• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 List of acronyms/terms
 Foreword
 Executive summary
 Part 1: The WID combing exerci...
 Part 2: The synthesis
 Part 3: Next steps
 Annex 1: Overview and summary of...
 Annex 2: Reference tables and background...
 Annex 3: Cross sectoral implic...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Gender relevant findings : synthesis report
Title: Gender relevant findings
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080523/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender relevant findings synthesis report
Physical Description: x, 72 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Caro, Deborah A
Mulhern, Mary
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Bureau for Research and Development. -- Women in Development Action Group
GENESYS Project
Publisher: Bureau for Research and Development, U.S. Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Women   ( lcsh )
Project appraisal -- Women   ( ltcsh )
Project design -- Women   ( ltcsh )
Technical assistance, U.S -- Women   ( ltcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Women in Development Action Group.
General Note: "... produced for the R&D Bureau by the GENESYS Project of the Office of Women in Development ... principal authors were Deborah Caro and Mary Mulhern"--p. iii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080523
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003689235
oclc - 29011216

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    List of acronyms/terms
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Executive summary
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Part 1: The WID combing exercise
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Part 2: The synthesis
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Part 3: Next steps
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Annex 1: Overview and summary of findings presented
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Annex 2: Reference tables and background materials for synthesis
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Annex 3: Cross sectoral implications
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Back Cover
        Page 73
Full Text





























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GENDER RELEVANT FINDINGS:


SYNTHESIS REPORT

















Women in Development
Action Group





Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523
June 1992







R&D WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GROUP


R&D Women in Development Action Group Principals

Eric Chetwynd (Co-Chair) Mar
Fern Finley Ron
Bernadette Bundy Edw
Joyce Turk Gloi
Shirley Toth Nor
Genease Pettigrew Susa
Patricia Bekele Coll
Sawon Hong Nan
William Miner JamE


R&D Women in Development Action Group Alternates


Vincent Cusumano
Pamela Stanbury
Twig Johnson
Frances Davidson
William Ford
Wendy Jackson
Mari Clark


y Fran Freedman (Co-Chair)
Grosz
ard Lijewski
ia Steele
i Berwick
n Anthony
een Allen
cy Johnson
es Hoxeng


Richard Pelczar
Carolyn Kiser
Krystn Wagner
Thomas Kellermann
Cecilia Woodfill
Ruth Frischer


Other Women in Development Action Group Participants


Brenda Bushouse
Annie Foster
Rosalie Norem
Jenna Luche
Edgar Ariza-Nino


Timothy Seims
Brynn Gaberman
Nancy Diamond
Keith Crawford


Office Directors


David Erbe
James Anderson
Patrick Peterson
James Sullivan
Barbara Rodgers
Samuel Rea
Duff Gillespie


Douglas Sheldon
James Daly
Richard Seifman
Twig Johnson
Eric Chetwynd
Mary Fran Freedman
Ann Van Dusen


Office of the Assistant Administrator


Richard Bissell
Bradshaw Langmaid


Ralph Smuckler
Kathy Blakeslee


The Synthesis Report was prepared for the R&D Bureau by Deborah Caro and Mary Mulhern of
the Office of Women in Development's GENESYS Project.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


List of Acronyms

Forward by the Assistant Administrator

Executive Summary


Part I -- The Gender Combing Exercise

I. Background

II. Purpose of the Combing Exercise

III. Introduction


Part I -- The Synthesis

IV. Clusters I: Relevance to Programming Cycle

V.1 Clusters II: Recommendations and Analytical Approach


Part II -- Next Steps

VI. Recommendations for R&D Bureau Strategic Planning

VII. List of Findings and Reports



ANNEXES:

1. Overview and Summary of R&D Office Presentations

2. Reference Tables and Background Materials for Synthesi

3. Cross-Sectoral Implications


s








LIST OF ACRONYMS/TERMS


A.I.D.
AA/R&D
AFR
AIDS
AMIS
ARI
ATI
CLUSTERS


CRSP
EPM.
F/FRED
GENESYS
HH
HIV
IFPRI
LAC
NRM
PIO/T
R&D

R&D/WID
R&D/AGR
R&D/EID
R&D/ED
R&D/EIN
R&D/ENR
R&D/H
R&D/OIT
R&D/N
R&D/POP
R&D/R
R&D/UC

WASH
WID
WIDAG


U.S. Agency for International Development
Assistant Administrator, R&D/Bureau
Africa Region
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Agricultural Marketing Improvement Strategies
Acute Respiratory Infection
Appropriate Technology International
Analytical framework for grouping findings by common characteristics
or outcomes (i.e., Clusters I and II represent broad groupings of
smaller clusters)
Collaborative Research Support Program
Environmental Planning and Management Project
Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project
Gender in Economic and Social Systems
Head of Household
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
International Food Policy Research Institute
Latin America and Caribbean Region
Natural Resource Management
Project Implementation Order/Technical Services
Bureau for Research and Development, Agency for International
Development
Office of Women in Development, R&D Bureau
Office of Agriculture, R&D Bureau
Office of Economic and Institutional Development, R&D Bureau
Office of Education, R&D Bureau
Office of Energy, R&D Bureau
Office of Environment and Natural Resources, R&D Bureau
Office of Health, R&D Bureau
Office of International Training, R&D Bureau
Office of Nutrition, R&D Bureau
Office of Population, R&D Bureau
Office of Research, R&D Bureau
Agency Center for University Cooperation in Development, R&D
Bureau
Water and Sanitation Project
Women in Development
Women in Development Action Group








FORWARD BY THE ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR


This report captures the results of a campaign in the Research and Development
Bureau to strengthen its Gender and Women in Development strategy and to provide
the substantive basis for the technical offices to develop their own strategies. The
process involved each office in the R&D Bureau and was led by the Bureau's Women in
Development Action Group (the membership of which appears on the back of the cover
page).

Combing through the gender and WID specific research findings -- as well as
development experiences of each office -- produced an array of sectoral and cross-
sectoral findings that exceeded my expectations. We now have an excellent basis for
moving ahead with office level strategies. As anticipated, both our strengths and
shortcomings were revealed such that we were able to emerge with a R&D Bureau
Gender and WID strategy. The essence of that strategy is contained in the
recommendations of this report, all of which have been adopted.

Drawing on the guidance of our Women in Development Action Group (WIDAG) and
the expertise and resources of the Office of Women in Development (R&D/WID), the
Bureau will push ahead with the implementation of our program. However, we do not
regard current plans as set in concrete. We see ourselves as having reached a higher
threshold than we were on before we started to take a closer look at the gender and
WID substance of our research and action. Working with this knowledge and
continuing to examine both the sectoral and cross-sectoral or cross-cutting implications
of new findings and lessons, we are confident that we can continue to improve.

I am struck also by the potential utility of our findings to others in A.I.D. working in
the same sectors as R&D or in multi-sectoral programs. I hesitate to make too much of
this because this report is the product of an effort to get our own Bureau's "ducks in a
row" on the gender and WID issue. However, the programs of the R&D Bureau, by
their nature and design, parallel and support the programs of A.I.D. field Missions.
Many of the findings reported here are the result of collaboration in the field with
Missions. The cross-sectoral analysis we have done may have produced insights useful
to the more integrated nature of some Mission programs where multiple sectoral
approaches mutually reinforce a singular goal or policy objective.

We would welcome feedback from those outside of the R&D Bureau who find this
report useful or who wish to critique it in some specific respect. We are interested also
in information from the field that would strengthen or call into question specific
findings or lessons contained in this report.

As a guide to readers outside R&D, I would suggest a careful review of the Executive
Summary, the outline of the paper on page 4 and the conclusions to each of the major








sections of Part II -- The Synthesis. The "List of Findings and Reports" at the end of
the main text of the report is instructive and offers a quick overview of sector-by-sector
findings. The Annex, "Overview of R&D Office Presentations", contains the raw data
by Office that is the basis for the report. It is to this section that those interested in
specific findings by sector should turn for detail and references.

This report was produced for the R&D Bureau by the GENESYS Project of the Office
of Women in Development under a matching fund arrangement. Its principal authors
were Deborah Caro and Mary Mulhern of The Futures Group. They were assisted by
Brenda Bushouse of the R&D Bureau's Office of Economic and Institutional
Development. Deborah Caro facilitated the synthesis sessions that were so important in
reaching our final set of conclusions and recommendations.

Once again, I want to stress both my pleasure in the richness of our findings but at the
same time caution that they just bring us to a new threshold of understanding. Some
findings can be the basis for action. Some should be seen as tentative and the basis for
further experimentation or research. Others clearly are ripe for'challenge. We hope
you find this report useful and welcome your comments.


Richard E. Bissell
Assistant Administrator
Bureau for Research and Development








EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


This document synthesizes a series of office-by-office exercises in R&D intended to
identify gender relevant findings and lessons learned. It was dubbed the "combing
exercise" because each office combed through its current portfolio of development
activities to see what could be "uncovered" as significant in the field of gender issues in
development. It is based on a series of proactive actions being taken by R&D and its
Women in Development Action Group and forms the foundation for developing office-
level strategies. It also provides portfolio-specific examples of the role gender plays as a
critical development variable. It can be used to enhance A.I.D.'s ongoing dialogue both
within and outside the Agency on gender considerations in development. Some of the
findings seem obvious while others describe rather striking examples of gender-sensitive
design and analysis. All are intended to corroborate the need to include gender as a
legitimate and necessary variable in doing "good development".

PURPOSE OF THE SYNTHESIS REPORT

The purpose of the synthesis report is:
To identify similarities and differences among findings across R&D Offices
AND
To provide some preliminary guidance on how to accelerate the
S institutionalization of gender considerations within the Bureau and Agency

METHODOLOGY

The task of classifying and synthesizing across offices was quite challenging. Despite the
fact that each office followed a fairly standard format for their presentations, the
findings themselves ranged from very localized and specific to the global (see Annex 1
of the full report for documentation).

An example of a very specific finding was presented by the Nutrition Office. Data from
Kenya and Malawi suggested that household food security and preschooler nutritional
status are influenced by the interaction of both income and the gender of the head of
household rather than simply by one or the other. The International Food Policy and
Research Institute (IFPRI) found that there are distinct differences in income,
expenditures, and health status among female-headed households. The research
indicates that not only total household income but also the proportion of income
controlled by women has a positive impact on household caloric intake and the
nutritional status of children. The IFPRI findings suggest that a closer look at the
diversity within male and female-headed households is warrented and that targeting
exclusively by gender may not be the most effective way to reach poor households or
those most at risk.

An example of a more general finding was presented by the Population Office. They

iv








highlighted a basic principle guiding maternal health and family planning programs that
women in developing countries are at risk of illness or death from pregnancy, child birth
and high fertility rates. Family planning programs significantly reduce these risks.

The Women in Development Action Group (WIDAG) resolved the problem of trying to
compare disparate findings by settling on three Clusters that grouped findings by
common themes. The process of defining the clusters was a conceptual struggle to
group findings that cut across several sectors and types of projects. Three Clusters
grouped findings by a particular set of common criteria.


Clusters I:




Clusters II:




Clusters III:


Grouped findings by their relevance to different points in the
programming cycle, i.e. whether they provided information or guidance for
the identification, design, implementation, or assessment of policies,
program, or projects.

Grouped findings according to the implications of or recommendations
that emerged from the findings. This grouping provided an analytical
framework for how to most appropriately and effectively incorporate
gender considerations into projects, programs, and policies.

Grouped findings by types of direct, cross-sectoral implications such that
the findings of one office had direct relevance to another sectoral office in
the R&D Bureau.


Clusters I and II are discussed in the body of the report. Clusters III is the subject of a
more in-depth analysis to be undertaken by the Bureau at a later date (see
recommendation number six). The report uses the term "Clusters" I, II, III as macro-
groupings of smaller clusters of substantive findings and conclusions.

HIGHLIGHTS OF CLUSTERS I

Clusters I: Clusters I groups findings according to whether they were applicable to the
identification, design or evaluation of AID development interventions. These findings
were distributed over 3 broad groups:

INFORMATION BASE: What you need to know

DESIGN SUBTLETIES: How to integrate gender into design

NET BENEFITS: Differential outcomes to men and women

The findings in the Information base group either provide information or identify
missing information necessary for policy, program, or project design. The findings
provide what you need to know in order to identify and design interventions.








Several findings identified the need for gender disaggregated information to better
document gender-specific rules of access and management of resources. For instance,
research on AIDS revealed that developing appropriate technologies such as condoms,
did not provide equal protection to men and women, despite the supposed gender-
neutral physical properties of the technology. This was due to women difficulties in
controlling whether or not their husbands used condoms. Thus this finding identified a
need to collect and analyze gender-specific data on sexual attitudes and behaviors as
well as on cultural and social factors that put women at risk despite their knowledge of
and access to proven technologies. The information base cluster demonstrates that
access to reliable gender disaggregated information seems to be key to facilitating
changes in the design and implementation of projects.

The design subtleties grouping, incorporates findings that are related to actual project
designs and suggests how to adapt project design to reflect gender differences.

For example, one finding identified the need to address gender-specific constraints such
as girls' sibling care responsibilities which limit their access to education. The design
subtleties cluster suggests that project designs should directly address gender specific
constraints, focus attention on women's multiple roles, and attempt to introduce
innovation within a context of respect for cultural beliefs regarding gender. These
findings are persuasive in arguing for designs that are responsive to changes in all three
of these factors -- constraints, multiple roles, and belief systems.

The net benefits group focuses on differential outcomes and effects on men and women
of policies, programs, and projects. The findings in this group provided examples of
outcomes that were both anticipated and unanticipated or indirect.

Several findings cautioned that opportunities for realizing increased income might be
tempered by the imposition of an additional labor burden which might produce negative
lateral effects on women's nutrition or health. For example, a study of agricultural
villages in southern Cameroon found that, with the introduction of a new road to
improve market access and a subsequent increase in product prices, women increased
the number of hours spent in production for the market by approximately 5 hours to a
total of nearly 11 hours -- men devoted a total of only 1 hour toward production for the
market. After the road was introduced, women significantly increased their already long
workday while men's response was fairly minimal. New roads and infrastructure
investments in rural areas may have a stronger impact on women than men by
substantially expanding women's income earning opportunities. Given women's lengthy
workday, however, any intervention must take into account women's time constraints
and seek to alleviate an already heavy workload. Interventions should address issues of
drudge work so women can focus on other productive activity.

The net benefits cluster demonstrated that the effects of programs and projects is often
multidimensional for any one gender. At times, men and women might have competing








interests that are not easily satisfied by an intervention that satisfies only one aspect of
those interests.

For instance, information from the Forestry Fuelwood Research and Development
(F/FRED) Project revealed that women's access, management activities and priorities
are a vital part of tree improvement research. Many cultures have gender-specific rules
of access and management for trees and the production priorities of women differ from
those of men. Women's managerial functions in subsistence forestry are critical to
project success. Community level information on natural resource management (NRM)
does not necessarily provide crucial gender-related information unless the data can be
disaggregated, analyzed and incorporated into project planning, management,
monitoring and evaluation. Both gender and social analysis are relevant to all
environment and natural resource (ENR) project/program activities.

LESSONS LEARNED FROM CLUSTERS II

A second way to group the R&D Offices' presentations is according to what kind of
recommendations emerge from the findings and what they suggest about how to most
effectively and appropriately integrate gender considerations in future research and
programming. These clusters were developed more inductively than the previous set.
These findings reveal some basic principles on how to approach gender considerations
analytically.

The lessons learned from this cluster that cut across the findings and sectors are:

1. Counting Heads: A first step for several offices was to account for the relative
numbers of men and women participating in their programs. A next step entails
identifying opportunities and constraints to increasing participation of women
and men in development programs where they have been under-represented.

2. Integrated Gender Analysis: When possible, gender considerations should be
analyzed in relation to other socioeconomic and cultural variables such as age,
ethnicity, class, and race. The findings demonstrate that men and women are not
homogeneous social categories and that gender-specific opportunities, constraints,
and effects vary according to other socioeconomic factors. Project designs and
implementation strategies could benefit from a more contextual analysis of
gender. For instance, a Pakistan irrigation project produced evidence suggesting
that landless women might be affected differently than women with land and that
landless men might have more in common with landless women than with men
who own land.


3. Variable Nature of Gender Relations: Many findings emphasized the great
variability of gender relations over time and advocated for flexible and








participatory designs. Several health, agriculture, environment and education
findings stressed the need to respond to those changes with a great deal of
alacrity and sensitivity. For example, an Agriculture Office finding highlighted
the variability of gender specific roles in aquaculture; in some cases women have
assumed formerly male roles. Gender roles are fluid in response to changes in
the economic and social environment and program designs must be flexible to
respond appropriately.

4. Interdependent Resource Allocation and Access: Many projects offered evidence
of the interdependent nature of men and women's decision-making and control
over resources, even when they had responsibility for different productive and
non-productive activities. Therefore while one might target women with
veterinary extension services because of their role in livestock production, the
accompanying technical recommendations would be most effective if they were
based on an understanding of how livestock raising fit into the overall production
system.

5. Multiple Duties and Roles: Findings from almost all offices stressed the
multiplicity of gender-based roles that require attention from the design phase
through to the assessment of project outcomes. Research on the nutritional
status of children of working mothers in Indonesia, for instance, demonstrated
that how women manage these multiple roles can have a significant impact on
their children. Children's nutrition was affected more adversely if mothers
engaged in work inside rather than outside the home. Mothers who worked in
their houses could not afford to spend the time away from their source of income
to tend to their children's nutritional needs. In contrast, women who worked
outside the home left their children with caretakers who appeared to focus more
time and attention on food preparation and feeding of the children in their care.
This and similar findings from other offices emphasized that any intervention
designed to provide women and men with new opportunities must also address
women's and men's collateral roles and responsibilities.















vil.
viii


It "








RECOMMENDATIONS


The Report's recommendations grew out of discussions about how to build on the
synthesis process to develop the Bureau's strategy on gender considerations. Following
are the elements of the Bureau's plan to achieve Office-level strategies on gender.
These elements draw on the body of knowledge accumulated over the past year, starting
with the "back of the envelope" assessment and continuing with the gender relevant
findings exercise.

1. Increase Interactions with Regional Bureaus: As a means of stimulating discussion
and interest in the Agency in seeking a collective and sustainable approach to
institutionalizing attention to gender, WIDAG will collaborate with the WID
Regional Officers to arrange a series of meetings to share information about
process and substance gleaned from the R&D Gender Combing Exercise.

2. Conduct Workshops to Develop Office-level Strategies: A more in-depth look at
Office portfolios and approaches to gender issues is needed to guide future
actions in the Bureau. The WIDAG will arrange planning workshops for each
Office, using interactive forums to critique approaches to gender within the
Offices and determine how to best incorporate gender into the Office's overall
strategy and work plan.

3. Train Staff: A "training of trainers" will be conducted with the WIDAG
members, to enable them to better guide their respective Offices in developing
and implementing office-level strategies. Gender analysis training will be
incorporated into the current training course for senior management staff
entering A.I.D. More efforts will be made to expand current gender analysis
training in A.I.D. staff training courses, for example, to a full day (or longer)
session.

4. Train Contractors: Develop requirements for training and certification of
contractors working with the R&D Bureau. A requirement of gender analysis
training will be included in the PIO/T, contracts, grants and cooperative
agreements. The certification will be for a limited time (3-5 years) with a
refresher course required for renewal of the certification. The contractor training
program will be self-sustaining -- contractors will be charged to attend the
training course and should view it as a necessary cost of doing business with the
Bureau.

5. Increase Attention and Oversight on Project Design: Offices will build the gender
issue into their project design, dedicating design funds for this purpose as
required. A Gender representative (from the funding office) will serve on each
centrally funded project design committee to ensure that gender issues are
addressed at each stage of the project design process, including the initial







contractor work plan. A representative of the Bureau's WID Action Group will
be available to serve as a design consultant to the R&D project manager of each
newly designed R&D project.

6. Assess Cross Cutting Findings in R&D: Assign a R&D Bureau intern to compare
the findings identified as having cross-cutting implications with the general
literature on gender issues in each sector.








I. BACKGROUND


A "back of the envelope" assessment of the R&D Bureau's portfolio was prepared by
the R&D/WID GENESYS project in the spring of 1991. The conclusion of the
assessment was that most R&D Offices are proactively engaged in activities which
address gender issues, although all Offices are not equally strong in this area. The
assessment also concluded that the R&D Bureau is in a good position to positively
influence A.I.D. with respect to gender concerns due to its research and field support
mandate.

After participating in the Women in Development Action Group (WIDAG) discussion
of the assessment results in June 1991, Richard Bissell, AA/R&D circulated a memo to
R&D office directors in which he communicated his plans to request office-specific
gender strategies. The purpose of the strategies were to, "enhance gender concerns in
office activities and to actively support the Agency's commitment to monitor the impact
of its efforts."

Following the back of the envelope assessment and Richard Bissell's request for office-
level gender strategies, WIDAG arranged a workshop to assist the R&D Bureau in
developing and implementing those strategies. Thirty-six R&D representatives
participated in the October 1991 Workshop which was designed to:

Reach common understandings of what an office gender strategy needs to
be and how to get there;

Exchange ideas about concrete actions that have been taken or could be
taken at the office level to enhance or systematize attention to gender
issues.

The two hour session presented techniques for setting strategic objectives with examples
from R&D and missions. A round-table discussion followed which resulted in ideas and
concrete suggestions.


II. PURPOSE OF THE COMBING EXERCISE

The Office presentations, as synthesized in this paper, are the result of an exercise
designed to identify what is known, what needs to be known and what can and should
be done to incorporate gender considerations into projects and field support activities in
A.I.D. missions. The Office reports generally were based on projects or programs
where gender had been considered during the design of at least one component of the
project or program. An extension of the exercise in the future might ask why gender
was not included in other projects or programs. Some of the findings presented reveal







important implications for the formulation and support of policies and programs. The
objective of the presentations was to pull together substantive lessons learned or
research findings about gender issues through revisiting a question from the back of the
envelope assessment in greater depth. The question stated:

Based on available research results and field support activities, are there any key
substantive statements that can be made about gender considerations in your sector?
Any particular success stories you care to relate?

Eric Chetwynd, R&D/EID, Chair of the Women in Development Action Group,
requested R&D/WID's Gender in Economic and Social Systems (GENESYS) Project
staff to provide assistance in pulling together substantive issues learned and research
findings about gender issues identified by R&D Offices, synthesizing the findings, and
discussing how these findings support Agency priorities on women in development

R&D Bureau Office representatives met during five sessions held between November
1991 and February 1992 to present key gender-focused findings combed from Office-
level portfolios. An average of three Offices per session shared findings in written and
oral form with the other offices. The public forum stimulated discussion surrounding
both the corroboration and implications of the research findings. Summaries of
presentations and discussions by Office are found in Annex 1.


III. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the current synthesis of gender relevant findings in the R&D Bureau is
to lay the foundation for developing office level strategies and to enhance A.I.D.'s
ongoing dialogue with Congressional staff on gender considerations in development
The exercise was very much of a learning process for all those involved, and this
document reflects the dynamic evolution of the combing exercise. The synthesis report
attempts to identify similarities and differences among findings across R&D Offices and
to provide some preliminary guidance on how to improve and accelerate the
institutionalization of gender considerations within the Agency. The groupings and
comparisons of office-level findings under specific categories are interpretive.
Nevertheless, the different comparative frameworks presented in the report suggest
some interesting generalizations about viable strategies for improving project, program
and policy performance by incorporating gender considerations into the programming
cycle.

One of the limitations to classifying and synthesizing the findings is that each office
presented a number of discrete examples which were not comparable. While all offices
followed a fairly standard format for presenting their results, the results themselves
spanned the very localized and specific to the very global and general. In order to come
up with some meaningful groupings across offices, the findings were compared








according to three sets of criteria:


By relevance of findings' implications for different points in the
programming cycle and whether the findings are primarily significant for
policy formulation, program development, or project design;

By types of recommendations and analytical approach -- i.e. what the
findings imply in terms of how gender considerations can most
appropriately and effectively be incorporated into projects, programs, and
policies;

By types of direct, cross-sectoral implications, such that the finding has
direct relevance to another sectoral Office in the R&D Bureau.

The first two groupings are highlighted in the text of the report. They seemed to yield
the greatest number of generalizations that could be used to guide programming. The
third grouping, in the absence of more information, did not provide as immediate
conclusions or trends. It appears in Annex 3 and will be the subject of a more indepth
analysis to be undertaken by the Bureau (see recommendation number 6). A
comparison of a broader sampling of the Bureau's findings with what is found in the
literature on gender and development in each sector has potential to provide useful
results that go beyond the first steps taken in this paper.


Methodology:

The report clusters Office-level lessons learned and research findings into similar
themes in order to examine the possible implications of the findings for future planning
and programming. Following suggestions received during the February 20 WIDAG
meeting, the findings were arranged into groups, or "clusters," in order to highlight any
possible generalizations and implications for program development and implementation.
Given the broad variety of findings presented, these clusters were not easily
conceptualized nor were the findings always an exact fit within the clusters.
Nevertheless, the WIDAG discussed several "clusterings" in an attempt to draw out
generalizations and conclusions; the results of the most interesting clusterings are
discussed in Part II of the paper.

The process of defining the clusters was a conceptual struggle to group findings that cut
across several sectors and types of projects. The first group of categories, referred to in
this report as Clusters I, groups findings according to how they were presented. Several
categories emerged, which were then related to stages in the programming cycle.
Findings in this section are separated according to whether they are relevant to one (or
more) of the following categories: (1) strategy development and the process of gathering
background information that precedes program design; (2) project design; and (3)







evaluation and the process of drawing conclusions from past performance or activities to
inform future activities. Comparing the findings in this way did not, however, reveal
much about what the Bureau should be doing, but rather, commented on how gender
had been addressed in the past.

The second group of clusters categorizes findings according to the implications they
have for strategy development, based on the type of recommendation or analytical
approach. This second group of clusters emerged out of an inductive analysis, whereby
after reviewing the findings, several distinctions appeared regarding their implications
for developing strategies. The results of this clustering process seemed to have
significant possibilities for informing the Bureau about how it has traditionally
approached WID and, more importantly, about how it effectively might approach
gender issues in the future.

In response to requests from members of the WIDAG, an additional cluster group was
added, to identify which findings had implications across sectors. An initial cut at this
analysis is included in Annex 3 but is not discussed in the main report. It should form
the basis for a separate analysis and report on cross sectoral implications in the R&D
Bureau, involving a comprehensive sample of Office portfolios.


Outline of the Paper:

The paper is divided into three parts, beginning with an overview of the motivation for
the exercise and the process in Part I Part II describes the synthesis of the findings in
order to identify common themes and recommendations. Each of the two sections
reflects a different attempt at "clustering" the findings to expose commonalities and
differences. The sections begin with an explanation of how the cluster headings were
arrived at and the purpose of that type of clustering. A description and the results of
the clustering follows for each section, describing where the findings fit within the
cluster sub-groups. This is accompanied by a discussion of any implications that follow
for each section. The reader is referred to Annex 2 for further details of the synthesis
and where the individual findings were placed within the clusters.

Part III draws on discussions held at the WIDAG meeting on March 4, 1992 and input
volunteered by Group members to outline the suggested next steps for the Bureau in
developing its ability to consistently address gender issues.








IV. CLUSTERS I: RELEVANCE TO PROGRAMMING CYCLE


During the final session of the "Combing Exercise" the WID Office proposed a tentative
framework for assessing the significance of individual findings. The grid is really a
continuum which classifies findings according to how well they are corroborated by other
evidence or similar results within or across regions and sectors, and by whether they have
major or minor implications for A.I.D. policies, programs, and projects. The grid provides
one tool which R&D Offices might apply in trying to assess how particular findings might
form the basis for integrating gender considerations into their office-level action plans.



Low Low C Low C
Corroboration Minor I Major I



High High C High C
Corroboration Minor I Major I


Minor Major
Implications Implications

The grid proved less appropriate for assessing clusters of findings due to the great
variability in the degree of corroboration among findings. The grid, however, proved
useful in raising questions about implications of the findings and their relevance for
different stages of the programming cycle. The findings in Clusters I were grouped
according to how the findings were stated in terms of their application to the
identification, design, and evaluation of A.I.D. development interventions.

The findings fell into three rather broad groupings, and several of the findings fit into
more than one cluster. The three groups are:

1. Information base

2. Design subtleties

3. Net benefits

The grid was also useful in reflecting the extent to which the clustered findings might
guide policy, program, and project level decisions. Findings in the Information Base








cluster basically fell into the Policy and Program slots, with a tendency to have
implications primarily at a strategic level rather than at a project design level. The type
of information contained in these findings was most useful at the beginning stages of the
programming cycle to identify, for example, who would be affected by or involved in the
development intervention and how. The individual findings from the Design Subtleties
cluster typically had implications for project design. Findings from the third cluster, Net
Benefits, tended to fit into either the policy or program level, reflecting their
importance for determining strategy. These findings may have come out of a project
evaluation but the implications were usually for redesign or reconsideration of a policy
or program that "produced" the projects.


DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS OF CLUSTERING

This section provides a discussion of what the three clusters used in this grouping
indicate about gender issues in the programming cycle. The three clusters, designated
as Information Base, Project Design, and Net Benefits (anticipated and unanticipated
effects and indirect effects), serve as rough proxies for three parts of the programming
cycle, namely, (1) information gathering and strategy development, (2) project design,
and (3) evaluation and redesign. These are not discrete categories since ideally the
programming cycle operates as a feedback system, using information and analysis from
the evaluation stage to inform strategy development and then project design. The
clusters reflect that relationship -- a particular finding may fit in more than one cluster
and there is considerable overlap among the three clusters. The process of clustering
necessarily involves some tradeoffs, and the focus should be not on the individual
findings per se, but on what the group as a whole can reveal about programming and
gender issues. (The corresponding tables for this section can be found in Annex 2,
Tables 1-3).


1. Information Base

Many of these findings either provide information or identify missing information
necessary for policy formulation, program development or project design. The type of
information identified in these research and project implementation findings can be
characterized in terms of asymmetry of knowledge held by different genders (e.g.,
women and men are more or less knowledgeable about different kinds of indigenous
forest species) or in terms of differential access to or control of resources (e.g., land
rights). Other findings in this cluster identify gender specific behavior or risks.

Rural women may lack the resources or knowledge needed to fully capture income
benefits from an intervention or policy. For instance, the conclusion of a forestry
support program was that although female participants were nominated by national
agencies and donor organizations to attend workshops on gender issues in forestry








management, they were not in a position to act on this new knowledge. They lacked
access to the organizational debriefing and information sharing networks that their male
counterparts were part of and often were not in a position to make decisions (ENR
#1). Other findings also provided information on structural constraints which limit
women's economic participation. For instance the Education Office presented evidence
that women's ability to increase their productivity through the adoption of new
technology may be constrained by their lack of education (ED #4). These examples
provide some evidence that simply facilitating women's participation in development
activities may not be adequate for ensuring access to potential benefits from these
programs.

Women and men in a society may have access to and control different types of
knowledge and resources. Several findings point out where understanding gender
specific knowledge and practices may be key to project success. For example, women in
many cultures have rich knowledge about plants, diverse species and natural resource
conditions. The ENR Office's EPM Project stressed the need for policy changes from
the "top" to ensure that both women and men have opportunities to build their
differential knowledge and skills to gain access to resources and technologies, and to
contribute their knowledge and creative energy to resource management (ENR #5).
The ENR Office's F/FRED Project also recognized the need for gender-disaggregated
information to better document gender-specific rules of access and management of
forestry resources (ENR #2). Similarly, research into local beliefs and attitudes by the
Nutrition Office's Nutrition Communication Project suggests that culturally specified
gender roles within the household with regard to household decision-making patterns
and access to resources will influence nutritional outcomes in a household. This
information is critical for making adjustments in nutrition project strategies and
education (N #3).

Many of the research findings or project results in this cluster identify differential
behavior of men and women which may affect the success or orientation of development
interventions. It also includes those findings related to gender-specific health risks
which result from differences in men and women's behavior and roles. There are
instances when women's behavior patterns are identified as distinct from men's. When
the behavior is particularly beneficial to achieving the goal of the project, the findings
indicate that special efforts should be made to capitalize on and facilitate those
behaviors, as demonstrated by two EID Office's Projects which highlighted how
women's commerce in and spending on local products in Africa contribute positively to
regional rural development (EID #2 and #3). Other findings demonstrate that when
the gender-specific behavior is in conflict with development goals, the success of the
project will depend on developing strategies and incentives to change the gender-specific
behavior and to alleviate gender-specific constraints. For instance, research on AIDS
presented by the Health Office revealed that developing appropriate preventive
technologies, such as condoms, did not provide equal protection to men and women,
despite the supposedly gender-neutral physical properties of the technologies, due to an








imbalance in power relations within the household and the society. Thus there is a
need to develop strategies that address gender-specific sexual attitudes and behaviors
and cultural and socioeconomic factors that put women at risk of HIV infection (H #1).


Conclusions:

The information cluster suggests the importance of gathering gender-disaggregated data
to improve project and program identification and design. The major types of
information highlighted in the Office-level findings are information on gender-specific
roles, knowledge, access to and control over resources and technology, and behaviors.
The findings demonstrate the high degree of variability among men and women's roles
in agriculture, spending patterns, trading practices, land tenure systems, literacy and
numeracy, training, sexual attitudes and practices, and natural resource management
practices, to name a few. Far from providing esoteric socioeconomic knowledge, such
information appears to be critical for designing and evaluating the performance of
A.I.D. development programs. Based on the findings in this cluster, access to reliable
information seems to be key to facilitating changes in the design and implementation of
programs and projects.


2. Design Subtleties:

This cluster groups findings that are related to the design of a project. Many provide
recommendations on how to adapt project design to gender issues uncovered in a study,
project implementation, or evaluation. Others highlight how a project design might
differentially impede men and women's access to knowledge, resources, and technology
or constrain their participation.

Common factors affecting project design were women's multiple roles in the household
and economy, and their multiple uses of resources. Recommendations focused on the
need to explicitly analyze the interactions of these roles and uses with regard to a
potential project or activity. The AGR Office's Water Management I project in
Pakistan emphasized the need to design water systems in accordance with women's
multiple roles in agriculture and household production. For example, banks should be
designed to accommodate women carrying food and fodder to and from fields and
watercourses should be located and constructed so as to allow for multiple uses such as
irrigation, laundering clothes, bathing children, and watering livestock (AGR #1). The
Health Office corroborated such concerns through findings in the Water and Sanitation
Project (WASH) which stressed the importance of incorporating women into the project
as water system mangers due to their primary roles as water users and as catalysts of
change within their rural and urban communities (H #2).

Other findings stressed the importance of addressing gender-specific constraints such as







girls' sibling care responsibilities which limit their access to education (WID #1), or
time constraints on urban women as they increasingly move into the informal and
formal work force. For example, the EID Office reported findings from the AMIS
Project that as urban women in Mali increasingly work outside the home, they are
seeking more convenient and expedient foods to prepare which are less nutritious than
more traditional coarse grain foods. This implies the need for technologies that reduce
the processing time and preparation costs for coarse grains (EID #5). Similarly,
according to the Nutrition Office's Weaning Project in Indonesia, women who work at
home had less time to devote to their children's nutrition than those mothers who
arranged for others to care for their children while they worked outside the home. The
study concluded that project design should focus on how to balance work and childcare
more effectively when mothers work at home (N #2).

For the most part, the findings presented by R&D Offices indicate that successful
projects try to gradually modify or work with traditional roles and cultural beliefs
regarding gender rather than ignoring or changing them outright. The AGR Office's
Small Ruminant CRSP advocated that if women are providing up to 70% of the farm
labor, 70% of the target group should be female, and that the bias that persists in some
program designs, that has excluded women in target groups, must be addressed by
meeting the needs of female farmers and livestock raisers (AGR #3). The AGR
Office's Aquaculture Project's conclusions about project design echo those of the Small
Ruminant CRSP and adds the observation that planners cannot assume that gender
roles will remain static. It argues for program designs that remain flexible to adapt to
changes in women's and men's roles and responsibilities (AGR #4).

A lingering bias against women in certain types of projects inhibits their participation, if
not carefully addressed in the design. For instance the EID Office's AMIS Project
observes that small scale rural marketing services operated by women contribute to low-
cost food availability in remote areas. Restrictive regulations, however, exclude women
from participation and make the whole local marketing system less capable of adapting
to' changing conditions and opportunities (EID #3). Other findings about project
design also highlight the need for providing substitute income and for incorporating
both men and women into the decision-making process. When an income source is
taken away, specific efforts are required to ensure that substitute sources of income are
found for women, who may face more severe or different limitations than men. The
AGR Office's Water Management II project emphasized the need to develop strategies
that assure displaced female laborers of ongoing sources of income (AGR #1). A
similar conclusion was reached by the EID/ATI Project. While new technology can
replace time consuming food processing techniques, there is also a danger of displacing
women from the labor force. Therefore, projects designed to introduce new
technologies must consider gender in order to assess differential costs and benefits to
men and women (EID #1).

In cases where women are the target of a project, but men are key in the decision-







making process, the findings supported the conclusion that both men and women need
to be included in the activity, as in the case of family planning programs which have
found that project designs must incorporate both men and women so as to increase
men's support for family planning efforts (POP #5). The population findings in general
support the conclusion that the incorporation of gender considerations into program
design, implementation, and management policies will improve the quality of services
provided and will result in greater impact.


Conclusions:

The design cluster suggests that several key elements could be profitably incorporated
into project design. Attention to women's multiple roles, for instance, appears to be
essential for maximizing benefits and minimizing unanticipated negative lateral effects
on women and their households. The findings also suggest that project designs should
address gender-specific constraints that might limit access to training or extension
services. Finally, the findings under this cluster indicate that successful projects work
within or gradually attempt to modify cultural beliefs and roles regarding gender, while
recognizing that these roles and beliefs change over time and project designs must be
responsive to those changes. This advocates for involving women and men in the design
and implementation of projects.


3. Net Benefits

These findings focus on outcomes by suggesting either that the net benefits of a policy,
program or project are greater for women than for men or that the effects of the policy,
program or project on women are contradictory (to a greater degree than on men), and
the net effect is unclear. They include both anticipated and unanticipated effects, as
well as indirect effects. For instance, increased income benefits may be lessened by the
imposition of additional labor burdens. Other findings in this cluster identify women
(or men) as particularly good conduits for achieving a distinct goal, such as child
survival or reducing environmental degradation, even when they are not the direct or
immediate beneficiaries.

Net benefits might accrue to women either as a consequence of direct targeting, as
exemplified by the Education finding that women's literacy and numeracy enhance their
access to complementary resources such as land, credit and technology, increasing their
productivity in farm and household production (ED #4); or through indirect effects of
a policy, as demonstrated by a WID Office finding that there is some evidence that
productivity enhancing investments may be equally cost-effective in the long run for
employers while offering substantial benefits to female employees (WID #4). These
findings, however, neither reveal whether the benefits are gender-specific nor address
what constraints must be overcome to achieve the results, such as impediments to







women's access to education, or misperceptions of employers that providing benefits is
too costly.,

Some of the findings in this cluster demonstrate that while women or men may derive
increased benefits from a particular intervention, they may also experience other lateral
effects that are less beneficial. For, instance, AGR Office's Water Management Project
finding highlights that while labor saving irrigation technology may provide some
households with increased income, it might displace female agricultural laborers who
have limited alternatives for employment (AGR #1). Similarly, a WID Office's -
Agricultural finding presents evidence that women may be particularly responsive to
roads that increase their access to markets and provide them with additional income,
but without access to labor saving technology, the net effect may be to increase women's
already long workday, thus producing negative health consequences (WID #8).

Not all benefits are direct. Some findings reveal that women are perceived to be
particularly well suited as agents or conduits for achieving wider social goals. In these
cases, women are the focus of the interventions because of their strategic roles as
mothers or resource users, rather than as direct or immediate beneficiaries. For
instance, the Health Office's ARI Project finding illustrates how women are targeted as
mothers and as health care workers to reduce the incidence of children's death from
pneumonia (H #3). The direct benefits to women of increasing child survival, thus
lowering fertility rates, are extremely long term. Similarly, several natural resource
projects target women because of their roles as resource users. Even though these
interventions might lead to sustaining biodiversity, which is a benefit to society as a
whole, they do not necessarily benefit women directly. One of the limitations of such
approaches is that women might have competing interests or constraints --i.e., although
they might be genuinely interested in improving their children's health, women may not
control sufficient resources to affect change. Or, a woman might be extremely
interested in managing woodlots to assure a steady and accessible supply of fuel, but
might be more immediately concerned with the household income her husband derives
from logging.


Conclusions:

The net benefits cluster presents some tentative evidence that discerning the net effects
of programs and projects by gender is often multidimensional. For instance, certain
interventions might offer women increased income earning opportunities while
simultaneously adding to women's labor burdens. Women and men might have
competing interests that are not easily satisfied by an intervention that targets only one
aspect of those interests. Projects and programs could benefit from evaluations that
focus on the multiple interests of men and women depending on their various roles and
responsibilities.







V. CLUSTERS I: RECOMMENDATIONS AND ANALYTICAL APPROACH


A second way to group the R&D Offices' presentations is according to what kind of
recommendations emerge from the findings and what they suggest about how to most
effectively and appropriately integrate gender considerations in future research and
programming. These clusters were developed more inductively than the previous set A
combing through the findings revealed lessons learned that provided some basic
principles on how to approach gender considerations analytically.


DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS OF CLUSTERING

Following is a discussion of how the findings fell within the five clusters used in this
grouping, and what they collectively tell us about analytical approaches to gender issues.
The five clusters are titled (1) Counting Heads, (2) Integrated Gender Analysis,
(3) Variable Nature of Gender Relations, (4) Interdependent Resource Allocation,
(5) Access and Power Relations, and (6) Multiple Duties/Roles. As in the first group of
clusters, a particular finding may fit in more than one cluster and the division between
the five clusters is not as clear as one would like. The process of clustering necessarily
involves some tradeoffs, and the focus should be not on the individual findings per se,
but on what the group as a whole can reveal about how to approach, and perhaps some
indication of how gender issues in the Bureau's activities should be approached. (The
corresponding table for this section can be found in Annex 2, Table 4)


1. Counting Heads

Findings in this cluster generally refer to the number of men and women involved in a
project, with little or no discussion of the impact of the program on women relative to
men. The findings of the Research and Training Offices fall under this cluster. The
presentations of the Office of Research and the University Center focused on how many
women researchers relative to men are being funded and how many proposals integrate
gender concerns into research problems. The Offices of Energy and International
Training addressed the issue of how to better incorporate women into their training
programs by eliminating constraints such as limited access to information and rules that
bar spousal funding in the same year.

2. Integrated Gender Analysis

In some cases, gender outweighs most other socioeconomic factors as a determinant of
outcome. Often, however, an outcome is determined by gender in conjunction with
other socioeconomic factors, such as income level and employment status. For instance,
the Nutrition Office's IFPRI Project determined that income level, household structure,







and gender of the household head, rather than simply one or the other affect children's
nutritional status in Kenya (N #1). The AGR Office's Tropsoils Project similarly
concluded that a major determinant of research priorities should be the result of a
holistic approach that combines detailed gender analysis with other analytical
approaches (AGR #2).

These findings either explicitly or implicitly conclude that gender analysis must be an
integral part of the larger socioeconomic analysis. Several of these findings demonstrate
that gender as a variable cannot be isolated from consideration of other socioeconomic
factors. Gender does not stand alone as a determinant of behavior or access to
resources. The impact of any project, program, or policy might affect women or men
differentially depending on their socioeconomic status, ethnicity, age, or race. For
instance, the Pakistan Water Management II Project, reported on by the AGR Office,
benefitted landholding families more than laborers. Women in laborer households were
at greater risk of losing employment due to labor saving aspects of the new technology
(AGR #1). The AGR Office's Bean/Cowpea Project also reported that female-headed
households comprise a heterogeneous category and not all suffer from resource
constraints (AGR #5). Similar findings were reported by the Offices of EID, Nutrition,
and WID.

3. Variable Nature of Gender Relations

The changing nature of gender relations over time is highlighted by findings in this
cluster. The sexual division of labor is fluid and responds to changes in the economic
and social environment. For instance, findings from the AGR Office's Bean/Cowpea
CRSP in Cameroon and Botswana elucidate how the gender division of labor has
changed over time in response to labor migration and changes in demand for cash and
food crops (AGR # 5). The need to assure that project designs remain sufficiently
flexible to accommodate changes in gender relations also is demonstrated by other
findings from the Offices of AGR, Health and ENR. The AGR/Aquaculture Project
stressed the need for flexible project designs that can adapt to changes in gender
relations (AGR #4). The Health Office's WASH Project findings stated that traditional
gender roles need not limit women's active roles in changing or improving water systems
(H #2).

4. Interdependent Resource Allocation and Access

The allocation of and access to resources across gender lines may be interdependent,
rather than clear cut. Women and men may have complementary access to resources,
as the EID Office's Access II Project findings about land tenure illustrate. Changes
from informal tenure to formal land titling may work to the disadvantage of women
(and men who are either young or otherwise landless). Therefore data on how
individuals become associated with the land, the coping strategies of men and women
and how land tenure impacts on those strategies must be collected (EID #4). The







interdependence of men and women with regard to land tenure emphasizes the need to
examine gender relations, not simply gender differences. Similarly, women and men's
decisions about allocation of resources may be made within the larger context of the
family and reflect a joint decision-making process that weighs the benefits and costs of
competing uses for resources between members of different genders. For example, the
AGR Office's Bean/Cowpea CRSP reveals that although women and men in rural
Botswana have primary responsibility for agriculture and livestock respectively, decisions
reached by men and women in these interrelated spheres are likely to affect household
maintenance and reproduction in general (AGR #5).

These findings also recognize the need to look at relations of authority, i.e., those
people who exert authority over certain kinds of decisions in relation to those who do
not. The people who implement a particular task may not be the same people who
have authority over the necessary resources for the task. Separate tasks in an
agricultural system may be gender specific but often are not separate spheres of activity,
that is, women's and men's tasks on a farm impact and infringe upon each other. For
instance the WID Office's Natural Resource finding discusses how women's access to
goods and income from forest products tends to diminish as a result of deforestation.
The outcome of competing uses for forest products across genders may represent a
trade-off in the household whereby the value of the men's use of wood may compete
with women's use of trees for other purposes. Decisions may be made with the broader
context of power relations within the household and community (WID #5). Similarly,
within a family planning program, the need to include men in the process explicitly
recognizes that power relations within a family often are a primary factor in the success
or failure of family planning efforts (POP #5). The Health Office's HIV Research
Project and the Education finding on the link between higher education and declining
fertility also recognize that power relations between men and women are a significant
factor in determining changes in behavior (H #1 and ED #3).

5. Multiple Duties and Roles

Many findings refer to the multiple duties and roles women and men hold in the
household, and how this can affect a project's outcome and the degree and type of
participation by gender. The EID Office's AMIS (EID #5), the WID Office's girls'
education finding (WID #1) and the Nutrition Office's Weaning Food Project (N #2)
all emphasize potential conflicts and constraints produced by women's multiple roles as
workers in the formal and informal economy, as mothers, and as food preparers.
Improving women's access to resources may not be sufficient to ensure benefits for
women; the simultaneous introduction of time saving technology may be a prerequisite
that allows women to reap net benefits from improved marketing conditions. For
instance a WID Office agriculture finding demonstrated how women responded to new
economic opportunities provided by a new road by increasing food production to a
much greater degree than did men. Their response, which entailed increasing the
amount of time spent on agriculture, signified a substantial increase in their already








onerous labor burden (WID #8). Other findings from the EID Office's ATI Project
and from the AGR Office's Water Management II Project demonstrate that attempts to
alleviate women's domestic burdens through the provision of labor saving technology
(EID #1) or a more readily available water source (AGR #1) may compromise
women's income sources.


Conclusions:

The lessons learned from this cluster that cut across the findings and sectors are:

1. Counting Heads: A first step for several offices was to account for the relative
numbers of men and women participating in their programs. A next step entails
identifying opportunities and constraints to increasing participation of women
and men in development programs where they have been under-represented.

2. Integrated Gender Analysis: When possible, gender considerations should be
analyzed in relation to other socioeconomic and cultural variables such as age,
ethnicity, class, and race. The findings demonstrate men and women are not
homogeneous social categories and that gender-specific opportunities, constraints,
and effects vary according to other socioeconomic factors. Project designs and
implementation strategies could benefit from a more contextual analysis of
gender which recognizes, for instance, that landless women might be affected
differently than women with land and that landless men might have more in
common with landless women than with men who own land.

3. Variable Nature of Gender Relations: Many findings emphasized the great
variability of gender relations over time and advocated for flexible and
participatory designs. Several health, agriculture, environment and education
findings stressed the need to respond to those changes with a great deal of
alacrity and sensitivity.

4. Interdependent Resource Allocation and Access: Many projects offered evidence
of the interdependent nature of men and women's decision-making and control
over resources, even when they had responsibility for different productive and
non-productive activities. Therefore while one might target women with
veterinary extension services because of their role in livestock production, the
accompanying technical recommendations would be most effective if they were
based on an understanding of how livestock raising fit into the overall production
system.

5. Multiple Duties and Roles: Findings from almost all offices stressed the
multiplicity of gender-based roles that require attention from the design phase
through to the assessment of project outcomes.








VI. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR R&D BUREAU STRATEGIC PLANNING


Following presentations by each R&D Bureau Office, a rough draft of the synthesis
paper was presented to the WIDAG representatives during a meeting on March 4, 1992.
Comments of participants from that meeting have been summarized below, constituting
the Group's recommendations for "next steps" for the Bureau. The outcome of a
subsequent meeting with the AA/R&D, Rich Bissell, was a list of definitive
recommendations for the Bureau's strategic planning on integrating gender. The
recommendations form a multi-pronged approach to institutionalizing gender -- they
suggest that all parties involved in the Bureau's work must be targeted and brought into
the process in order to succeed. The integrated approach includes working within the
Bureau, within the Agency, and within the A.I.D. contractor community.

Following are the elements of the Bureau's plan to achieve Office-level strategies on
gender. These elements draw on the body of knowledge accumulated over the past
year, starting with the "back of the envelope" assessment and continuing with the
combing exercise.


1. Increase Interactions with Regional Bureaus: As a means of stimulating discussion
and interest in the Agency in seeking a collective and sustainable approach to
institutionalizing attention to gender, WIDAG will collaborate with the WID
Regional Officers to arrange a series of meetings to share information about
process and substance gleaned from the R&D WID Combing Exercise.

2. Conduct Workshops to Develop Office-level Strategies: A more indepth look at
Office portfolios and approaches to gender issues is needed to guide future
actions in the Bureau. The WIDAG will arrange planning workshops for each
Office, using interactive forums to critique approaches to gender within the
Offices and determine how to best incorporate gender into the Office's overall
strategy and work plan.

3. Train Staff: A "training of trainers" will be conducted with the WIDAG
members, to enable them to better guide their respective Offices in developing
and implementing Office-level strategies. Gender analysis training will be
incorporated into the current training course for senior management staff
entering A.I.D. More efforts will be made to expand current gender analysis
training in A.I.D. staff training courses, for example, to a full day (or longer)
session.

4. Train Contractors: Develop requirements for training and certification of
contractors working with the R&D Bureau. A requirement of gender analysis
training will be included in the PIO/T, contracts, grants and cooperative








agreements. The certification will be for a limited time (3-5 years) with a
refresher course required for renewal of the certification. The contractor training
program will be self-sustaining -- contractors will be charged to attend the
training course and should view it as a necessary cost of doing business with the
Bureau.

5. Increase Attention and Oversight on Project Design: Offices will build the gender
issue into their project design, dedicating design funds for this purpose as
required. A Gender representative (from the funding office) will serve on each
centrally funded project design committee to ensure that gender issues are
addressed at each stage of the project design process, including the initial
contractor work plan. A representative of the Bureau's WID Action Group will
be available to serve as a design consultant to the R&D project manager of each
newly designed R&D project.

6. Assess Cross Cutting Findings in R&D: Assign a R&D Bureau intern to compare
the findings identified as having cross-cutting implications with the general
literature on gender issues in each sector.








VII. LIST OF FINDINGS AND REPORTS


AGRICULTURE


HEALTH


1. Effects of changes in water resources on women's
agricultural and household production (Pakistan)
2. Incorporating human concerns into soil management
(Indonesia)
3. Women as primary caretakers of small ruminants
4. Women's everyday work in aquaculture systems
5. Research on gender roles in Bean/Cowpea production
(Africa and Latin America)

1. Research on women's risks of HIV transmission
2. Women as users of water systems
3. Training women to identify pneumonia in children (Nepal)
4. Appropriate design of maternal health care services


AGENCY CENTER FOR UNIVERSITY
COOPERATION IN
DEVELOPMENT 1. Targeting women in a human resources development center
(Bangladesh)

OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL
TRAINING 1. Number of female participants in training programs


RESEARCH

ECONOMIC AND
DEVELOPMENT








EDUCATION


1. Percentage of female PIs on funded research proposals

INSTITUTIONAL
1. Technology and effects on rural women (Cameroon, Ghana)
2. Women spent on local products (rural Kenya)
3. Women key as buyers at farmgate and dispersed retailers
(Africa)
4. Uncertain effects of land tenure changes
(derived access in Africa)
5. Working women taking short cuts/reducing nutrition
(urban Mali)

1. Female literacy, malnutrition and life expectancy
2. Female education and infant mortality
3. Female education and fertility
4. Gains in women's productivity > gains in men's productivity
(Africa)
5. Gender gaps correlated with lower GNP








ENVIRONMENT
RESOURCES












ENERGY


POPULATION






NUTRITION





WOMEN IN
DEVELOPMENT











Total: 45


AND NATURAL
1. Poor communication of information on gender in forestry
("women's workshops")
2. Women's knowledge of forestry/species, distinct roles in
management (Sri Lanka)
3. Women's role in community key to coastal resource
management (Ecuador)
4. Targeting women in biodiversity support program
(Kenya, Costa Rica)
5. Supporting women in their roles in NRM (policy and
institutional support) (Africa and LAC)
6. Policy and training program to include women's roles in
agriculture and fuelwood management

1. Training program -- women are being cut when short of
funds


1. Family planning reduces maternal mortality
2. Family planning empowers women and enhances their status
3. Improvements in standard of living, other indirect benefits
(Thailand)
4. Female family planning workers more accepted (Asia, LAC)
5. Men must be involved in FP activities

1. Income and gender of HH head determines nutrition
(Kenya, Malawi)
2. Mother's place of employment affects child nutrition
(Indonesia)
3. Beliefs and attitudes of women/men re nutrition as priority
(Mali)

1. Education (demand side sibling care and low labor market
returns)
2. Education (supply side Pakistan rural schools)
3. PRE (credit approaches)
4. PRE (productivity enhancements in export oriented firms)
5. ENR (income from forest products) (India)
6. ENR (women's groups have vested interest in NRM)
(Kenya)
7. Women's roles and benefits from export oriented
agroprocessing
8. Women's response to improved marketing conditions
(Cameroon)









ANNEX 1


Overview and Summary of Findings Presented







Overview of R&D Office Presentations


The Office presentations in general followed the prescribed format, stating the finding,
a short background for the project or research, and the implications or
recommendations for programming. The nature of the findings presented varied
significantly, however, as discussed in other parts of this report. Appendix 1 contains a
full summary of the presentations, with each finding briefly discussed and the
implications or recommendations highlighted for easy access. Following is a short
overview of the distribution by type of finding.


Cluster Distribution (refers to Part II of the report):

The following shows the distribution of findings in Clusters I and II discussed in Part II
of the report. Note that in the first two cluster groupings, some findings were placed in
more than one cluster, so the percentages in those clusters add up to more than 100%.
All percentages are approximations, as the placing of individual findings into the
clusters was a necessarily subjective process given the nature of this exercise.


Clusters I Relevance to Programming Cycle:

o Approximately 42% in the Design Subtleties cluster
o Approximately 36% in the Net Benefits cluster
o Approximately 33% in the Information Base cluster



Clusters H Recommendations and Analytical Approach:

o Approximately 29% in the Integrated Gender Analysis cluster
o Approximately 27% in the Interdependent Resource Allocation cluster
o Approximately 13% in the Counting Heads cluster
o Approximately 13% in the Multiple Roles and Duties cluster
o Approximately 11% in the Variable Gender Relations cluster








WIDAG: OFFICE PRESENTATIONS


Page:


December 6, 1991

1. EID
2. ED
3. EIN

January 9, 1992

5. AGR
6. ENR
7. Research

January 24, 1992

8. Nutrition
9. POP

January 30, 1992


Health
UC
OIT


February 20, 1992

13. WID



Following is a summary of each presentation, with a brief description of the principal
\// findings and the related discussion among the group.
1







December 6, 1991


R&D/EID

Pamela Stanbury led off the planned agenda with a presentation of gender issues
learned from a review of selected case studies. The findings presented here are not the
only findings to have emerged from the review of EID case studies. Time constraints
prevented a comprehensive integration of all findings represented by the EID portfolio.
A printed summary was distributed for reference following the presentation. She noted
that some important issues and conclusions emerged from the data gathering process for
this report:

There is a need for more gender-related research.
The findings in the report are regionally focused, that is they are based on
the review of African projects.
There is concern as to how much can be generalized from the study of
one or two cases.
The WID Office is an important spur to activity in the area of gender
research.
Gender research has significant importance for policy planning and project
design.

Five principal findings emerged from the EID study of women-focused projects in
Africa, including information about new technologies, economic development,
agricultural marketing, tenure systems and urban food patterns.


1. New Technologies: Research findings from Appropriate Technology
International (ATI) suggest that rural women can benefit substantially from the
introduction of new labor saving technologies as users, even if they are not
owners. New technologies, particularly those that are small in scale, can save
labor and time in replacing traditional methods of processing food grains, oils
and other materials, thus freeing women for other productive activities. A
potential negative impact of the new technologies on women is their displace-
ment from the labor force a consequence of the labor-saving aspects of the
technologies.

Implications/Recommendations:

Consult women in project design

Distinguish between technology users and technology owners and operators







* Investigate allocation of time and labor


Consider benefits of group ownership versus individual ownership of
technology

Create financial options for users or manufacturers


2. Systems Approach to Regional Income and Sustainable Resource Assistance I
(SARSA II): Women can contribute significantly to the cash economy, especially
at the local level, spending income from local agriculture and marketing on non-
farm goods and services produced within the region. Men tend to have access to
more distant and remunerative markets, but spend less of their larger revenues
for locally produced goods and services than do women, and thus have a
proportionally smaller impact on regional economic development.

Implications/Recommendations:

Because male and female marketers generate income through different
channels, different interventions are often needed to promote their separate
activities.

Loans need to be tailored to small-scale female entrepreneurs.

Because women have a higher propensity to spend earnings locally than men,
interventions that increase the returns to women's crops will be important to
increasing regional income multiplication effects.


3. Agricultural Marketing Improvement Strategies (AMIS): Small scale agricultural
marketing enterprises operated by women can contribute to more effective low
cost food availability, particularly in more remote and poor areas. Women are
more effective than men as small scale buyers and sellers of agricultural
production at a local level. They are willing to provide these services under
difficult conditions, which higher-level marketing agents (usually men) are
unwilling to provide, and thus are able to significantly impact regional
agricultural markets. As crop buyers, women traders are likely to dominate
buying at the farmgate and in village markets when production is dispersed.
Labor-intensive marketing techniques characteristic of small-scale women traders
reduce damage and spoilage, increasing food availability. As sales agents, small-
scale women retailers are effective in providing services to and collecting supplies
of goods from small, poorer villages that produce much of the national food
supply, but do not have access to large supermarkets and capital intensive
retailers.








Implications/Recommendations:


Agricultural policy should promote the capacity of small-scale agricultural
enterprises.

Regulatory impediments and restrictions that tend to exclude the participation
of small agricultural entrepreneurs, most of whom are women, should be
removed.

Explicit regulatory provisions are needed to ensure that women can sell crops
as owners of produce. A current presumption of male ownership of crops and
trading activities negatively impacts women in project design and implementation.


4. Access to Land, Water and Other Natural Resources H (ACCESS II): Land and
other natural resource tenure systems and changes in those systems have
differential impacts on men and women. In many countries, women's rights to
natural resources are indirect, the result of custom and status within a family,
rather than through direct ownership. These rights are extremely important,
however, as women have the major responsibility for family food supply. The
trend toward modernization of tenure systems though statutory titling of land to
individuals negatively affects women,as it limits their ability to use land that has
previously been available to them through tradition. As a result, they are either
forced to use less desirable and productive lands, or are denied rights to any land
at all.

Implications/Recommendations:

Data collection efforts need to include information on "ownership" of both
men's and women's land parcels.

Data on how land tenure systems differentially impact men and women should
be collected in surveys.


5. Agricultural Marketing Improvement Strategies (AMIS): As urban women
increasingly work outside the home, they are seeking more convenient and easier
foods to prepare, and using fewer traditional and high nutrition course grain
foods for household consumption. Course grains require difficult and time-
consuming preparation or costly grinding. Rice, which is more costly, is being
used increasingly in urban households, since it is sold ready to cook.
Additionally, course grains tend to be produced locally, whereas refined grains
tend to be imported.







Implications/Recommendations:


Reduce processing and preparation costs for course grains.

Promote dishes that can be prepared quickly and cheaply from processed
course grains.

Promote better quality and appearance of course grain products.

Develop new course grain dishes.






R&D/ED

Sam Rea presented the findings of studies on the impact of women's education on a
number of development variables. The studies were carried out for R&D/ED by
Creative Associates.


1. Female Literacy, Malnutrition and Life Expectancy: A more educated mother
raises healthier children and can better apply improved hygiene and nutrition.
(Barrera 1990, RII 1990)

Implications/Recommendations:

Mothers' schooling appears to be a determining factor in improved nutrition
and in attenuating the effects of poor sanitation and poor water supply.

According to the studies, the life expectancy of children increases 1 year for
every 10% increase in the schooling of their mothers, above and beyond the
effects of per capital income, male educational participation and available health
care.


2. Female Education and Infant Mortality: Education of females has been
identified as an important factor in reducing infant mortality in developing
countries.









Implications/Recommendations:


Estimates suggest that an increase in female gross primary and secondary
school enrollment of from 20-70% can be expected to result in a reduction in the
infant mortality rates, twenty years later, of nearly 38%.


3. Female Education and Fertility: There is a strong correlation between female
literacy and fertility rates, with a decrease in fertility rates as women's literacy
and schooling increase. Discussion: The distinction between "fertility rate" and
"fertility" was pointed out; members agreed that clarity of language is important
in discussing these findings.

Implications/Recommendations:

The combined effect of primary and secondary female enrollments appears
stronger than that of either lever alone, and most pronounced in interaction with
the level of government family planning support.


4. Female Literacy and Farm Productivity: Education enhances women's economic
productivity on the farm (McGrath 1979). A study of 13 countries indicated that
four years of primary school education for women leads to an increase in farm
productivity of from 8.7% 10%. Gains in productivity in some cases were
shown to be higher for women than for men. This improvement may be due to
the fact that women start from further behind, or may be related to the kind of
crops under cultivation by men versus women. Discussion: Does women's
literacy alone or general education lead to increased farm productivity? If it is
education, what type has the most impact?

Implications/Recommendations:

Literacy, numeracy and cognitive skills increase women' ability to take part in
various farm activities and related training programs.

Women's literacy and numeracy enhance their access to complementary
resources such as land, credit and technology.


5. Female Education and GNP: Large gender disparities in education (a large gap
between school enrollments for boys and girls) appear to reduce the GNP
(Schultz 1991, King 1991).








Implications/Recommendations:


Investments in the women's schooling encourage a shift in the allocation of
women's time toward market work and away from home-based work. Market
based work is counted in conventional national income accounts, and hence adds
to the reported level of GNP, whereas home-based work does not.

Better educated women are more likely to work in wage employment than are
less educated women, and so tend to pay more direct and indirect taxes.






R&D/EIN

The Energy Office is just beginning to look at gender issues in its programs. Shirley
Toth from Energy pointed out that the Office currently tracks the participation of
women in training activities. Out of a total of 700 participants trained, 52 were women.
A new training RFP will have a line item specifically directed to women. The program
will pay all of the costs for female participants in order to encourage their participation.

Other possibilities under consideration are whether there should be special training
programs for women in the energy sector. There is a problem identifying women in the
sector: not as many women enter the field, a reflection of social mores against women's
work in non-traditional employment. The group agreed that women do participate in
this sector, and that we need more information about them and their professional
development needs. The possibility of a linkage with the Office of International
Training (OIT) was suggested.


General Discussion at End of Session:

The general discussion that followed the presentations focused on the linkages between
the findings and the Agency's priorities. It was noted that linkages to some priority
areas were thin or had not yet emerged, e.g., support for democracy, environment,
transnational problems (these have focused on issues such as global warming and
narcotics), and business and development partnerships. At the same time, it was
observed that there was an issue of democracy with respect to population. This is
particularly true in family planning programs, where in some contexts, women need to
ask their husbands' permission to use contraception or face official policy which restricts
families' freedom to plan for births.








There was general consensus among group members that it was not realistic to look for
the same degree of gender impact in all areas. Different areas and programs have
different levels of gender concerns. Variables that may also affect gender impact are:
levels of staffing, the technical capabilities of staff, and the nature of a specific program
within the Agency, not necessarily the area per se.

The group agreed that while more information is needed in the areas already reported
on, R&D Offices should continue to use existing knowledge to move proactively on
gender and women-specific development issues.








January 9, 1992


R&D/AGR

Ed Lijewski presented 5 findings from the Office of Agriculture. The first two findings
are not specific to women but are important in terms of gender.


1. Water Management Processes in Pakistan: An analysis of gender-related issues
in water management in Islamic societies stresses the role women play in
agricultural and household production and the importance of taking those
activities into account when planning irrigation systems.

ImplicationslRecommendations:

Consult women about design or improvement of watercourses in order to
accommodate their multiple uses for water sources

Conduct longitudinal studies to assess net impact of project on women and
men; improvements in watercourses may translate into increased demand for
women's household labor and time, e.g., better watercourses meant livestock were
now being watered at home by women.

Assess degree of displacement of women laborers as a result of projects that
improve watercourses; males no longer needed for irrigation system maintenance
may be competing with women for other jobs.

Expand employment opportunities for rural women beyond agricultural
production.

Narrow the gender gap in educational achievement to optimize human
resources

Focus on culturally acceptable transfer of knowledge and information to
women regarding livestock production, care and processing of products in
recognition of gender specific tasks in agriculture and women's role in
agricultural decision-making


2. TropSoils/Indonesia Project (Soil Management CRSP): Project success in
AG/NRM in this region depends on ensuring that men's and women's
participation is commensurate with the role they play in maintaining or sustaining
an agricultural system and specific ecosystem. This project showed how to








incorporate human concerns--those of men and women individually and as family
units--into soil management. Focus is on a holistic understanding of the factors
affecting people's practice of agriculture, which is built in part on the results of
detailed gender analysis. Discussion: Project implementors had good instincts
both on technical and social issues; project success was due to a good analysis of
key variables. Many of these findings do not focus exclusively on women, but
they are all based on gender analysis.

Implications/Recommendations:

Take a total project approach that integrates gender in the analysis


3. Small Ruminant CRSP: Women are the primary caretakers of small ruminants
in developing countries. Women who manage small ruminant enterprises are
empowered as agribusiness entrepreneurs. Discussion: Gender issues are not
always addressed in small ruminant related projects, regardless of the fact that we
do know how to respond to the gender issues in these projects.

Implications/Recommendations:

Women are the dominant gender in small scale farm production.

Providing 70% of total farm labor (agricultural and household), women should
be 70% of target group in an agricultural project.

Research and extension activities have a lingering bias against women farmers.

We cannot assume that male head of household is farm manager and major
contributor to small scale agricultural production.


4. Aquaculture: Gender specific roles in aquaculture are not very well defined; in
some cases women have assumed many of the men's responsibilities (gender roles
have changed over time). Early aquaculture projects targeted extension towards
men. Later analysis highlighted women's roles in everyday work like feeding and
fertilizing as well as marketing.

Implications/Recommendations:

Specify women's and men's roles in capture fisheries and
agriculture/aquaculture in program design stage

Need components directed to men and women, both separately and combined








Gender roles are fluid in response to changes in the economic and social
environment; program designs must be flexible


5. Bean/Cowpea CRSP: Women play central roles in bean and cowpea production;
in general women spend more time in food production than men; and have
highly variable roles in agriculture, depending on the interaction of local level
historical and sociocultural variables and national and international political and
economic processes. Discussion: No specific research was done about whether
women benefit from off-season horticultural products but we expect that they do
benefit. We need more examples of what works with respect to integrating
gender issues in projects and programs.

Implications/Recommendations:

Gender analysis should be undertaken within the context of other social
science analysis, e.g., locate the household in its larger social context to
understand gender roles

Differentiate roles/impact by gender and class






R&D/ENR:

Nora Berwick and Nancy Diamond from the ENR Office presented gender relevant
findings from 6 projects in this session, noting that there are bits and pieces of
information but that we still lack conclusions and firm examples. A general suggestion
at the end of the session pointed out (1) the need to identify those findings with
universal application, and (2) the need to know what does not work.


1. Forestry Resources Management I (FSP) Project: A series of national level
workshops for field personnel focused on making projects more accessible to
women and integrating women into projects as active participants. The
organizations involved did not necessarily learn much from the workshops
because their female representatives often had poor access to their organizations'
information-sharing networks. Further, the lessons learned from successful
projects often are not available in the form of simple operational guides or in a
manner relevant to the daily activities of field personnel.








Implications/Recommendations:


Educate key people through relevant workshops and publications about
gender-related issues. Send representatives who are well-linked to their
organization's information-sharing networks and better able to influence
organization policy on gender issues.

Reinforce workshop lessons by disseminating practical, field-based operational
guides on gender issues related to NRM, particularly those aspects relevant to
daily project activities.


2. Forestry Fuelwood Research and Development (F/FRED) Project: Women's
access, management activities and priorities are a vital part of tree improvement
research. Many cultures have gender-specific rules of access and management
for trees. In Sri Lanka, for example, it has been found that 60-88% of the
species in homegardens are selected, tended and managed by women' the
production priorities of women differ from those of men; and almost 75% of the
work in homegardens is done by women. Women's managerial functions in
subsistence forestry are critical to project success: failing to consult women on
their knowledge of indigenous species and their uses can lead to making
decisions that may endanger the tree species and the environment in which they
are maintained by women's labor and energy. Community level information on
NRM does not necessarily provide crucial gender-related information unless the
data can be disaggregated, analyzed and incorporated into project planning,
management, monitoring and evaluation. Both gender and social analysis are
relevant to all ENR project/program activities.

Implications/Recommendations:

The F/FRED FVF data and other such large and complex data sets can and
should be disaggregated by gender; the information must then be analyzed and
incorporated into the project cycle.

There is a great need to explore further the crucial role of women in small-
farm production systems to ensure protection of indigenous species and the
environment in which they exist.

In any program that promotes tree improvement for and tree growing by
small-farmers, women, the local forest-management experts, need to be consulted
during the project design phase and should be considered part and parcel of
MPTS extension efforts.

Data on gender alone is not likely to identify other important sociological








variables; gender should be analyzed in conjunction with other relevant
socioeconomic information in order to yield valid information.


3. Coastal Resources Management Project (CRM): Although the projects/programs
which promote the sustainable management of coastal resources often require
community organizing, these efforts can still fail to identify relevant and critical
gender-related issues at the local level. Women and men use different coastal
resources and vary in their access to those resources. Although the CRM project
has a strong emphasis on local community participation, their work plans to date
have not specified the identification of key gender-related issues related to
women's participation in project decision-making, activities, organizations or
benefit distribution. In Ecuador, there is increasing anecdotal evidence that
targeting women for education programs and community activities is effective in
building the community structure essential for meaningful coastal management
Discussion: This project has been involving women all along. There is
considerable anecdotal evidence, but we still lack systematic evaluation of the
differences between involving men and women in the project (e.g., how to get
them involved and any differences in results).

Implications/Recommendations:

Professional women's management roles and approach to project
implementation were different than (and in some cases, appeared to get more
results) their male counterparts. There appear to be implications for the
participation or lack of participation of women in the project cycle but these
issues have not yet been systematically examined.

Work needs to begin to systematically track beneficiaries of field efforts and
the impacts on women as a group need to be looked at.

The data must be collected, disaggregated, analyzed and incorporated into the
project cycle; it should be looked at in the context of other socioeconomic
variables in order to be most useful.

4. Biodiversity Support Program: As the primary stakeholders, women are likely to
be effective conservators of threatened plant or animal resources. Two activities
under this program have incorporated gender as a means of achieving the project
goal: a) kitchen gardens in a Maasai Group Ranch are being introduced to local
women's groups in an effort to help promote indigenous food species that are
particularly nutritious but have become rare due to land degradation; and b) a
special effort is being made to include women in community education programs
in Costa Rica which aim to find local solutions to protect Sea Turtles and their
nests.







Implications/Recommendations:


Women's roles as users and protectors of the environment should be
considered in designing conservation programs

The involvement of women in local conservation projects helps reach children
in the community as well, an important target group in environmental education.


5. Environmental Planning and Management (EPM): Empowerment of women, the
neglected environmental managers, requires both policy and action. Projects
which have involved women's organizations and have supported their efforts have
been very successful in generating productive and equitable sustainable
development processes (e.g., agroforestry and soil conservation in Kenya). More
grassroots efforts are needed, along with policy changes that ensure women have
changes to build their capacities, gain access to resources and technologies and
contribute their knowledge and creative energy to resource management.
Presently, such policy support is severely lacking. The EPM project aims to
support women (and women's groups) and strengthen their capacities and
participation in sustainable agriculture and NRM. Discussion: The two
implementing agencies, World Resources Institute (WRI) and the Center for
International Development and Environment (CIDE), have done a good job of
incorporating gender into their programming. A subgroup of the research team
conducting studies on environmental issues works specifically on gender issues.
A list of studies will tease out the lessons learned.

Implications/Recommendations:

A comprehensive approach to gender issues will include seminar participation
and information exchange; institutional strengthening and project based support
to women's organizations working in participatory sustainable agriculture and
NRM; and publication of experience based discussion/policy papers on the role of
women in sustainable development.


6. Environmental and Natural Resource Policy and Training (EPAT): This project
is in the start up stage. There are no findings yet to share. The project paper
did a good job of integrating gender issues but the project management is not
sure how they will follow through in the work plan.








General Recommendations from R&D/ENR:


* Contractors have suggested that project work plans spell out relevant tasks to be
undertaken in order to address gender-related issues in the project For the most
part, contractors and cooperators are interested in doing more but are reluctant
to move on these issues unless they are part of the contract/cooperative
agreement or included in work plans.

Tell project contractors/cooperators what the WID Office can offer. If the WID
Office can offer technical backstopping in the field, financial resources for studies
and publication and other resources, then they should directly inform project
staffs.

* Participation of women in NRM projects should include activities related to
decision-making (including policy dialogue), project design, project activities,
benefit distribution, monitoring and evaluation. Sustainable and culturally-
appropriate projects related to NRM seem most likely to succeed when they
involve women (both professional and project clients) in the project cycle.






R&D/Research

Wendy Jackson presented for the Office of Research. All of the money in Research is
identified for scientific research, not for social science. Nevertheless, the Office is going
to ask researchers to identify impact on women in a separate section, asking researchers
to consider needs and roles by gender. For example, if a vaccine or new
technology/equipment is developed, will both men and women be part of the test
population? Both researchers and reviewers will be asked to consider gender.

The question of equity has been looked into already in the Office, and numbers are
available to indicate whether women are conducting the research. Of the 250 proposals
considered for funding, women were represented on the research teams as follows:

* 19% of the Principle Investigators (PIs) were female
* 36% of the proposals had at least one women on the research team
* 46% of the proposals which were approved for funding had a woman on the
team
45% of the proposals which were approved for funding did not have a woman on
the research team
37% of the proposals which were approved for funding had a female PI








January 24, 1992


R&D/Nutrition

Sue Anthony presented three findings from the Office of Nutrition.


1. Nutrition Monitoring Project (IFPRI): Data from Kenya and Malawi suggest
that household food security and preschooler nutritional status are influenced by
the interaction of income and gender of the head of household rather than
simply one or the other. Most household research compares female-headed
households as a homogeneous group with male-headed households. The
International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI) found that there are
distinct differences in income, expenditures, and health status among female-
headed households. Research in Kenya and Malawi indicates that not only total
household income but also the proportion of income controlled by women has a
positive impact on household caloric intake and the nutritional status of children.


Implications/Recommendations:

Income distribution, expenditures, and priorities may vary by gender of the
household head; however, gender of the household may not be the best indicator
of poverty, as female headed households themselves are not homogenous but
vary in access to income, resources, size and type of expenditures.

Higher income does not necessarily result in better health or nutritional
status. Education or training to promote appropriate nurturing behaviors or
interventions that exploit incentives for households to invest in their children may
provide short-term gains in child health and nutrition.

Compare coping strategies used to ensure food security, health and nutritional
status in female versus male headed households; consider how changing
economic policies enhance or negate these strategies.

Gender of the head of household sometimes changes over time, particularly in
Africa. Longitudinal studies should investigate whether the positive health and
nutrition effects observed in certain types of female-headed households (e.g., de
facto) are maintained over time.

The family rank of the female head of household (mother, grandmother), and
her relationship to the children in the household may be a determinant of
variance in nutritional outcomes.







2. The Weaning Project (Manoff): Many mothers with weaning-age children are
earning income for themselves and their families, especially in semi-urban areas.
Working per se does not appear to contribute to undernutrition; rather, the
actual conditions of the work affect child feeding, nutrition and care. Research
in Indonesia suggests that mothers working outside the home are making child
care arrangements, that though often not ideal, ensure that their children are fed
during their absence. Mothers working at home may have less time to feed
children than if they were with a caretaker.

Implications/Recommendations:

In addition to information on foods and appropriate feeding practices, project
design should focus on how to feed children when the mother must leave them
alone for long periods of time and how to balance work and child care in the
home.


3. Nutrition Communications Project (AED): Changes in conventional nutrition
education programs are needed: beliefs and attitudes about food nutrition and
health must be addressed before the target population will respond to messages
aimed at changing behavior.

Implications/Recommendations:

Build qualitative research into project design. Identify and address beliefs and
attitudes of men and women to facilitate their later acceptance of nutrition
interventions.

Build access to resources into project design. It does little to inform women
that they need better foods without doing something to increase their ability to
acquire them.

Both economic and non-economic incentives for investing in women's and
children's nutrition should be investigated on a gender-disaggregated basis. Men
and women may respond to different incentives -- men to parental pride, for
example, and women to improvements in their children's health and the returns
on this investment in their old age.







R&D/POP

Sawon Hong of the Office of Population introduced the presentation by explaining that
family planning deals with three basic issues: fertility, which is dealt with by R&D/Pop;
mortality, which is dealt with by R&D/Health; and migration, which is not commonly
dealt with. The main focus of R&D/POP is fertility control, even though that is just
one of several variables. From the beginning, family planning has had a focus on
women, and originally was started to assist poor women. The findings presented by the
Office are common issues underlying all family planning programs, not specific projects.


1. Family Planning Improves Maternal Health: Family planning (1) enables women
to plan their pregnancies in such a way that they avoid becoming pregnant when
too young, too old, or too soon, or achieving parity that carries additional risks,
and (2) lowers fertility generally, by reducing the absolute number of pregnancies
in the population. Family planning, by reducing the number of unwanted
pregnancies, reduces the number of deaths resulting from illegal abortions.

Implications/Recommendations:

Family planning programs have significant positive benefits for women's
health.


2. Family Planning Empowers Women and Enhance Their Status: By introducing
the concept of choice and decision-making into childbearing, family planning
enhances women's status. Controlled fertility also allows women to explore other
opportunities, such as education or vocation training. In Mali, girls' school
attendance at the secondary level is constrained by the parents' fear of the girl
becoming pregnant. In Nigeria, a high rate of abortion among female secondary
school students is attributed to the school rule prohibiting pregnant girls from
staying in school. In Ghana, women vendors are selling contraceptives at their
stands. Employment opportunities for women are available in family planning
programs. These jobs allow women to be cast as authority figures, as income
earners, and as bureaucratic equals with many men. Nearly 500,000 women
worldwide are employed by A.I.D.-assisted family planning programs.

Implications/Recommendations:

Women employed in family planning programs learn transferrable skills in
program planning and management.

Family planning advertisements help to promote the image of women who use
contraceptives as modern, forward looking and responsible. Mass media can be a







powerful tool to improve the status of women.


Female school attendance rates may be positively affected by family planning
programs.


3. Improvements in the Standard of Living and Other Indirect Benefits Accrue to
Users of Family Planning: Indirect benefits of family planning are realized
through women's influence on their children, women serving as role models in
the community, changing perceptions of women, and high quality human
resources. A study in rural Thailand found that families with fewer children are
more likely to be productive and more likely to have their children attend
secondary school. Children with fewer siblings enjoy improved living standards,
such as more consumer goods, more savings and better housing. Women's work
in family planning encourages greater education for girls by promoting the
legitimacy of women's employment. Also, higher population growth is associated
with lower school expenditures per child and fewer teachers per student, and with
negative consequences for student's academic performance.

Implications/Recommendations:

Given the relationship between small family size and greater educational
attainment, the degree of success in family planning programs will be translated
into higher levels of education in society.

Family planning can have societal impacts by enabling family and national
economic resources to be directed toward improving the quality of its vital
human resources.


4. Female Family Planning Providers are Preferred: Women are more comfortable
with female providers in many countries. Women providers have also proven
successful in counseling and training males in both Bangladesh and Latin
America. Female workers seem to perform better than their male counterparts,
in terms of recruiting users, making frequent household visits, and representing
community level needs and interests of women.

Implications/Recommendations:

The same project can have dual benefits for women by using women as service
providers and sales representatives, which provides employment and income, and
at the same time, successfully providing for the family planning needs of women
in the community.







5. Family Planning Activities Must Include Males: Disapproval by men is
sometimes the greatest deterrent to female use of contraceptives. Spousal
consent requirements as a condition for female sterilization and some other
forms of contraception is a constraint to women's use of contraceptives. In many
instances, men actively prevent women from gaining access to and using family
planning. By bypassing men in most family planning efforts, the burden for
family planning falls on women. Family planning must strike a balance, with
both men and women taking maximum responsibility for reproductive decisions.

Implications/Recommendations:

Male village health workers can successfully promote family planning among
men where men are the primary decision-makers on family planning and family
size, as in Mali.

Teams of male and female workers can be very effective providers.

By seeking to increase male involvement in family planning, the responsibility
will be better shared between men and women. Efforts are required to increase
awareness and use of male methods and to have been be supportive of their
partners' family planning intentions.

Program design must explore and address all the existing factors which tip the
balance of responsibility (and the burden) in favor of women.







January 30, 1992


R&D/Health

Genease Pettigrew presented the results of the combing exercise for the Office of
Health. The overall objective of the Office is to increase life expectancy through
reductions in infant mortality and morbidity, with over $100 million annually allocated
to research and technical assistance.


1. HIV Risk: The majority of new HIV infections are transmitted heterosexually.
Women's risk of being infected with HIV (through heterosexual sex) is 10%
more than men's. Women are more vulnerable because they do not control the
use of condoms and often can do little about a partner's refusal to use a condom.
A new research program, being conducted by ICRW, is designed to look at the
determinants of women's risk and to explore alternative prevention strategies.
From a public health perspective, men and women need to apply pressure to
each other to use safe sex practices. Data are limited on the sexual attitudes and
behaviors of men and women, the cultural and socioeconomic factors that put
women at risk of HIV infection and the options available to women for AIDS
prevention. We do know that women's symptoms are different than men's; in
women, many of the symptoms are gynecological and have not been publicized as
widely as symptoms affecting men. Appropriate technology for women is critical
as women could better control their risk of infection. Female condoms are not
widely accepted by men; better, more discreet technologies for women have yet
to be developed. Treatment is also a problem: maternal and child health clinics
do not usually provide services for STDs, and since STDs in women are often
asymptomatic, women tend not to visit STD clinics. Discussion: Peer education
is often a successful way of reaching people. Women cannot act upon much of
the information that is available to them, such as use of condoms. PVOs tend to
look at AIDS as part of a larger, integrated development problem, while A.I.D.
tends to deal with AIDS in isolation.

Implications/Recommendations:

Public health communications models will be developed under the project that
target women for AIDS prevention.

More successful prevention programs and technology geared to women are
needed.

Programs will employ women as health workers and trainers, to provide
positive role models for third world women clients.








2. Water and Sanitation Project (WASH): The role of women is so interrelated
with effective community participation that it must be evaluated simultaneously.
This is a quick response project where community participation is key. WASH
has identified four significant roles women play that need to be considered in
determining strategy. (1) They are the primary users of any water system and
may rely on their sensory skills and traditional knowledge to choose the best
water. (2) Women are often the first line in determining whether a new facility
will be used; lessons in ow health may be improved by the facility are crucial to
its acceptance. (3) Women are managers of household water supplies. Through
the community water supply may be controlled by others, women can assert their
role as water managers to educate others to their needs for water supplies and
funds. (4) Women can serve as catalysts or agents for change; they are capable
of helping to change patterns of behavior and their roles as mothers and
homemakers make them an important focus of any education strategy.

Implications/Recommendations:

Women should not be thought of as passive recipients of improved water
supplies.

Traditional roles need not limit women's active roles in changing and
improving water supplies and systems.

Women need to be included in operation and maintenance training of
facilities. Community training is provided through WASH prior to putting in a
new water system.


3. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Project: Women can be trained both as
mothers and as health care workers to prevent and treat ARI in their children.
The target population is children ages 5 and under. Respiratory diseases cause
1/3 of all deaths for this group. Many deaths can be averted by training mothers
to recognize the difference between pneumonia and the common cold. A pilot
project in rural Nepal was successful in using male and female community health
workers to detect and treat pneumonia and train mothers in detection.
Childhood deaths subsequently decreased by 28% in the first three years of the
project, and the proportion of cases referred by the mother increased from 15%
to 56%.

Implications/Recommendations:

Health communication needs to target mothers and female health care
workers to recognize the signs of pneumonia.








Existing health systems should be upgraded to offer better quality care.

Women should be trained in the appropriate use of antibiotics to prevent
death from pneumonia.

Gender disaggregation is not part of ARI reporting; this is especially critical
where female infanticide is common.


4. Mothercare Project: Project development needs to come from the women's
perspective, in other words, for women designed by women. A comprehensive
approach to breast feeding and maternal nutrition is encouraged, with a focus on
achieving better health outcomes for women, particularly during their
childbearing years. Initial assessments by the Manoff Group found that the
community's and women's perspective must be considered in project design if it
hopes to change women's behavior. Spousal support is also key to influencing
change in women's behavior. Physical constraints to service delivery, such as
transportation or appropriate facilities, must be addressed along with perceived
barriers to service. Discussion: Should projects for women necessarily or
preferably be designed by women?

Implications/Recommendations:

Involving women in project design needs to take the form of participatory
research, using focus groups, group discussions, in-depth interviews, case studies
and anthropological data.

In some cases a woman's idea of a safe delivery differs from that of the
service provider. A compromise must be made that accommodates the woman's
expectation.






R&D/UC

Bill Miner from the Agency Center for University Cooperation in Development
(R&D/UC) explained that the Center was established in October 1991, combining the
former Support Staff of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
and Economic Cooperation (BIFADEC) and the erstwhile Office of Research and
University Relations in the Bureau for Science and Technology (S&T/RUR).








The BIFADEC Support Staff had no program funds and, therefore, no projects. The
principal program activities in S&T/RUR were grants to universities: program support
grants in agriculture and health, and small research grants to historically black colleges
and universities (HBCUs). The initial project of R&D/UC is the University
Development Linkages Program (UDLP), a matching grant program begun in FY 1991.
Thirteen cooperative agreements were granted, involving 17 developing country
institutions in 13 countries and 11 U.S. institutions. These awards cover diverse fields
of development, including agriculture, business management, education, environment,
forestry, health, nutrition, and rural/community development. A second round of
competition is underway for FY 1992.

Concern for women in development and gender issues was not made explicit in the
Request for Proposal (RFP) or in the criteria by which the proposals were evaluated for
the first round of competition for UDLP grants. However, one of the thirteen winning
proposals focuses on health, family planning, female education, and informal leadership
in Bangladesh. Of the other successful proposals, those in health, literacy, nutrition,
and population probably will involve women as participants and beneficiaries. In the
second round of competition, gender issues have been made explicit in the RFP and in
the criteria for evaluating the proposals.

Although there has been significant involvement of women and gender issues in the
activities initiated through single and joint Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs and
JMOUs) in agriculture and health and supported by program support grants, the reports
have not been mined to elicit specific information of lessons learned. In a similar
manner, a quick review of the abstracts of 72 completed (of the 152) projects funded by
HBCU research grants indicates that many involve women investigators and subject
matter of particular concern to women. However, there has been no effort made to
discover gender-related lessons learned.







R&D/O1T

Patricia Bekele gave a presentation on the Office of International Training. She
suggested that there are opportunities for increasing the number of women in training.
The Office Director has communicated to the Missions the importance OIT places on
increasing participation of women in A.I.D.'s training programs, especially under the
CLASP program in Latin America and the Caribbean. Gender has now been integrated
into the goal and purpose of the Jefferson Fellowship program. Further, the next
conference for contractors will focus on gender issues in A.I.D.'s training programs.








Currently 27% of A.I.D. training participants are women. The Office is looking for
ways to increase women's participation. An example from Morocco was shared, where
one-third of all participants are female; the barriers to further increases include the
nature of the training, which is often biased toward males. It is easier to successfully
recruit women for short term training than long term training, where women face more
social constraints to participation.

Several approaches were discussed that encourage increased participation by women in
the training programs. In Tanzania, where 50% of training participants are female,
success is attributed to the Mission's addition of one line in a newspaper advertisement
saying "women are encouraged to apply." OIT is revising Handbook 10, and in the
process, is making the regulations of the Thomas Jefferson Fellowship program more
responsive to gender issues, encouraging greater participation by women.

With regard to gender disaggregation, OIT has a database available that is gender
disaggregated. Beyond the number of men and women participating, OIT maintains
information on the type of training they receive, the length of training, degree objective,
facility where training is received, and age data.








February 20, 1992

R&D/WI

Ron Grosz did the final presentation of Office level findings, reporting for the Office of
Women in Development. Formerly in the PPC Bureau, the WID Office faced a
different mandate and a different task from the other Offices now comprising the R&D
Bureau. Other R&D Offices have traditionally been sector specific with project
portfolios of their own, the WID Office was responsible for making sure gender was
included in the entire Agency portfolio, across sectors and regions. Since WID's whole
focus has been on gender, WID combed for a sampling of some of the interesting
findings from each of its four priority areas rather than combing for all findings. Two
findings from each of its four priority areas were included in the presentation.
Additionally, the handout and presentation included a qualifying notation next to each
finding, which was meant as a rough indicator of the degree of evidence in support of
each finding. Discussion: How does the family initiative overlap with or help support
the WID mandate? The dynamics between men and women also must be approached
from an intergenerational perspective, as gender specific attitudes and behaviors change
over the life cycle.


1. Demand Constraints to Female Education: A GENESYS report highlighted the
need to consider demand side factors in understanding gender gaps in education
(Behrman 1991). Low perceived rates of return in labor markets for educated
women and the opportunity cost of gender specialized tasks (e.g., care of younger
siblings) depress the demand by parents for girls' education. Most studies have
underestimated the extent to which labor market returns to schooling for females
exceed those for males. Given current gender gaps in wages, equivalent
investments in female and male education actually result in greater percentage
wage increases for women than men.

Implications/Recommendations:

Expand women's employment opportunities and reduce gender based wage
discrimination to encourage families' investment in women's education.

Development planners may consider the substantially higher rates of return to
women's education as a rationale for increased levels of social investment in
women's education.

Child care facilities and preschools to relieve girls of sibling care can be
considered on a pilot basis as a possible means of eliminating the gender gap in
primary education rates in some developing countries.








2. Supply Side Constraints to Female Education: In certain settings, supply
characteristics may be directly or indirectly responsible for large gender gaps in
school enrollment. In rural Pakistan, the difference in availability of single sex
schools for girls versus boys accounts for the majority of the substantial gender
gaps in school attendance, completion rates and cognitive achievement The gaps
in achievement can be remedied by equalizing the supply of schools for girls and
boys where culture dictates separate schools or improving school environment
(quality of bathrooms, dormitories and eating facilities), which has been found to
have a stronger influence on parental decisions regarding girls' school attendance
than boys' attendance in certain settings. (Alderman, Behrman, Ross & Sabot
1990; Anderson 1986).

Implications/Recommendations:

A focus on relatively easy-to-fix supply factors may be warranted in instances
of gender gaps in education. Increasing the number of appropriate, single sex
schools available to a population may be one critical factor in increasing girls'
attendance rates and reducing the gender gap.

Experimental programs may be needed to determine the best approach in a
given country, such as satellite feeder schools for the initial grades in rural areas,
flexible hours, hours that do not conflict with other activities and greater
flexibility in seasonal patterns.


3. Credit to Small Scale Enterprises: The following characteristics generally apply
to women's businesses in developing countries:

Tend to be home based and small in response to restrictions on mobility,
time, access to capital and credit, and as a way of minimizing conflict with
their maternal and household roles.

Concentrated in certain sectors, such as trade, commerce and services.

Frequently operate on a part time or seasonal basis to accommodate their
multiple roles in the household, and tend to be more diversified than
men's businesses as a means of minimizing the risks involved with
specialization. (Downing 1990; Weidamann 1991; Gender Manual for
SSE, A.I.D. 1987)

Implications/Recommendations:

Creative approaches to credit such as group loans in combination with
simplified application processes and convenient branch office locations greatly








improve women's access to credit. Promoting the use of group loans, projects
can reach the needy by eliminating collateral and cosignature requirements, and
overcoming constraints such as illiteracy and lack of experience with formal
banking institutions.

Credit facilities should eliminate "up front" costs (including time costs) and
recognize that women are equal to or better than men as credit risks.

Convenient branch office location overcome limitations on women's mobility,
such as time and social attitudes.


4. Productivity Enhancements in Export Oriented Enterprises: In export oriented
enterprises, heightened pressure to operate efficiently in order to compete in
international markets encourages many companies to cut costs by subcontracting
S ("outwork"), using temporary labor, and prescribing less than optimal safety
precautions in the work place. These mechanisms have a disproportionate effect
on women, who tend: to hold the lowest paying, lowest status jobs; represent a
large portion of part time and temporary employees; and frequently are exposed
to relatively poor work conditions. Many agribusiness firms in Asia and the Near
East hesitate to improve working conditions or offer better wages, benefits, and
full time employment in the belief that it will reduce profits. Preliminary
research, however, suggests that such provisions may substantially increase
workers' productivity, making these changes cost effective investments even in
instances of a surplus labor supply. (Standing 1989; Islam & Dixon-Mueller
1991)

Implications/Recommendations:

Better conditions and terms (benefits, wages, security, etc.) will increase job
satisfaction, increase stability of the work force, and improve worker productivity
levels.

Policies should encourage productivity enhancing investments by firms as a
means of increasing long run profits and organizational sustainability.
Improvements in the quality of life for employees also ensue, with
disproportionate positive impacts on women.

Export oriented enterprises, by changing their orientation from cost cutting
measures toward productivity enhancing incentives, will positively affect the
situation for female employees in particular.








5. Income from Forest Products: Women in developing countries frequently earn a
large part of their incomes from forest products, either directly through
extraction or indirectly through small scale manufacturing. In these situations,
deforestation can result in a partial or complete loss of income for women. In
India, women identify loss of income as the most serious consequence of
deforestation -- not added time for fuelwood collection. Due to the lack of
alternative income generating opportunities for rural women in particular, they
sometimes have a greater stake in forest management than do men.

Implications/Recommendations:

Preserve income generating opportunities for women to ensure their support
in forestry projects. Improve and sustain their small scale forest industries rather
than simply planting new tree stands that do not yield marketable products.

If women see clear benefits accruing to them from a project, they are more
likely to contribute their labor to planting and maintenance.


6. Community Groups and Natural Resource Management Women's groups have
organized to combat natural resource degradation at the local level. Their ability
to affect change, however, may be limited by their lack of linkages to
development and government agencies. An ECOGEN case study of local
institutional management of erosion in Kenya revealed that Mwethya groups
(primarily women's groups) organized to improve water resources and combat
natural resource degradation in their local villages. These groups now function
as the backbone of the village's resource management activities. Their successes
have been negated by the government sanctioned practice of sand scooping,
which destroys the water beds. Sand scooping provides low cost inputs to the
construction industry, a priority for national development. With poor ties to
government and development agencies and poor communication with other
villages to garner additional support, the Mwethya groups were not able to stop
the practice.

Implications/Recommendations:

While women's groups may have a vested interest in natural resource
management, simply organizing into groups may not be effective without the
support of intermediary organizations such as umbrella groups as a means of
strengthening their voice and effectiveness.

Improvements in local infrastructure facilitate communication and allow
extension agents to more effectively transmit local concerns and report on
conflicts between national and local development goals.







7. Export Oriented Agribusiness: Expansion of export oriented agroprocessing
industries often draws on women as the primary source of labor. GENESYS
reports highlight the fact that almost invariably, the expansion of these industries
has elicited high female participation in the work force, even in cultures where
women's employment outside the home is discouraged. It may also increase
demand for agricultural inputs supplied by small scale, female producers who are
frequently in the non-formal sector. Among the fast growing agricultural exports,
fruits, vegetables and nuts comprise nearly half of traded value, and women
typically play critical roles in their production and processing under both
traditional and modern arrangements.

Implications/Recommendations:

Export promotion programs will have a major effect on the type and extent of
employment opportunities available to women in their roles as laborers, input
suppliers and entrepreneurs.

Incorporate information on women's anticipated level and type of
participation and any constraints to participation (at individual, household,
community or national level) into rapid appraisals, commodity feasibility studies
and other A.I.D.-commissioned analyses.

Promote the development of those subsectors with high growth potential and
where women's anticipated participation and benefits are substantial.


8. Market Access and Conditions: Some evidence suggests that women can be
more responsive than men to improved marketing conditions and rising prices for
food crops (e.g. fruits, vegetables, nuts). A study of agricultural villages in
southern Cameroon found that, with the introduction of a new road to improve
market access and a subsequent increase in product prices, women increased the
number of hours spent in production for the market by approximately 5 hours to
a total of nearly 11 hours -- men devoted a total of only 1 hour toward
production for the market. Further, the average work week for men in the two
village sample was only 32 hours, while women averaged nearly 64 hours per
week; after the road was introduced, women significantly increased their already
long workday while men's response was fairly minimal. Women's critical need
for additional income was cited as the rationale for the differences in responsive-
ness. (Henn 1988)

Implications/Recommendations:

New roads and infrastructure investments in rural areas may have a stronger
impact on women than men by substantially expanding women's income earning








opportunities.


* Road building is generally considered a gender-neutral intervention and
receives support on the merits of its numerous other benefits. Road building is
not, however, gender neutral.

* Donor agencies need to provide training and/or extension services to the
population affected by the road in order to maximize potential multiplier effects.

* Given women's lengthy workday, any intervention must take into account
women's time constraints and seek to alleviate an already heavy workload.
Interventions should address issues of drudge work so women can focus on other
productive activity.









ANNEX 2


Reference Tables and Background Material for Synthesis








Table 1


CLUSTERS I: BREAKDOWN BY OFFICES AND FINDINGS


Office


Information
Base


Design


Net
Benefits


Agriculture AGR 5 AGR 1 AGR 1
AGR 2
AGR 3
AGR 4

Health H 1 H2 H3
H4

University UC 1
Center

Economic and EID 2 EID 1 EID 1
Institutional EID 3 EID 3 EID 4
Development EID 4 EID 5

Education ED 4 ED 1
ED 2
ED 3
ED 4

Environment and ENR 1 ENR 3 ENR 1
Natural ENR 2 ENR 4
Resources ENR 5
ENR 6

Energy EIN 1


Population POP 1 POP 4 POP 2
1 POP 2 POP 5 POP 3

Nutrition N 1 N 1
N2 N3
N3

Women in WID 1 WID 4
Development WID 2 WID 6
WID 3 WID 7
WID 5 WID 8






Table 2


THE WID GRID:
A TOOL TO HELP IDENTIFY PRIORITY AREAS FOR RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT


Low
Corroboration



High
Corroboration


Minor
Implications


Major
Implications


Low C Low C
Minor I Major I



High C High C
Minor I Major I









Table 3


CLUSTERS I: BY IMPLICATION LEVEL


INFORMATION

BASE


POLICY


PROGRAM


U~ I


H1
UC1
EID 2
EID 3
EID 4
ED 4
ENR 5
ENR 6
POP 1
POP 2
N1
N2


AGR 5
H1
UC1
EID 4
ENR 1
ENR 2
N1
N3


PROJECT


AGR 5
EID 4
ENR 1


_____----____---- ------ --------------------------


DESIGN


EID 3
EID 5


AGR 1
H2
EID 1
EID 3
EID 5
ENR 3
EIN
POP 4
POP 5
WID 1
WID 2


AGR 1
AGR 2
AGR 3
AGR 4
H2
H4
EID 1
EID 5
ENR 3
POP 4
POP 5
N3
WID 1
WID 2
WID 3
WID 5


- --------------------- ------------------ --------


NET

BENEFITS


AGR 1
EID 1
EID 4
ED 1
ED 2
ED 3
POP 2
POP 3
WID 4
WID 7
WID 8


AGR 1
H3
EID 1
EID 4
ENR 1
ENR 4
WID 4
WID 6
WID 8


H3
EID 4
ENR 1
ENR 4


I








Table 4


CLUSTERS I: BREAKDOWN BY OFFICES AND FINDINGS


Counting
Heads


Integrated
Gender
Analysis


Variable
Gender
Relations


Power
Relations/
Resource
Allocation
& Access


Multiple
Roles and
Duties


AGR AGR 5 AGR 1 AGR 3 AGR 1 AGR 1
AGR 2 AGR 4 AGR 2
AGR 5 AGR 5 AGR 4
AGR 5
H H2 H1
H4

UC UC1


EID EID 2 EID 1 EID 5
EID 5 EID 3
EID 4
R R1
OIT OIT 1

ED ED 3
ENR ENR 2 ENR 4
EIN EIN 1

POP POP 2 POP 5
N N1 N2
N2
N3
WID WID 1 WID 5 WID 1
WID3 WID 3
WID 7 WID 8
WID 8









ANNOTATIONS


Clusters I Relevance to Programming Cycle


Following is a list of findings for each cluster in the first group of clusters (Clusters I). A brief
annotation appears next to it, usually drawn directly from the Office handout describing the
finding. The annotation is intended as an explanation for why a finding is included in a
particular cluster. Several findings appear in more than one cluster, a reflection of the
multidimensional nature of many of the findings. The reference on the left hand side (e.g.,
Agriculture #5) refers to the Office that presented the finding, and the number assigned that
finding for the purposes of the analysis. Please refer to the first page of this annex (page 3) for
a complete list of findings according to their assigned number and relevant Office; a short
descriptive title also appears to help identify the finding, and full descriptions are provided in
Annex 1.

1. Information Base:

Agriculture #5 -- Bean/Cowpea CRSP: Women play central roles in bean and cowpea
production; in general, spend more time in food production than men;
and have highly variable roles in agriculture, depending on the interaction
of local level historical and sociocultural variables and national and
international political and economic processes.

Health #1 -- HIV research aims to collect data and understand the sexual attitudes
and behaviors and cultural and socioeconomic factors that put women at
risk of HIV infection. Such information is critical for the design of
appropriate prevention strategies.

University -- Human Resources Center in Bangladesh will undertake surveys, studies,
analyses, pilot projects and training directed toward the amelioration of
selected problems, with special regard to the well-being of women, e.g.,
family planning, health care, and female education.

EID #2 -- Since spending patterns of women are relatively more localized than
men, women make significant economic contributions to local income
multiplication and to town building processes within rural African regions.
Getting resources into the hands of women will be critical to increasing
the regional income multiplication that underlies rural regional
development.

EID #3 -- Women traders are likely to dominate buying at the farmgate and in
village markets when production is dispersed. Small-scale women traders
use labor intensive marketing techniques that reduce spoilage. They also
provide services to dispersed demand and are effective in collecting
dispersed supplies of goods.








EID #4


Education #4



ENR #1






ENR #2







ENR #5






ENR #6



Population #1


Nutrition #1




Nutrition #2


-- Women have derived access to land in many African countries; their
rights are informal or secondary and so may be overlooked in the
redesign of land tenure systems.

-- Women's literacy and numeracy enhance their access to
complementary resources such as land, credit and technology, increasing
their productivity in farm and household production.

-- Forestry Support Program: Female participants are being identified and
nominated by national agencies and donor organizations to attend
workshops on gender issues in forestry management. These individuals
may enjoy less access to the organizational debriefing and information
sharing networks than male counterparts and thus are less capable of
transmitting information from the workshop.

-- Men's and women's tree management practices can vary by gender;
women's experience and knowledge of tree management are greatly
needed, particularly in harvesting fruits for specific uses or processing.
Women are often the local forest experts. Failing to consult women
about indigenous species and their uses can lead to making decisions that
may endanger the tree species and the environment in which they are
maintained by women's labor and energy.

-- In many cultures, women have rich knowledge about plants, diverse
species and natural resource conditions. Policy changes are needed from
the "top" to ensure that women have chances to build their capacities,
gain access to resources and technologies, and contribute their knowledge
and creative energy to resource management. Presently, such policy
support is severely lacking.

-- Women's major role in agricultural and fuelwood-gathering activities,
along with other gender issues, will influence decisions about
environmental policy.

-- Women in developing countries are particularly at risk of illness or
death from pregnancy, child birth and high fertility rates. Family planning
programs significantly reduce these risks.

-- There is significant diversity among female headed households with
respect to income, expenditures, and health status. The nutritional status
of children is determined jointly by a number of factors; household
headship is only one of those factors.

-- Undernutrition of weaning-age children whose mothers work may be
determined more by the conditions of the mother's work than by the fact
that she works.








Nutrition #3


-- Research into local beliefs and attitudes about health and nutrition
suggests that changes in strategy and approach from conventional
nutrition education are necessary. Family structure, traditional household
decision-making patterns, and women's limited access to resources will
influence nutritional outcomes in a household.


Design:


Agriculture #1


Agriculture #2


Agriculture #3



Agriculture #4



Health #2



Health #4




Health #

EID #1


EID #3


-- How the distribution of costs and benefits [of an irrigation system] is
conditioned by gender should be examined for each culture and
production system. Improvements in rural irrigation systems should try to
accommodate women's multiple roles in agricultural and household
production, e.g., carrying food or fodder while gathering water from the
source.

-- TropSoils in Indonesia promotes a holistic approach to understanding
the factors which affect people's practice of agriculture. Project success
was due to a good analysis of key variables, including gender.

-- A bias persists in agricultural project design that excludes women from
target groups and overlooks their dominant role in small ruminants and
small scale agricultural production.

-- Early aquaculture development projects directed extension services to
men although women were carrying out the day-to-day activities, such as
feeding and fertilizing. These projects should have components that
target both men and women, separately and combined.

-- Successful project interventions in water systems take into account the
multiple uses of water by women in both urban and rural communities,
women's role as water managers, and their historical place as mothers and
homemakers in changing behavior patterns of the household.

-- Project development in health care needs to come from the women's
perspective; for women, designed by women. Physical and perceived
barriers to service delivery should be identified and overcome during the
project design process.

-- Women can benefit from new labor saving technologies even if they are
users but not owners. Projects should assess impact of introducing new
technology on men and women and may need to assist women in
identifying new income sources (limited opportunities for women). Also,
distinguish between technology owners and users; consider group versus
individual ownership.

-- Given rural small-scale women traders' important role in food and
marketing systems in poor and remote areas, we need to reduce











EID #5


ENR #3



Energy


Population #4




Population #5



Nutrition #3



WID #1






WID #2




WID #3


regulatory harassment and impediments to women traders and ensure that
women can sell crops as owners of produce.

-- Urban working women in Mali are seeking more convenient and easy
foods to prepare; the refined grains often are less nutritious and
imported. Successful project interventions will accommodate women's
desire to reduce the amount of time spent on food preparation and their
need to pursue income generating activities.

-- Targeting women for education in Ecuador's coastal resources
management program appears to be an effective means of building the
community structure essential for program success.

-- There is a bias against female participants in energy sector training
programs. When funds are short, women are cut. (Is this because they
are less qualified candidates, because they are women, or both?)

-- Female family planning workers are more effective providers to female
clients in many countries; women are also successfully providing certain
services to males in some countries. The gender of the provider may be
critical to project success.

-- Family planning activities that do not include men risk overlooking
what may be the greatest deterrent to female use of contraceptives,
sometimes more than income or social status.

-- Men and women may respond to different incentives for investing in
women's and children's nutrition. These incentives may be economic and
non-economic, such as parental pride or security in one's old age.

-- Design of education projects should investigate gender specific demand
constraints. Specific interventions should be targeted at overcoming
specific constraints, such as preschools to alleviate girls' responsibilities in
sibling care or improving employment conditions and opportunities for
women, thereby providing an economic incentive to invest in female
education.

-- There may be significant supply side constraints to parental demand for
female education in some cultures; these constraints are relatively easy to
overcome and can be dealt with during project design (e.g., physical
conditions of schools, location, and availability of single sex schools).

-- Creative approaches to credit for small businesses can improve access
to credit for the poor, and particularly poor women who face several
gender specific constraints to obtaining credit.








-- Women's income from forest products may be jeopardized as a result
of deforestation. Projects should try to preserve income generating
opportunities for women where possible.


Net Benefits:


Agriculture #1




Health #3





EID #1


EID #4


Education #1


Education #2



Education #3



ENR #1


-- The introduction of labor saving technology in irrigation systems may
displace rural workers formerly involved in system maintenance. Male
laborers may subsequently compete with for work with female agricultural
laborers who have limited alternatives for other employment.

-- Women are targeted as mothers and as health care workers to reduce
the incidence of children's death due to pneumonia. Increased rates of
child survival contribute to lower fertility rates in the long run, with
subsequent increases in women's health status from fewer pregnancies
and births.

-- Women may benefit from the introduction of labor saving
technologies; they may also be displaced from jobs by its introduction or
see declines in income from traditional processes ("women" controlled
income).

-- Men and women are differentially affected by changes in land tenure
systems. As systems formalize and move toward individualized access and
use, women are often forced onto the least desirable and productive lands
and, at worst, their limited rights may be extinguished altogether. There
is some evidence that formal land titling and registration programs work
to the disadvantage of women who may have formerly retained use rights
and subsequently lose their customary tenure arrangements.

-- A more educated mother raises healthier children and maintains
higher standards for hygiene and nutrition in the household. Educating
females is a means of improving the health and standard of living in a
community.

-- Female education is an important factor in reducing infant mortality;
long run benefits for women ensue in the form of fewer pregnancies
required to achieve desired completed family size.

-- Female literacy is strongly correlated with lower fertility rates;
educating women helps reduce population growth, with associated
benefits for society at large.

-- Activities to encourage gender analysis in forestry support programs
are having less than optimal impact due in part to lack of effective
communication about the issues. For instance, workshop information is
marginalized by sending special female designates. Successful resource
management activities that included gender issues are small scale or
isolated instances that are rarely shared with other resource users or


WID #5








extension agents.


ENR #4 -- Biodiversity Support Program targets women in Costa Rica (sea
turtles) and Kenya (Maasai and indigenous food species) to help achieve
environmental conservation and management goals. Benefits accrue to
women as they are primary users of these particular resources and have a
vested interest in sustainable use.

Population #2 -- Women often reap substantial benefits from family planning activities,
including increasing their options for employment and education.
Employment with family planning programs often is viewed as a high
status job within a community and also endows the women with
transferrable skills.

Population #3 -- Other indirect benefits from family planning include the tendency for
children in smaller families to enjoy a higher standard of living and to
attend secondary school, improved social status of women, and lower
population growth rates (and attendant benefits).

WID #4 -- In export oriented productive enterprises, women tend to hold the
lowest paying, lowest status jobs; represent a large portion of part time
and temporary employees; and frequently are exposed to relatively poor
work conditions. Cost cutting measures by firms competing
internationally disproportionately affect women. Nevertheless, this
employment often represents a substantial improvement over alternative
job opportunities open to the women employed by these firms. Some
evidence that productivity enhancing investments may be equally cost-
effective in the long run for employers while offering substantial benefits
to female employees.

WID #6 -- Women often have a vested interest in combating natural resource
degradation; local women's groups may be a useful means of organizing
community involvement in natural resource management projects.

WID #7 -- Women in particular may benefit from programs that promote export
oriented agribusiness, as it often draws on women as the primary source
of labor. It may also increase the demand for agricultural inputs supplied
by small scale female producers. Women also play key roles in the
production and processing of a substantial portion of fast growing
agricultural exports (fruits, vegetables, nuts).

WID #8 -- Women may be particularly responsive to infrastructure improvements
that increase their access to markets and assist in generating income.
Without labor saving technology to help reduce other household and
agricultural production duties, the net effect may be to increase women's
already long workday with negative health consequences.








ANNOTATIONS


Clusters H Recommendations and Analytical Approach


Following is a list of findings for each cluster in the second group of clusters (Clusters II). A
brief annotation appears next to it, usually drawn directly from the Office handout describing
the finding. The annotation is intended as an explanation for why a finding is included in a
particular cluster. Several findings appear in more than one cluster, a reflection of the
multidimensional nature of many of the findings. The reference on the left hand side (e.g.,
Agriculture #5) refers to the Office that presented the finding, and the number assigned that
finding for the purposes of the analysis. Please refer to page 3 at the beginning of this annex
for a complete list of findings according to their assigned number and relevant Office; a short
descriptive title also appears to help identify the finding, and full descriptions are provided in
Annex 1.


1. Counting Heads:


Agriculture #5



University


Research




OIT

Energy


Population #2


-- Bean/Cowpea CRSP student training programs "continues to encourage
the inclusion of women in its training programs and currently nearly half
of those being supported are women."

-- Discussion of HBCU Research Grant program -- scanning project titles
indicated that "44 of 152 funded projects (29%) concern women"

-- Presentation of % of women involved in research teams: Of total
proposals, 19% of PIs were women and 36% had at least one female
team member. Of proposals receiving A.I.D. funding, 37% of PIs were
women, and 46% had at least one female team member.

-- 20% of participants are women; 33% in Morocco and 50% in Tanzania

-- Since 1987, 51 women have been trained of a total of 700 participants
from approximately 18 countries.

-- One part of finding was that "nearly half a million women are employed
by A.I.D. assisted family planning programs worldwide."


2. Integrated Gender Analysis:


Agriculture #1


-- Costs and benefits of irrigation "are conditioned by the socio-economic
status of the household, its access to land, and the spatial features of the
particular water system. How the distribution of costs and benefits is
conditioned by gender should be examined for each culture and production
system."








Agriculture #2



Agriculture #5





EID #2



EID #5




ENR #2



Nutrition #1


Nutrition #2


Nutrition #3




WID #1



WID #3



WID #7


-- TropSoils in Indonesia looked at human concerns those of men and
women individually and as family units -- with respect to soil
management.

-- Bean/Cowpea research advises on both class and gender: "Locating the
household in its larger social context and calling attention to the
interrelationship between agriculture and other sectors of the economy,
therefore, may be of as much, if not greater, use than providing
descriptive materials."

-- The observation that spending patterns of women are more localized
than men applies to rural women in Kenya; this probably does not hold
true across different income and urbanization levels

-- Working women are seeking more convenient and easy-to-prepare
foods that often have lower nutritional value. The finding applies to
urban women working outside the home, a group defined by significant
socioeconomic factors above and beyond gender.

-- There are gender specific rules of access and management for trees in
many cultures; we must examine the cultural context before assuming
gender differences

-- Children's nutritional status is affected by both income and gender of
the head of household, rather than by simply one or the other.

-- Mother's place of employment affects child nutrition in Indonesia -
this is often a reflection of class, education, and ethnicity

-- The beliefs and attitudes of certain societies affect women's and men's
views of the importance of nutrition. It is not sufficient to assume that
women will place a greater value on nutrition than men; in fact, a variety
of factors will determine both men's and women's views.

-- Demand side constraints to female education are often rooted in
religion, class, race and ethnicity and need to be analyzed with those
factors in mind.

-- Limited access to credit affects (men and) particularly women with low
socioeconomic status; credit should be allocated on the basis of need, not
simply on the basis of gender.

-- Education, age and social status, in addition to gender, will determine if
and how a woman benefits from export oriented agribusiness. Certain
groups of women will be employed directly by a firm, while others will be
self-employed and provide inputs to the firm.








-- Gender was the obvious factor in the women's relatively greater
response to the new market road; it reflects relative income across
genders and women's lack of other income generating opportunities


3. Variable Nature of Gender Relations:


Agriculture #3




Agriculture #4



Agriculture #5



Health #2



ENR #4


-- Women are the dominant gender in small scale farm production;
projects have assumed that the male head of household is the farm
manager and major contributor towards small scale agricultural
production in all agricultural production systems.

-- Aquaculture involves both men and women at different stages of
production. Planners cannot assume that these roles will remain static.
Program designs must be flexible.

-- Bean/Cowpea Article: "Small-scale agriculture and the division of labor
by gender within it are continually modified by factors associated with the
household, community and broader political economy."

-- WASH Project recommendation: "Traditional roles need not limit
women's active roles in changing and improving water supplies and
systems."

-- Women were the traditional gatherers of indigenous food species that
supplemented the Maasai diet; the food species are rarely collected now
that the Maasai are living in the group ranch. Pilot project is trying to
get women to grow these species in home gardens.


4. Interdependent Resource Allocation and Access
and Power Relations:


Agriculture #1



Agriculture #2


Agriculture #4



Health #1


-- Water Resources in Pakistan: Women are involved in agricultural
decisions (especially livestock production, care and processing products)
and should be targeted for relevant training/extension services.

-- TropSoils in Indonesia promotes a holistic approach to understanding
the factors which affect people's practice of agriculture.

-- Aquaculture involves both men and women at different stages of
production: men dominate during clearing and construction of the pond,
and women in the everyday work such as feeding and fertilizing.

-- HIV research into reducing the risks for women of HIV transmission
have pointed out women's inability to influence men's use of condoms in
many societies, a direct consequence of the structure of power relations.


WID #8
I












Health #4




EID #1





EID #3




EID #4


Education #3




Population #5












WID #5


Similarly, women often have little or no control over their sexual partner's
sexual habits or promiscuity, leaving themselves vulnerable to
transmission.

-- Mothercare: Social attitudes (including men's) about appropriate health
facilities will influence women's use of health care services. The other
actors who influence a women's decision to go to a health center need to
be considered in project design.

-- Rural women can benefit from new labor saving technologies as users,
even if they are not owners (Africa). Recommendation: distinguish
between technology users and technology owners and operators; consider
the benefits of group ownership versus individual ownership of
technology.

-- AMIS Project (Africa): Recommends that "explicit provisions are
needed to ensure women can sell crops as owners of produce. Without
such provision, the presumption of male ownership and trading currently
prevailing is very likely to govern project design and implementation."

-- Women have derived access to land in many African countries: "rights
to land only accrue to women as a result of their status within a family."
Changes in land tenure systems may not appropriately investigate the
informal and secondary rights that women have, inadvertently leaving
women worse off than before by moving land rights out of the arena of
customary law and into statutory law.

-- Some of the correlation between female education and reduced rates of
fertility is due to the improvements in the status of women within the
household and their increased bargaining power as a result of higher
levels education.

-- Family planning activities must recognize the importance of men in
determining women's decisions about contraceptive use, either through
influence or access to resources. Spousal consent is required in many
programs for female sterilization and other forms of contraception. In
other countries, men actively prevent women from practicing
contraception. A women's decisions about her body often are made
within the context of her role as mother, wife, and daughter-in-law, and
are influenced or determined by her husband and sometimes parents or
in-laws. The use of male family planning workers may be recommended
where men are the primary decision-makers about family planning and
family size. There is a need to strike a balance between men and women
re responsibility for reproductive decisions.

-- Women's income from forest products tends to be diminished as a
result of deforestation, which sometimes is at the hands of men in the








family cutting trees for cash. The outcome of competing uses for forest
products across genders may represent a tradeoff in the household,
whereby the value of the men's use of the wood was compared with the
women's use of the wood. Decisions may be made within the broader
context of the household.


5. Multiple Duties/Roles:


Agriculture #1




EID #5


Nutrition #2



WID #1


WID #3

WID #8


-- Women carrying food or fodder while getting water need appropriate
compacted banks to make foot travel easier; women use watercourses for
gathering water as well as doing laundry and bathing children and
animals;

-- Working women in Mali taking short cuts with food preparation to save
time; resulted in lower levels of nutrition for household members

-- Women working at home in Indonesia may have insufficient time to
devote to child care and nutrition; children of women working away from
the home and staying with child care providers received better care

-- Girls' household responsibilities conflict with school attendance

-- Women's multiple roles affect type/size of enterprise

-- Women's long work week and response to introduction of market road.









ANNEX 3


Cross Sectoral Implications








Clusters m Cross Sectoral Implications


This clustering was conducted to identify the extent to which the findings presented had
implications for other R&D Offices or sectors. There are significant indirect implications of
almost every finding presented, but for the purposes of this exercise, the cross tabulation was
limited to direct implications only

A. simple cross tabulation was used to identify any patterns, or areas where there was significant
cross-over between sectors. The tabulation is of use as a reference to those persons interested
in finding supporting information from other Offices; however, discussion of the generalizations
that might be drawn from these relationships is integrated into the main text of the report.

The table is presented below and on the next page, referencing the Office and the number of
the finding (see Annex 1 or 2 for specifics of the findings). The strongest showing across sectors
appeared in the categories entitled "employment/income" and "education/training." There was
substantial representation in "technology," "growth," and "gender disaggregated data." The other
categories had less than five findings each.


Topic


Credit


ilU


Finding


EID 2
ED 4
WID 3


Technology \, EID 1
EID 5
ED 4
WID 8
H1
H1
AGR 1


Extension


m


STenure
I


ED 4
ENR 2
AGR 3
EID 5


EID 1
EID 4









Employment/Income //-


U


EID 1
EID 2
EID 5
ED 5
AGR 1
N2
N3
POP 2
POP 4
WID 1
WID 4
WID 5
WID 7
WID 8


-Regulations EID 3
OIT 1

Growth i EID 2
SED 4
ED 5
WID 4
WID 7
POP 3


-.- Community Organization


ENR 3
ENR 4
ENR 5
WID 6


SHealth ED 1
ED 2
UC1
POP 1

Nutrition EID 3
EID 5
ED 1

Family Planning ED 2
ED 3
UC 1









Education/Training


ENR1
ENR3
ENR 4
AGR 1
N1
UC 1
H1
H2
H3
POP 2
POP 3
EIN 1


Gender-disaggregated Data OIT 1
H3
N3
ENR2
ENR 3
AGR 5


























































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I J






















































































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