 200
Washington DC 20036 USA
Phone: (202) 862-5600

International Labor Organization
CH-1211
Geneva-22 Switzerland

IUCN
Rue Mauverney
CH-1196 Gland
Switzerland
Phone: 4122-999-0001
Fax: 4122-999-0002

JICA
900 19th Street, NW Suite 350
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Phone: (202) 457-0412

Kansas State University
Dept. of Sociology
204 Waters Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-4003 USA
Phone: (913) 532-6011


Kumarian Press
630 Oakwood Avenue Suite 119
West Hartford, CT 06110-1529 USA
Phone: (203) 953-0214

Michigan State University
Office of Women in Development
202 International Center
Michigan State University
E. Lansing, MI 48824-1035 USA

Norwegian Agency for
Development (NORAD)
Post boks 8034 Dep. 0030
Oslo 1 Norway
Phone: 47 22 31 4400

Overseas Development
Administration
Elizabeth Murphy
94 Victoria St.
London SW1E5JL, U.K.
Phone: 44 71 9177000
Fax: 44 355 84 4099

Overseas Development Group
University of East Anglia
Alex Lake
Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
Phone: 44 603 592334
Fax: 0603 505262

Swedish International
Development Agency (SIDA)
Carolyn Hannan-Andersson
S-105-25 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: 46 8728 5377
Fax: 46 8 612 4980

The Population Council
Kirsten Moore
One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza
New York, NY 10017 USA
Phone: (212) 339-0676


The World Bank
Publications
1818 H Street, N.W
Washington, DC20433 USA
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Fax: (202) 477-6391

The World Bank Sectoral Library
Phone: (202) 623-7054

Tropical Research and
Development Program
7001 S.W. 24th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32607 USA
Phone: (904) 331-1886

UNEP
2 UN Plaza
Room 803
New York, NY 10017 USA
Phone: (212) 963-8138

UNIPUB
Mary Hendricks
George Lesser
4611-F Assembly Dr.
Lanham, MD 20706 USA
Phone: 1-800-274-4888

University of Florida
Farming Systems Program
2026 McCarty
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

University of Illinois
Office of Women in Development
320 International Studies Building
910 Fifth Street
Champaign, IL USA
Phone: (217) 333-1994
Fax: (217) 333-6270


PAGE53


I ENESYS

















University of Wisconsin Land
Tenure Center
1357 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53715 USA
Phone: (608) 262-3657

Upper Midwest Women's History
Center
Hamline University
C-1924
1536 Hewitt Ave.
Minneapolis, MN 55104-1284 USA
Phone: (612) 644-1727
Fax: (612) 926-2958

SAID
Jeff Franklin
U.S. Department of State
Room 714 SA-18
Washington, DC 20523-1816 USA
Phone: (703) 875-4969

Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Dept. of Sociology
Cornelia Butler Flora
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0137 USA
Phone: (703) 231-6878
Fax: (703) 231-3860

Westview Press
5500 Central Ave
Boulder, CO 80301-2877 USA
Phone: (303) 444-3541
Fax: (303) 449-3356

Winrock International
Agribookstore
1611 North Kent Street
Arlington, VA 22209-2134 USA














PAGE54


World Resources Institute
1709 New York Avenue, N. W.
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Phone: (202) 638-6300
Fax: (202) 638-0036

World Wildlife Fund
1250 24th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC USA
Phone: (202) 293-4800
















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