• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Guidelines for application of the...
 Notes on the application of the...
 Conclusion
 Annex 1: GENESYS/Brazil activity...
 Annex 2: Blank worksheets
 Back Cover














Title: Gender analysis tool kit
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080527/00008
 Material Information
Title: Gender analysis tool kit
Physical Description: 1 case : col. ill. ; 27 x 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: GENESYS Project
Futures Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Sex discrimination in employment -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Genesys.
General Note: "Genesys, a project of The Futures Group in collaboration with Management Systems International and Development Alternatives, Inc. and United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Dept. of State."
General Note: "Contains ten analytical tools"--GCID framework t.p.
General Note: "Under the GENESYS Project for USAID G/R&D/WID Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00"--GCID Framework t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080527
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31425196

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Preface
        Preface
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Guidelines for application of the tool
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Notes on the application of the tool to an existing project
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Conclusion
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Annex 1: GENESYS/Brazil activity case study
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Annex 2: Blank worksheets
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Back Cover
        Page 34
Full Text

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Preface

This Gender Analysis Tool Kit contains ten analytical tools which are intended to be dear, user-friendly devices for
policy makers and project implementers to use in addressing gender issues in their development efforts. The tool kit
was developed by the staffof the GENESYS (Gender in Economic and Social Systems) Project. GENESYS is a project
funded by the USAID Office of Women in Development to support the Agency's efforts to institutionalize gender con-
siderations in development assistance worldwide. The tool kit provides practical approaches to use in accomplishing
that objective. Below are the titles of the ten tools

GCID Framework

GCID Framework: A Tool for Assessing Institutionalization of Gender Concerns in Development
Organizations

Quantitative Tools

Quantifying Gender Issues A Tool for Using Quantitative Data in Gender Analysis
(A Slide Presentation)

Country Gender Profiles: A Tool for Summarizing Policy Implications from Sex-Disaggregated Data

Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for Analyzing Income and Employment Data from Surveys

Diagnostic Tools

Gender and Policy Implementation: A Tool for Assessment of Policy- Derived Impacts on Women and Men

Sex and Gender-What's the Difference?: A Tool for Examining the Sociocultural Context of Sex Differences

Planning And M&E Tools

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Sustainable Development: A Tool for Gender-Informed
Project Planning

Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation: A Tool for Developing Project M&E Plans

Documenting Development Program Impact: A Tool for Reporting Differential Effects on Men and Women

Reference

Gender Research Guide for the Agriculture, Environment, and Natural Resource Sectors: A Tool for
Selecting Methods










Necessary and

Sufficient Conditions

for Sustainable

Development: A Tool

for Gender-Informed

Project Planning

Prepared by
Pietronella van den Oever


i./: *' .-* *' ^ ':'" .. .

August f1994
Under the GP-NESYS'oiject for ULSA 10)/G/R&00WI
Gonlract # PDC-0100-Z-00-904(4-00


GENESYS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I Introduction 1
1.1 Lay-Out of the Document and Directions for Use 1
1.2 The Reason this Tool Was Developed 1
1.3 Purpose and Usefulness of the Tool 2
1.4 Application of the Tool to Specific Steps of the "Life Cycle"
of Development Activities 3
1.5 Target Audience, Potential Users 4

II: Guidelines for Application of the Tool 6
2.1 Defining the Necessary and Sufficient Conditions, and Climbing
a Staircase: An Analogy 7
2.2 Operationalizing and Using the Basic Analytical Model 9
2.3 Motivation to Participate in a Project, and the "No Net Loss" Principle:
Motivational Analysis: Worksheet #1 10
Background and Rationale 10
Instructions for Filling Out Worksheet #1 12
2.4 Defining Necessary Conditions: Technical and Economic Analysis:
Worksheet #2 13
Background and Rationale 13
Instructions for Filling Out Worksheet #2 13
2.5 Planning to Maximize Accessibility of Resources: Social and Gender
Analysis: Worksheet #3 14
Background and Rationale 14
Making "Access Factors" Operational for Project Design 15
Instructions for Filling Out Worksheet #3 18

III: Notes on Application of the Tool to an Existing Project 22
3.1 Defining Necessary Conditions in Retrospect 22
3.2 Redefining Project Objectives and Indicators 22

Conclusion 23

Annex I: GENESYS/Brazil Activity Case Study 26

Annex II: Blank Worksheets 30


GENESYS
















I. Introduction


1.1 Lay-Out of the Document and Directions for Use
This tool booklet is composed of the following four parts:
1. The introduction familiarizes the reader with the reasons this particular tool was developed; its purpose,
strengths, and limitations; and the audiences it is intended to serve.
2. The guidelines are the main part of the document. They consist of an
explanation of the basic parts of the method and the three work-
sheets. For each worksheet an introduction is given to explain the Both the terms "sex" and "gel
used in the text. The term "se
background and purpose, and instructions are provided on how tosed the t The term
reference is made to sex-disan
fill out the worksheet and use the information for the reader's own ,
tative data, in which men an,
specific project planning exercise. A set of completed worksheets, mutually exclusive and, take
based on the application of this tool to an existing project, is included tute the entire universe of peo
as Annex I of this booklet. The small worksheets in the text are "gender" has been used when
intended to serve merely as models. A blank set of worksheets is pro- to social roles and responsible
*women, which are culturally
vided in Annex II. These can be filled out directly for a specific plan-
to a particular context, and n
ning exercise, or be copied, to accommodate multiple usage. time.
3. Section III is meant to provoke thought about use of this tool for an
existing project, in reassessing and revising the conditions that were
defined as necessary at the beginning of the project, and perhaps
modifying project objectives and indicators in light of existing circumstances or lessons learned.
4. Annexes I and II contain sample completed worksheets based on information from an existing project and
sample blank worksheets for the reader's use, respectively.


under" have been
ex" is used when
,gregated quanti-
d women are
i together, consti-
Pple. The term
reference is made
ities of men and
defined, specific
nay change over


1.2 The Reason this Tool Was Developed
Over the past decades, development planners and practitioners often have been puzzled by disappointing
results of development projects that had been carefully planned and seemed quite promising at the outset. In
many cases, these less-than-optimal outcomes can be traced back to the fact that resources were not equally
accessible to all the intended beneficiaries. Although the necessary conditions appeared to have been fulfilled,
the availability of the required resources was no guarantee that they were accessible to the key target groups. The
method presented in this paper permits program and project designers and implementers to anticipate con-
straints to access of resources, and to increase the likelihood that the necessary resources will be sufficientto
achieve the desired outcome.



PAGE


GENESYS
















Analysis of gender relations the division of labor and rights and responsibilities between men and women
is an important starting point for understanding discrepancies in access to resources. In many projects the
implicit assumption has been that, once development resources reach the "community," project benefits accrue
equally to the entire population; an assumption that has often proved false. This tool addresses specifically how
gender relations affect men's and women's access to the necessary conditions the resources put into place by a
particular development project to improve certain economic or social aspects of the target community. The
objective is to understand potential constraints to access of resources and to plan project implementation in
such a way that these constraints are minimized for both sexes.
It should be noted that analysis of gender relations is not exhaustive in identifying access constraints. Within
other social groupings or divisions access to resources may not be homogeneously distributed either. Age groups,
for instance, and groups with different socioeconomic status, rural and urban populations, and ethnic and reli-
gious groups, all usually have particular subgroups that experience problems in access to specific resources, even
if these resources are amply available. This tool also can be used in those circumstances, to analyze differential
access constraints by age groups, or by other social variables that are relevant to the target community.

1.3 Purpose and Usefulness of the Tool
This tool is generic, intended for adaptation and use in specific substantive areas, geographical locations, and
social settings. It can be used to accomplish the following development interventions:

A. Project Design: Defining How "Sufficient Conditions" Can Be Achieved
The tool primarily is intended to support project design. It helps to clarify the steps and actions needed to
achieve a logical sequence of events from an identified development activity to the measurement of its impact.
As a result, both the project design and the implementation plan will realistically reflect the social context (and
particularly the gender relations) in which the activity is to take place.

B. Diagnostics: Assessment of Social Relevance of a Specific Project and
Definition of Remedial Action
Second, this tool is designed to assess the "gender sensitivity" (the extent to which the respective roles of men
and women in society have been taken into consideration) of programs or projects already in operation. It may
be especially helpful when experience demonstrates that men and women do not equally participate in or bene-
fit from the project. In this capacity the tool serves as a diagnostic device rather than a planning tool, to define
remedial action in project design and implementation.

C. Project Evaluation
A third application of the tool is for routine project reporting or evaluation. It complements other evaluation
procedures by reporting impact on both men and women of the activity to be evaluated. Its purpose is to iden-
tify access constraints that underlie observed problems.


PAGE
















It should be kept in mind that this tool has a very specific purpose and focus: it serves to make development
projects more viable and realistic by including social and gender considerations. The specific strength of the
tool is that it links inputs (resources-the "necessary conditions" required to achieve a particular development
goal) and outputs (project achievements, measured by gender-sensitive indicators of acceptance) through logical
steps. It is easy to understand and apply. The tool allows one to focus better and to identify which precise ques-
tions need to be asked and what information should be considered to increase the likelihood that the necessary
conditions for project success become sufficient. It also allows one-to a
limited extent-to formulate and provide preliminary answers to relevant L16m l m
questions about motivation.
This tool is not intended to provide general guidance in the identifi- Steps in Deve-lopmel
cation of specific development activities or the formulation of objectives, and Usefulness of thi
It is assumed that at least some preliminary objectives have been formu- 1. Identification of a particular
lated prior to the use of this tool. Hence, it complements, rather than problem
2. Formulation of solutions/id
replaces, regular planning, diagnostic, or evaluation procedures. This tool remedial action
makes it easier and clearer, once an activity has been identified, to make 3. Identification of necessary r
the objectives) responsive to the social context and to refine the mea- remedial action
surement of project success, to reflect different roles and responsibilities **4. Identification of constraints
groups in access to these res
of men and women. .
of men and women. Identification of factors intl
Also, this tool is not intended to formulate the right answers about, motivation to make use of r
remedial action
for instance, the division of labor, or legal or social rights and responsibil-
S6. Establishment of objectively
ities of men and women. However, the worksheets allow the users to I"project success" I indicator
work toward finding the right answers by going through a step-by-step *7. Formulation of implement
process that makes knowledge gaps apparent. At the end of the exercise, 8. Monitoring while project is
the user will know the precise questions that need to be answered in 9. Assessment of project achie'
order to make a realistic project design. These questions may be easy to 10. Documentation of strength,
answer or they may require additional investigation by a social scientist 11. Recommended modification
or other specialist before the project can be designed in its final form. usefulness of this tool


t Actiities
!s Tool
r development

entification of

sources for

within target
sources
uencing
sources for

Verifiable
rs
tion plan
in process
vements
s and flaws
ns


1.4 Application of the Tool to Specific Steps of the "Life Cycle" of
Development Activities
The various stages of the life cycle of development activities are outlined in the box above. The double aster-
isks indicate that this tool is especially useful in accomplishing step 4: identification of constraints within target
groups to access of resources. In particular, the tool allows for identification of potential access constraints for
men and women. In addition, the tool facilitates step 3 and steps 5 through 7 of the project planning sequence.



PAGE


GENESYS
















1.5 Target Audience, Potential Users
Given the purpose and usefulness of this tool, as discussed above, it is suitable for but certainly not restricted to -
the following audiences:

A. Policymakers and Project Implementers
This tool is especially intended for policymakers and project implementers. It was developed for USAID,
although it can be used by other development practitioners as well, especially those involved in project design,
planning, and monitoring and evaluation.

B. USAID Mission Personnel
This tool is particularly recommended for use by USAID mission program officers and project development
officers as a proactive planning tool, and for WID officers to assess whether existing activities or newly planned
projects have properly considered that men and women tend to play different roles in society and have different
rights and responsibilities. This tool will allow WID officers to carry out rapid assessments and identify where
socioeconomic bottlenecks may be, so that they can provide clear guidance to USAID mission personnel and
propose remedial action.

C. Monitoring and Evaluation Specialists
In addition, this tool can be used by professionals in charge of project monitoring and evaluation to assess
whether the appropriate strategy has been adopted and whether the project has fulfilled the sufficient condi-
tions, thereby maximizing the likelihood that both men and women have equal access to and equal chances to
benefit from the project.

D. Project Identification, Design, and Evaluation Missions
This tool can also be used by project identification missions and project design and evaluation teams to rapidly
assess how gender-sensitive certain activities are, and how potential sociological omissions could be remedied.




















PAGE4








II: Guidelines
for Application
of the Tool


GENESYS











II. Guidelines for Application of the Tool
This tool is graphically depicted as a staircase that becomes increasingly steep and hard to climb as the individual
ascends (See Figure 1 below). This staircase analogy is useful for describing the process that development planners
should employ to clearly analyze and define all the necessary and sufficient conditions for gender-informed success of
their development activities. There are three basic stages: motivational analysis, technical and economic analysis, and
gender and social analysis. Each stage comprises four major steps and is represented by a worksheet in this booklet.
As discussed in greater detail below, worksheet #1 corresponds to the first four steps at the base of the pyramid, in the
motivational analysis stage; worksheet #2 corresponds to steps 5 through 8, in the technical/economic analysis stage;
and worksheet #3 corresponds to steps 9 through 12, in the gender and social analysis stage at the top of the pyramid.


Figure 1:
Basic model for identifying necessary and sufficient conditions
for gender-informed development projects


Genderand 12 Identify solutions,
GenderSocial Analys 12 overall strategy and plan
Social Analysis
of Sufficient 11 Identify constraints and
Conditions for knowledge gaps
Project Success
10 Formulate questions about
0 access factors

9 List most essential project resources
c8 Refine objectives and formulate
Technical and 8 sub-objectives (activities)
Economic Analysis
of Necessary List actions and resources needed to fulfill




Resources necessary conditions
6 Identify resources already available and suitable

5 Identify resources needed to achieve project objectives

Motivational 4 Modify objectives) and indicators
Analysis
of Key
Stakeholders 3 Identify remaining questions, actions, needed adjustments, design strategies


2 Identify, with target group, potential risks

1 Formulate preliminary objectives and identify, with target group, potential gains

















2.1 Defining the
Necessary and
Sufficient Conditions
and Climbing a
Staircase: An Analogy
Ascending the Lower
Staircase: Analyzing the
Target Group's
Perceived Gains and
Risks Represented by
the Project (Steps 1-4)
Figure 1, a graphical depiction of
this tool's basic model, could
remind one of the temples built by
the Mayan Indians in northern
Guatemala. The lower steps are at
ground level and are therefore rela-
tively easy to ascend. In this tool,
the lower staircase is composed of
four steps, in the following
sequence:

1. Listing of preliminary objectives
and identification, with target
group, of potential gains from
the project;
2. Identification, with target group,
of potential risks;
3. Identification of remaining
questions or actions needed for
project adjustment and design
strategies to address these
questions; and,
4. Modification of the initial objec-
tives and indicators according to
the findings.


This tool is meant to be used espe-
cially when some type of develop-
ment intervention already has been
identified. It is clear that consulta-
tion with the target group is the
foremost prerequisite for laying the
foundation for a solid project
design and implementation plan.
In many development activities this
type of groundwork has been defi-
cient or absent, resulting in activi-
ties based on a shaky foundation. A
thorough exploration of the social
environment in which one is to
operate is worth the time and effort,
for several reasons. First, it increas-
es the likelihood that potential
problems will be foreseen and that
the local situation and the percep-
tions, opinions, and interests of the
people involved will be taken into
consideration. Second, this proce-
dure allows one to identify the key
stakeholders and target groups who
need to be participants/recipients of
the project services in order to bring
about the desired change. These
steps will be addressed further in
the discussion of worksheet #1.


Ascending the Middle
Staircase: Planning
Availability of Resources
(Steps 5-8)
Once the interest and the "owner-
ship" of the target population with
regard to the project's objectives)
have been ascertained, the project
designer is ready to start ascending
the second set of steps, composed of
the following:

5. Identification of the resources
needed to achieve project
objectives;
6. Assessment of whether these
resources already are available
and suitable for the specific
activity;
7. Establishment of an inventory of
actions and resources required to
put the necessary resources in
place (to fulfill the necessary con-
ditions); and
8. Refinement of the initial objec-
tive(s) and formulation of sub-
objectives/activities.

In the first two steps (5 and 6) of
this stage, the planner must decide
what resources (e.g., funds, person-
nel, technology, transport) are
required to accomplish the desired
objective or change, and identify
which of these required resources
are already available and appropri-
ate. (See box on page 8for an example
of some specific elements to consider
during these steps of designing a new
agriculture project.)


PAGE 7


GENESYS



















Example

In designing a rural credit sys-
tem or introducing agricultural
technology, a suitable cadre of
personnel may be found in the
existing agricultural extension
service. However, these agri-
cultural extension workers'
skills may need to be upgraded
to be effective in this particular
activity In addition, the per-
sonnel may not have sufficient
time to engage in new activi-
ties. Sinilarly, the minimum
necessary technological and
transportation resources may
exist, but some upgrading or
additions (e.g., a new comput-
er software package) may be
needed to accommodate this
new activity.

Hence, quantitative as well as
qualitative upgrades and
improvements may be needed
before these existing personnel
and resources become suitable
for use in this specific develop-
ment intervention.


Logically, the third step (step #7 on
page 7) is the identification of prac-
tical actions needed to acquire the
necessary resources and/or make
existing resources sufficient. The
fourth and final step (step #8) of
this sequence consists of a refine-
ment of the project objective and
the formulation of sub-objectives in
the form of a number of concrete
activities, which together are meant
to achieve the project's goals and
objectives. The four steps just out-
lined would be quite obvious to
anyone, and therefore require rela-
tively little effort beyond the usual
analysis conducted during the
design and start-up of a develop-
ment project. Once one has ascend-
ed these steps, one acquires a pre-
liminary overview of the landscape
in which one is to operate to imple-
ment the intended activity. Instead
of acquiring a wide view of the
physical landscape, as would be the
case if one were to ascend the mid-
dle construction of a Mayan temple,
one starts to acquire an overview of
the main features of the social, eco-
nomic, and technical landscape in
which one is to operate in imple-
menting the development activity
under consideration. This stage will
be discussed further below, in the
section on worksheet #2.


Ascending the Upper
Staircase: Anticipating
Accessibility of
Resources (Steps 9-12)
Once the necessary resources have
been identified and plans have been
made to put them in place, com-
plexities intervene in what could
appear from outside as almost a fait
accompli. As in a Mayan temple, the
upper steps are steeper, narrower,
and more difficult to climb than the
lower part of the structure. The
third, and in this tool most empha-
sized and essential, part of project
planning consists of the following
four steps:

9. List the most essential project
resources;
10. Formulate questions about
access factors for these resources
(what factors could affect partic-
ipants' or project's access to the
resources?);
11. Identify potential access con-
straints and related limitations
to equal access of men and
women to project activities, and
list knowledge gaps; and
12. Identify potential solutions, and
devise project strategy and
implementation plan.

(See box at right for an illustration of
elements to consider during these
steps of the design process in the agri-
culture project given as an example
above.)


PAGE8



















Example

It is clear that there may be
several gender-specific access
constraints for the agricultural
extension workers mentioned
above. The first question to be
answered is whether or not
female farmers communicate
freely with male extension
workers. In many countries it
is not customary for men to
address directly women who
are not related to them.
Furthermore, even if the exten-
sion workers are female and
thus allowed to communicate
with the women they are try-
ing to reach, these women may
be disproportionately illiterate,
or unable to understand the
extension workers' language.
In addition, women may have
less time than men, and may
not be able to come to demon-
strations or activities delivered
during the day, or activities
may be planned at public loca-
tions where women do not tra-
ditionally go, or may not be
allowed. Thus, even though
one access constraint may have
been adequately addressed,
others may remain.


Numerous other access considera-
tions will be addressed in detail in
the discussion on worksheet #3.
One important distinction needs to
be made between access constraints
that can be removed, and access
constraints that need to be taken
into consideration, but are
unavoidable for the time being,
such as the differential legal treat-
ment of men and women in many
countries. Provisions must be
made in project design and imple-
mentation plans to minimize the
effects of unavoidable constraints.
At the same time, the inhibiting
effect of these constraints needs to
be documented and communicated
to the appropriate authorities.
This third set of steps is less
obvious, and therefore more diffi-
cult to ascend than the previous
ones. Pursuing the planning pro-
cedures to the very end thus
requires substantial effort.
However, as in the Mayan temple,
once all the steps have been
climbed, a wider and more encom-
passing landscape unfolds. The
socioeconomic and political land-
scape shows its complexities, and
one notices the presence of a large
and varied universe in which one is
to operate. A thorough examina-
tion of this landscape, and the
establishment of a project design
and implementation plan that takes
into consideration the features of
the surrounding environment, will
enhance the likelihood of project
success.


2.2 Operationalizing
and Using the Basic
Analytical Model

To make the basic model suitable as
a planning tool, three worksheets
have been designed, based on the 12
steps just outlined in the staircase
analogy and depicted in Figure 1.
In sequential order the worksheets
and pieces of information they are
intended to generate or document
are as follows:
WORKSHEET # 1
Steps 1-4
Factors affecting motivation of
target groups to respond to project
objectives)
WORKSHEET # 2
Steps 5-8
Resources (necessary conditions)
needed to achieve objectives)
WORKSHEET # 3
Steps 9-12
Facilitating and constraining factors
to access of resources needed to
achieve project objectives)


PAGE 9


GENESYS

















Information on each of the 12 steps
should be filled out in the corre-
sponding columns of the worksheets.
Additional notes and comments may
be made on the back of the sheets.
The miniature worksheets in the text
are intended to serve as examples.
An example of worksheets complete-
ly filled out by examining an existing
project is provided in Annex I.
Blank worksheets for the reader's
own use are provided in Annex II.
The rest of this section is devot-
ed to a discussion of the three work-
sheets. Each section starts with a
discussion of the worksheet and its
rationale, followed by the work-
sheet, and instructions for filling it
out. The discussion on worksheet
#3 is the longest and most detailed
because it corresponds to the steep-
est part of the staircase model. The
tool is intended to identify ways that
the necessary conditions identified
are made insufficient due to lack of
access to these resources or project
benefits. This is the hardest part of
the process: to ensure access and
make the necessary conditions suffi-
cient to reach project objectives.
Once the worksheets are filled
out, they can provide a wealth of
information on the social context in
which the project is to operate.


2.3 Motivation to
Participate in a
Project, and the "No
Net Loss" Principle:
Motivational Analysis:
Worksheet #1
Background and
Rationale
Having access to certain resources
does not necessarily entice people to
use them. In general, people will
only make use of available and
accessible resources if they are moti-
vated to do so because they repre-
sent actual or potential gain. This
gain in some cases may not be
understood by project designers and
implementers because it may not be
a tangible gain, but rather a per-
ceived gain. Furthermore, the gain
may not make sense to economists
because the gain may be social, con-
tributing to rank, social status, or
other motives that seem incompati-
ble with Homo economics.
As discussed in the introduc-
tion, the first stage in the life cycle
of a development activity is the
identification of a particular prob-
lem, followed by a proposal for a
solution, interpreted in the form of
a project objective. Although devel-
opment interventions are intended
to change the lives of the target pop-
ulation for the better, examples
abound of projects that were imple-
mented without prior consultation
with the potential recipients. It is
therefore not surprising that many
projects, initiated with the best
intentions of the project designers
and implementers, fail to achieve
their initial objectives. In many
cases, development activities are not
rooted in a solid understanding of
what exactly is at stake for the target


community, and the identity of the
actual "clients"-the people who
need to be motivated and involved
in order to meet the project's objec-
tives (e.g., women using family
planning).
Family planning projects are
notable examples of this lack of
thorough motivational analysis and
identification of key stakeholders
and clients. Generally women have
been the main target groups of these
projects because most contraceptives
are administered to women.
However, the basic flaws of many of
these projects have been twofold.
First, they have not sufficiently con-
sidered the socio-cultural context
and the advantages to women of
bearing and rearing many children,
such as an increase in social status,
provision of old age security, and
provision of additional labor.
Second, many family planning pro-
jects have been based on the
assumption that the actual recipients
and users of contraceptives, and the
decision makers on family size and
spacing, are one and the same
group. As a result, motivational
messages on the benefits of family
planning, and administration of
contraceptives, have been over-
whelmingly targeted to women. In
reality, the main decision maker in
fertility matters may be the husband,
or the male head of the extended
family, or the mother-in-law.
Therefore, it is of prime importance
to first examine the motivation of


PAGE10



















Example
Women in Sub-Saharan Africa
play a major role in agricultur-
al cultivation, but most of the
agricultural inputs the nec-
essary resources have been
distributed to men by) men.
Clearly; an initial analysis of
ke.y stakeholders and key play-
ers in bringing about agricul-
tural development would have
revealed that no agricultural
development would be at all
possible without removing the
access constraints to agricul-
tural inputs faced by women.



the various groups of stakeholders
for family planning (those who may
stand to benefit most from the pro-
ject but are not limited to inhabi-
tants of the project area or direct
clients) and identify different activi-
ties and messages for different target
groups. These points are also noted
in the discussion about access, under
worksheet #3. (See box above for an
example of how this motivational and
stakeholder analysis relates to the
agriculture project provided as an
illustration earlier in this text.)

The most important question in
designing a development project is:
* In what way is it going to
improve the lives of the target
population?

The second question ought to be:
* Does the target population itself
perceive these benefits?


The third question is:
* Does the target population have
an equal chance of getting access
to project resources, without dis-
tinction of gender or other social
variable(s)?

The fourth, and most neglected,
question is:
* Which group in the target com-
munity represents the key stake-
holders, and which group is
most likely to bring about the
desired change?

The "no net loss" principle
could be considered the bottom
line. That is, necessary conditions
will only be sufficient if the target
population has a real or perceived
stake in a development activity (or
at least if there are no perceived or
real net costs) and access constraints
have been properly addressed.
Although motivational analysis
is not difficult (and falls on the
lower, easier-to-climb steps of the
staircase), it is often the most
neglected aspect of project prepara-
tion because it is not as obvious or
tangible as the required resources
(the middle part of the staircase).
Nevertheless, it should be easy to
ask people directly what they think
about a project, what they propose
themselves, and how they think
their lives will be affected by it.
After gathering this information,
the initial project objective could be
improved and resources selected
accordingly.


Although climbing the lower
part of the staircase is in some ways
easy, it may also be the most diffi-
cult part. For several reasons, the
issue of motivation may be one of
the most difficult to address in
development projects. First, even if
motivation to participate in a spe-
cific development activity were
more or less homogeneous across
different groups, it is quite difficult
to assess exactly what motivates
people because this is heavily influ-
enced by the socio-cultural context.
Second, different groups of people
within the same society, or even
family or household, may have dif-
ferent motivations. Third, project
planners are often too far removed
from the target population to have
an intimate knowledge of people's
inner motivations and pursuits. For
economists, a cost-benefit analysis
always will be translated into
(potential) economic gain.
Sociologists and anthropologists, on
the other hand, recognize that an
adequate analysis requires investiga-
tion of motives that cannot easily be
monetized.
It may be necessary to have a
social scientist collect information
to fill significant knowledge gaps. It
should be kept in mind that a thor-
ough knowledge of the surrounding
conditions allows one to establish a
solid foundation by implementing
those actions and selecting those
specific resources that are best suit-
ed to the particular circumstances.


PAGE 11


GENESYS




















Instructions for Filling
Out Worksheet #1

In filling out worksheet #1, the
development planner should work
with the target group to assess their
needs and desires, and to gauge
their level of interest in the activity
to be implemented. The worksheet
should be used to:

* list systematically the real and per-
ceived potential gains (step 1) and
* risks (step 2) from the project to
the target population, and
* note adjustments (or new infor-
mation) needed in the project's
design (step 3) based on this
information.

The worksheet includes a list of the
four steps it is meant to address;
steps 1-3 correspond to columns 1-
3. Step 4 (modifying objectives and
indicators) is to be addressed sepa-
rately by the planner; although notes
may be made on the worksheet, step
4 does not correspond to a column.
Worksheet #1 is limited because
of the complexity of motivational
aspects of development participation.
However, this worksheet allows the
project planner to identify the per-
ceptions of key stakeholders and
clients of a particular development
activity. In addition, this worksheet
is intended to alert the project plan-
ner to certain constraints and oppor-
tunities, which, if overlooked in pro-
ject design, could make the project
fail, even if all the necessary resources
were put into place and the access
constraints were adequately
addressed. A selection of appropri-
ate questions to ask in filling out
worksheet #1 is shown in the box.


Worksheet #1:
Motivational Analysis:
Assessing People's
Motivation for Project
Acceptance



IJ


SStep
List preliminary objectives and identify, with target group,
potential gains (real and perceived economic, social and other
gains). Fill out column 1.
SStep 2
Identify, with target group, potential risks (real and perceived
economic, social and other risks). Fill out column 2.
[ Step 3
Identify remaining questions or actions needed for project
adjustment, and design strategies to address these questions.
Fill out column 3.
SStep4
Modify objectives) and indicators according to findings from
steps 1-3.


Preliminary objeotives:
Modified oble-tivee-


potential gain. for
target population


Potential risks for
target population


Qeutioton./Aotione/
Streteglee


Ecnoic Ecnmc Economic


Technical:~I Teh ia:T c ncl


Soi al soil oil







Poenia Ohes:Poenia Ohes:Poenia Ohes




Addtioal ote an Co mens :






0


PA GE12











Worksheet #2: step
Technical & Economic Identify resources needed to achieve project objectivess.
Analysis: Planning to Fill out column 1.
Meet the Necessary Step 6
Conditions Identify which resources are already available. Fill out column 2.
Step 7
List actions and resources needed to fulfill the necessary
conditions. Fill out column 3.
Sel step 8
i Refine objectives) and formulate sub-objectives.

Refined project objectlve(s)/sub-objectives:


Actions and Resources
Needed


2.4 Defining
Necessary Conditions:
Technical and
Economic Analysis:
Worksheet #2
Background and
Rationale
Once worksheet #1 has been com-
pleted in consultation with the tar-
get community, the process of iden-
tifying the necessary resources and
putting them in place begins. At
this stage, a technical analysis is
usually carried out to determine
which resources need to be avail-


I Resources Available


able and which conditions need to
be fulfilled to implement the devel-
opment activity under considera-
tion. Often an economic or cost-
benefit analysis is carried out at this
point as well. These preparatory
analyses help determine the neces-
sary conditions for a particular
activity to be undertaken. Once the
necessary resources are listed, the
analyst can assess which of these are
currently available and which need
to be obtained. A list of actions
needed to obtain the necessary
resources and fulfill the conditions
required to implement the activity
can then be drawn up. These lists
can then feed into a refined defini-
tion of the project's or activity's
objectivess.


Instructions for Filling
Out Worksheet #2

The analyst can use this worksheet
in performing a technical and eco-
nomic analysis of the target area to
assess levels of resources needed and
available for project implementa-
tion. Based on these resource needs,
actions and potential new project
objectives can be drawn up. Generic
categories of necessary conditions
(e.g., funds, personnel, technology)
are listed in the left column
(column 1) of worksheet #2. In the
first step on this worksheet (step 5),
taking the project's specific objective
as a point of departure, the analyst
should identify the resources needed
and the conditions that need to be
fulfilled to implement this specific
activity. These resources should be
listed in column 1 under their
respective headings.
For example, before the design
of a project to promote agro-export
production, an inventory should be
done in the target area, in consulta-
tion with the target population.
The relevant items should be listed
under each generic category in col-
umn 1. Examples of appropriate
questions to ask in filling out this
worksheet are shown in the box on
page 14.


PAGE13


Resources Needed


4. T..h..I.gy


S. Collection/distribution points


6. Transportation


7. Other.


GENESYS


I I






































Example
In a project to promote agro-
exports, agricilrtral extension
workers may' be present in the
target region, collection and
distribution points could be
added to local market places
or other central locations, and
funds could be channeled
through local banks. These
resources should be listed as
"avmhaiblc."


Once the resources required for
project implementation are identi-
fied, the project planner must deter-
mine which of those resources may
already be available (step 6). These
should be noted in column 2 of
worksheet z 2. These may include
existing available workers, funds,
vehicles, buildings, and so forth.
Resources that are not available
and an inventory of actions needed
to acquire them should be listed in
column 3 of worksheet #2 (step 7).
Remaining problems and informa-
tion gaps that need to be addressed
before the project can become ade-
quately operational should also be
listed in column 3. A refined/modi-
fied objective (step 8) can be written
in the space provided for this pur-
pose on the worksheet. The back of
the worksheet can be used for listing
sub-objectives, and for additional
notes and comments.


Potential Questions aboutNecessaFy

Conditions (Worksheet #2)
III What kinds of crops SIIOLIId be prornoted to have optimal retUrn?
What kind of fundinu is needed foi- the activitv?
" What kind of personnel arc needed to implerncntthe projects
" What arc the most SUitable technolooles for this pro'ect?
" Wh atare the rriost appropriate locations) for clistribUtiOn Of
agricultural implements and collection of market prodLICtS?
" What means of transportation arc necded to implement tile
project?
" What other resources need to be available to implement this
proJect?


PA G E14


2.5 Planning to
Maximize Accessibility
of Resources: Social
and Gender Analysis:
Worksheet #3
Background and
Rationale
As mentioned in the introduction to
worksheet #2, a technical and eco-
nomic analysis usually is carried out
before the necessary resources for
project implementation can be pre-
cisely identified. The next step-
determining whether these
resources will be equally accessible
to men and women and to all seg-
ments of the population generally-
is more difficult to accomplish.
Therefore, it often will be necessary
to conduct social and gender analysis
or to consult existing information
sources. The key to sound and
socially relevant project planning is
to start with a thorough knowledge
of the social milieu in which one
operates, before implementing the
project.
A social and gender analysis
allows the project designer to deter-
mine whether or not specific target
groups are crucial in the achieve-
ment of project objectives. Neglect
of these groups is the major cause of
sub-optimal project outcomes. For
instance, in many countries of Sub-
Saharan Africa, women are the
prime workers on family farms.
However, agricultural implementa-
tion projects and extension services
generally have failed to have a gen-
der-informed approach. As a conse-
quence, agricultural extension ser-
vices and other inputs are accessible
only to men, disregarding the fact

















that these implements do not
"trickle down" to the women who
actually perform most of the agri-
cultural work.
The same mistake occurs again
and again in family planning pro-
jects, where women are overwhelm-
ingly targeted since they are the
users of contraceptives, even though
the husbands or mothers-in-law
may be the primary fertility deci-
sion makers. A proper definition of
the right target groups for specific
messages, and an identification of
these groups' constraints to access
to the necessary resources, are indis-
pensable pre-conditions for
achievement of project success.
Whether or not a certain group
has access to a project's services/
benefits depends on a number of
factors. The generic categories of
these "access factors" are listed in
the left column of worksheet #3.
These factors can differ consider-
ably for men and women.
Worksheet #3 is designed specifical-
ly to help project planners ensure
that the distinction between avail-
ability of and access to resources is
adequately taken into consideration,
and that related gender differences
are properly addressed.
Access factors may also differ
significantly across other social cate-
gories: people of different socioeco-
nomic status, old and young people,
rural and urban people, and so on.
The user of this tool must decide if
these social variables are important
in the target community. These dis-
tinctions also may have a bearing on


the degree to which gender influ-
ences access. For instance, women
in disadvantaged socioeconomic
groups might have greater access to
resources relative to men in their
own groups than women in higher
socioeconomic levels. The same is
true for ethnicity or age. Young
men may have more restricted use
of resources than older women.
These distinctions need to be con-
sidered in project design and imple-
mentation.

Making "Access Factors"
Operational for Project
Design

We will now look briefly at each of
the individual access factors and
clarify how they might impede pro-
ject performance. It is well-known
that in many developing countries
the language used for formal
instruction in schools does not
always coincide with the language
spoken at home. In most of Sub-
Saharan Africa, for instance,
instruction in schools is in English,
French, or Portuguese-the lan-
guages of the former colonizing
nations. At home, however, the
overwhelming majority of African
families speak their own language,
which in most instances is not writ-
ten, is spoken in only a limited area,
and is shared by a relatively small
group of people; exceptions include
languages such as Haussa, Bambara,
Yoruba and Swahili.
Closely linked to the question of
language is the level of training and
education in the target population.
In most countries, only a small pro-
portion of the population goes to
school, and among those, boys gen-
erally far outnumber girls, especially


in higher grades and in secondary
and higher education.
Furthermore, the proportion of
children enrolled in school in urban
areas is significantly higher than in
rural areas. It is not easy to imple-
ment a quick remedy for this gender
disparity in education because it
takes years to bridge the gap.
Therefore, for our purposes we
need to devise creative solutions to
cope with the problem of lack of
formal education for the time being,
while at the same time trying to
promote education in general, and
girls' education in particular.
It is self-evident that in low-lit-
eracy societies, written instructions
in a European language on agricul-
tural improvement, miscellaneous
skill-building, and any necessary
information for participating in
modernization are accessible only to
a very small proportion of people,
and to more men than women. If
women are key players in agricul-
ture and rural enterprise, as in Sub-
Saharan Africa, it is precisely the
women who need the instruction.
Therefore the language and educa-
tional factors need to be assessed
during project design, and solutions
need to be found to disseminate the
relevant information by means
other than written materials in a
language that is not sufficiently
understood by the target groupss.


P AG E5


GENESYS

















In addition to understanding a
language, there is the issue of
understanding the terms used to
convey a message. The wording of
messages may be too technical for
the people they are trying to reach.
Although project implementers may
consider their message accessible
because it is in a language that peo-
ple speak, there may be a significant
discrepancy in education levels
between the project implementers
and the target population, which
may make the message inaccessible
to the latter.
There is also a major distinction
between urban and rural residents.
Health services, schools, banking,
and trading facilities are all more
accessible in cities than in rural
areas. Sex ratios tend to be distort-
ed in both rural and urban areas. In
Sub-Saharan Africa, for instance,
women stay in rural areas much
more than men do. Consequently
Sub-Saharan African women's
access to a variety of resources and
services is more restricted than
men's. It follows that, for develop-
ment activities to have a significant
result, extra effort needs to be made
to design programs in such a way
that the women have unimpeded
access to the necessary conditions.
As noted under the language factor,


that is a difficult challenge because
women are generally less literate
than men, which limits the ways
messages can be communicated to
them. However, an awareness of
this factor is a prerequisite for
designing projects adapted to local
realities and to the gender division
of labor.
In some parts of Latin America
we find the opposite case: women
tend to migrate to the cities more
than men. In these cases small-
enterprise programs and the like
will have to make provisions for cer-
tain factors which determine
whether or not women can afford to
participate in a development activi-
ty. This might mean that childcare
facilities, health care, maternity
benefits, and other schemes need to
be considered before a specific pro-
ject is put into place. These types of
fringe benefits, if properly imple-
mented, serve a double purpose.
First, the availability of these
benefits allows certain groups to
have access to jobs and other under-
takings from which they would be
excluded otherwise for practical rea-
sons such as lack of time or being
obliged to stay home with small
children. Second, from an efficien-
cy standpoint, these benefits make it
possible to bring into the main-
stream a part of the population
(women) that may have a compara-
tive advantage because they are
skilled in certain areas. This main-
streaming of women and use of
their skills in the labor force has had
positive results in many parts of the
world (e.g., women in small indus-


tries in East Asia, women in agricul-
ture and trade in Sub-Saharan
Africa, and women in the urban ser-
vice sector in Latin America).
Means of communication are
also not equally accessible to all
groups in the population. For
instance, televisions and radios are
much more prevalent in cities than
in rural areas. Therefore, these
means of mass communication may
not be the proper ones to focus on
when designing an information
campaign in rural areas.
Furthermore, even if radios and
televisions are readily available in
both urban and rural areas, it is not
guaranteed that all members of a
family have equal access to them. In
some countries or regions it is cus-
tomary for the men to congregate
and talk and watch television, while
the women tend to domestic and
other chores. If women do have
access, they may watch or listen at
very different times of the day or
week from men. Therefore, even if
the instructional programs reach
the target families, there is still no
guarantee that the right target
group has been reached within the
families.
Financial resources also are usu-
ally not proportionally distributed
among all community or family
members. In most countries city
dwellers tend to be wealthier than
rural dwellers. Even if such
resources as agricultural credit or
building loans are available, it is by
no means certain that all groups can


PAGE 16

















benefit equally from the increased
opportunities loans could provide.
Generally, women are less likely to
have access to credit and loans than
men, for several reasons. First, they
tend to have less income and are
therefore less likely to generate capi-
tal and investments that could serve
as guarantees for acquiring loans.
Second, they are often partially or
wholly excluded from using family
property as collateral for getting a
loan. Third, women's level of litera-
cy and training is on the average sig-
nificantly lower than men's.
Consequently, women have less
capability than men to deal with the
paperwork involved in banking and
obtaining loans.
Closely related to the previous
discussion on access to financial
resources is access to legal rights.
Only recently have women started
to acquire legal rights equal to men's
in a number of countries. To go to a
family planning clinic for contra-
ceptive and reproductive health ser-
vices, for example, women in most
Sub-Saharan African countries still
need their husband's or father's
written consent. The men in these
countries, on the other hand, can
engage in any legal act without their
wife's written consent. As for
landownership or use, it is usually
the men of the family who acquire
legal title to land, even though the
women are key players in agricul-
tural production. Even if women
have legal rights, this does not auto-
matically guarantee them access to
certain resources, since in many


instances customary practices may
prevent exercise of these rights.
Time schedules tend to differ
significantly for men and women as
well, because of an established divi-
sion of labor that has become insti-
tutionalized within each society.
Project design needs to accommo-
date differential time use by men
and women, to facilitate access to
project activities for both sexes
alike. Apart from distinguishing
between men's and women's daily
time use, it is necessary to address
discrepancies in seasonal calendars
as well to maximize accessibility of
project resources for both sexes.
The social rank of one's group
or family is another factor that often
determines access-or lack there-
of-to certain resources. In soci-
eties with clearly identified groups,
such as castes, ethnic groups, or
socioeconomic classes, these groups
may have differential access to cer-
tain professions, schools, banking
facilities, loans, and other services
and resources. These social divi-
sions may be more or less clear-cut,
or, like socioeconomic status, may
transcend several of the other
boundaries. Nevertheless, within
each one of these groups there will
always be a certain degree of gender
division of labor, rights, and
responsibilities.


There are a number of other
factors which either facilitate or
impede access to resources, and are
different for men and women. A list
of relevant access factors needs to be
made for each development inter-
vention. Gender-specific differ-
ences in access to project resources
need to be identified and potential
solutions need to be designed before
a project is initiated.


PA G E 7


GENESYS





















Instructions for Filling
Out Worksheet #3

The first step in filling out work-
sheet #3 is to list essential resources
needed to implement the project
(step 9) information which
should have resulted from filling out
worksheet #2. Then the analyst can
list what is known about the access
factors below each heading in the
left column of the worksheet. The
procedure for identifying what is
known begins with the formulation
of a number of relevant questions
about each access factor (step 10).
(See box on page 19 for a list of
potential questions to ask about
access factors).
The list of questions on page 19
could lead to preliminary notes to
be listed in column 1. The reader
will notice that these questions are
general and are applicable to virtu-
ally all development interventions.
Each specific intervention has its
own information requirements as
far as the access factors are con-
cerned. Therefore the tool user
needs to adapt and refine the list of
questions according to his/her par-
ticular information needs.
In working through these first
steps, constraints will become
apparent, allowing the project plan-
ner to fill out column 2 of the work-
sheet (step 11). In the process,
knowledge gaps will manifest them-
selves as well; these should be listed
in column 3 (step 11).


Worksheet #3:
Gender & Social
Analysis: Planning
to Maximize
Accessibility of
Resources


Access Factors


A. Language


B. Training/
Education

C. Residence


D. Communication


E. Finances


F. Time


G. Legal Rights


H. Social Rank


I. Others


Step 9
List the most essential project
resources (from Worksheet #2,
column 1).
Step 10
Formulate questions about access
factors for these resources. Fill out
column 1.
SStep 11
Identify (potential) constraints
and knowledge gaps. Fill out
columns 2 and 3.
J Step 12
Identify (potential) solutions.
Fill out column 4. Devise project
strategy and implementation plan.


Constraints


Once the access factors have
been thoroughly examined and
potential constraints for both men
and women have been identified,
the project planner will be ready for
step 12: identifying potential solu-
tions and designing strategies to
solve problems of access constraints.
These solutions need to be "trans-
lated" into tactically and strategical-
ly sound approaches that will opti-


List of essential
project resources
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.


Potential Solutions


mize the likelihood that the avail-
able resources are accessible to men
and women alike. To complete
worksheet #3, these approaches or
possible solutions need to be listed
in the right column.


Knowledge Gaps


PAGE18




















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bilities~~ ~ ~ frpriiaigith poos edpoetadfi aigfi


Again, it is of primary impor-
tance that enough is known about
the local social reality to design pro-
jects that truly respond to specific
needs, constraints, and opportuni-
ties of the various target groups.
The need for additional social and
gender analysis may emerge after
filling out worksheet #3 and identi-
fying information gaps that need to
be filled before a realistic project
design and implementation plan
can be finalized.
In general, a wealth of relevant
information can be obtained from
existing sources. For instance, infor-
mation on language, training, and
education can be found readily in
school enrollment figures, popula-
tion censuses, and other population
statistics. If the project is regional
or local, a visit to the nearest school
and interviews with teachers will
help determine the sex ratio of stu-
dents and the proportion of chil-
dren enrolled in school as a propor-
tion of all children of school age.


PAGE19


GENESYS











III: Notes on
Application
of the Tool to
an Existing
Project
Conclusion


GENESYS












III: Notes on Application of the Tool to an

Existing Project


At the end of each one of the three
stages described on the previous
pages, the project planner or analyst
is asked to modify project/program
objectives and sub-objectives,
reassess indicators, and/or devise
new strategies for a new activity
based on knowledge or awareness
gained from doing this exercise.
This tool is also valuable for exam-
ining current projects and programs
and reassessing original definitions
and objectives. Based on the infor-
mation gathered and noted on the
worksheets, the planner may decide
that original theories or assessments
were skewed and that some redefin-
itions are in order.

3.1 Defining
Necessary Conditions
in Retrospect
When this tool is used in an ongo-
ing project to assess whether it is
socially and gender relevant for the
target group it intends to serve, the
necessary conditions for project
implementation will have been put
in place already, and the resources
deemed necessary for project activi-
ties will have either withstood or
failed to withstand the test of time.
A reassessment can then be carried
out to determine whether or not the
necessary conditions were appropri-
ately planned, considering the suffi-


cient conditions. In that case work-
sheets #1 and #3 should be filled out
first. The next step is to modify
worksheet #2 and to adjust project
implementation procedures accord-
ingly to reflect a more realistic
approach to the necessary condi-
tions. See Annex I for an example
of worksheets completed based on
information from an existing
project.


3.2 Redefining
Project Objectives
and Indicators
Two pieces of information are cru-
cial in planning a project: the pro-
ject objectives) and the indicators
that measure whether the objectives
are met. The preceding discussion
on the three worksheets emphasized
that clarification and refinement of
original project objectives and pro-
posed measurement of outcomes
may be needed. For instance, the
overall goal may be to increase agri-
cultural productivity or to improve
health conditions of the population.
These are called longer-term "larger
objectives." To make these objec-
tives operational, they have to be
made more explicit and be "trans-
lated" to reflect the following three
types of information:
1. Quantifiable achievements
("what" in measurable terms)
2. Primary target groups stake-
holders and clients ("for
whom")
3. Time frame ("by when")


If increasing agricultural productiv-
ity were the overarching goal, an
explicit objective to be filled out on
worksheet #2 could read: increase
cash revenues of small and medium-
sized farms from export crops from X
(current level) to Y (projected level)
by 1997. If improvement of health
conditions were the goal, one objec-
tive could read: increase the propor-
tion of children in province Z vacci-
nated against major childhood dis-
eases from X (current level) to Y
(projected level) by 2000.
The overall objective of the pro-
ject described in Annex I is to find
environmentally and socioeconomi-
cally viable alternatives to deforesta-
tion; but a sub-objective is to obtain
detailed, sex-disaggregated financial
and economic data allowing compar-
ison of sustainable and non-sustain-
able practices. To make sure that
both men and women will be
reached by a project, target groups
need to be identified by sex, and the
measurements of achievement need
to be disaggregated by sex.
Refinement of objectives and of
sex-disaggregated indicators and
measures of success is needed at
each stage of the pyramid.
Measures of acceptance or project
achievement or impact ("indica-
tors" in USAID terms) logically fol-
low from the operational objectives.
Sources of information are needed
to verify project achievements.
Most countries have a variety of


PA G22
















statistical databases on economic
and social variables. However, if a
project intervention is targeted to a
limited geographical area it may be
necessary to incorporate a data col-
lection unit into the project itself,
unless relevant regional and local
statistics already are collected on a
routine basis. Measures of accep-
tance, or "indicators", must be sex-
disaggregated to allow project imple-
menters to make inferences about
project impact and about whether
men and women are benefiting
equally from project efforts.
Measures of project achieve-
ment can be realistic only if they are
compared with baseline data of the
situation at the onset of the project.
Therefore it will be necessary in
many cases to conduct an investiga-
tion prior to implementation of a
specific project in order to measure
the project's impact later. A num-
ber of specific questions for use in
such an investigation can be identi-
fied in the process of filling out the
three worksheets in this booklet.


Conclusion


In conclusion, this tool is intended
to aid project designers and analysts
(as well as analysts working on
existing projects) to more clearly
and completely plan development
activities by thoroughly assessing
the landscape around them. This
entails an in-depth look at motiva-
tional factors affecting the groups to
be targeted, analysis of the technical
and economic needs and limitations
of the activity in its actual setting,
and gender and social analysis to
measure access of the target
groups) to project resources and
benefits. This tool is designed to
help planners anticipate constraints


to access, and address specifically
how gender relations affect men's
and women's access to the necessary
conditions. The objective is to
understand potential constraints to
access of resources and to plan or
modify project implementation in
such a way that these constraints are
minimized for both sexes. The crit-
ical point to remember is that for an
activity to be successful it needs to
address all three levels of the pyra-
mid: motivation of the target group,
availability of necessary resources
and conditions, and access of the
target group to these resources.
Each of these three levels is neces-
sary to project success, but none is
by itself sufficient.


PAGE23


GENESYSI




M- m










Annex I:
GENESYS/Brazil
Activity Case
Study

Annex II: Blank
Worksheets


GENESYS


i
; ;

; ;















Annex I: GENESYS/Brazil Activity Case Study


The GENESYS component of the
Brazil Global Climate Change
(GCC) Program, implemented by
The Futures Group International
with its Brazilian partner, REBRAF,
was designed to integrate socioeco-
nomic and gender considerations
into the GCC program. The GCC
program focuses on sustainable use
of the Amazon forest, institution
building, and policy reform. In the
Brazilian Amazon, both women and
men play important productive
roles in all the extractive and agro-
forestry systems, as sources of tradi-
tional knowledge about the habitat,
as collectors of forest products, as
processors of products, and as sell-


ers. Yet there has been little research
and information about the division
of labor and other gender considera-
tions in the Amazon region in gen-
eral, and in renewable resource
management systems in particular.
To enhance the probability that
GCC-promoted forest uses and
management practices will be
adopted, socioeconomic informa-
tion and sex-disaggregated data on
the knowledge, skills, and labor of
both men and women must be con-
sidered and must influence decisions
about project activities.
Through the GCC program,
GENESYS works primarily with
Amazonian non-governmental


organizations (NGOs) to strengthen
their capabilities to include socio-
economic and gender considerations
in the design, implementation, and
evaluation of sustainable activities
in extractive reserves, park buffer
zones, and agroforestry projects
supported by the GCC program.
GENESYS activities include train-
ing, research, technical assistance,
and institutional strengthening.
An analyst working on the
GENESYS Brazil GCC Project has
completed the worksheets on the
following pages based on informa-
tion and lessons learned from the
Brazil activity.


PAGE 26










Brazil Case Study J

Worksheet #1:
Motivational Analysis:
Assessing People's
Motivation for Project
Acceptance


Step I
List preliminary objectives and identify, with target group,
potential gains (real and perceived economic, social and other
gains). Fill out column 1.

Step 2
Identify, with target group, potential risks (real and perceived
economic, social and other risks). Fill out column 2.


Step 3
Identify remaining questions or actions needed for project
adjustment, and design strategies to address these questions.
Fill out column 3.

7j Step4
Modify objectives) and indicators according to findings from
steps 1-3.


Preliminary objectives: To find environmentally and socioeconomically viable alternatives to deforestation.


Modified objectives:


Integration of women.


Potential gains for
target population


Potential risks for
target population


Questions/Actions/
Strategies


I I a a


* Income alternatives and employment
developed for NGO clientele
* NTFPs are marketed
* Income from sustainable vs. non-sus-
tainable resources increased for men and
women.


* NGO staff have improved administra-
tive, management, and research skills.


* NTFPs are not as immediately profitable
as timber or other non-sustainable land uses.
Project Phase Two:
* If resources for developing income and
employment opportunities are limited, men
may feel threatened by women's integra-
tion as beneficiaries.


Technical: ~ Tehia:Tcncl


* Cost of acquiring improved adminis-
trative, management, and research skills is
too high to be financed from internal
resources.
Project Phase Two:
* NGO staffhave to do more work to do
gender analysis and disaggregation.


* Need detailedfinancial and economic
data allowing comparison of sustainable and
non-sustainable practices.
Project Phase Two:
* Need detailed, sex-disaggregatedfinan-
cial and economic data allowing comparison
of sustainable and non-sustainable practices.


* Funding for technical/institutional devel-
opment must be provided.


Soil Soil Socal


* Data and information can be used to
qualify for government programs.
* Data and information can be used to
build political base.
* Data and information can be used to
counter non-environmentally sustainable
projects (e.g. mining, ranching, logging).


* Risk ofpolitical reprisal, assassinations
for collecting or using data for socio-politi-
cal ends.


* Need to guarantee and ensure dissemina-
tion of data/information to those who can
counter opposing elements.


Pot l O s Pi P


rTojeci rnase I wo:
* Integration of both sexes can increase
NGO membership, particularly in case of
labor unions.
* Data and information can be used to
build a political base among both sexes.


Project Phase Two:
* Integration of women can lead to con-
flicts in families, organizations.


Project Phase Two:
* Need to communicate advantages of
integration of both men and women to those
who might oppose.


* Project purpose as designed targets two levels of beneficiaries: NGO staff and beneficiaries of GCC subprojects, which include areas as
diverse as land use; policy reform; legal; environmental impact assessment. Worksheet addressed only motivation of NGO staff not members
of communities where NGOs work.


GENESYSI










Brazil Case Study

Worksheet #2:
Technical & Economic
Analysis: Planning to
Meet the Necessary
Conditions


SStep 5
Identify resources needed to achieve project objectivess.
Fill out column 1.

SStep 6
Identify which resources are already available. Fill out column 2.

Step 7
List actions and resources needed to fulfill the necessary
conditions. Fill out column 3.

F Step 8
Refine objectives) and formulate sub-objectives.


Refined project objective(s)/sub-objectives:


Resources Needed


Resources Available


Actions and Resources
Needed


1 1. -esagepr


* Need to target women for programs,
develop income and employment alterna-


* Technical Assistance.


* Find communication and technical
specialists on targeting women and
integrating them into income-generating
activities.


0 Varied needs by NGO.


* Technical budget.


3. Pesone


* Gender specialists, extension agents,
other NGO consultant staff.


* Gender specialists, other NGO staff,
consultants.


* Low-tech, one-to-one meetings with
individuals, women's groups, mixed
groups.


* Amazonian communities


* Car, boat, walking


* Available to NGOs


1 7O


* Identify consultants.


* Available.


* Plan meetings.


I '


* Program transportation


1 2.Fund


1- 4. Teholg










Brazil Case Study

Worksheet #3:
Gender e Social
Analysis: Planning
to Maximize
Accessibility of
Resources


F Step 9
List the most essential project
resources (from Worksheet #2,
column 1).

J Step 10
Formulate questions about access
factors for these resources. Fill out
column 1.

] Step 11
Identify (potential) constraints
and knowledge gaps. Fill out
columns 2 and 3.


a:


Step 12
Identify (potential) solutions.
Fill out column 4. Devise project
strategy and implementation plan.


List of essential
project resources

1. Messages targeting women


2. Funds

3. Gender specialists, other staff


4. Program transportation
Low-tech meetings,
5. facilities, staff

6.


Access Factors


Constraints


Knowledge Gaps


Potential Solutions


A. Language In some communities Use local people to translate.
Portuguese expressions vary. In
Different languages and indigenous areas, have native
expressions? languages.

B. Training/ Participation by women 0 Hold training in communi-
Education may be constrained if they have ties, arrangefor child care.
to leave community or care for
Are there differentials? children.

C. Residence 0 Distance ofsome communi- 0 Carry out activities at times
ties is problematic. when people travel to participate
Will residents of different areas in other activities (e.g. Sunday
be affected differently? for Mass).

D. Communication Women tend to be less liter- Use oral communication
ate than men. tools.
Will communication be a
factor?

E. Finances Access to credit is poor 0 Provide credit/working
Are finances a factor? capitalfund such as WWF has
done.


F. Time 0 Unknown Unknown time constraints. 0 Unknown
Will beneficiaries face time
constraints?

G. Legal Rights Women's access may be lim- 0 Support actions leading to
Will differentials be a factor ited due to lack of land tenure titles or use rights.
for beneficiaries?

H. Social Rank 0 In most locations men are 0 Encourage female participa-
Will social divisions influence more vocal, participate more. tion through their own organiza-
project impacts? tions, work at mainstreaming.

I. Others


GENESYS







ANNEX II: Blank Worksheets


Worksheet #1:
Motivational Analysis:
Assessing People's
Motivation for Project
Acceptance


[_ Step 1
List preliminary objectives and identify, with target group,
potential gains (real and perceived economic, social and other
gains). Fill out column 1.
D Step 2
Identify, with target group, potential risks (real and perceived
economic, social and other risks). Fill out column 2.
F Step 3
Identify remaining questions or actions needed for project
adjustment, and design strategies to address these questions.
Fill out column 3.
F Step4
Modify objectives) and indicators according to findings from
steps 1-3.


Preliminary objectives:
Modified objectives:


Potential gains for
target population


Potential risks for
target population


Questions/Actions/
Strategies


Ecoomc:Ecnoic Econmic


















Aditional Notes and Comments:~
. .^^^^Bj~iK~^^^^^^^^SHsE^^^^^










- -TrT^^^f''^^^n^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^











Worksheet #2:
Technical & Economic
Analysis: Planning to
Meet the Necessary
Conditions



I I


U Step 5
Identify resources needed to achieve project objectivess.
Fill out column 1.
L Step 6
Identify which resources are already available. Fill out column 2.
SStep 7
List actions and resources needed to fulfill the necessary
conditions. Fill out column 3.
t Step 8
Refine objectives) and formulate sub-objectives.


Refined project objective(s)/sub-objectives:


Resources Needed


Resources Available


Actions and Resources
Needed


Neede




L -unds







-. Pers nne













7. Others .
0 -~


GENESYS










Worksheet #3:
Gender & Social
Analysis: Planning
to Maximize
Accessibility of
Resources


Step 9
List the most essential project
resources (from Worksheet #2,
column 1).

F- Step 10
Formulate questions about access
factors for these resources. Fill out
column 1.

Step 11
Identify (potential) constraints
and knowledge gaps. Fill out
columns 2 and 3.

|K Step 12
Identify (potential) solutions.
Fill out column 4. Devise project
strategy and implementation plan.


Access Factors


Constraints


Knowledge Gaps


Potential Solutions


List of essential
project resources

1.


A. Language



B. Training/
Education


C. Residence



D. Communication



E. Finances



F. Time



G. Legal Rights



H. Social Rank



1. Others
















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