• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Cochabamba rural household survey:...
 Bibliography
 Annex 1: Survey questionnaire...
 Back Cover














Title: Gender analysis tool kit
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080527/00005
 Material Information
Title: Gender analysis tool kit
Physical Description: 1 case : col. ill. ; 27 x 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: GENESYS Project
Futures Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Sex discrimination in employment -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Genesys.
General Note: "Genesys, a project of The Futures Group in collaboration with Management Systems International and Development Alternatives, Inc. and United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Dept. of State."
General Note: "Contains ten analytical tools"--GCID framework t.p.
General Note: "Under the GENESYS Project for USAID G/R&D/WID Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00"--GCID Framework t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080527
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31425196

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Preface
        Preface
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 4
    Cochabamba rural household survey: Preliminary findings
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Bibliography
        Page 28
    Annex 1: Survey questionnaire form
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
        Page A-11
        Page A-12
        Page A-13
        Page A-14
        Page A-15
        Page A-16
        Page A-17
        Page A-18
        Page A-19
        Page A-20
        Page A-21
        Page A-22
        Page A-23
        Page A-24
        Page A-25
        Page A-26
        Page A-27
        Page A-28
        Page A-29
        Page A-30
    Back Cover
        Page A-31
Full Text



GENESYS








,. ...... .. :! .:" .." .....


. .. .. ... .. : ., .. : .::.:. ..; : : '. .. .. ,
:6':" :, i ",- :i"'::



: -
i: P ,i j :A :. ....i .. -.... : :
S ......




~ ........,
: ;..., : .'.:. : :' .:.;










: ...,.:.
?, :i;i i.!. : : ..;' ..,: ,
; : .; .... ...: -:! : ? i :
.: .:. .. :




Mlr
ti: :, ..
2 .., : '.
.?..::.;; :;. ,.





".;'; "il : ";" E !, : !.'.:,



...!' ;,. ... .
4. .T
iT.:: .z











Preface

This Gender Analysis Tool Kit contains ten analytical tools which are intended to be clear, user-friendly devices for
policy makers and project implementers to use in addressing gender issues in their development efforts. The tool kit
was developed by the staff of the GENESYS (Gender in Economic and Social Systems) Project. GENESYS is a project
funded by the USAID Office of Women in Development to support the Agency's efforts to institutionalize gender con
siderations in development assistance worldwide. The tool kit provides practical approaches to use in accomplishing
that objective. Below are the titles of the ten tools.

GCID Framework

GCID Framework: A Tool for Assessing Institutionalization of Gender Concerns in Development
Organizations

Quantitative Tools

Quantifying Gender Issues: A Tool for Using Quantitative Data in Gender Analysis
(A Slide Presentation)

Country Gender Profiles: A Tool for Summarizing Policy Implications from Sex-Disaggregated Data

Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for Analyzing Income and Employment Data from Surveys

Diagnostic Tools

Gender and Policy Implementation: A Tool for Assessment of Policy-Derived Impacts on Women and Men

Sex and Gender-What's the Difference?: A Tool for Examining the Sociocultural Context of Sex Differences

Planning And M&E Tools

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Sustainable Development: A Tool for Gender-Informed
Project Planning

Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation: A Tool for Developing Project M&E Plans

Documenting Development Program Impact: A Tool for Reporting Differential Effects on Men and Women

Reference

Gender Research Guide for the Agriculture, Environment, and Natural Resource Sectors: A Tool for
Selecting Methods








Gender and Household
Dynamics: A Tool for

Analyzing Income

and Employment Data
from Surveys

Based on The Cochabamba Rural
Household Survey: Preliminary
Findings Brochure. A report prepared
for USAID/La Paz and the Office of
Women in Development, USAID.
GENESYS and LACTECH.
Prepared by Dr. Deborah Caro,
Dr. James Riordan and
Melissa Cable














July 1994
Under the GENESYS Project for USAID/G/R&D/WID
Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00


GENESYS1














TABLE OF CONTENTS

L Introduction 1
Reason for Developing the Tool 1
Purpose and Usefulness of the Tool 2
Target Audience 3
Strengths and Limitations of the Tool 3
Acknowledgements 4

II. Cochabamba Rural Household Survey:
Preliminary Findings 5
Distribution of the Rural Population by Age and Sex 6
Percentage Distribution of the Rural Population 6 Years of
Age and Older by Level of Education and Sex 7
Percentage Distribution of the Rural Households by Source
of Water, Water Provider, Source of Fuel, and Type of Lighting 8
Percentage Distribution of Rural Heads of Households
and Their Spouses by Primary and Secondary Economic
Activities, Sex, and Location 10
Average Net Income of Farm versus Non-Farm Households
in the Tropics versus the Highlands and Valleys 13
Income and Other Characteristics of Farm Households by Farm Size 14
Average Net Farm Income of Farm Households by Technical
Assistance and Training, by Agricultural Credit, and by Land Tenancy 18
Average Household Income by Sex of Heads of Households and
Coca-Growing vs. Non-Coca-Growing Households 20
Percentage Distribution of Farm Households with Livestock by
Types of Livestock 22
Percentage Distribution of Farm Households by Time and Distance
to Market and by Distance to a Trunk Road 24
Percentage Distribution of Perceived Needs 26
Sample Design 27

Bibliography 28

Annex-Survey Questionnaire Form (Translation from Spanish)


GENESYS
















I. Introduction

Reason for Developing the Tool

The Gender and Household Dynamics tool is included in the GENESYS tool kit as a model for presenting
descriptive sex-disaggregated information on income and employment in rural areas. Its main purpose is to
help formulate gender-informed questions for sectoral policy analysis. The Cochabamba Rural Household
Survey (CRHS) Brochure, upon which this Gender and Household Dynamics tool booklet is based, was pub-
lished originally in 1992 to present the initial survey findings to USAID/La Paz. The graphs and accompanying
text were developed to highlight variables that indicate the relative impact of different policy instruments, as
well as to make information on household members' (both women and men) labor, sources of income, financial
responsibilities, and access to/control of resources accessible to policymakers.
The CRHS had several complementary objectives. It was designed to improve information on rural house-
holds, especially information on segments of rural populations previously overlooked by policy planners.
Although much good qualitative data and analysis on Bolivia's rural households existed prior to the survey, it
was not easily accessible or adaptable to the Bolivian Government's or international donors' needs for policy
analysis and program and project impact assessment. Thus, the survey was developed explicitly to compensate
for the lack of reliable quantitative information appropriate for making policy decisions about government and
donor investments in the rural sector of Bolivia. According to the most recent national census (1992), 42% of
Bolivia's population lives in rural areas. The survey responded to an expanding demand for program measure-
ment and strategic planning by furnishing baseline information on income and employment in an area of the
country where USAID had a department-wide rural development project. The survey, which was conducted in
the Department of Cochabamba in rural population centers of less than 2,000 people during August 1991, also
had the purpose of developing a quantitative method for counting people's activities. This quantitative research
would complement good qualitative research in beginning to comprehend gender ideology and identity. These
objectives responded simultaneously to demands of development planners for statistically valid data on rural
populations, as well as to the frustration voiced by anthropologists and gender specialists who believe that sex-
disaggregated data provides little understanding of work and decision-making, which are generally differentiat-
ed by gender in rural areas.
GENESYS contributed to the socioeconomic analysis of the household survey data by integrating gender
considerations into the interpretation and application of the data. The initial presentation of the data and the
design of the questionnaire contained in this tool, as well as more in-depth analyses listed in the bibliography,
provide a model for improving descriptive presentations of statistics on women's and men's participation in
local, regional, and national economies.


PAGE


I GENESYS
















Purpose and Usefulness of the Tool


The purpose of the Gender and Household Dynamics tool is to provide researchers and development plan-
ners with illustrative elements for designing and interpreting a sex-disaggregated household employment and
income survey. Included in the tool are: 1) a brochure format presenting descriptive survey findings (from the
CRHS Brochure); 2) a short description of the CRHS methodology; 3) a translated copy of the CRHS question-
naire; and 4) a bibliography of more in-depth analyses of the CRHS data.
The objective of the Cochabamba survey was to allow rural development planners to assess the relative
impact of various agricultural policies on the economic welfare of rural households in Cochabamba.
Additionally, the survey provided descriptive information on these households and their members, disaggregat-
ed by age and sex, to make future development policies and activities inclusive of a wider cross section of rural
household and community members. The survey contributes to correcting development planners' commonly
held view of the household as a detached unit in which the principal income generator and decision-maker is
the male household head. Unlike similar surveys conducted in 1978 in Bolivia and more recently in Peru, all
questions in the 1991 Cochabamba Rural Household Survey were designed to gather information on non-farm
income sources and farm and non-farm employment from all members of the household age 6 or older. I
While not a tool in the usual sense of the term, Gender and Household Dynamics is an example of how sex-
disaggregated information from a rural household employment and income survey can be presented and put
into a wider socioeconomic context to make explicit significant differences between women's and men's partici-
pation in local and regional economies. Presentation of the data in this form is an initial step in gender analysis.
The graphs and textual descriptions provide an observational base from which to formulate analytical questions
about gender differences and their implications for assessing the outcomes of policies on different sectors of the
population. For instance, the graphs on pages 10-11 show the primary and secondary activities that household
heads and their spouses participated in during the year preceding the survey. The data reveals sex-based differ-
ences in the types of activities in which men and women routinely engage. From these graphs, policymakers
might assume that women are chiefly responsible for domestic chores and less involved in agricultural tasks. It
is not clear from the descriptive data, however, if these differences are attributable to sociocultural norms that
ascribe certain tasks to men or women or to the different ways that policymakers (and researchers) and respon-
dents (particularly women) interpret the category "care of household." Subsequent analysis presents convincing
evidence that rural Cochabamba women probably selected "care of household" because it was the one category
that encompassed the wide range of activities for which they are responsible and which are not easily distin-
guishable as discrete productive tasks (Caro 1994).


1 Future surveys in the same area will be useful in measuring changes in the sources and types of rural employment and household income, and the degree to which farm
household members derive their income from farm and non-farm economic activities. Repeated surveys have the added advantage of providing information on changes
over time in the degree of market participation of different size farms through the sale of crops, other commodities, and household members' labor as well as measuring
changes in levels of economic participation of all household members age 6 and over by sex and age.


PAGE
















Researchers and planners can use the Gender and Household Dynamics tool as a model for designing similar
surveys to measure the impacts of agricultural development policies on households and their different members.
The attached questionnaire provides the essential elements for gathering this information, and can be adjusted
to the local sociocultural context and edited to further disaggregate information on ownership of resources and
income. The brochure format also can be adapted to reflect those variables that policy analysts and researchers
believe are critical for measuring policy impacts in a particular area. Finally, the bibliography provides the user
with additional resources and models for interpreting the data.

Target Audience

The CRHS text and questionnaire are intended for a broad range of development professionals, national poli-
cymakers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and academics. It is an example of how to translate policy
options into analytical categories to be tested and tracked over time. It also provides researchers and socioeconom-
ic analysts with a method for gathering and describing income and employment information on rural populations,
disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity, and locale. The CRHS provides monitoring and evaluation specialists with a
method for collecting baseline information at the departmental and national levels. The findings can help project
managers and implementing organizations to formulate gender-sensitive objectives and indicators for tracking
their projects' progress and impact. Finally, as a method, it provides gender specialists, who are often more com-
fortable within a qualitative analytical framework, with a quantitative language for describing, analyzing, and pre-
senting gender-based differences and impacts of development policies and activities.

Strengths and Limitations of the Tool

The primary purpose of the CRHS is to measure levels of household income and types of employment in
rural areas. It was not designed to measure absolute levels of crop production or land area under cultivation.
It also does not fully gender- or age-disaggregate all information on income and ownership of resources. For
instance, one major limitation of the CRHS is its failure to disaggregate ownership of livestock, which proved to
be a key correlate of higher household incomes (Riordan 1994). This is a particularly significant oversight in
terms of the potential gender implications, as women make up a majority of people who listed care of livestock
as their primary or secondary economic activities.
A translated copy of the CRHS questionnaire is included as an annex to this tool. It can be used as a
template and adapted to the relevant local or national context. Users are encouraged to refer to existing research
on the participant populations in designing and disaggregating their own questionnaire. The CRHS's strength
lies in its use of local terminology, including indigenous terms for agriculture, weights and measures, crops, and
occupations and activities, as well as the composite structure for calculating income. The usefulness of more
in-depth analyses is also based on the analysts' ability to examine the economic findings within the wider
cultural and social context.


PAGE 3


GENESYS
















Acknowledgements

Many people contributed to the conceptualization and writing of the descriptive brochure. We extend to them
our thanks and appreciation.
Jack Sleeper was largely responsible for initiating the effort, and persuading and guiding the Mission
through the design of the National Rural Household Survey. The U.S. Bureau of the Census team, along with
Roberta J. Warren from the GENESYS Project, provided stewardship in the design and conduct of the survey
sample and questionnaire. Hernan Mufioz led, trained, and animated the committed team of enumerators.
Charley Hash was instrumental in getting the analysis off to a running start by breaking through many con-
ceptual and logistical deadlocks. He also played a fundamental role in conceptualizing the form and content of
the brochure. Fernando Mollinedo and Susana Flores pulled together much of the data presented in the
brochure in tabular and graphic form. Stacia Cook and Lee Martinez of the GENESYS Project worked with
incredible skill, patience, and perseverance to develop and refine the graphs and tables for presentation.
A special note of gratitude is due to Miguel Cuevas from the Bureau of the Census, who provided us with
data, as needed, and responded to our eleventh-hour requests to correct tables.



























PAGE4








Section II:
Cochabamba
Rural
Household
Survey:
Preliminary
Findings


GENESYS












Cochabamba Rural Household Survey:

Preliminary Findings


Distribution of the
Rural Population by
Age and Sex

The Cochabamba Rural Household
Survey results reveal a very young
and growing population that will
require jobs and reliable sources of
income at an increasingly greater
rate than currently contemplated.
Based on interviews with members
of 1,177 rural households in popu-
lation centers of 2,000 or fewer
inhabitants, it is estimated that
there are 529,473 people in 112,148
rural households in the Department
of Cochabamba; 100,896 are
estimated to be located in the non-
coca-growing area and 11,252 in the
coca-growing region. Roughly 90%
(476,341) of the population resides
in the highlands and valleys and
10% (53,132) in the tropical
lowlands.
According to the survey, 44.2 %
of the rural population is estimated
to be 14 years old or younger. The
mean age of the rural population is
24, which is slightly younger than
the mean age of the urban popula-
tion in the Department.2 Among
the rural population in Cochabamba,
the mean age for men is estimated
to be 23.6, and for women, 24.4.
Many more rural households
are estimated to be headed by men,


81+..
76-80
71-75
66-70
61-65
56-60
51-55
46-50
41-45
36-40
31-35
26-30
21-25
16-20
11-15
6-10
0-5
0 10 20 30 40
(Thousands)

S : ; ,; .,"" 4, ,,


85% (95,588), than by women, 15%
(16,561). In the tropics, an area of
rapid growth and colonization, it is
estimated that less than 4% of
households are headed by women,
in contrast to 16% in the highland
and valley areas.
The survey results indicate that
heads of households in the tropics
tend to be younger than in the
valleys and highlands. The average
age of the heads of households is
estimated to be 47 in the highlands
and valleys and around 40 in the
tropics. Among coca-producing
households, the average age of
heads of households is estimated to


50 60


be 39. There also appears to be a
pronounced difference between the
average age of female and male
heads of households in rural
Cochabamba. The average age of
female heads of households is esti-
mated to be 55, while the average
age of male heads of households for
the Department appears to be 45.
Despite the apparent variations in
age of household heads, the average
size of households in the highlands,
valleys, and tropics is uniformly 4.7
members.

2 According to a 1988 population, employment, and
migration survey conducted by the United Nations
in the cities of Cochabamba, Quillacollo, and
Sacaba, 35.8% of the population was 14 and under
in 1988 and the mean age of the urban population
was 25. Since 1976 there has been a progressive
aging of the urban population in the Department.


Population by Sex and Age


P A G E
















Percentage
Distribution of the
Rural Population Six
Years of Age and
Older by Level of
Education and Sex
The educational level of the rural
population in the Department is a
key determinant of whether it will
be possible to attract new invest-
ments and jobs to the area and
whether rural residents will qualify
for these new jobs. New industries,
improved agricultural technology,
and new financial opportunities will
demand increased levels of numera-
cy and literacy. As indicated by the
results of the survey, one constraint
to developing new sources of
employment for rural inhabitants of
Cochabamba is their limited attain-
ment of formal education.


Current education levels are low
among household members
throughout rural Cochabamba,
particularly women. The percentage
of rural women who have no
formal education (40%) is estimated
to be double that of men. It appears
that an even higher percentage of
women are illiterate (45%), com-
pared with men (24%).
The difference is even more
pronounced in comparing the edu-
cational levels of male and female
heads of rural households. As a
group, rural heads of households
average only 1.3 years of formal
schooling. It is estimated that three
times as many female heads of
households (72%) as male house-
hold heads (24%) have no formal
schooling. While educational
levels are slightly higher for house-


hold members of both sexes in the
tropics, the differences between
females and males are still
considerable.
A very small portion of the
population has received schooling
beyond primary school. Only an
estimated 14% of males and 7% of
females six years of age and older
are estimated to have attended
middle school. Less than 10% of
males and about 5% of females in
rural households are estimated to
have attended high school, trade
school, or post-secondary school.
Additional analysis that disaggre-
gates the data by age cohorts would
provide information on educational
attainment of school completers
and their preparation for jobs that
require increased numeracy and
literacy skills.


Percentage of Population 6 Years and

Older by Sex and Level of Education

Other


High School


Middle School A... ..... .


Elementary School


No Formal Education


PAGE 7


GENESYSh
















Percentage
Distribution of
Rural Households by
Source of Water,
Water Provider,
Source of Fuel, and
Type of Lighting
Access to basic services makes an
enormous difference in the health
and well-being of a population. In
addition, access to electricity and a
clean, reliable source of water is
essential both for the development
of rural industries and the applica-
tion of new agropastoral and agro-
processing technologies.
In the highland and valley areas
of the Department, the lack of ade-
quate water for productive and
household activities is a major
problem facing most rural house-
holds. Access to clean drinking
water is a problem faced by house-
holds in all rural regions of
Cochabamba. It appears that less
than a quarter of all rural house-
holds have access to a public or pri-
vate water tap or pump.
Approximately 45% get their
water from a surface water source,
such as a river, stream, spring, lake,
or pool. Another estimated 29% get
their water from wells of varying
quality. Based on the survey results,
it is estimated that 40% of the water
is retrieved by women or girls, 13%
by men or boys, and 40% by mem-
bers of the household of both sexes.
The survey results also indicate
that access to reliable and renewable
sources of energy is a major need of
rural households in the Department.


Water Source


Sxrng (25.50/4


other (1.9%) Pipe(0.40/

RiPbic tap (22.3/o


,, ritetap(1.80/


Stream (3.5


Fiver/Lake (13.7 O/4-"1
Pool (2.3 %)


- vell (28.79/4


Transport of Water by Sex


No Answer (6.9%)


Both


-Women (40.1%)


PAGE 8















Type of Cooking Fuel Used

*Others (3.7%)
1JUquid1 Gas (16.2%)


Fuelwood (80.0%) -/


*Others include: Electricity (.07%), Kerosene (.08%),
Dung (3.23%), and Other (.36%).







Type of Household Lighting


Electricity (30.30o)






Other (0.1%)


No Lighting (0.6%)
" ,^- Kerosene (20.8%)


Gas (5.6%)


Candles (32.0%)


Since roughly four out of five house-
holds in rural Cochabamba use
wood for cooking, they are likely to
face increasingly detrimental effects
from deforestation, soil erosion, and
scarcity of water. This is already
evident in Campero Province, where
an estimated 99% of all households
use wood. This contrasts with an
estimated 62% using liquid gas in
Cercado Province. The difference is
probably due to Cercado's proximity
to Cochabamba City and access to
distribution networks. Other factors
such as competing uses of alterna-
tive fuels (e.g, use of manure for
fertilizer), proximity to roads and
markets, and costs also limit the
number of viable alternatives.
Candles are the most common
lighting source in rural households
in Cochabamba. Electricity is the
second most common. Cercado is
estimated to have the highest use of
electricity (83%). Kerosene also pro-
vides lighting for approximately
20% of rural households. Electricity
appears to correlate positively with
net household cash income. The
average net cash household income
of households with electricity is esti-
mated to be Bs. 4,061, as compared
with Bs. 3,048.41 for all rural house-
holds. 3 Average monthly expendi-
tures on electricity are estimated to
be Bs. 15.29 or about 4.5% of the
users' yearly income. Further analy-
sis will be required to determine
whether access to electricity increas-
es household income or whether
wealthier households are more likely
to have access to electricity.

3 The exchange rate at the time of the survey was
3.64 Bolivianos to the U.S. dollar.


PAGE


I ~H*ll~lffl
















Percentage
Distribution of Rural
Heads of Households
and Their Spouses by
Primary and
Secondary Economic
Activities, Gender,
and Location
The rural household survey
conducted in the Department of
Cochabamba is one of the first rural
surveys to collect information on
occupation and economic activity of
all male and female household mem-
bers age six and older. One of its
major objectives was to record the
types of economic activities house-
hold members had participated in


during the year preceding the survey.
The estimates for household
heads and their spouses, presented
in the graphs below, reveal interest-
ing differences in men's and
women's economic participation, as
well as regional differences among
household members of both sexes.
While the survey provides substan-
tial evidence of gender-based differ-
ences in occupation and economic
activity, it also demonstrates a high
degree of complementarity and
interchange among men's and
women's tasks and income sources.
Sources of employment for rural
households appear to be much more
diverse in highland and valley areas


than in the tropics, where agricul-
ture dominates the production sys-
tem and employment structure.
Not surprisingly, the largest
percentage of people in both regions
(39%) are estimated to be involved in
agriculture as their primary economic
activity. Of these, 89% are estimated
to be men and 11% women. A higher
percentage of people in the tropics
(54%) than in the highlands and val-
leys (38%) are engaged in agriculture
as their primary economic activity.
For approximately 65% of highland
and valley women and 81% of
women in the tropics, care of the
household is estimated to be the pri-
mary activity. Together, construction,


Economic Activities by Sex
(Household heads and spouses only)
PRIMARY ACTIVITY


Other
Care of Household
Commerce
Construction, Transport & Services
Handicrafts
Food Preparation
Mining


Animal Husbandry
Agriculture


0 10 20


30 40 50 60
(Thousands)


r iL.4'


PAGE


." I ,
















transport, and services rank third in
importance as primary economic
activities for household heads and
their spouses (10%).
Construction, transport, and
services are predominantly male
(88%) occupations. In contrast,
care of livestock, which is a primary
economic activity for 9% of house-
hold heads and their spouses, is
principally conducted by women.
Women represent roughly three out
of four people engaged in animal
husbandry as their primary occupa-
tion. Women make up approxi-
mately the same proportion of peo-
ple with commerce as their primary
activity. In the tropics, women are


estimated to represent 100% of the
people engaged in commerce as
their principal occupation.
Considerable differences also
seem to exist among the percentages
of people involved in different types
of secondary economic activities in
each region. Many individuals with
care of household as their primary
activity are also engaged in secondary
activities such as agriculture, animal
husbandry, and commerce. In the
highlands, animal husbandry ranks
as the number-one secondary occu-
pation, employing an estimated 42%
of household heads and spouses. Of
these individuals, a majority still
appear to be women (57%), although


animal husbandry is also an impor-
tant source of employment for men
(43%). In the tropics, agriculture is
estimated to be the predominant
secondary activity, employing 36% of
household heads and spouses.
Women represent an estimated 48%
of this group. Although only 17% of
household heads and spouses in the
highlands and valleys are engaged in
agriculture as a secondary occupa-
tion, the majority are women (55%).
The survey results indicate that an
estimated 35% of men in the tropics
and 24% of men in the highlands and
valleys are engaged in construction,
transport, or services as their sec-
ondary occupation.


SECONDARY ACTIVITY


Other
Care of Hos ehold
Commerce
Construction, Transport & Services
Handicrafts
Food Preparation
Mining
Animal Husbandry
Agriculture
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
(Thousands)

Woe re


PA G E


GENESYSI
, I -










Primary Activity for
Women in the Tropics

*Other (0.9%) Agriculture (11.4%)
Commerce (6.3%)








Care of Household (81.5%)


Primary Activity for Women
in the Highlands

Construction, Transport and Services (2.5%)
Agriculture (8.3%)
Animal Husbandry (15.6%)


/Food Preparation (1.6%)
*Others (1.8%)
Commerce (5.7%)


Care of Household
(64.4%)
Other includes:Handicrafts (.92%), Mining (.36%), other (.51%)


Primary Activity for
Men in the Tropics


Construction, Transport and Services (2.4%)


Agriculture (97.6%)


Primary Activity for Men
in the Highlands


Commerce (2.2%)
\ *Others (5.3%)


Construction, Transport &
Services (2.5%)


Animal Husbandry
(2.7%)


Agriculture (70.1%)

*Other includes: Care of Households (.76%), Handicrafts (2.01%),
Mining (1.20%), Food Preparation (.28%), Other (1.05%)


Secondary Activity for
Women in the Tropics
Care of Household (21.5%)


Secondary Activity for
Men in the Tropics


Commerce (20.9%) -


Animal Husbandry (29.1%/
I


Agriculture (5.4%)


Commerce (11.1%)
Food Preparation (2.0'0)
Animal Husbandry (15.8%)
Construction, Transport & Services (1.4%)


Secondary Activity for
Women in the Highlands


Other (0.2%)
Other (0.2%) Agriculture (16.0%)
Care of Household (26.7%
Construction, Transport &
Services (1.2%)
Handicrafts Commerce (7.9%)
(4.0%)Handicrafts
(4.0%) S


Food Preparation
(3.2%)


Food Preparation (9.9%)


Construction, Transport & Services (34.7%)





Secondary Activity for Men
in the Highlands


Care of Household (4.3%) Other (2.8%)


- Animal Husbandry (40.8%)


Agriculture (18.8%)

Handicrafts (2.3%)
Construction, Transpo
Services (24.0%)
Commerce (3.3%)


Animal Husbandry (44

















Average Net Income
of Farm versus Non-
Farm Households in
the Tropics versus
Highlands and Valleys

In the Department of Cochabamba,
an estimated 96,667 households, or
86% of all rural households, are
estimated to be farm households.
The remaining 14% are classified as
non-farm households. For the pur-
poses of the survey, a farm house-
hold is one that has either or both
of the following characteristics:
cultivation of a minimum of 1,000
square meters or possession of a
minimum number of certain kinds
of animals (1 cow, bull, or ox; or 2
sheep, pigs, or goats; or 5 alpacas or
llamas; or 20 poultry). According to
this classification, approximately
7% of farm households are defined
as farm households without land;
they own sufficient numbers of ani-
mals to qualify as farms but own
less than 1,000 square hectares of
cultivated land. This accounts for
the discrepancy between the esti-
mated 96,667 households designated
as farms and the estimated 88,984
households reported on in the
tables on pages 15-17.
Farm households in the
Department have higher incomes
than non-farm households. The
average net income is estimated to
be Bs. 5,004 for farm households
and Bs. 4,353 for non-farm house-
holds. The average net income of
farm households in the Department
is thus about 15% higher than that
of non-farm rural households.
As demonstrated in the graphs
on primary and secondary econom-
ic activities, there are considerable


Average Net Household Income of Farm vs.
Non-farm Households
(Aaricultural year July 1990-June 1991)


Farm Non-farm


Average Net Household Income of Farm
vs. Non-farm Households
(Aaricultural vear July 1990-June 1991


o -
.-


Farm Non-farm


differences between the production
systems in the tropics and those in
the highland and valley areas of the
Department. According to prelimi-
nary tabulations, there are also
marked regional differences between
the farm and non-farm incomes. In
the highlands, average net house-
hold income appears to be higher
for non-farm (Bs. 4,204) than for
farm households (Bs. 3,650),
although the difference is only about
15% (Bs. 554). In the tropics the sit-
uation is reversed; farm households
earn approximately 2.7 times the
amount of non-farm households.


There is a pronounced differ-
ence in average net household
income between farm households in
the two regions. The average net
household income of farm house-
holds in the tropics is estimated to
be 4.6 times the average net income
of highland and valley farm house-
holds. Interestingly, there seems to
be less of a difference between the
average net household income of
non-farm households in the two
areas; those in the tropics (Bs. 6,112)
appear to earn only 1.5 times as
much as non-farm households in
the highlands (Bs. 4,202).


PA GE3


GENESYS

















Income and Other
Characteristics of
Farm Households by
Farm Size

A principal objective of the
Cochabamba Rural Household
Survey was to estimate the incomes
of all rural households and to ascer-
tain the degree to which farm
households derive their income
from farm and non-farm economic
activities. As a planning and moni-
toring instrument, future applica-
tions of the Rural Household Survey
will provide information on
changes over time in the degree of
market participation of different
size farms through the sale of crops
and other commodities, and on
changes in household members'
occupations. This first survey in
Cochabamba provides some
intriguing information on differ-
ences in farm income and market
participation among farms of differ-
ent sizes, and comparisons between
farms in the coca-growing and non-
coca-growing regions.
The survey data allow for the
calculation of different measures of
income. Net household income
refers to income derived from cash
and non-cash value of farm and off-


farm economic activities. Net cash
income is derived from cash sales of
farm and non-farm products as well
as from earnings from off-farm
employment. Net farm income
refers to all sources (cash and non-
cash) of income from farm activi-
ties. Net farm cash income is
derived from the sale of farm prod-
ucts. The estimates of household
incomes presented in the tables on
the following pages are based on a
sample of households with at least
1,000 square meters of cultivated
land. The household incomes of the
7% of farm households without
land were not factored into the
income estimates presented in the
accompanying tables.
An expected pattern would be
for households with larger holdings
to sell a larger percentage of their
crops and to have corresponding
higher net cash farm incomes.
Initial observation of the data, how-
ever, does not support this hypothe-
sis. According to the survey results,
there are an estimated 88,984
households with land in the
Department. Approximately nine
out often households (an estimated
79,098) are located in the non-coca-
growing valleys and highlands and
one out often (an estimated 9,887)
are in the coca-growing tropics and
lower valleys. It is estimated that
63% (50,008) of the farm house-


holds in the non-coca-growing area
have holdings of less than two
hectares. The reverse is true in the
coca-growing area, where it is esti-
mated that 87% (8,636) of all
households own holdings of 2
hectares or greater, and four out of
five of those (an estimated 7,051)
own farms of 5 hectares or more.
For the Department as a whole,
the farm households with the high-
est average net farm income (an
estimated Bs. 7,470) appear to be
those with the largest holdings, of
20 hectares or more. This is also
true of farm households in the
coca-growing area, where the
largest farms average an estimated
Bs. 13,762 in net farm income,
which is almost double that of the
largest farms in the Department as a
whole. In the non-coca-growing
area, however, farm households
with between 5 and 10 hectares of
land are estimated to have the
highest average net farm income
(Bs. 4,591), while farm households
with more than 20 hectares are esti-
mated to have an average net farm
income of only Bs. 2,973. Net farm
income of farm households with
more than 10 but less than 20
hectares is calculated to be Bs. 4,374.


P A G EB _















Farm Household Characteristics by Farm Size
(Universe: Farm Households with Land)
Hectares Hectares
TOTA All Farm Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares x 20 and
TOTAL Households .10 x .49 .5 x .99 1 x 1.99 2 x 4.99 5 x 9.99 1.x 20
19.99 over

Number of Farm Households 88,984.00 15,516.00 16,833.00 18,910.00 20,442.00 9,117.00 6,486.00 1,680.00

Percentage of Farm Households 100.00 17.40 18.90 21.30 23.00 10.20 7.30 1.90
Average Net Cash Farm Income of 1,087.00 126.00 251.00 303.00 799.00 3,812.00 3,694.00 5,853.00
Farms Households
Average Net Farm Income of Farm 3,139.00 984.00 1,945.00 2,630.00 3,349.00 6,369.00 6,557.00 7,470.00
Households
Average Net Cash Household 2,509.00 1,453.00 1,227.00 1,346.00 1,995.00 4,498.00 6,897.00 16,725.00
Income of Farm Households
Average Net Household Income of 4,603.00 2,354.00 2,952.00 3,727.00 4,584.00 7,106.00 9,799.00 18,359.00
Farm Households
Average Farm Size of Farm 3.48 0.26 0.66 1.32 2.88 6.34 11.61 46.40
Households
Average Value of Crop Production of 2,620.00 585.00 1,170.00 1,954.00 2,705.00 5,801.00 7,198.00 7,482.00
Farm Households
Average Percentage of Crop 49.70 18.40 30.00 24.40 42.40 66.00 64.20 87.00
Production Sold by Farm Households
Percentage of Farm Households with 58.70 29.50 52.00 52.70 70.40 84.90 82.90 86.50
Crop Sales _______ _______ _____ __ __


A fairly standard pattern for the
Department as a whole is that higher
net cash incomes and higher net
household incomes correlate posi-
tively with larger land holdings. The
nexus between net household income
and farm size in coca- and non-coca-
growing areas, however, does not fol-
low the expected patterns.
In the coca-growing area, farm
households owning between 2 and
4.99 hectares have virtually the
same average net cash household
income (estimated at Bs. 9,205) as
farm households owning between 5


and 9.99 hectares (estimated at
Bs. 9,066). Curiously, farm house-
holds in the coca-growing zone with
less than 1/2 hectare have a higher
estimated average cash household
income (Bs. 9,639) than any other
farm households, except those with
10 hectares or more. The estimated
average net farm income (Bs. 2,865)
of small farmers with less than 1/2
hectare in the coca-growing zone is


also five times that of farm house-
holds with between 1/2 and 1
hectare and estimated to be more
than 6.5 times that of farm house-
holds with between 1 and 1.99
hectares. Even more surprisingly,
the average net cash farm income of
farm households with less than 1/2
hectare is estimated to be six times
that of households with between 1/2


PAGE15


GENESYS


















Farm Household Characteristics by Farm Size
(Universe: Farm Households with Land)

Hectares Hectares
COCA GROWN ARA All Farm Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares 1x 20 and
Households .10 x .49 .5 x .99 1 x 1.99 2 x 4.99 5 x 9.99 x 20 an
19.99 over
Number of Farm Households 9,887.00 351.00 324.00 577.00 1,885.00 3,009.00 3,042.00 700.00

Percentage of Farm Households 100.00 3.60 3.30 5.80 19.10 30.40 30.80 7.10

Average Net Cash Farm Income of 6,363.00 2,818.00 467.00 142.00 4,530.00 8,377.00 6,280.00 12,637.00
Farm Households
Average Net Farm Income of Farm 7,944.00 2,865.00 548.00 435.00 5,299.00 9,979.00 9,027.00 13,762.00
Households
Average Net Cash Household Income 11,300.00 9,639.00 2,788.00 1,279.00 9,205.00 9,066.00 12,527.00 34,221.00
of Farm Households
Average Net Household Income of 12,900.00 9,747.00 2,869.00 1,572.00 10,001.00 10,690.00 15,293.00 35,345.00
Farm Households
Average Farm Size of Farm 11.43 0.13 0.52 1.35 3.17 6.32 11.50 74.40
Households
Average Value of Crop Production of 8,770.00 176.00 647.00 665.00 6,148.00 10,981.00 10,478.00 13,637.00
Farm Households
Average Percentage of Crop 81.70 72.70 85.90 47.10 85.00 85.10 72.30 98.80
Production Sold by Farm Households
Percentage of Farm Households with 89.50 18.80 75.90 73.00 83.40 100.00 93.30 100.00
Crop Sales


and .99 hectares and 19.8 times the
average net cash farm income of
farm households with between 1
and 1.99 hectares.
One can speculate on the rea-
sons for these unexpected results,
but only with the caution that the
households represented in these


three categories come from a rela-
tively small sample. One possible
explanation is that farm households
with less than 1/2 hectare are grow-
ing only coca, while slightly larger
farm households are growing pri-
marily subsistence crops or are
involved in incipient dairying activ-
ities. It is also possible that the
households with the smallest hold-
ings are involved in transport or
agroprocessing, which would


account for their higher household
cash incomes. Further analysis will
reveal differences in location, crop-
ping patterns, and involvement in
economic activities among house-
holds with holdings of different
sizes. One or several variables may
account for the unexpected discrep-
ancies in household incomes.
In contrast to the much greater
average incomes earned by large


PAGE 6

















Farm Household Characteristics by Farm Size
(Universe: Farm Households with Land)

Hectares Hectares
All Farm Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares
NON-COCA GROWING AREA Households .10 x.49 .5 x .99 1 x 1.99 2 x 4.99 5 x 9.99 1 x 20 and
19.99 over

Number of Farm Households 79,098.00 15,165.00 16,509.00 18,334.00 18,557.00 6,108.00 3,444.00 981.00

Percentage of Farm Households 100.00 19.20 20.90 23.20 23.50 7.70 4.40 1.20

Average Net Cash Farm Income of 428.00 63.00 246.00 308.00 420.00 1,563.00 1,409.00 1,007.00
Farm Households
Average Net Farm Income of Farm 2,539.00 940.00 1,972.00 2,699.00 3,151.00 4,591.00 4,374.00 2,973.00
Households
Average Net Cash Household Income 1,410.00 1,263.00 1,197.00 1,348.00 1,263.00 2,247.00 1,924.00 4,224.00
of Farm Households
Average Net Household Income of 3,566.00 2,183.00 2,953.00 3,795.00 4,033.00 5,340.00 4,946.00 6,219.00
Farm Households
Average Farm Size of Farm 2.49 0.26 0.66 1.31 2.85 6.35 11.71 26.37
Households
Average Value of Crop Production of 1,852.00 594.00 1,180.00 1,995.00 2,356.00 3,249.00 4,300.00 3,082.00
Farm Households
Average Percentage of Crop 30.70 18.00 29.40 24.10 31.10 34.00 46.80 50.00
Production Sold by Farm Households
Percentage of Farm Households with 54.90 29.70 51.50 52.10 69.10 77.50 73.60 76.80
Crop Sales


farms in the coca-growing area as
compared with large farms in the
highlands, small farm households in
the coca-growing area (those
between 1/2 and 1.99 hectares) are
estimated to have a lower average
net farm income than farms of
comparable sizes in the highlands.
In the non-coca-growing valley
and highland areas, farm house-
holds with between 5 and 9.99
hectares are estimated to have both
higher average net farm incomes
and higher average net household


incomes than farm households with
between 10 and 19.99 hectares. In
addition, even though the average
value of crop production of farm
households with holdings of 10 to
19.99 hectares is greater than that of
households with 5 to 9.99 hectares,
all measures of their average
incomes are estimated to be lower.
No explanation is immediately
apparent. It is likely that the house-


holds with larger holdings lack irri-
gated land and possess large expans-
es of pasture, fallow, or waste lands.
Finally, households at the upper and
lower extremes of land size derive a
greater percentage of their house-
hold cash income from off-farm
sources than do households with
medium-size holdings.


PAGE 17


GENESYS
















Average Net Farm
Income of Farm
Households by
Technical Assistance
and Training, by
Agricultural Credit,
and by Land Tenancy
Other expected outcomes of the
survey are analyses that will focus
on the relative importance of key
variables, such as market access;
credit access and availability; access
to technical assistance; and security
of land tenure for increasing the
value of agricultural production and
rural incomes. Initial observations
of the impact of three of these vari-
ables technical assistance, agri-
cultural credit, and land tenancy -
suggest an association between
access to these services and higher
incomes. Further analysis is neces-
sary to determine if there is a causal
relationship between these factors
and higher incomes, or if the associ-
ation merely indicates that wealthier
farm households have greater access
to technical assistance, credit, and
secure land titles.
It is estimated that 13% of farm
households in Cochabamba receive
technical assistance and that roughly


nine out of ten of these households
are headed by men. The survey
results indicate that the average net
farm income of farm households
that receive technical assistance (Bs.
5,406) is estimated to be approxi-
mately twice that of the average net
farm income of farm households
that do not receive technical assis-
tance (Bs. 2,645).
Of the estimated 9,937 farm
households that receive credit,
about half receive credit for agricul-
tural purposes. Approximately one
in two of the men receiving credit
and one in four of the women
receiving credit acquire it for agri-
cultural purposes. It is estimated
that 74% of the credit borrowed by
women is for other uses.
Approximately nine out of ten
of the households receiving credit
for agricultural purposes are male-
headed. About half of the house-
holds that receive credit for agricul-
tural purposes also receive technical
assistance. Farm households acquire
credit from a number of sources. It
is estimated that 52% of the credit
comes from family or friends; 13%
from cooperatives; 11% from non-
government organizations; 10%
from agriculture banks; 9% from
other sources; 2% from private
banks; 2% from middle men; and
less than 1% from state banks. The
average net farm income of house-
holds receiving credit for agricultural


purposes is estimated to be 54%
higher than the average net farm
income of households that receive
credit for other purposes.
A majority of farm households
in the Department report having
secure land titles. It is estimated that
62% of the farm households have
definitive title and approximately
25% have title in process. Male- and
female-headed households appear
to have fairly comparable security of
land tenancy. It is estimated that
65% of female-headed households
have definitive title, as compared
with 61% of male-headed house-
holds. Average net farm income is
highest for those with definitive
title. Average net farm income of
households with definitive title is
estimated to be 35% higher than
that of households with a title in
process, and almost twice that of
households that rent land. It is esti-
mated that 62% of the farm house-
holds with definitive title have crop
sales. Possession of definitive land
title does not seem to significantly
influence the percentage of crop
sales. The average percentage of
crop production sold by farm
households with title is estimated to
be 53%, which is slightly higher
than the percentage for all farm
households, estimated to be 50%.


P A G E8



















Average Net Farm Income of Households
That Received Technical Assistance

6000 (Agricultural year July 1990-June 1991)

5000

4000

3000 .

2000

1000

0
Received Assistance No Assistance


Land Tenancy by Household


Average Net Farm Income of Households
That Received Credit
(Agricultural year July 1990-June 1991)
7000


6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0


For Ag. Purposes For Other Purposes


Average Net Farm Income of
Households By Tenancy
(Agricultural year July 1990-June 1991)

Other -.


N.A. (22.3%) -


Title to Land (53.5%)
u..


Dmmunal Land (1.9%)



Renting (21.90o

Sharecropping (0.3%)


Title in Process


Definitive Title

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Bolivianos


P A G E
Mt


Rented


GENESYS1


















Average Household
Income by Sex of
Head of Household
and Coca-Growing
vs. Non-Coca-
Growing Households

Average net household income
varies considerably by farm and
non-farm households, sex of the
head of household, and by region.
Farm households in the Department
are estimated to have average net
household incomes approximately
15% higher than those of non-farm
households. The most noticeable
differences with regard to average
net household income appear
between households headed by men
and those headed by women and
between households in the coca-
growing and non-coca-growing
regions.
The average net household
income for the estimated 16,561
households headed by women
(approximately 15% of all house-
holds) is estimated to be Bs. 2,851,
which is about half of the Bs. 5,271
that male-headed households earn
on average. It is estimated that a
greater percentage of male-headed
households (33.27%) have members


employed in non-farm activities
than do female-headed households,
(25%). In contrast, about 34% of all
female-headed households are esti-
mated to have members involved in
non-farm economic activities on
their own account, as compared
with only an estimated 25% of
male-headed households. 4
There are also marked differ-
ences by provinces in the percent-
ages of households headed by
women. Punata is the province with
the highest percentage of female-
headed households (28%). Slightly
more than a fifth of the households
in the provinces ofArani, Capinota,
and German Jordan also are headed
by women. Survey results indicate
that there are virtually no female-
headed households in the provinces
of Bolivar and Tapacari and that less
than one in ten households are
headed by women in the provinces
of Esteban Arce and Chapare.
Even greater disparities exist
between households in the coca-
growing and non-coca-growing
regions of the Department. The
average net household income of all
households in the coca-growing
zone is estimated to be Bs. 15,547,
and for all farm households in that
region it is estimated to be
Bs. 16,684. The average net house-
hold income of all households in
the non-coca-growing area is
approximately Bs. 3,728, which is
less than a quarter of that of house-


holds in the coca-growing region.
Average net household income of
farm households in the non-coca-
growing region is estimated to be
Bs. 3,650, which is only about a fifth
of the household income of similar
households in the coca-growing area.
Although a little less than a third
of the households in both regions -
32% in the non-coca-growing and
28% in the coca-growing-have
members involved in non-farm
employment, it appears that income
from these activities represents a
larger proportion of household
income in the non-coca-growing
zone. Income generated from own
account non-farm activities, howev-
er, are clearly more significant for
households in the coca-growing
area, both in terms of the percent-
age of households with members
involved in these activities and in
terms of average household income
of households with members
engaged in these activities.
4 "Own account" refers to non-farm sources of
income derived from micro-enterprises where the
income earner is also the business owner and not an
employee.


PAGE20













Average Net Household Incomes
(Agricultural year July 1990-June 1991)


All HH in Non-Coca Growing Zone

All HH in Coca Growing Zone

All Male-Headed HH

All Female-Headed HH

All Non-farm HH

All Farm HH

All HH


0 2 4 6 8
Bolivianos
(Thousands)


10 12 14 16


PAGE21


15,547


I

















Percentage
Distribution of
Farm Households
with Livestock by
Types of Livestock
Animal production is a vital source
of employment and income for
rural households in the Department
of Cochabamba, where an estimated
82% of rural households own live-
stock. According to survey results,
one third of the rural population
age 6 and older is involved in live-
stock production, as either a princi-
pal or secondary economic activity.
Both farm and non-farm house-
holds own animals, although it is
estimated that a greater percentage
of farm households (85%) than
non-farm households (61%) own
some form of livestock or poultry.
Cattle, pig, and small ruminant
(sheep, goats, llamas) production is
of much greater importance to
highland and valley households
than it is to households in the trop-
ics. It is estimated that three out of
five households in the highland and


Number of Total Households with Livestock


Livestock No Livestock





Distribution of Livestock Among
Rural Households
Highlands and Valleys


Mules
Uarnas
Other*
Ducks
Horses
Pigs
Guinea Pigs
Burros I.
Goats I -M
Sheep
Cows
Poultry ._


0 10 20 30 40


50 60


(Thousands)
Other* includes: Turkeys (1,238), Rabbits (2,102), and Bees (518).


P A G E :
.f ie r ,'.
















Distribution of Livestock Arr
Rural Households
Department of Cochabamba (Rural Are,

.3

;. Pll

............ .4................


0 10 20 30 40 50 6
(Thousands)
Other* includes: Turkeys (1,304), Rabbits (2,102), and Bee


Distribution of Livestock Amo
Rural Households
Tropics


Mules
Uamas
Turkeys I
Horses I
Guinea Pigs g
Burros
Sheep
Pigs
Cows
Ducks 11I1111,1W.
Goats
Poultry
0 1 2 3 4
(Thousands)


valley areas of the Department own
cows (59%) or sheep (58%), as
compared with 6% of households
as)
owning cows and 3% owning sheep
S in the tropics. Over a third of all
households in the highlands and
,l: valleys own goats (35%), as com-
pared with 26% of households in
;:" the tropics. The ownership of trans-
port animals also appears to be
:;.., more common in the highland and
valley regions, where an estimated
30% of households own burros and
10% own horses. In the tropics, it is
estimated that only 2% of households
own burros and only 1% own horses.
S0 70 Poultry ownership appears to
be virtually identical in both
s (518). regions, with an estimated 59% of
households owning chickens and
,ng 10% owning ducks.
Further analysis of the survey
data will reveal the extent to which
livestock generates income for farm
and non-farm households according
to region and size of land holding.


5 6 7


P3A G E


Mules
Llamas
Other"
Horses
Ducks
Pigs
Guinea Pigs
Burros
Goats
Sheep
Cows
Poultry


~~d8P~


I GENESYS~h


?,~; .--:

















Percentage
Distribution of Farm
Households by Time
and Distance to
Market and by
Distance to a Trunk
Road
One of the major policy questions
that the survey was designed to
address is whether proximity and
access to markets correlates with
higher incomes. An initial review of
the data presents some surprising
outcomes that remain to be
explained by further analysis. It is
estimated that approximately 40%
of farm households do not sell any
of their crops or livestock products.
It appears that about one in two
female-headed households and
approximately one in three male-
headed households have no crop
sales. Virtually all of these house-
holds are in the highlands and val-
leys. The contrast between coca-
growing and non-coca-growing
households is even more pro-
nounced: an estimated 45% of non-


coca-growing households have no
products to sell, as compared with
only 2% of coca-growing house-
holds.
For the Department as a whole,
preliminary analysis indicates that
households with the highest average
net farm income sell their crops at
the farm. These households are esti-
mated to represent 10% of all farm
households. This pattern, however,
does not hold for all regions of the
Department. Curiously, the coca-
growing households that appear to
have the highest average net farm
income (estimated at Bs. 22,954) are
those that sell their products at
markets that are six or more hours
away. It is estimated that about 23%
of coca-growing farm households
sell their products on farm and have
virtually identical average net farm
incomes (Bs. 22,551). Aside from
those who sell nothing, the coca-
growing farmers with the lowest
average net farm income appear to
be those who live three to six hours
away from the market.
The configuration for the high-
land/valley region appears to be
somewhat different. The farm
households estimated to earn the
most from farm products (Bs. 4,760)
are those that are less than one hour
away from markets, followed by
those who sell their products on


farm, with an income estimated at
Bs. 4,498. What is most surprising,
however, is that farm households
with the third highest estimated
average net farm income (roughly
Bs. 4,436) are those that are located
six hours or more away from mar-
kets. The farm households that sell
at the farm and at markets six hours
or more away appear to have the
highest farm cash incomes in both
the coca-growing and non-coca-
growing regions.
Distance to trunk roads does
not seem to be a major impediment
to market access in the Department;
an estimated 77% of households are
located within three kilometers of
trunk roads. This, however, does
not provide insight into the type of
terrain, much of it precipitous, that
household members en route to
market must negotiate while laden
with farm products for sale. Aside
from households that either sell on
farm or have nothing to sell, which
represent over half of the rural
households in the Department, an
estimated 13% of farm households
are located within five kilometers of
markets, 10% are located between
five and 10 km from market, and
26% are located 10 km or more
away from the site of sale.


PAGE 24




















Travel Time from Households to Market
(Includes households not traveling to market)


r Sell on farm (10.1%)


Nothing to sell (40.5%)






6 or more hours (6.9%)








Distance from Households to Market
(Includes households not traveling to market)


Less than 1 hour (18.2%)


Between 1 and 3 hours (18.5%)


Between 3 and 6 hours (5.8%)









Distance to Trunk Roads


Nothing to sell (40.5%)







Between 1/2 and 1 km (1.6%)


Sell on farm (10.1%)
essthan 1/2 km (2.5%)
Between 3 and
5 kms (5.7%)

Between 5 and
10 kms (10.4%)

Between 1 and
3 kms (3.1%)


S10 kms or more (26.1%)


10 kms or more (7.7%)
Between 5 and 10 kms (6 9%)

Between 3 and
5 kms (8.7%)


Between 1 and
3 kms (12.3%) ..

Between 1/2 and 1 km 16 7',i


. Less than 1/2 km
(57.7%)


PAGE25


GENESYS

















Percentage
Distribution of
Perceived Needs
Survey respondents were asked what
they needed to improve their lives.
The question was open-ended and
produced a long list of responses.
An estimated 94% of the house-
holds surveyed expressed specific
needs. The most common responses
are shown in the bar graph below.
Improved access to and availability


50%

45%

40%

35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%


0%


of water was the primary need
expressed by the largest number of
respondents.
Access to improved health care
ranked second in importance, espe-
cially better availability and access
of health posts. Slightly less than
one out of four households voiced a
general desire for an increased stan-
dard of living. Technical assistance
in agricultural and livestock pro-
duction was cited by about 22% of
all households interviewed. Access
to improved infrastructure roads


(17%), electricity (14%), housing
(11%), and schools (8%) also
rated high in importance.
Approximately 22% of all rural
households responding to this ques-
tion cited the need for greater access
to improved seed and fertilizer.
The rest of the list ranged from a
need for agricultural machinery and
tools to a desire for telephone ser-
vice. Only about 5% of households
cited the need for credit. No house-
holds mentioned land titling as a
need, although 4% of households
cited the need for agricultural land.


A Improved access to water.
B Construction & upgrading of health posts.
C Higher standard of living.
D- Agricultural & pastoral (animal husbandry/vet.)
technical assistance.
E Construction & upgrading of roads.


F Access to improved seed & fertilizer.
G Access to electricity.
H Construction & upgrading of housing.
I Construction & upgrading of schools.


PAGE 2f


Respondents' Perceived Household Needs
(Multiple responses were allowed)





















A B C D E F G H

















Sample Design
The Cochabamba Rural Household
Survey (CRHS) was a sample survey
based on a sample of units in a
defined universe. Information gath-
ered from a small number of units
in the defined universe and esti-
mates from this sample are extrapo-
lated to the whole universe.
The universe of interest for the
CRHS was all housing units in rural
areas as defined in the pre-census
cartographic update conducted in
1990 and 1991. The unit of analysis
was the household.
The "sample frame" employed a
"stratified multi-stage design." Rural
areas within the Department of
Cochabamba were divided into
provinces. The provinces were fur-
ther subdivided into two substrata:
population centers with populations
of less than 2,000 people and areas
with dispersed housing units.
Within these substrata, primary
sampling units (i.e., groupings of
housing units) were listed by one of
three ecological zones (altiplano,
valles, and llanos) to create homo-
geneous groupings. This list of pri-
mary sampling units was used as a
basis for the random systematic
sampling of primary sampling units
for the next phase of the survey.
The next phase of the survey
involved the listing of all the hous-
ing units within the selected prima-
ry sampling units or segments. After
the housing units contained within


each segment were listed, the hous-
ing units to be visited during the
survey were selected from this list.
Again, random systematic selection
was utilized.
The sample design for the
CRHS involved 96 segments. The
sampling procedures allocated sam-
ple segments to the provinces in
proportion to the number of hous-
ing units in each province. There
are 16 provinces in Cochabamba,
and the number of sample segments
allocated by province varied from
two to 17.
The sample design for
Cochabamba attempted to produce
survey estimates at the departmen-
tal level with a low to moderate level
of precision (with a coefficient of
variation (CV) within 15%) for
common household characteristics.
Results indicate that the coefficients
of variation for many household
characteristics are low to moderate
at the departmental level. The esti-
mates are much less precise at the
provincial level. 5
5 For those interested in a more in-depth overview
of the methodology used in administering and ana-
lyzing the Cochabamba survey, see Cuevas, Miguel
(1993) Resumen Metodol6gico y Algunos
Resultados Basicos de la Encuesta de Hogares
Rurales en Cochabamba.


P A G E .':


I GENESYS
















BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arteaga, Vivian M. 1993. Organizaci6n Laboral en la Economia de los Hogares Rurales de Cochabamba.
La Paz, Bolivia: Unidad de Anilisis de Politicas Sociales. 77 pp.

Caro, Deborah A. 1992. The Cochabamba Rural Household Survey. Development Anthropology Network.
Vol. 10 No.2

Caro, Deborah A. 1994. What You Count Is Not Who IAm: Notions of Gender and Quantitative Analysis.
GENESYS Project Special Study. Forthcoming.

Cuevas, Miguel 0. 1992. Caracteristicas Socioecon6micas de los Hogares Rurales en Cochabamba.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 52 pp.

Cuevas, Miguel 0. 1993. Resumen Metodol6gico y Algunos Resultados Bdsicos de la Encuesta de Hogares Rurales en
Cochabamba. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 101 pp.

Gisbert, Maria Elena, Michael Painter, Mery Quiton and Ingrid Zabala. 1991. Development Issues Confronting
Women in Areas of High Male Outmigration. Binghamton, New York: Institute for Development
Anthropology. 27 pp.

Paulson, Susan. 1991. Women in Mizque: The Heart of Household Survival. Binghamton, New York: Institute
for Development Anthropology. 105 pp.

Riordan, James T. 1994. Identifying the Key Variables: A Multivariate Analysis of the Cochabamba Rural
Household Survey Data. Washington, D.C.: Chemonics International.









Annex Survey
Questionnaire
Form
(Translated from
Spanish)


maGENESYS











Instructions and Definitions

Household:

* The person or set of people who are or are not relatives that live together in a house, share meals and together
contribute to fulfilling other basic and vital needs of the household.

Permanent Resident:

* A person is considered a permanent resident in a household if it serves as her/his permanent domicile (where
one eats and sleeps) or if the person considers it as such.

Household Members:

* The household is composed of the people who consider it to be their principal residence.

* Included in this group are those people that the household head considers to be members.

* In the same sense, permanent household workers (who reside in the household) are considered household
members.

The criteria for identifying household members are the following:

* The person has the household as his/her principal residence.

* The person, temporarily absent for reasons of work, health, education, vacation or other reasons, returns to the
household and considers this place his/her principal residence.

The following people are not household members:

* Boarders who share food through payment and who may or may not share residence in the house.

* Permanent workers paid by the household (who sleep elsewhere).

* Family members who are visitors, but whose principal residence is somewhere else.


ANNEX 2


JGENESMYS













Section 1 Characteristics of Housing and the Household

1.1 What is the main roofing material in your house?* 1.6 Source and use of household energy

Corrugated Tin ..................................... 1 1.6a Generally, what is used to light the house at night?
Ceramic Tile ....................................... 2 Electricity ............................... 1
Cement Tile ....................................... 3 Propane ................ ............... 2
Straw ................... .. ... .... .............. 4 Kerosene .............................. 3
Palm thatch ................ ....................... 5 Candles ............................ .... 4
Wood........................... ................ 6 Other (specify) .......................... 5
Other (specify) .................. .............. 7 Diesel Gas .... ......................... 6
Batteries ................. ............ .. 7
No lighting ............................... 8

1.2 What is the main material used for the interior walls of your 1.6b What do you routinely cook with?
house?
Electricity ................................ 1
Brick .......................... .................. 1 Propane ......................... ....... 2
Plastered adobe walls ............... ............ 2 Kerosene ............ .............. ... 3
Unplastered adobe walls ............................ 3 Firewood ................................. 4
Stone ............................................ 4 M anure ................................ 5
Wood ............................................ 5 Other (specify) ......................... 6
Cane, Palm, Trunk .............. .................. 6 -
Other (specify) ................... .............. 7

1.3 What is the main material used for the floors
of your house?

Wood ................. .......................... 1
Tile ...................................... 2
Cem ent .......................................... 3
Brick ......................................... 4
Dirt ............................. ............... 5
Other (specify) .................... .. .............. 6

1.4 Payment for Rent 1.7 Source of Water
1.4a Do you pay rent for your house? 1.7a What is the principal source of water for your house?
Yes ............................ 1
No ............................... 2 Public Tap
1.4b How much are you paying? Private Tap
Amount in Period Number of
local currency: Payments made in Well
the last 12 months: Pool
Pipe
Weekly River/Lake
Stream
Every two Spring
weeks
1.7b Is it connected inside your household?
M monthly Yes .................................... 1
No ................................... 2
Annually
1.7c How much time is spent looking for and carrying
1.5 Total Number of Rooms in the House water to the house?
minutes
1.5a Excluding the bathroom and kitchen, how many rooms
do you have in your house? 1.7d The person who usually carries water is a:
Rooms Man
Woman
1.5b Of these rooms, how many are used solely as bedrooms? Both carry
Rooms

1.5c Does your house have a room that is used solely for
cooking?

Yes.......................... ........... 1
No ...................................... 2

Choices for all questions may vary according to locale. These are provided as examples only.


ANNEX 3


HIiEE'YS














Section 2 Characteristics of the Cultivation and Use of Land

2.12 Do you (or members of the household) use any land for crops or pasture Yes ..................................... 1
that belongs to someone else or to the community? No ..................................... 2

2.13 Do you use irrigation for your crops? Yes .................................... 1
No (Go on to 2.15) ......................... 2

2.14 During the agricultural year, are you able to apply irrigated water at suitable Suitable and sufficient ........................ 1
times and in sufficient quantities? Suitable, insufficient ........................ 2
Not suitable, but sufficient .................... 3
Neither suitable nor sufficient ................. 4

2.15 What is the distance between your household and the nearest trunk road? Less than 1/2 Km ........................... 1
From 1/2 Km to 1 Km ....................... 2
From 1 Km to 3 Km ......................... 3
From 3 Km to 5 Km ........................ 4
From 5 to 10 Km ................. ........ 5
10 Km or more ........................... 6

2.16 How much time do you spend getting to the road when you bring out your Less than 1 hour ......................... 1
produce? From 1 hour to 3 hours ...................... 2
From three hours to 6 hours .................. 3
6 hours or more ........................... 4

2.17 During the rainy season, is this road passable by vehicles? Yes .................................... 1
No ............... ................... 2

2.18 Have you or any member of the household received any type of technical Yes .................................... 1
assistance for your crops? No (go on to 2.21) ......................... 2

2.19 What organization or institution provided the technical assistance for the List Relevant Organizations:
crops?

2.20 List the members of the household who received technical assistance. For Official Use:
Note the number of the person answering survey
Name and surname of those who received technical assistance:




2.21 What was the principal reason for leaving land in fallow? Rotation ................................. 1
Lack of tim e .............................. 2
Lack of labor ............................. 3
Lack of inputs (pesticides, seeds, fertilizer). ........ 4
Lack of water ............................. 5
Lack of credit ............................. 6
Other reason (specify)....................... 7


ANNEX


GENESYS












Section 3- Agricultural Production and its Use

Enumerator:
Ask the farmer to make a drawing of his/her agricultural and pasture lands with reference to the agricultural year [specify
time frame]

Ask the farmer how many plots compose his/her holding. Draw each plot separately and make the following notations:

1. Outside the limits of each drawn plot:

Assign a number to each plot and note the number on the side of the drawing of the plot.

Ask the farmer how much area is covered by each plot and note the area underneath the number assigned to the
plot.

Note if the plot is under irrigation or dry farming.

2. Inside the limits of each drawing of a plot:

Ask the farmer for the name of each crop harvested during the agricultural year. Begin with the crops harvested most
recently from the first plot.

For each crop or set of inter-cropped crops, write the month of harvest and the amount of area harvested.

For inter-cropped crops in which one crop has not been harvested during the agricultural year, note all of the crops
that form part of the set. For each crop not harvested, note the phrase "young stock" in place of the harvest month.

For crops such as bananas, papayas, alfalfa, etc. that have constant production during the agricultural year, note
"year-round" in place of the harvest month.

Also note the name of planted permanent crops (not dispersed) that because they are growing are not harvested. For
these crops record the amount of area. For month of harvest, mark "under cultivation".

Record the crops that have been sown but not harvested as having been lost during the agricultural year. In these
cases record the name of the crop and the land area lost.

Circle the name of the crop if it was sharecropped with other people who are not in the farmer's household.

Once the notations have been finalized for the first plot, follow the same procedures for the remainder of the plots that
make up the agricultural holding.

FOR MONO-CULTURE CROPS:

When you transfer the marked crops recorded in the drawing, keep in mind the following:

-If crops exist that are harvested in the same month but from different plots, record the crop on one line. Add the area
covered by this crop in the different plots and record this on the same line.

-If the same crop is harvested during different months from the same plot or from different plots, record the name of the crop
on different lines for each time it was harvested.
FOR INTER-CROPPED CROPS:

Ask the farmer which is the principal crop in the set and record this on line 04 in the following table. The secondary
crops should be recorded on the lines below, i.e. 05, 06, etc.

* Use one line for each crop in the set.

Mono-culture crops
Enumerator:
Add all of the mono-culture crops recorded on the reverse of this sheet and record below:

Mono-culture crops:
* A crop is considered a mono-cultured crop when the area of the plot contains only one crop.


ANNEX 5


IGENESYSIY













Inter-cropped crops:
* A crop is considered inter-cropped when the area of the plot contains two or more crops that occupy the same physical area at
the same time. This category includes any crops that are interspersed.

Primary crop:
* The primary crop in a sharecropped area is the crop the producer feels is the most important. Generally, it is the crop that is
worth the most for the producer, and is consumed in the household or is for sale.

Secondary crop:
* Includes any crop sown with the primary crop.

Sharecropped crops
Enumerator
Add all of the sharecropped crops, record on the back of this sheet, and record the total below:


MONO-CULTURE CROPS 3.1 Area under irrigation 3.2 What was the total production
under irrigation?
Number Name of crop Month Quantity Unit of Office use Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit
of crop and month of measure measure of measure
harvest
01

02
03

INTER-CROPPED CROPS Area under irrigation Production under irrigation
Number Name of crop Month Quantity Unit of Office Use Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit
of crop and month of Measure Measure of measure
harvest
04

05
06


3.3 Non-irrigated area 3.4 What was the total from non- Only for crops produced on land that is
irrigated land production? sharecropped or rented for payment
in kind

3.5 Of the total production: How much
belongs to the sharecrop partner?
What part of the field did you pay for
to rent?

Number of Unit of Office Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit
crop Measure use Measure of measure Measure of measure
01
02

03
Non-irrigated area Total non-irrigated land production Only for crops produced on land that is
sharecropped or rented for payment
in kind

Quantity Unit of Office Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit
measure use Measure of measure Measure of measure
04

05

06_


ANNEX 6


ITENESY















PRODUCTION DESTINATION

MONO-CULTURE CROPS 3.6 Of the total production, how much 3.7
was sold? What is the
price per unit
of measure for
each crop?

Number of Number of Month Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit
crop crop and measure of measure
month of
harvest

01

02

03

04

INTER-CROPPED CROPS

Number of Name of Month Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit Unit price per
crop crop and measure of measure crop (in local
month of currency)
harvest

01

02

03

04


Enumerator:


Question 3.6- If the
respondent answered with a
unit of measure different
from a kilogram, ask
him/her how many kilos are
in the unit he/she gave.
Record in the column 'Unit
of measure" all the
information that will help to
determine the weight in
kilograms

For example: If the
respondent says that he
sold 4 cargas of cor, mark
'cargas' in the column 'Unit
of measure.' Then ask
him/her how many kilos are
in a carga. If he/she does
not answer how many
cargas are in a kilo
(because the carga is an
indefinite quantity) and
answers about 6 arrobas,
mark 1 carga= 6 arrobas in
the Unit of measure column
also and ask him/her how
many kilos are in an arroba.
If he/she says that there are
11 kilos, mark 11 in the
column 'kilos per unit of
measure."

Question 3.7- Refers to the
price of the unit of measure
that is marked in question
3.6. In the previous
example, the price refers to
the carga


ANNEX 7


GENESYS













3.8 Of the total production, how much was consumed by 3.9 Of the total production,
the household members? how much was exchanged for
other products consumed in the
household?

Number of Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit of Quantity Unit of Kilos per
crop measure measure measure unit of
measure

MONO-CULTURE CROPS
01

02

03

INTER-CROPPED CROPS

Number of Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit of Quantity Unit of Kilos per
crop Measure measure Measure unit
of measure

04

05

06


Permanent crops

Enumerator: Add all of the permanent crops recorded and mark the total below

Permanent crops:
* Permanent crops are any crops whose vegetative period lasts more than one year and which do not need to be re-planted after each harvest.

Dispersed permanent crops:
* Dispersed permanent crops are any plants or trees that are isolated or dispersed in such a manner that together they do not consist of the minimum
area established for the survey, that is to say, 0.01 hectares.

* Dispersed permanent crops are not recorded. Only record those permanent crops that are on the farm that are recorded on the back of this sheet.

For permanent crops harvested on the farm:

* From the drawing, record the area covered by each of the permanent crops for questions 3.10 and 3.11- according to whether the crops are under
cultivation or have been harvested.

* Only record the crops in mono-culture stands and not those that are dispersed.

* Permanent crops are those that do not need sowing or planting after each harvest.

* The permanent crops on the farm are those that are planted in a regular or systematic manner. Trees that form an irregular pattern but are of
sufficient density to allow a determination of area should also be considered in mono-culture stands.


ANNEX 8


GENESYS














PERMANENT CROPS AREA

3.10 Total young stock area 3.11 Total bearing stock area

Number Name of crop and Month Quantity Unit of Office Quantity Unit of Office
of crop month of harvest measure use measure use
07

08

09


Total Production Only for crops that are Production Destination
sharecropped or produced on
lands rented for cash in kind

3.12 During the agricultural year, what 3.13 Of the production total... 3.14 Of the total production how much was
was the total production of...? sold?
how much belongs to the
sharecrop partner?

what part of the production did
you pay to rent the land?
Number of Unit of Kilos per unit Quantity Unit of Kilos per Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit of
crop measure of measure measure unit measure measure
of measure

07

08

09

Enumerator:
Question 3. 15 refers to the price received for one unit of the total quantity recorded in question 3.14. For example, if in question
3.14 15 sacks of oranges are sold, the price recorded in question 3.15 will be for one sack.

Question 3.16 refers only to that part of the production that is exchanged with other producers or merchants for products or animals
that are consumed by the household.

The part of production that was exchanged for products or animals that were used for investment purposes was not counted.
For example, if a producer receives a rooster that he/she is going to use to breed with his/her chickens and not to eat immediately, do not count this.


PERMANENT CROPS (on the PRODUCTION DESTINATION
farm)

3.15 What is the unit price for 3.16 Of the total production...
each crop?
how much was exchanged (traded) for
(record the amount in local other products that are consumed in the
currency) household?

Number Name of crop and Month Quantity Unit of Kilos per unit
of crop month of harvest measure of measure
10

11

12


ANNEX 9


GENESY














Section 4 Commercialization and Agricultural Production

4.1 Where do you sell most of your crops? They are not sold(go on to 5.1) ...... 1
Onfarm ...................... 2
Off-farm .......................3
On and off-farm .................4

4.2 What is the distance between the field and the place where the majority of your crops are Less than 1/2 Km ................ 1
sold? From 1/2 to 1 Km ................ 2
From 1 to 3 Km ................. 3
From 3 to 5 Km ................. 4
From 5 to 10 Km ................5
10 km or more .................. 6

4.3 How much time does it take you to transport your products to the place where the majority Less than 1 hour ................ 1
are sold? From 1 to 3 hours ................ 2
From 3 to 6 hours ................ 3
6 hours or more ................. 4

4.4 What is the principal mode of transportation used to take your products to where they are Personal vehicle ................. 1
sold? Personal animal ................. 2
Borrowed animal ................. 3
Own boat ...................... 4
On foot .......................5
(go on to 4.6 if any of the top 5 are
circled)
Public transportation .............. 6
Rented animal ..................7
Rented boat .................... 8
Other (specify) ..................9

4.5 During the agricultural year how much did you pay to transport your products?

4.6 During the agricultural year how much did you pay for boxes, sacks, baskets or other Didn't buy or:
containers in order to sell your products?


4.7 Who bought your crops from you? Sold retail at a market/fair .......... 1
Sold retail outside of a market/fair .... 2
A shopkeeper ................... 3
A wholesale merchant............. 4
Cooperative .................... 5
A processing plant ............... 6
Neighbors' .....................7
Other buyer (specify) ............. 8

4.8 Is one of the buyers a relative of any member of your household? Yes .......................... 1
No ........................... 2

4.9 From whom do you receive information about prices at which you sell your production? From the buyer of your products ..... 1
Extension service ................ 2
Training program ................ 3
Radio ......................... 4
Television .................... 5
Newspapers .................... 6
Neighbors .....................7
Household members .............. 8
Store selling agriculture inputs ....... 9
Community member ............. 10
Other ........................11

4.10 Have you saved part of your production to sell later when prices are higher? Yes .......................... 1
No ......................... 2


ANNEX 10


HTBENEY













Section 5 Expenditures of Inputs for Harvested Crops
Enumerator reads to the respondent: Now we are going to speak about the inputs used for all of the harvested crops during the agricultural year (or
selected time period)

5.1 Were improved or certified seeds or plants used for your crops? Yes .................. ...................... 1
No ......................................... 2

5.2 For which crops were improved or certified seeds or plants used? Name of Crop Office use








5.3 How much did you spend on the purchase of improved or certified
seeds or plants? (If none were purchased, mark 0)

5.4 Where did you obtain the improved or certified seeds and plants? Store .................. ..................... 1
Commercial Enterprise ........................... 2
Neighbors .................................... 3
NGO ........................................ 4
Owned already ................................. 5
Other source (specify) ........................... 6

5.5 Were local seeds or plants used for your crops? Yes ......................................... 1
No (go on to 5.7) .. ............. ............ 2

5.6 How much did you spend on local seeds or plants?
(If none were purchased, mark 0)

5.7 Did you use organic fertilizer such as manure for your crops? Yes ......................................... 1
No (go on to 5.9) .................. ............ 2

5.8 How much did you spend on organic fertilizer?

5.9 Did you use chemical fertilizer? Yes ......................................... 1
No (go on to 5.12) .............. .......... 2

5.10 How much did you spend on chemical fertilizer?

5.11 Where did you obtain chemical fertilizer? Store ........................... .......... 1
Commercial enterprise ........................... 2
Neighbors .................................... 3
NGO ........................................ 4
Other (specify) ..... .............. ............ 5

5.12 Did you use pesticides or herbicides for your crops? Yes ......................................... 1
No (go on to 5.14) ................. ........... 2

5.13 How much did you spend on herbicides or pesticides?

5.14 During the agricultural year, did you pay other people who were not Yes .................... ................... 1
members of the household for agricultural work? No (go on to 5.23) .............................. 2

5.15 How many people were contracted per day for: 5.16 How many days were hired help used for:

preparing the land? preparing the land?
sowing? sowing?
hilling, weeding and/or pruning? hilling, weeding and/or
pruning?
harvesting? nar.e.stingq?

other activities related to crops? other activities related to
crops?
5.17 More or less, how much did you pay for a daily wage?


ANNEX 11


GrffnEjY!














5.18 Did the daily wage include food, such as meals and beverages? Yes ........ ................................ 1
No(go on to 5.20) .............................. 2

5.19 If you did not provide food, how much did you pay for the daily wage?

5.20 Did you contract with people who are not members of the Yes ............... ....................... 1
household to complete agricultural tasks? No (go on to 5.23) .............................. 2

5.21 How many people were contracted for: 5.22 How much was paid for work per person?

preparing the land? preparing the land?

sowing? sowing?
hilling, weeding and/or pruning? hilling, weeding and/or
pruning?

harvesting? harvesting?

other activities related to crops? other activities related to
crops?

5.23 How much did you spend renting tractors, machines and agricultural Did not rent or:
equipment used for crops? Amount:

5.24 How much did you spend to rent animals for the crops? Did not rent or:
Amount

5.25 During the agricultural year, did you make payments for irrigation Yes .................. .................... 1
water? No (go on to 5.27) .............................. 2

5.26 How much did you pay? Amount: Time Number of
period: payments
made in
Per the last 12
Month months
Per
trimester

Per
Year

Other

5.27 Have you paid another person in cash for rent? Yes ......................................... 1
No (go on to 5.29) .............................. 2

5.28 How much rent have you paid for those lands? Amount: Time Number of
period: payments
made in
Per the last 12
month months

Per
trimester

Per
semester

Per
year

Other

5.29 What are the names and surnames of all of the members of the For Office Use:
household who are agricultural producers? Note the number of the person


ANNEX 12


ra~~rg













Section 6 Animals, Animal Production and Their Use

6.1 6.2 Enumerator: Determine if the household 6.3 6.4
During the agricultural How many...total respondent had the minimum number of animals Have any of these How many have
year have you or some have you or indicated in at least one of the following animals been used for you used?
member of your members of your categories* household
household had: household had? consumption by the
household?

Cows, bulls, Yes 1 cow, or bull Yes
oxen No No (go on to 6.5)
Sheep Yes 2 sheep Yes
No No (go on to 6.5)
Chickens Yes 20 chickens Yes
No No (go on to 6.5)

Horses Yes If the respondent has the minimum number of Yes
No animals, continue for all of the species for which No (go on to 6.5)
yes is indicated in 6.1. If the member does not
have the minimum of any of the species indicated,
go on to section 9, "Processed Products"

Other Yes Yes
(specify) No No (go on to 6.5)

* This is a specific criterion for Bolivia. This should be adjusted to the particular country/region where
the questionnaire is administered.


6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10
During the agricultural year have you How many did you What is the total During the How many... How much did you
actually sold one of your... for cash, sell? amount you received agricultural did you spend to buy...
butchered, or for meat? for the sale of your...? year have buy?
you (record the total
(note the total received bought... in received for each
for each animal) cash? animal)
[specify type
of live
animal]
Total Sum Unit Total Unit Price
Price Sum










Cows, bulls Yes Yes
No (go on to 6.8) No
Sheep Yes Yes
No (go on to 6.8) ___ No
Chickens Yes Yes
No (go on to 6.8) No
Horses Yes Yes
No (go on to 6.8) __No
Other Yes Yes
(specify) No (go on to 6.8) No


ANNEX 13


lGENESY














Es
0

C 30

So

CV


N


0i
aE


213E


0 0
.30
:t _3_


--6







= Ea 5


~ca
o co
cE D 0- E








i E
E C
















c u E -6-
oo IE
~-:









to oo

















WE c L Q
t(00 0,
0 C )











a,
EN E














( a) 0 a.0E
n5 03











osC sE E EE
0 ,
-z
'~5 uf
0j-uE E
~oI Ea.>.
0, L
'0C 0V, C )
(0r 5


z
O
I-
3

0
a


o
a
.-








0
IHc






).!




I)

I)
C)

C)
0S







01
a.

a


0
z



0
0
0


0
C)o
>-z

a-
C)
cu
vl


-~- .5. &


a)

.- C) D

T- ^ CS
(08 C)E


ANNEX 14


I~W
it I .-






















- i I I


E 0
E T co


8L

C. c
-ts 05 o 3


1* I I


2 E
>, e o
cc



0 0







0 M 2 E
2a
0-
E*E0)










,o_
E _________________
. o

CiC
aI 0


, 0B : J
o .-






06 m ) E
0 0,



Y 0)o *
0 0) CI. ) N 6







0 :3 CCo


4 r = "06 u
Q 'IE 0 g I QI

- 3 : 0 0 0
-,|i 00 *8t a^1-
c5.JCO -B- n-S (0CC Bw6 0)
StOll 0_____a oa > 0.0


0o
Z


0)0


_ .I I


SE
SE


E

CQ <


0)
0. a
oE '
-" 0
0 *


-~S ______ ______ ________


ANNEX 15















































































ANNEX 16


6.28 To whom belong the majority of the.... Name and surname: Office
use
a. cows, bulls
b. sheep
c. horses
d. other (specify)
EGG PRODUCTION

Enumerator: Questions 6.29-6.32 are for those who answered yes to question 6.1g

6.29 More or less, how many chicken eggs do you collect weekly? Doesn't collect (go on to 7.1) or
# eggs per week

6.30 More or less, how much do you receive for the weekly sale of the eggs? Doesn't sell (go on to 6.32) or
Amount

6.31 More or less, how many eggs are consumed weekly by the household? Don't consume or
# eggs per week

6.32 How many months a year do you collect eggs? Months:

Enumerator: if the respondent says that he/she collects eggs only seasonally, ask for the number of
months in each season and make the conversion to months


WNwy













Section 7 Agricultural Business

7.1 Where are the majority of your animals sold? Don't sell (go on to 8.1) ........... 1
On-farm(go on to 7.6) ............ 2
Off-farm ................. ... 3
On and off-farm ................ 4

7.2 What is the distance between the field and the place where your animals are sold? Less than 1/2 Km .............. 1
From 1/2 to 1 Km. .............. 2
From 1 to 3 Km ............... 3
From 3 to 5 Km ............... 4
From 5 to 10 Km. ............... 5
More than 10 Km .............. 6

7.3 How much time do you spend transporting animals to the place where they are sold? Less than 1 hour ............... 1
From 1 to 3 hours ............... 2
From 3 to 6 hours ............. 3
6 Hours or more ................ 4

7.4 What is the principal mode used to transport animals to the place where they are sold? Personal vehicle ................ 1
Personal boat ................ 2
On foot .................... 3
Go on to 7.6 if any of top 3 are circled

Public transportation ............. 4
Rented boat .................. -. 5
Other (specify) ................. 6

7.5 During the agricultural year, how much did you pay to transport your animals?

7.6 To whom did you sell animals? Buyer in market ................ 1
Butcher ..... ................ 2
Merchant ................ .... 3
A cooperative .................. 4
Processing plant ................ 5
Neighbors .................. .. 6
Other buyer (specify) ............ 7

7.7 Are any of the buyers related to a member of the household? Yes ........................ I1
No ....................... .. 2


7.8 From whom do you receive information regarding prices at which you sell your animals? The buyer of your animals ...... .. 1
Extension service .............. 2
Development group .............. 3
Radio ....................... 4
Television ................... 5
Newspapers ................. 6
Pamphlets .................... 7
Neighbors ....................8
Household members ............. 9
Member of the community ........ 10
Other (specify) ................ 11


ANNEX 17


G E N E












Section 8 Animal Production Expenditures

Enumerator Remind the respondent that we are referring to expenditures during the agricultural year (or selected time period)

8.1 Did you buy food for the animals? Yes .......................................... 1
No .............. .... ......................... 2

8.2 How much in total did you pay for food bought in this period? Don't remember or
Amount


8.3 Did you contract for veterinary services? Yes ............... ......................... 1
No (go on to 8.5) ................... ................ 2

8.4 How much did you pay for veterinary services during the Don't remember or
agricultural year? Amount

8.5 Did you buy veterinary products such as vaccines, vitamins, Yes...................... 1
disinfectants, etc. No ............... ............ ........... .... 2

8.6 How much did you pay in total for veterinary products? Don't remember or
Amount


8.7 Did you buy salt for the animals? Yes ............................................ 1
No (go on to 8.9) ...........2..................... 2

8.8 How much in total did you pay for salt in this period?

8.9 Did you contract people who are not members of the family Yes ................... ................ ........ 1
contracted to work with the animals? For example, for herding, No (go on to 8.13) ................................ 2
milking, cleaning, castrating or feeding them?

8.10 How many people did you contract?

8.11 More or less, for how long were they contracted? Number Time period

Enumerator: if the respondent answers that more than one person was
contracted, summarize the number of days, weeks or months worked Days
for each one of the people and record the total in the column "number" Weeks
and circle the correct time period Months

8.12 ,More or less, how much did you pay each person (or persons) Amount Time period
contracted?
Per day
Week
Month

8.13 Did you have some other expenditure related to the animals Yes .......................... .... ............ 1
such as animal dips, maintenance of or construction of stables No (go on to 9.1) .................................. 2
or corrals?

8.14 How much did you spend in total? Don't remember or
Amount


ANNEX 18


GIENESY













Section 9 Processed Products

Enumerator: if the respondent answered yes to question
6.1b or 6.1 e and/or 6.1f, ask the following questions. If
he/she answered no to all of the previous questions, go on
to question 10.1
Yes.......... 1
9.1 During the agricultural year (or selected time period) o on to 9...... 3) .......... ................
did you sell sheep's wool? ( o t 9
9.2 How much did you receive in total for the wool? Total amount of sales:

9.3 During the agricultural year did you sell animal skins? Yes ....................................... 1
No (go on to 9.5) .............. ............. 2

9.4 How much did you receive for the sale of the skins? Total amount of sales:

9.5 During the agricultural year, did you sell honey? Yes ...................................... 1
No (go on to 9.7) ............. .......... .... 2

9.6 How much in total did you receive for the honey? Total amount of sales:

9.7 During the agricultural year did you sell other products Yes ............................... ....... 1
processed in your household? No (go on to 10.1) ........................... 2

NOTES:







For office use: Total number of processed products-

9.8 What other products For office use 9.9 During the agricultural year, 9.10 How much did you
were made in the how much...did you sell? receive for the sale of...?
household?
Note total price received and or
price for each
Quantity Unit of Total amount Unit price
measure







9.11 Which people in the household were in charge of processing the products? Name and For office use
surname


ANNEX 19


IGEbNESYS













Section 10 Other Income and Expenditures

EXPENDITURES OF THE HOUSEHOLD


10.1 When purchases are made for food for the household,
more or less, how much is spent?

Enumerator: Note the response in accordance with the period
given by the respondent
Daily:


Weekly:


Bi-weekly:


10.4 In the last 6 months, did you have any
expenditures for clothes for members of the
household?

Yes ..................................... 1
No (go on to 10.6) .......................... 2

10.5 In total, how much was spent?


Don't remember or
Amount


10.3 How much did you spend on... 10.6 In the past month how much was spent
If nothing was spent, mark an x in the correct box on...

10.3a Enrollment fees Nothing spent Amount: 10.6a Nothing Amount:
Detergent, soap for spent
clothes
10.3b Tuition and student Nothing spent Amount: 10.6b Refreshments, Nothing Amount:
fees beer, chicha and spent
others
10.3c School lunches Nothing spent Amount: 10.6C Nothing .Amount:
Shampoo, soap, spent
toothpaste
10.3d School books and Nothing spent Amount: 10.6d Nothing Amount:
materials Electricity spent

10.6e Nothing Amount:
Fuel for cooking spent

10.6f Nothing Amount:
Maintenance of spent
vehicle

10.7 In the last year, how much was spent on...

10.7a Nothing Amount:
Fumiture for the home spent

10.7b Nothing Amount:
Radio, television or spent
electronic equipment

10.7c Nothing Amount:
Plates, silverware, spent
vases, pots, sheets,
towels

10.7d Nothing Amount:
Any repairs to spent
improve dwelling

10.7e Nothing Amount:
Parties, festivals spent
managese, town
festivals, religious
festivals)


ANNEX f20


GENES














Enumerator: If the respondent does not have an agricultural holding, go on to 10.19

The questions 10.8-10.18 refer to the agricultural year (or selected time period)
Mention to the respondent the reference period before beginning with question 10.8

10.8 Did you have expenditures for the purchase of fuel, repairs, replacement parts for agricultural Yes ...................... 1
machines? No (go on to 10.10) .......... 2

10.9 How much did you spend in total?

10.10 Did you have expenditures for the purchase of tools, replacement parts and agricultural machines? Yes ...................... 1
No (go onto 10.12) .......... 2

10.11 How much did you spend in total?

10.12 Did you have expenditures for construction or maintenance of irrigation ditches, wells, corrals, Yes .................... 1
warehouses, sheds, or other construction in the field? No (go on to 10.14) .......... 2

10.13 How much did you spend in total?

10.14 Did you rent out machinery, equipment or other inputs such as tractors, seeders, threshers, Yes ...................... 1
fumigators, or animals for plowing (such as oxen)? No (go on to 10.16) .......... 2

10.15 How much did you receive in rent?

10.16 Did you contract people who were not members of the household for permanent work in the fields? Yes ...................... 1
For example, watchmen, administrators, foremen, etc. No (go on to 10.19) .......... 2

10.17 How many people worked for you permanently?

Enumerator: note only those workers who were contracted permanently

10. 18 How much did you pay in total for salaries to permanent workers during the
agricultural year?

Enumerator: add all of the salaries and write in the total


OTHER INCOMES IN THE HOUSEHOLD

10.19 Do you or some member of your household belong to a cooperative? Yes ........................... 1
No (go on to 10.23) ............... 2

10.20 Which one? Enumerator: Note the name of each cooperative by its full name Name of the cooperativess:

10.21 Do you receive income from the distribution of the benefits of the cooperative? Yes ........................... 1
No (go on to 10.23) ............... 2

10.22 What was the total amount you received?

10.23 Did you receive income from interest, dividends, rent on houses, buildings or machinery? Yes......................... 1
No (go on to 10.25) ................ 2

10.24 What was the total amount you received?

10.25 Did you receive income from retirement or unemployment pensions? Yes ........................... 1
No (go on to 10.27) ............... 2
10.26 What was the total amount you received?

10.27 Did you rent land to others? Yes .......................... 1
No (go on to 11.1) ................ 2

10.28 For rented lands, how much did you receive?

Enumerator: if the respondent says that he/she receives rent in kind, ask him/her to calculate the
actual amount.


ANNEX 21














Section 11 Characteristics of Members of the Household


11.1 What is the name and
surname of the head of
household?

What are the names and
surnames of the other
members of the household
that are habitual
residents?


Sex
11.2
... is?


Age
11.3
How old is
...in
completed
years


Kinship
11.4 What is the kinship
relation that...has with
the head of the
household?

wife/cohabitant ......... 02
son/daughter .......... 03
son-or daughter-in-law ... 04
grandson/granddaughter .. 05
brother/sister .......... 06
brother-/sister-in-law ..... 06
father/mother .......... 07
father-/mother-in-law ..... 07
other relative .......... 08
employee who
sleeps in the household .. 09
Other non-relative ....... 10


11.5
What languages
are spoken by...?

Enumerator:
Circle the
language that
corresponds to
the languages
spoken by the
member of the
household


11.6
Do you
know how
to read and
write?


01 Male ... 1 Spanish Yes ... 1
Female 2 Quechua No .... 2
Aymara
Other (specify)

02 Male ... 1 Spanish Yes ... 1
Female 2 Quechua No .... 2
Aymara
Other (specify)

03 Male ... 1 Spanish Yes ... 1
Female 2 Quechua No .... 2
Aymara
Other (specify)

04 Male ... 1 Spanish Yes ... 1
Female 2 Quechua No .... 2
Aymara
Other (specify)


Number Level of Instruction 11.8 In what department (state), For office 11.9 For how long has...lived in
of person province, and locality was... use this location?
11.7 What is the highest level and born?
course of instruction Less than 1 month .......... 1
...completed? Enumerator: if respondent was born in From 1 to 3 months ......... 2
another country write only the name of From 4 to 6 months ......... 3
None ....................... 0 the country in the column 'department" From 7 to 12 months ........ 4
Primary ..................... 1 From 1 to 5 years ........... 5
Middle school ................. 2 5 years or more
Secondary ................... 3
Technical high school ........... 4
Post-secondary technical school ... 5
Teacher's college .............. 6
University ................... 7
Other ....................... 8

Level Name of course Department Province Locality

01 Mark the code of the respondent

02 Mark the code of the respondent

03 Mark the code of the respondent

04 Mark the code of the respondent


ANNEX f22


Number
of
Person


IGENESYSI














ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER
MIGRATION
Number What is the name and Sex of... is? Age 11.10 During the last 12 11.11 How long has...been
of surname of the head of the How old is... in months was.., away from the
person household? What are the completed years? living in another household?
names and sumames of the place for more than
other members of the 1 month?
household that are habitual
residents?

01 Male ......1 Yes ................ 1 1 to 3 months ............. 1
Female .... 2 No (go on to 12.1) ..... 2 4 to 6 months ............. 2
More than 6 months ........ 3
02 Male ...... 1 Yes ................ 1 1 to 3 months ............. 1
Female ....2 No (go on to 12.1) ..... 2 4 to 6 months ............ 2
More than 6 months ........ 3
03 Male .... 1 Yes ................ 1 1 to 3 months ............. 1
Female ...2 No (go on to 12.1) ..... 2 4 to 6 months ............. 2
More than 6 months ........ 3
04 Male ...... 1 Yes ................ 1 1 to 3 months ........... 1
Female ....2 No (go on to 12.1) ..... 2 4 to 6 months ........... 2
More than 6 months ........ 3


ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER
MIGRATION
Number 11.12 In which department, province, locality For office 11.13 What was the reason that... was living in that location?
of person was... living for more time? use
Looking for work ............................... 1
Work transfer .................................... 2
Education ..... .................................. 3
Health ......... ... ..... ....................... 4
Family reasons ................................... 5
Other .......................................... 6
Don't know ...................................... 7
Department Province Locality
01

02

03

04


Instructions and Definitions
Occupation, Office, or Profession (Questions 12.2 and 12.12)

The type of work, profession or office that was carried out by the person during the period of reference (the last 12 months)

Occupational Categories: (Questions 12.4-12.14)

Laborer: A person who performs an occupation that is predominantly manual labor

Employee: A person who performs an occupation that is predominantly office work or professional

Domestic Worker: A person who lends his/her paid services to another household

Own account: A self-employed person who works in his/her business or works for him/herself or office without any paid worker at his/her
position

Employer: A person who works for his/her own business or office and has one or more paid workers

Family worker: A person who works for another member of the family without being paid for his/her work.


ANNEX23


Ia GESa N














Section 12 Occupation and Income

ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER

Number of the Sex of...is How old is...in completed 12.1 During the last 12 months, what activities
person years? has...done?

Enumerator: Read all of the options and mark all
that apply
01 Male .............. 1 Agriculture ............................1
Female .......... 2 Animal husbandry ....................... 2
Mining ............................... 3
Food preparation .......................4
Handicrafts ............................ 5
Construction .......... ................ 6
Commerce .......... .... .. .......... 7
Transport ............................. 8
Services .............................. 9
Care of the household ................... 10
Student .............. .............. 11
Retired .............................. 12
Pensioned .......................... 13
Disabled .. ............... ............ 14

02 Male .............. 1 Agriculture ..... ....................... 1
Female ............ 2 Animal husbandry ......................2
Mining .............. ........ ... .... 3
Food preparation ....................... 4
Handicrafts ............................ 5
Construction ........................... 6
Commerce ............................ 7
Transport ............................ 8
Services ..............................9
Care.of the household ................... 10
Student .............. ............... 11
Retired ............................. 12
Pensioned .......................... 13
Disabled .............................14

03 Male .............. 1 Agriculture ............................1
Female ............ 2 Animal husbandry ............ ........ 2
Mining ............................... 3
Food preparation .......................4
Handicrafts ............................ 5
Construction ........................... 6
Commerce ............................ 7
Transport .............................. 8
Services ............................ 9
Care of the household ................... 10
Student ............................. 11
Retired............................. 12
Pensioned ........................... 13
Disabled ...................... ....... 14

04 Male .............. 1 Agriculture ............................ 1
Female ............ 2 Animal husbandry .......................2
Mining ............................... 3
Food preparation .......................4
Handicrafts ............................ 5
Construction .......................... 6
Commerce ............................ 7
Transport ............................ 8
Services ............................ 9
Care of the household ................... 10
Student ........................... 11
Retired ............................ 12
Pensioned ........................ 13
Disabled .... ........................ 14


ANNEX 24


~aa~fil














ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER
I I


12.2 Which are the
activities that ...spent
the most time doing?

Enumerator: If the code is
01 or 02 go on to 12.3.
Otherwise go on to 12.4

If the code is 10-14 and the
numbers 1-9 in question
12.1 are blank go on to the
next person

If the respondent gives more
than one activity and the
principal activity corresponds
to the codes from 10-14,
and the secondary activity
corresponds to one of the
codes from 1-9, go on to
12.11


12.3 In what agricultural or
livestock activities
did...participate?

Enumerator: Read the options
to the respondent that fit with
the activity which he/she does.
If he/she works in agriculture,
read the first five options. If
he/she raises livestock read
the last five options.


12.4 In the job or position ...works
as a:

Laborer .................... 1
Employee ................... 2
Domestic Worker ............. 3
Own account ................ 4
Employer (go on to 12.9)........ 5
Family worker (go on to 12.11) ... 6


12.5 In the last 12
months,
has..received food
or clothing as part
of his/her
payment?


01 Prepare ground ....... 1 Yes ............. 1
Sow ................ 2 No .............. 2
Weed/hill ............ 3
Harvest ............. 4
Sell product ........... 5
M ilk ................ 6
Collect eggs .......... 7
Sheer, fleece ......... 8
Sell animals .......... 9

02 Prepare ground .... 1 Yes ............. 1
Sow ................ 2 No .............. 2
Weed/hill ............ 3
Harvest ............. 4
Sell product ......... 5
Milk ................ 6
Collect eggs .......... 7
Sheer, fleece ......... 8
Sell animals ........... 9

03 Prepare ground ....... 1 Yes ............. 1
Sow ................ 2 No .............. 2
Weed/hill ............ 3
Harvest .............. 4
Sell product ....... 5
M ilk ................ 6
Collect eggs ......... 7
Sheer, fleece ......... 8
Sell animals .......... 9

04 Prepare ground ....... 1 Yes ..... ........ 1
Sow ................ 2 No .............. 2
Weed/hill ............ 3
Harvest ............. 4
Sell product .......... 5
M ilk ................ 6
Collect eggs .... ... 7
Sheer, fleece ......... 8
Sell animals .......... 9


ANNEX 25)


Number
of person


HBBBESH














ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER

Number Sex of...is How old is...in 12.6 In general, how 12.7 In general, how many 12.8 During the last
of the completed years? many hours a day days per week do you 12 months, how
person do you dedicate to work at this? many months
this occupation? did you work at
this?


(Referring to the activity in (Referring to the activity in (Referring to the
12.2) 12.2) activity in 12.2)

01 Male ..... .... 1
Female ....... 2

02 Male ......... 1
Female ......... 2

03 Male ......... 1
Female ....... 2

04 Male ......... 1
Female ....... 2


ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER

Enumerator: If the agricultural or 12.10 How much has.., received in payment or wages for 12.11 During the last 12 months
livestock worker works for him/herself or this work? has....worked under any
as an employer or as a non-paid family cooperative, mutual help
worker, do not ask this question and go Enumerator record the amount and mark an x on the correct labor exchanges? (e.g.
onto 12.11 period Ayii, Minka, Faena or
Minga?)
12.9 Has...received payment or wages
from this work

Number of
person

Yes .............. 1 Day ......................... 1 Yes ...................... 1
No .............. 2 W eek ......................... 2 No ....................... 2
Month ........................ 3
Year ......................... 4

Yes .............. 1 Day ......................... 1 Yes ...................... 1
No ............... 2 W eek ......................... 2 No ....................... 2
M onth ........................ 3
Year ........................ 4

Yes .............. 1 Day ......... ..... ............ 1 Yes ...................... 1
No .............. 2 Week .................. ...... 2 No ... ........... ....... 2
Month ........................ 3
Year ........................ 4

Yes .............. 1 Day .......................... 1 Yes ...................... 1
No ............. 2 W eek ......................... 2 No .......................2
Month ................... .... 3
Year ............ ............ 4


ANNEX 26


mniGENS














ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER
SECONDARY ACTIVITY

Number of Sex of...is How old is...in Enumerator: Refer to 12.1 in case the 12.13 Which livestock or agricultural
the person completed person had more than one activity and work was done?
years? ask the following question:
Mark appropriate number
12.12 What was the secondary
activity of...

If the respondent answers 01 or 02
(agricultural or livestock work) go on to
the next question. Otherwise go on to
12.14

01 Male .......... 1 Prepare ground .................. 1
Female ........ 2 Sow ........................... 2
W eed .......................... 3
Harvest ........................ 4
Sell product ..................... 5
Herd .......................... 6
Milk ........................ .... 7
Collect eggs ..................... 8
Sheer, fleece .................... 9
Sell animals ................. 10

02 Male .......... 1 Prepare ground .................. 1
Female ........ 2 Sow ........................... 2
Weed ................... ....... 3
Harvest .......... ............... 4
Sell product ..................... 5
Herd .......................... 6
Milk ............................ 7
Collect eggs ..................... 8
Sheer, fleece .................... 9
Sell animals .................... 10

03 Male .......... 1 Prepare ground .................. 1
Female ........2 Sow ........................... 2
W eed .......................... 3
Harvest ........................ 4
Sell product ..................... 5
Herd .......................... 6
Milk .......................... 7
Collect eggs ..................... 8
Sheer, fleece .................... 9
Sell animals .................... 10

04 Male .......... 1 Prepare ground .................. 1
Female ........ 2 Sow ........................... 2
W eed .......................... 3
Harvest ........................ 4
Sell product ..................... 5
Herd .......................... 6
M ilk ........................... 7
Collect eggs ..................... 8
Sheer, fleece .................... 9
Sell animals .................... 10


ANNEX 27


I G E N E














ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER

Number of 12.14 n thisjobhas 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18
the person ...worked as a: In the last 12 months In general, how In general, how During the last 12
has... received many hours a day many days a week months, how many
Laborer .............. 1 clothes and/or food does...dedicate to do you work in this months did you work
Employee ............ 2 as part of his/her this occupation? job? in this job?
Domestic worker ........ 3 payment?
Own account .......... 4 (Referring to the (Referring to the (Referring to the
Employer ............ 5 activity in 12.12) activity in 12.12) activity in 12.12)
(go on to 12.19)
Family worker .......... 6

01

02

03

04


ONLY FOR PEOPLE 6 YEARS OR OLDER
SECONDARY ACTIVITY

Number of Sex of...is How old is...in 12.19 Has...received 12.20 How much has... received in
the person completed years? payment for this payment or wages for this work?
work?
Enumerator: Record the amount in local
currency and mark an x in the time period

Amount Time period



01 Male ....... .... 1 Day .............1
Female .......... 2 Week ............ 2
Month ........... 3
Year ............4
02 Male ............ 1 Day ............ 1
Female .......... 2 Week ........... 2
Month ...........3
Year ............ 4

03 Male ........... 1 Day .............
Female .......... 2 Week ............ 2
Month ........... 3
Year ............ 4

04 Male ........... 1 Day ............. 1
Female .......... 2 Week............ 2
Month ........... 3
Year ............ 4


ANNEX 28


UGENSYSl













Section 14 Credit

RESPONSE FROM THE HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD

14.1 Have you or some member of your household asked for credit or a loan during the agricultural year?
Yes ........... ................ 1
No (go on to 15.1) ................. 2
Number 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 What did you use the credit for? 14.6
of Who asked To whom did you go for Did they give you the With what
credits for the credit? credit? Purchase of fertilizers or pesticides .......... 1 are you
asked credit? Purchase of machinery or tools ............. 2 paying off
Agricultural Bank ....... 1 Purchase of animals ...................... 3 the loan?
Record the State Bank ............ 2 Payment for construction (e.g. stables) labor .... 4
number of Private Bank ........... 3 Improvement of irrigation, drainage, well systems 5
the person Finance Institution ....... 4 Purchase of land ................... ..... 6
Non-governmental Education and Home improvement ........... 7
organization ........... 5 Other use ............................. 8
Cooperative .......... 6
Friends and family ...... 7 Record only one answer
Other source .......... 8

1 Yes ........... 1 With
No .......... 2 produce 1
With
money 2
2 Yes ........... 1 With
No ........... 2 produce 1
With
money 2
3 Yes ........... 1 With
No ........... 2 produce 1
With
money 2

4 Yes ............ 1 With
No ........... 2 produce 1
With
money 2


Section 15 Miscellaneous

15.1 During the last 3 years, have you or any member of your household participated in a Yes ................ .................. 1
course to improve crops or animals? No (go on to 15.3) ......................... 2

15.2 Who in the household participated in the courses?
Name and surame of those who attended the agricultural or livestock courses:




15.3 Would you and the members of your family like to improve your standard of living? Yes ................ .................. 1
No (end of interview)..................... 2
15.4 What would you need to improve your standard of living? Office use

Enumerator: Record the answers from respondent's own words

END OF INTERVIEW
THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION


Note: Due to space and time limitations, we have omitted certain sections of the original survey form
in this translated version. This may account for discrepancies.


ANNEX 29


ENErSYia














17
270

47t,




ltytl 4


14V


t

I-W


41
Ar


17
ik
41




"K, T7`"T-rTw-


it




-17
77"1
#
i -t 4 li .1




'A"
im- C-


it




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs