• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction to the GCID frame...
 Introduction to the gender analysis...
 The basic elements of institut...
 Guidelines for operationalizing...
 Conclusion and Annex 1 (Glossa...
 Annex 2 (List of other GENESYS...














Title: Gender analysis tool kit
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080527/00002
 Material Information
Title: Gender analysis tool kit
Physical Description: 1 case : col. ill. ; 27 x 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: GENESYS Project
Futures Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Sex discrimination in employment -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Genesys.
General Note: "Genesys, a project of The Futures Group in collaboration with Management Systems International and Development Alternatives, Inc. and United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Dept. of State."
General Note: "Contains ten analytical tools"--GCID framework t.p.
General Note: "Under the GENESYS Project for USAID G/R&D/WID Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00"--GCID Framework t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080527
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31425196

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Preface
        Preface
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Introduction to the GCID framework
        Page 1
    Introduction to the gender analysis toolkit
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The basic elements of institutionalization
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Guidelines for operationalizing the basic framework
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Conclusion and Annex 1 (Glossary)
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Annex 2 (List of other GENESYS publications)
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text

GENESYS


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Preface

This Gender Analysis Tool Kit contains ten analytical tools which are intended to be dear, user-friendly devices for
policy makers and project implementers to use in addressing gender issues in their development efforts. The tool kit
was developed by the staff of the GENESYS (Gender in Economic and Social Systems) Project. GENESYS is a project
funded by the USAID Office ofWomen in Development to support the Agency's efforts to institutionalize gender con-
siderations in development assistance worldwide. The tool kit provides practical approaches to use in accomplishing
that objective. Below are the titles of the ten tools.

GCID Framework

GCID Framework: A Tool for Assessing Institutionalization of Gender Concerns in Development
Organizations

Quantitative Tools

Quantifying Gender Issues: A Tool for Using Quantitative Data in Gender Analysis
(A Slide Presentation)

Country Gender Profiles: A Tool for Summarizing Policy Implications from Sex-Disaggregated Data

Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for Analyzing Income and Employment Data from Surveys

Diagnostic Tools

Gender and Policy Implementation: A Tool for Assessment of Policy-Derived Impacts on Women and Men

Sex and Gender-What's the Difference?: A Tool for Examining the Sociocultural Context of Sex Differences

Planning And McdE Tools

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Sustainable Development: A Tool for Gender-Informed
Project Planning

Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation: A Tool for Developing Project M&E Plans

Documenting Development Program Impact: A Tool for Reporting Differential Effects on Men and Women

Reference

Gender Research Guide for the Agriculture, Environment, and Natural Resource Sectors: A Tool for
Selecting Methods








GCID Framework:
A Tool for Assessing
Institutionalization
of Gender Concerns
in Development
Organizations
Prepared by
Pietronella van den Oever
















September 1994
Under the GENESYS Proict for USAID G/R&D/\ID
Contract P PDC-01(10-Z-00-9g44-00


GENESYSII

















Acknowledgements


There are numerous people and
institutions that have played critical
roles in the development and
production of the Gender Analysis
Tool Kit.
The authors extend their thanks
to the Women in Development
Office of the United States Agency
for International Development for
having supported this important
work. In particular, we are indebted
to Dr Rosalie Huisinga Norem, who
contributed her time and staff far
beyond the call of duty and shared
valuable and creative insights with
the GENESYS staff. We are especial-
ly grateful for her contributions to
GENESYS training activities, and
her assistance in the timely process-
ing of the GENESYS tools during
the preparation and approval
process. We also thank Phil Boyle,


Debra Schumann, Mari Clark, and
Martin Hewitt for improving our
products by providing critical
reviews and comments.
Among the GENESYS staff,
there are many people whose names
are not publicly associated with the
Tool Kit but without whom the Tool
Kit would never have been possible.
Jennifer Lissfelt's managerial and
editorial talents put a unique stamp
on each tool. She orchestrated the
entire production process from
writing and editing to design and
publication. Her attention to detail
and demand for linguistic clarity
and accuracy are largely responsible
for the high quality of the final
products. Dawn Emling and Am6
Stormer did whatever was needed
to get the tools through the produc-
tion process. Their hard work,
careful review, and willingness to
meet any deadline helped propel the
tools from draft to finished product.
Eileen Muirragui and Joan Goodin
both helped to sharpen the techni-
cal arguments by critically review-


ing several tools.
Finally we would like to thank
all our colleagues in USAID
Missions and Bureaus and in host-
country governmental and non-
governmental organizations who
are committed to integrating gender
considerations into their programs
and have helped us to define more
precise methodological approaches
to support their efforts in the
future.

DEBORAH A.CARO
JOHN JEROME
VIRGINIA LAMBERT
PAT MARTIN
AME STORMER
PIETRONELLA VAN DEN OVER
WESLEY WEIDEMANN











TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword

I Introduction to the GCID Framework 1
1.1 Purpose and Usefulness of the "GCID Framework" Tool 1
1.2 Strengths and Limitations 1

II. Introduction to the Gender Analysis Tool Kit 2
2.1 Rationale for Developing the Tool Kit 2
2.2 Contents of the Tool Kit 2

III. The Basic Elements of Institutionalization 6
3.1 Elements of the GCID Framework 6
3.2 Discussion of the Basic Elements 6

IV Guidelines for Operationalizing the
GCID Framework 10
4.1 Table of Linkages Between the Basic Elements
and the GENESYS Tools 10

V Conclusion 13
Annex I-Glossary 13
Annex II-List of Other GENESYS Publications is


GENESYS
















Foreword

The GENDER ANALYSIS TOOL KIT and other publications introduced in this booklet are a result of work carried out
over the period October 1989-September 1994 under the USAID R&D/WID-sponsored GENESYS (Gender in
Economic and Social Systems) Project. The 10 tools in the Tool Kit represent key elements of the methodology,
conceptualized and field-tested in USAID Missions and Bureaus under GENESYS, on "how to" incorporate gender
issues in development. The tools contribute to GENESYS's main objective: "To support the WID Office to institution-
alize gender considerations in USAID programs and projects and thereby increase women's contribution to and bene-
fit from economic and social development."
After the GENESYS Project's first five years, it has become apparent that its products have sufficient applicability
to warrant dissemination throughout USAID Bureaus and Missions and to the broader development community.
This booklet introduces the tools in the Gender Analysis Tool Kit. It also summarizes the basic institutional elements
necessary for considering and responding to gender issues in development programming and illustrates how the
GENESYS tools can enhance this process.
The GENESYS Project was carried out under USAID prime contract PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00 with The Futures
Group International, and sub-contracts with Management Systems International (MSI) and Development Alternatives
Incorporated (DAI).
















. Introduction to the GCID Framework

1.1 Purpose and Usefulness of the "GCID Framework" Tool
This Gender Considerations in Development (GCID) Framework tool booklet has five major components:
* First, it introduces the 10 methodological tools which together constitute the Gender Analysis Tool Kit, developed
under the GENESYS (Gender in Economic and Social Systems) Project.
* Second, it identifies seven key elements for addressing gender considerations in development organizations.
* Third, it provides guidelines for using the GCID framework worksheet and the other tools to assess to what extent
an organization considers gender a critical variable when formulating and implementing its development activities.
A discussion of what is meant by "institutionalization of gender considerations" and a table of the basic
framework illustrate how each GENESYS tool is tied to the seven elements and contributes to the
institutionalization process. A worksheet is included to help the user conduct an institutional assessment.
* Fourth, it includes a glossary (in Annex I) of common terms and concepts related to gender in development
which are used frequently in the GENESYS Tool Kit.
* Fifth, it provides a list of other GENESYS publications (in Annex II).

1.2 Strengths and Limitations
The Gender Analysis Tool Kit was developed primarily to provide Missions and Bureaus of the United States
Agency for International development (USAID) with hands-on, analytical instruments for addressing gender issues in
development. Therefore, the listing of institutions and conditions for using the framework presented in Part IV of this
tool draws on empirically observed situations within USAID Missions and Bureaus.
The tools can be easily adapted to the operations of other development institutions as well. The basic framework
presented in this booklet, for instance, offers a systematic approach for examining the extent to which a development
organization considers "gender" the different rights, roles, and responsibilities of men and women a critical
variable of sustainable socioeconomic development. Thus, users of this booklet who are affiliated with organizations
other than USAID can adapt the operational elements provided in this tool to their own institutions and terminology.














PAGE


G EN S S













II. Introduction to the Gender Analysis Tool Kit

2.1 Rationale for Developing the Gender Analysis Tool Kit
The development and dissemination of new instruments for gender analysis was one of the GENESYS Project's
four strategic objectives. Many of the field assignments carried out under GENESYS at the request of Bureaus and
Missions provided unique opportunities to assess users' specific needs.
Over the life of the project, GENESYS staff realized that development professionals, who initially asked only why
they should concern themselves with gender issues, increasingly wanted to know how to integrate gender concerns
into their daily operations. An extensive review by GENESYS of the existing gender analysis methods revealed that
few addressed the specific needs of the project's primary clientele: development program managers. The need
emerged for new analytical tools to help policymakers and development implementers analyze gender differences in a
variety of sociocultural contexts. In addition there was a need for techniques that addressed how to apply gender
analysis findings to achieve development goals more effectively, as well as to foresee (and sometimes actively encourage)
potential changes stimulated by development interventions.
There are ten tools because practical field experience with the initial (experimental) GENESYS tools indicated that
a variety of analytical instruments were needed to respond to the diverse needs of development agencies. Gender
issues are relevant at all stages of development interventions. Therefore, the GENESYS tools have been designed to
help address gender issues at these various stages, from the identification of a particular problem through the formula-
tion of relevant questions and analysis of gender issues, to monitoring, evaluation, and reporting of differential impact
on men and women.


2.2 Contents of the Tool Kit
There are five categories of analytical tools in the GENESYS Tool Kit. Brief descriptions of these categories and
titles of all ten tools are provided below.

GCID FRAMEWORK
GCID Framework: A Tool for Assessing Institutionalization of Gender Concerns in Development Organizations
This basic framework booklet is the only tool in this category. This tool provides the basic elements and the
corresponding operational framework for institutionalizing gender considerations throughout the structure of a
development agency.

QUANTITATIVE TOOLS
Quantifying Gender Issues: A Tool for Using Quantitative Data in Gender Analysis (A Slide Presentation)
Country Gender Profiles: A Tool for Summarizing Policy Implications from Sex-Disaggregated Data
Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for Analyzing Income and Employment Data from Surveys
The three tools in this category demonstrate different approaches to combined quantitative and qualitative analyses.



PAGE 2
















The first is a slide presentation with a narrative that demonstrates how sex-disaggregated data can be used by
development practitioners to identify gender imbalances that may have implications for development activities. It
comes with 36 color slides that can be mixed and matched for a variety of audiences and purposes.
The second tool in this category demonstrates how to construct a "country-specific gender profile" using basic
sex-disaggregated data. It provides suggestions on collecting, interpreting, and graphing data to develop such a profile
and present results to others, and provides an example based on data from Ghana.
The third quantitative tool is based on a household survey from Cochabamba, Bolivia. It shows how to present
sex-disaggregated data from household surveys and how to use the data for sectoral policy analysis. A sample
questionnaire included as an annex demonstrates how to collect sex-disaggregated data at the household level.

DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
* Gender and Policy Implementation: A Tool for Assessment of Policy-Derived Impacts on Women and Men
* Sex and Gender-What's the Difference?: A Tool for Examining the Sociocultural Context of Sex Differences
The two tools in this category can assist policymakers and project implementers in diagnosing where potential
gender-specific constraints are most likely to occur in a country's socioeconomic development process, and what the
underlying constraining and facilitating factors are for specific development interventions.
The first tool presents a method developed originally for agricultural projects. It outlines a rapid appraisal
technique to assess how women and men are affected differently (and possibly constrained) by various policies, and to
find remedial measures by examining legal, regulatory, and administrative factors that affect households', firms', and
individuals' abilities to respond to economic opportunities.
The second tool in this category presents an approach that links quantitatively observed sex differences to sociocultural
practices and beliefs. It examines gender issues and their implications for sustainable development by relating observed
sex differences and phenomena to motivations, practices, institutions, and underlying ideologies and cultural values.

PLANNING AND M&E TOOLS
* Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Sustainable Development: A Tool for Gender-Informed Project Planning
* Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation: A Tool for Developing Project M&E Plans
* Documenting Development Program Impact: A Tool for Reporting Differential Effects on Men and Women
The purpose of these three tools is to support a specific project planning or implementation exercise.
The first tool in this category provides program planners and project implementers with a simple framework to
identify which resources need to be made available and which conditions need to be fulfilled to bridge the common
gap between necessary and sufficient conditions for particular development interventions. It focuses on social roles
and responsibilities of men and women, and on motivations and practices of different social groups in the community
or society. It examines how gender issues affect the availability and accessibility of resources for different sectors of
participant populations.


PAGE


GENESYS

















The second tool provides a matrix and set of instructions for integrating gender considerations into the design of
development project monitoring and evaluation plans. It is helpful for selecting appropriate indicators and informa-
tion to assess the impact of development interventions on men and women and for identifying potential gender differ-
ences in benefits from programs or projects.
The third tool is designed to provide guidance to USAID project managers, program officers, and WID officers
and to: 1) clarify definitions and concepts, 2) provide useful guidance on how to assess whether gender is an impor-
tant factor in a project or program, and 3) indicate the kind of information needed to demonstrate gender-sensitive
impact on people.

REFERENCE
Gender Research Guide for the Agriculture, Environment, and Natural Resource Sectors: A Tool for
Selecting Methods
This tool is a reference handbook that reviews existing gender analysis, planning, and research methodologies and
tools in the agriculture and environment/natural resource management sectors. It critically reviews what methods are
available, in what form, and to whom they are useful. Each annotation presents the stated objectives of the method, a
description of the approach, an assessment of the method's usefulness, the types of skills and knowledge required to
use it successfully, whether it is appropriate for policy, program, or project analysis, and if it is useful for WID or
gender analysis.






























PAGE4








III: The Basic
Elements of
Institutionalization


GENESYS1














III: The Basic Elements of Institutionalization


3.1 Elements of the
Basic Framework
There are seven basic elements
which together constitute the entire
"framework" or preconditions for
institutionalizing consideration of
gender as a critical variable in devel-
opment. The seven elements are
listed in Table I to the right and
briefly explained in section 3.2. A
table in section IV illustrates linkages
between these seven basic elements
and the tools in the Tool Kit. This
table is intended to guide the reader
in selecting the appropriate tool for
specific purposes.

3.2 Discussion of
the Basic Elements

* Awareness of the
importance of gender
issues for development
outcomes
"Gender awareness" is the con-
scious knowledge that communities
are not homogeneous, and that
benefits from development pro-
grams and national policies do not
automatically accrue equally to all
members and segments of a given
community. In many instances,
these inequalities are due to gender
differences in the division of labor,
rights, responsibilities, and access to
resources. Gender awareness also
implies recognition by policymakers
that development efforts need to be
consciously planned and imple-
mented to seize opportunities and
surmount constraints linked to gen-
der differences in access to resources.


Commitment to
addressing gender
issues in the institution's
activities
Gender awareness is a necessary,
but not sufficient, condition for
incorporating gender considera-
tions into operational procedures.
Institutional change occurs only
when an organization makes the
conscious commitment to address
gender issues in the course of doing
business. This commitment must
increase the likelihood that benefits


accrue as equally as possible to men
and women. In addition, commit-
ment can ultimately lead to address-
ing gender issues actively by allevi-
ating or removing constraints to
women's access to resources and
decision making.


PAGE


1


2
Table I














3

4



a


6
Th Bai Elmnt o
InsittinaizngGede Cncrn

in Deelpmn Orgaizaion









Co mtmn to adrssn gede isue in th nttto'
activities;

Caact fo fomlto of gedrfc dqetos
Caact fo arigotgneradsca nlss

Caact fo aping the~I fidig ofgneadsca
aayis to th intuio' portolio
















, Capacity for
formulation of gen-
der-focused questions
A prerequisite for "gender-
informed" or "gender-literate"
development efforts is the capacity
to formulate the right questions
regarding the gender division of
labor, rights, responsibilities and
access to resources and to link gen-
der-informed analytical questions
and hypotheses to development
objectives. Careful formulation of
questions also allows development
practitioners to assess the usefulness
and applicability of existing quanti-
tative data, qualitative studies,
indigenous knowledge, and informa-
tion routinely acquired on the job by
field personnel. The capacity to ask
the correct gender-informed questions
at the onset of activity planning can
reduce an organization's need for
additional data collection later.


B Capacity for carrying
out gender and
social analysis
Sex-disaggregated data that has
been analyzed and interpreted can
provide development institutions
with an informed set of alternatives
on how to implement their pro-
grams so that they benefit and allow
for active participation by both
women and men. Gender analysis
can focus either on the macro or
micro level. For instance, it can
examine policy issues that affect any
development effort, such as differ-
ential legal status, political represen-
tation and power, and laws affecting
men's and women's access to eco-
nomic opportunities. Gender
analysis can also focus on gender-
specific opportunities and con-


straints within particular sectors
such as agriculture, natural resource
management, and enterprise
development. Usually, it will be
necessary to examine both contexts
because both macro-level and
sector-specific issues affect who has
access to a program's or project's
resources. It is not always necessary
to put much extra effort into gender
analysis, because much of the infor-
mation is usually available, although
not always in a form that can be
used directly. For instance, sex-
disaggregated data can be obtained
from a variety of sources to provide
a picture of an existing
scenario, demonstrating imbalances
between the sexes in such areas as
education and literacy, labor force
participation, and urban-rural
residence. These data provide
information on the status quo of
gender relations. However, it will be
up to the development planners and
implementers to analyze the under-
lying reasons for the existing
imbalances.
An important point to remem-
ber is that not every member of a
development organization needs to
be capable of carrying out gender
analysis. The significant steps are,
first, to be aware that gender differ-
ences often influence a specific pro-
ject's outcomes and, second, to for-
mulate appropriate, gender-related
questions. In the same way that
development organizations use
specialists to address technical


issues, they often need to use
specialists to address gender issues.
Social scientists trained in gender
analysis are usually qualified to
carry out research and gather the
information needed for gender-
informed policy formulation and
implementation.


SCapacity for applying
the findings of gen-
der and social analysis
to the institution's port-
folio
The capacity to apply the major
findings from gender analysis is
crucial for establishing a realistic
program and project design and
implementation plan. For a devel-
opment organization to be truly
"gender-informed" it should have
this capacity in-house. This implies
that staff members are capable of
"translating" findings from gender
analysis into operational terms, and
that these findings are reflected in
implementation plans. Development
agencies must devise explicit
strategies to integrate findings from
gender analysis into planning and
implementation. For instance,
implementation plans should
acknowledge gender-specific con-
straints in access to resources and
devise strategies for coping with these
constraints. Some program/project
design and implementation plans
might contain strategies for reducing
systematic gender biases by setting
quotas for men's and women's
participation in activities, by estab-
lishing gender-specific targets for
benefits, or by using other means to
reduce the "gender gap."


PAGE 7


GENESYSI

















A Capacity for system-
atic monitoring and
evaluation of gender-
specific program impact
The most important question to
ask about any development initiative
is, how does it change the lives of the
actual or potential participants? 1
To monitor these changes, each
activity needs to have some baseline
data, and a review system that
provides periodic updates of
progress toward impact on people's
well-being. A gender-informed
development organization ensures
that its monitoring and evaluation
(M&E) system provides information
disaggregated by sex (and other
social variables), to determine
differential results on the lives of
men and women. Such an M&E
system should provide information
for justifying changes in policy
direction if the impact is negative for
either men or women. At the same
time, the M&E system should allow
an institution to assess whether or
not a specific activity contributes to
reducing gaps between benefits
accruing to men and women.


Systematic reporting
of gender-relevant
lessons learned, and
subsequent program
adaptation
The results of a specific
development intervention must be
analyzed, synthesized, and reported
on to be useful for managing the
activity itself and for designing sub-
sequent activities. Gender-sensitive
reporting systematically channels
information on whether programs
affect women and men differently to
decision makers. The lessons
learned need to be "translated" into
operational principles for program
or project adaptation, if needed, to
allow adjustment of new initiatives
to meet both women's and men's
needs more equitably. This final
step starts the "gender institutional-
ization cycle" again, this time at a
more informed and realistic level,
and based on broad experience and
a systematic gender-sensitive
approach.

1 We do not use the term "beneficiary" in the
Tool Kit in discussions of monitoring and
evaluation. Whether or not a particular per-
son or group of people has benefited from a
development activity is only evident after the
activity. Therefore we refer to people who are
the intended recipients of benefits as "partici-
pants."


PAGE 8








IV Guidelines for
Operationalizing
the Basic
Framework
V Conclusion
Annex I
Annex I


GENESYS1M












IV. Guidelines for Operationalizing the

Basic Framework


Although there is no single for-
mula for addressing gender issues
in development, it is possible to
identify common elements that
each organization can adapt to its
particular institutional structure
and procedures. In Table II, the
seven basic elements for institution-
alization of gender considerations in
development (GCID) are paired
with operational mechanisms.
These mechanisms are the actual
structures or processes for address-
ing gender issues that are common
to USAID Missions and Bureaus.
Readers who work outside USAID
can adapt the list of mechanisms to
their own institutional structure
and terminology. This table can be
used as a worksheet for an organi-
zation to assess its own commit-
ment to and capability for address-
ing gender issues in its portfolio.
Column 3 is for checking the avail-
ability of the various mechanisms
within the organization. For a
more thorough review, however,
clarifications need to be noted in
the "Comments" column
(column 4).


4.1 Table of
Linkages Between
the Basic Elements
and the GENESYS
Tools
Selection of the right tool for
the job is a prerequisite for efficient
use of any tool kit. The GENESYS
Tool Kit is no exception to this rule,
although the application of the tools
is somewhat flexible.
Table III, on page 12, has been
developed to help the reader select
the appropriate GENESYS tool(s)
for specific purposes. The table
provides an overview of links
between the seven basic elements
for institutionalizing gender consid-
erations in development, discussed
above, and the five different categories
of tools from the Tool Kit. Under
each tool are numbers representing
the basic elements addressed by that
particular tool. To indicate links,
the basic element numbers (1-7) are
in boxes: darker boxes represent a
strong, direct linkage between a par-
ticular tool and an element or set of
elements; lighter boxes represent a
more indirect linkage between a
tool and an element, as shown on
the legend next to the table.
At first glance, a number of pat-
terns emerge from the table. First,
there seem to be two generic tools,
namely the Basic Framework, pre-
sented in this paper, and the Gender
Research Guide for the Agriculture,
Environment, and Natural Resource
Sectors. Both tools support all ele-
ments of integrating gender issues
in development, however they do
not treat any of the elements in
depth. Therefore, the linkages
between these two tools and the


basic elements are indicated with
lightly shaded number boxes. Both
tools may be useful for people and
organizations interested in the gen-
eral "how-to" of considering gender
as a critical variable in development.
While the Basic Framework may be
useful for policymakers and pro-
gram implementers of development
organizations in general, the Gender
Research Guide may be of interest to
a large selection of people involved
in development initiatives in
agricultural and natural resource
management.
The quantitative tools in the
second category are, as indicated by
the dark number boxes, useful in
raising awareness of gender-related
bottlenecks in development initia-
tives. They are designed to use
already existing information and
"package" it in such a way that gen-
der differences can be identified. By
using graphics and charts to repre-
sent major sex imbalances, these
tools can help the user gain an
understanding of precise inequali-
ties between the sexes in, for
instance, formal schooling, labor
force participation, and residence.
They also facilitate the formulation
of relevant questions and hypothe-
ses about reasons for observed sex
imbalances and assist in carrying
out gender analysis and extracting
policy implications from the results.
Table III reveals that the diag-
nostic tools in the third category are
intended specifically for formulating
questions and carrying out gender


PAGE 10
















Table II- Worksheet:

Overview of the Basic Elements and Their Institutional Mechanisms





A e GCID/WID Policy
Written policy/mission order?
Staff awareness of policy?


S *W0 Implementation of policy?
GCID/WID Action Plan
Plan developed, dates updated?
Integrated in Mission strategy?
Compliance tracked/consequences?
GCID/WID Officer(s)
Responsibility defined?
Motivation?
Support, encouragement, support staff?
Organizational placement in USAID structure?
% of time on GCID/WID (planned, actual)
GCID/WID Committee
Responsibilities defined?
Institutional level/profile of members?
Representativeness of program?
Time available? Incentives/disincentives?
Motivation?


Knowledge, Training
SGCID/WID officer trained in gender analysis etc.?
SGCID/WID Committee trained in gender analysis etc.?
Capacity for formulation of relevant questions?
(Examples)
GCID/WID Resource/Guidance
Sex-disaggregated data systematically gathered?
Written information and guidance on policy-relevant gender
questions available?


Ged- Capacity for "translating" sex-disaggregated data into
gender analysis? by: GCID/WID Officer? Committee?
Technical assistance available?
Resources for gender analysis?
Knowledge about gender analysis?
Knowledge of where to get help?
How has this help been used in the past?



GCID/WID Review system
a Concrete examples of application of findings from gender
analysis (e.g., policy design, policy analysis, allocation of
resources)
Gender-relevant data collection carried out? (project and
program levels)


M r Gender-integrated monitoring of project/program impact?
Systematic inclusion of GCID in all evaluations?
Reporting of gender-relevant data and issues in SARs,
Action Plans, etc.?


Systematic analysis of lessons learned? (i.e., what
difference did it make?)
Feedback into programming cycle?

Mission/Bureau-specific Mechanisms
(Describe)


PAGE


GENESYSI
















analysis. These tools will be espe-
cially useful for development organi-
zations in which there is already a
widespread awareness of the impor-
tance of addressing gender issues
and a firm commitment to do so.
The same is true for the fourth cate-
gory. These planning and M&E
tools are intended for use in one
part of the process of considering
gender in development. The tools in
this category are particularly helpful
when an organization is ready to
change its usual way of doing
business, and is establishing, or has
established, the internal mechanisms
for addressing gender issues system-
atically. It should be noted that a
lightly shaded box with the number
"2" is next to the tool for Documenting
Development Program Impact, repre-
senting its link to the "Commitment"
element. This indicates that the
tool helps its user not only in docu-
menting gender-specific impact, but
indirectly in strengthening and reaf-
firming commitment to considering
gender as a critical variable.

Table III Legend
Indicates indirect link or application
to Basic Element
Indicates direct link or application
to Basic Element
The Basic Elements
L Awareness
U Commitment
SFormulation of relevant
questions
Gender analysis
J Application of findings
Q Monitoring and Evaluation
SReporting of lessons learned


Table III

Links Between the GENESYS Tools

and the Basic Elements

Tool Categories
BASIC FRAMEWORK
* GCID Framework: A Tool for Assessing Institutionalization
of Gender Concerns in Development Organizations


QUANTITATIVE TOOLS
* Quantifying Gender Issues: A Tool for Using Quantitative Data
in Gender Analysis (A Slide Presentation) E i

* Country Gender Profiles: A Tool for Summarizing Policy
Implications from Sex-Disaggregated Data m f

* Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for Analyzing
Income and Employment Data from Surveys m e

DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
* Gender and Policy Implementation: A Tool for Assessment
of Policy-Derived Impacts on Women and Men 0 0

* Sex and Gender-What's the Difference?: A Tool for Examining
the Sociocultural Context of Sex Differences E El

PLANNING AND M&E TOOLS
* Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Sustainable
Development: A Tool for Gender-Informed Project Planning


* Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation: A Tool for Developing
Project M&E Plans 2 0 A

* Documenting Development Program Impact: A Tool for
Reporting Differential Effects on Men and Women l [ A

REFERENCE
Gender Research Guide for the Agriculture, Environment,
and Natural Resource Sectors: A Tool for Selecting Methods
BBQBCBB3B


PAGE12














V. Conclusion

This GCID Framework tool
serves to introduce the GENESYS
Tool Kit, provide basic guidance on
the fundamental steps in the process
of institutionalizing gender consid-
erations in development, and
explain the tools' relation to these
steps. The tools can help guide
development professionals through
a systematic process that integrates
gender into their project and pro-
gram planning, designing, imple-
menting, monitoring, and evalua-
tion activities.


Annex I-Glossary


Acronyms:
ABS Annual Budget Summary
ADB African Development Bank
AIDAB Australian International
Development Assistance Bureau
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome
ALR Adult Literacy Rate
AP Action Plan
CDSS Country Development
Strategy Statement
CP Congressional Presentation
CSGP Country-Specific Gender
Profile
DSEA Disaggregated by sex,
ethnicity, and age
ECOGEN Ecology, Community
Organization and Gender
EOPS End-of-Project Status
ERP Economic Recovery Program
FEMNET African Women's
Development and Communication
Network
FHH Female-Headed Households
FSR/E Farming Systems
Research/Extension
GAD Gender and Development
GAM Gender Analysis Matrix
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GIF Gender Information
Framework
HDR Human Development Report
HIV Human Immunodeficiency
Virus
ICRW International Center for
Research on Women


IMR Infant Mortality Rate
INSTRAW International Research
and Training Institute for the
Advancement of Women
LAC Latin America/Caribbean
MHH Male-Headed Households
MMR Maternal Mortality Rate
MYS Median Years of Schooling
NGO Non-Governmental
Organization
NIC Newly Industrialized Country
NTAE Non-Traditional
Agricultural Exports
PHC Primary Health Care
PID Project Identification
Document
POD Program Objective
Document
PP Project Paper
SAR Semi-Annual Report
SGA Social and Gender Analysis
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
TBA Traditional Birth Attendant
TFR Total Fertility Rate
UNIFEM United Nations
Development Fund for Women
USAID United States Agency for
International Development
WID Women in Development


13


GENESYSI

















Terms:

Sex A category that distinguishes
males from females by referring
to biological characteristics per-
ceived as universal and
unchangeable.

Gender Culturally prescribed social
roles and identities of men and
women that are highly variable
across cultures and are subject
to change.

Gender awareness The conscious
knowledge that communities
are not homogeneous, and that
benefits from development
interventions do not accrue
equally to all members and seg-
ments of a given community.

Gender-informed Awareness or
approach that takes account of
differential access of men and
women to resources and
acknowledges the need to
reduce systematic gender biases.

Gender issue in development Issue
that potentially involves an
aspect of gender roles or rela-
tions that has an impact, direct
or indirect, positive or negative,
on the goals of development
programs and projects.


Gender neutral Assumes equal
opportunities and benefits,
without questioning whether a
person's gender constrains or
favors his/her access to
resources and participation in
decision making.

Gender relations Ways in which
culture defines the rights,
responsibilities, and identities
of men in relation to women.

Gender sensitivity Extent to which
development practitioners and
analysts consider the respective
roles of men and women in a
society when formulating,
implementing, and assessing
policies, programs, and pro-
jects.

Objective Tree Graphic tool for
diagramming the hierarchical
relationships among develop-
ment goals, purposes, outputs,
activities, and inputs.

Objectives A set of expected results
and effects.

Impact Measurable outcome of
development interventions.

Indicators Selected quantitative
and qualitative measures that
provide key information for
assessing the progress and
impact of development objec-
tives.

Impact indicators Selected mea-
sures that demonstrate whether
a project or program has
achieved its expected outcomes.


Process indicators Measures used
to monitor the effects of project
activities in the short term, so
that needed corrections can be
made. They measure progress
of activities that contribute to
achieving objectives and results.

Baseline Values Measures which
establish the starting point from
which project impact can be
measured in relation to target
values set by project objectives.


PAGE 14














Annex I List of Other GENESYS Publications


Special Studies:

#1 Women and the Law in Asia
and the Near East, Lynn P.
Freedman, May 1991.

#2 The Role of Women in Evolving
Agricultural Economies ofAsia
and the Near East: Implications
for AID's Strategic Planning,
Inji Z. Islam and Ruth Dixon-
Mueller, May 1991.

#3 Lessons Learned from Advanced
Developing Countries, Susan P.
Joekes, May 1991.

#4 Women's Income, Fertility, and
Development Policy, Boone A.
Turchi, Mary T. Mulhern, and
Jacqueline J. Mahal, May 1991.

#5 Investing in Female Education
for Development, Jere R.
Behrman, May 1991.

#6 Women and the Transition to
Democracy in Latin America
and the Caribbean: A Critical
Overview, F. Painter and M.
Wong, December 1992.

#7 Gender and Agriculture &
Natural Resource Management
in Latin America and the
Caribbean: An Overview of the
Literature, November 1992.

#8 Gender and Trade &
Investment in Latin America
and the Caribbean: An
Overview of the Literature,
Mary Mulhern and Suzanne
Mauz6, December 1992.


#9 Democracy and Gender: A
Practical Guide to USAID
Programs, David Hirschmann,
February 1993.

#10 The Legal Status of Women in
the New Independent States of
the Former Soviet Union, Janet
Hunt-McCool and Lisa
Granik, May 1994.

#11 Women and Their Role in the
Agriculture and Natural
Resource Sector in the Gambia,
Sara Norton Staal, January
1991.

#12 Islam, Public Policy and the
Legal Status of Women in
Niger, Roberta Ann Dunbar,
March 1992.

#13 Women in Niger: Socio-
Economic Roles and Agro-
Pastoral Production, Natural
Resource Management and Off-
Farm Production, Wendy
Wilson, April 1992.

#14 Gender and Socio-Economic
Considerations in
Environmental Programs and
Projects: Lessons Learned in the
Brazilian Amazon, Eileen I.
Muirragui and E. Suely
Anderson, October 1994.

#15 What You Count is Not Who I
Am: Notions of Gender and
Quantitative Analysis,
Deborah Caro, October 1994.

#16 Capturing USAID's WID
Experience in Pakistan,
Gretchen Bloom, September
1994.


#17 A Comparison of Approaches to
Institutionalizing Gender in
Donor Agencies, Development
Alternatives, Inc. October 1994.

#18 Sex Imbalances and Gender
Issues: Addressing the Linkages
in Development Planning,
Alison C. Meares, October 1994.

Summary Reports:

GENESYS Gender Research for
the LAC Bureau (LAC/WID
Research Activity), Mary
Mulhern, Constance
McCorkle, Deborah Caro, Pat
Martin, August 1994.

* Gender and Employment in
Moroccan Agribusiness,
Suzanne Smith Saulniers,
Maria Neyra Faqir, Philip
Boyle, September 1993.

* Le Genre et l'Emploi dans
l'Agro-Industrie Marocaine,
Suzanne Smith Saulniers,
Maria Neyra Faqir, Philip
Boyle, Septembre 1993.

* GENESYS Training
Interventions: Their Role in the
Institutionalization of Gender
Concerns in USAID, Joan
Goodin, September 1994.


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