• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Chart 1: Total population
 Chart 2: Percent of women living...
 Chart 3: Sex ratios of working...
 Chart 4: Sex ratios of elderly...
 Chart 5: Percent literate age 10...
 Chart 6: Percent literate among...
 Chart 7: Percent of population...
 Chart 8: Labor force participation...
 Chart 9: Women's amd men's share...
 Chart 10: Labor force participation...
 Chart 11: Percent single among...
 Chart 12: Percent widowed among...
 Chart 13: Percent of households...
 Chart 14: Average lifetime fertility...
 Chart 15: Distribution of lifetime...
 Chart 16: Infant mortality...
 Chart 17: Life expectancy...
 Definition of terms
 Back Cover














Group Title: WID ; 5
Title: Women of the world
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080509/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women of the world a chartbook for developing regions
Series Title: WID
Physical Description: 70 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jamison, Ellen
Center for International Research (U.S.)
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research :
For sale by Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1985]
 Subjects
Subject: Women -- Social conditions -- Statistics -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment -- Statistics -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "Prepared under a participating agency service agreement with the Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development."
General Note: "Issued March 1985."
Funding: Women in development (Washington, D.C.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080509
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000557681
oclc - 12086554
notis - ACY2664
lccn - 85600524

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Chart 1: Total population
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Chart 2: Percent of women living in urban areas
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Chart 3: Sex ratios of working age population by rural/urban residence
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Chart 4: Sex ratios of elderly population by rural/urban residence
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Chart 5: Percent literate age 10 years and over
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Chart 6: Percent literate among women in selected age groups
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Chart 7: Percent of population age 10-14 enrolled in school
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chart 8: Labor force participation rates for women and men age 10 and over
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Chart 9: Women's amd men's share of labor force age 10 years and over
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Chart 10: Labor force participation rates for women ages 20-29 years
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Chart 11: Percent single among women age 20-24 years
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Chart 12: Percent widowed among women and men age 50 years and over
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Chart 13: Percent of households with women heads
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Chart 14: Average lifetime fertility per woman
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Chart 15: Distribution of lifetime fertility by age of mother
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Chart 16: Infant mortality rates
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Chart 17: Life expectancy at birth
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Definition of terms
        Page 70
    Back Cover
        Page 71
Full Text
WID-5


A Chartbook for
Developing Regions


rI


/--


Latin America and Sub-Soharan Africa
the Caribbean
U. S. Department of Commerce
BUREAU OFTHE CENSUS


dLi
Near East and North Africo Asia

U. S. Agency for International Developmen
OFFICE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT I


?'- 4?.


,
;j


r/
,+























We are grateful to the staff of the Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Program and Policy
Coordination, Agency for International Development, for their support throughout the various stages of
the Census Bureau's Women In Development project, especially to Kay Davies, Director of the WID office,
and to Earline Wilkinson, Project Monitor.
This report was prepared by Ellen Jamison, Staff Assistant to the Chief, Center for International Research.
Statistics upon which the charts are based were compiled and evaluated by the Center's demographic
analysts, ard the data were verified by the statistical assistants. Thanks are due to Larry Owens for typing
the report.
We wish to express our gratitude to the national statistical offices and other national and international
organizations worldwide, without whose generous collaboration the compilation of data for reports like
this would not be possible.
Finally, we are grateful to the authors of the first four reports in the Women of the World series, Elsa M.
Chaney, Jeanne S. Newman, Mary Chamie, and Nasra M. Shah, for their interpretations of the data and
their insights into the status of women in each of the regions.



Library of Congress Card Number 85-600524


For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or any U.S.
Department of Commerce district office. Postage stamps not acceptable; currency submitted at sender's risk. Remittances
from foreign countries must be by international money order or by a draft on a U.S. bank.





WID-5


r










AChartbook

for Developing

Regions


SThis report was prepared under a Participating
Agency Service Agreement with the Office of
Women in Development, Bureau for Program and
Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency
Sfor International Development.


i' Issued March 1985
1.' OF CO


4ATES 0
U.S. Department of Commerce
Malcolm Baldrige, Secretary
Clarence J. Brown, Deputy Secretary
Sidney Jones, Under Secretary for
Economic Affairs
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
i John G. Keane, Director
C.L. Kincannon, Deputy Director
William P. Butz, Associate Director
Sfor Demographic Fields
Robert O. Bartram, Assistant Director
for International Programs


CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
Samuel Baum, Chief





















Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

CHARTS

Each chart has parts 1, 2, 3, and 4, representing data for Latin America and the Caribbean,
Sub-Saharan Africa, Near East and North Africa, and Asia

Chart 1. Total Population: Midyear 1985 ................................................... 2


Chart 2. Percent of Women Living in Urban Areas: Latest Two Censuses ....................... 6


Chart 3. Sex Ratios of Working-Age Population, by Rural/Urban Residence ....................... 10


Chart 4. Sex Ratios of Elderly Population, by Rural/Urban Residence ............................ 14


Chart 5. Percent Literate Age 10 Years and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence ..................... 18


Chart 6. Percent Literate Among Women in Selected Age Groups .............................. 22


Chart 7. Percent of Population Age 10 to 14 Years Enrolled in School ........................ ..26


Chart 8. Labor Force Participation Rates for Women and Men Age 10 Years and Over .............. 30


Chart 9. Women's and Men's Share of Labor Force Age 10 Years and Over ...................... 34


Chart 10. Labor Force Participation Rates for Women Age 20 to 29 Years, by Rural/Urban Residence .... 38


Chart 11. Percent Single Among Women Age 20 to 24 Years, by Rural/Urban Residence ............. 42


Chart 12. Percent Widowed Among Women and Men Age 50 Years and Over ..................... 46


Chart 13. Percent of Households with Women Heads..................................... .. 50


Chart 14. Average Lifetime Fertility per W oman ............................................ 54


Chart 15. Distribution of Lifetime Fertility, by Age of Mother .................................. 58


Chart 16. Infant Mortality Rates ............................. ....... ................. 62


Chart 17. Life Expectancy at Birth ...................................................... 66





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


!iii ....


A Chartbook

for Developing

Regions


Introduction
This report was prepared under a Participating Agency
Service Agreement with the Office of Women in Development
(WID), Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency
for International Development (USAID).' A strong commitment
to WID as a policy issue is an administrative mandate within
USAID. As a result, the Agency has issued a comprehensive
Policy Paper on Women in Development. This paper directs that
women will be integrated into all the Agency's programs and
projects. It describes how that integration shall take place, and
it offers benchmarks to measure the effects of this integration.
One such benchmark is the collection of gender-disaggregated
data. The Agency is convinced, as outlined in the Women in
Development Policy Paper, that the disaggregation of data by
sex must be included in all project documents in order to measure
the Agency's accomplishments more effectively.
To emphasize the importance of disaggregating data by sex
in development activities, and as a means of obtaining sex-
disaggregated data on a worldwide scale, the WID office con-
tracted with the U.S. Bureau of the Census to produce
demographic data on countries in the developing world. This
report presents a series of captioned charts describing the situa-
tion of women in selected developing countries based on a
coherent set of statistics including those analyzed in detail in
the first four reports in the Women of the World series. The
original sources of data are the censuses and surveys conducted
by the national statistical offices of the countries themselves.
The chartbook begins with a view of the current total popula-
tion in each country and the changing proportion of women in
urban areas. Next, sex ratios of the population in two key age
groups-working age (15 to 64 years) and elderly (65 years and
over)-are presented for rural and urban populations.
Women's and men's education is represented by literacy rates
and school enrollment and their working life by labor force par-

'This report is a continuation of a long-term interagency project in which
a Women In Development Data Base was established at the Bureau of the
Census, under sponsorship of the Agency for International Development,
containing statistics on a variety of demographic, social, and economic topics
for 120 countries worldwide. The data for developing countries were analyzed
in detail in the first four reports in this Women of the World series: Latin
America and the Caribbean (May 1984), Sub-Saharan Africa (August 1984),
Near East and North Africa (April 1985), and Asia and the Pacific (April 1985).


ticipation rates. Literacy is shown for women and men in rural
and urban settings and nationwide for women in selected adult
age groups. Enrollment is presented for girls and boys in the key
age group 10 to 14 years. The proportion of women and men
who are economically active is shown as well as the percent-
age of all members of the labor force who are women. Labor
force participation rates are shown for women in the key age
group 20 to 29 years, by rural/urban residence.
The percentage of young women in rural and urban areas who
are single and the proportion of older women and men who are
widowed are illustrated next, followed by the proportion of
households headed by women. Women's fertility is presented
as the average total number of children per woman and the
distribution of lifetime fertility by mother's age. Finally, gender
differences in infant mortality and in life expectancy at birth are
illustrated.
All of the topics presented are important the world over, but
women's situation with respect to each of them may differ
widely among the world's regions or even among countries
within regions. Indeed, within a given country itself, there is no
truly "average" woman, and the statistics necessarily present
only a generalized picture.
The chartbook is organized by topic. Within each topic, charts
are presented by region; and within each chart, data are shown
by country. Because the various countries have different
schedules for taking censuses and surveys, it is not possible to
represent all countries' situations at the same point in time.
Only data pertaining to 1970 or later are included to minimize
differences that may be due to time reference rather than to ac-
tual contemporary variations. Even then, caution should be ex-
ercised in making intercountry or interregional comparisons when
time references diverge by more than a few years.
For a given country, data on the various topics may refer to
different years. This is the case when the most recent census
or survey provides information on only one or a few of the sub-
jects covered in this chartbook or when early census returns do
not provide the rural/urban breakdown needed for a particular
chart. Thus, the most up-to-date information available is
(Continued on page 70)





4 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 1.
Total Population: Midyear 1985
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


The 21 Latin American and Carib-
bean countries included in this
chartbook range in size from
Brazil, one of the world's largest
countries with over 137 million
population, to Guyana, with
about 840 thousand inhabitants.
The countries are as diverse in
culture and topography as they
are in population size. Although
there is a fair amount of
homogeneity within the
subregions of the Caribbean, Mid-
dle America, and South America,
each country has a distinct
character, of which the status of
women is a part.


Brazil



Mexico



Argentina



Colombia



Peru


Venezuela



Chile



Cuba



Ecuador



Guatemala


Dominican
Republic


Bolivia


I I I I 1


~Iz


II


-1


El Salvador

Honduras

Paraguay


Nicaragua

Costa Rica


Jamaica


Panama

Guyana


D 2 4 6
Population in millions


50 75 10
Population in millions


I






Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 1.
Total Population: Midyear 1985
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


The majority of Sub-Saharan
African countries are small to
moderate in population size, with
only Nigeria, with an estimated
91 million inhabitants, taking its
place among the world's largest
nations.

The five most populous
countries-Nigeria, Zaire,
Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Sudan-
account for half of the combined
population of the 40 Sub-Saharan
African countries included in this
chartbook.

Countries of the region display a
diversity of cultural and
geographical settings, which may
be summarized to some extent by
the subregional groupings used in
the remainder of the charts.


Nigeria

Ethiopia

Zaire


Tanzania

Sudan


Kenya

Uganda


Niger
Rwanda
Guinea

Chad
Burundi
Benin
Sierra Leone

Togo
Liberia

Mauritania


Ghana -


Mozambique


Madagascar

Cameroon


Ivory Coast

Zimbabwe


Angola

Mali

Malawi


Burkina


Zambia

Senegal :


Somalia


Lesotho
Botswana
Mauritius
Guinea-Bissau
The Gambia
Swaziland
Cape Verde
Djibouti
Sao Tome and Principe
Seychelles


Millions



















0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Millions


Population in millions




4 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 1.
Total Population: Midyear 1985
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Populations of the 14 countries
of the Near East and North Africa
included in this chartbook range
in size from 670 thousand in
Cyprus to more than 50 million in
Turkey. On the remainder of the
charts, these nations are grouped
into the subregions of North
Africa, Western South Asia (Arab
and Non-Arab countries), and
Middle South Asia. A wide varie-
ty of culture and geography
characterizes the region overall,
as reflected by the following
charts depicting the situation of
women.


Turkey

Egypt

Iran


Morocco


Algeria


Afghanistan


Saudi Arabia

Syria

Tunisia

Yemen(Sanaa)


Jordan

Lebanon


Cyprus


I


liz


"~Iz


i~Ii


171

IZ

17


I7

]


]


Population in millions


I


I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 1.
Total Population: Midyear 1985
Part 4. Asia


The population of the 14 Asian
countries included in this region
covers a broad range, from over
a billion inhabitants in China, the
world's most populous nation, to
five and a half million in the city-
state of Hong Kong. Asia also is
home to the world's second
largest country, India, with well
over 700 million population.
Although seemingly dwarfed by
their larger neighbors, Bangladesh
and Pakistan, each with about
100 million inhabitants, are also
among the world's most
populous nations.

Regardless of the overall
population size, it is important to
assess the situation of women in
each country's unique context.


China
Mainland

India

Remaining
12 countries
(See detail below)


0 400 800 1,200


Population in millions


Indonesia


Bangladesh


Pakistan


Philippines

Thailand

South Korea

Burma
China
Taiwan
Nepal

Sri Lanka

Malaysia

Hong Kong


0 20 40 60 80 100 120140160180
Population in millions


I





6 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 2.
Percent of Women Living in Urban
Areas: Latest Two Censuses
Part 1. Latin America and
the Caribbean


The proportion of women residing
in urban areas is increasing in all
Latin American countries and
Caribbean islands, as it is
elsewhere in the developing
world. This region is unique,
however, in that more women
than men migrate from the coun-
tryside to the cities and towns.
Over 50 percent of all women
now live in urban areas in seven
of the ten South American coun-
tries shown on the chart.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1970/81
Dominican Republic
1970/81
Haiti
1971/82
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1963/73
El Salvador
1961/71
Guatemala
1964/73
Honduras
1961/74
Mexico
1960/70
Nicaragua
1963/71
Panama
1970/80
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980
Bolivia
1976
Brazil
1970/80
Chile
1970/82

Colombia
1964/73
Ecuador
1974/82

Guyana
1970
Paraguay
1972/82
Peru
1972/81
Venezuela
1982


Earlier census
Later census


I I

























---I






















) 20 40 60 80 100
Percent






Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 2.
Percent of Women Living in Urban
Areas: Latest Two Censuses
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Earlier census
Later census i


Although Sub-Saharan Africa is
still primarily rural, there is an in-
cipient tendency for increasing
proportions of women to be
found in its towns and cities, as
evidenced by those countries
having data from two recent cen-
suses. Nevertheless, by far the
majority of women still inhabit
the countryside and, in fully half
the countries, fewer than one-
fifth of the women are city
dwellers.

The pattern of change shows
little variation among the
subregions of Sub-Saharan Africa,
but the actual level of women's
urbanization remains low in most
of Sahel West Africa and parts of
Central and Southern Africa in
comparison with the other
subregions.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975
The Gambia
1963/73
Mali
1960-61/76
Niger
1977
Senegal
1970
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1960/70
Ivory Coast
1975
Liberia
1962/74
Sierra Leone
1963/74
Togo
1961/70
CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1979
Cameroon
1976
Rwanda
1978
Sao Tome and Principe
1970
EASTERN AFRICA
Madagascar
1975
Mauritius
1972
Seychelles
1971/77
Somalia
1975
Sudan
1973
Tanzania
1967/78
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1971
Malawi
1977
Zambia
1974/80


10 20 30
Percent





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


In the Arab countries of Western
South Asia, the proportion of
women in urban areas has reach-
ed 60 percent or more, and all
countries in the Near East/North
Africa region with data from two
censuses show an increase over
time, in line with urbanization
patterns worldwide.


NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
1966



Egypt
1976

Morocco
1971/82


Chart 2.
Percent of Women Living in Urban
Areas: Latest Two Censuses
Part 3. Near East and North Africa Earlier census
Later census
I I .1 I


Tunisia
1966/75
WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1965/77


Jordan
1961/79


Lebanon
1970

Syria
1960/70
Non-Arab countries
Cyprus
1960


Turkey
1975/80

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1979

Iran
1966/76


______________________________________________________





____________________________________________________________


Percent


I


- - - L -
- - - -


.. .





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 2.
Percent of Women
Areas: Latest Two
Part 4. Asia


Living in Urban
Censuses


Earlier census
Later census -


The present and changing
state of women's urbanization
shows a varied pattern among
the Asian subregions. East Asian
countries have by far the largest
proportion of women in urban
areas, while under 40 percent of
women in both Middle South
Asia and Eastern South Asia are
classified as city dwellers.

Almost without exception, the
most recent census records a
larger proportion of women living
in urban places than the previous
census did.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1974/81

India
1971/81


Nepal
1961/71


Pakistan
1972/81


Sri Lanka
1971/81

EAST ASIA
Hong Kong
1971/81

South Korea
1975/80


EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Burma
1973

Indonesia
1970/80


Malaysia
1970/80


Philippines
1975/80


Thailand
1970/80


) 20 40 60 80 100
Percent





1


=0116




Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 3.
Sex Ratios of Working-Age
Population, by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean Rural
Urban --


Among the working-age popula-
tion, women predominate in
urban areas and men in rural
areas in nearly all the countries of
Latin America and the Caribbean.
This pattern, in contrast to the
pattern in other developing
regions, reflects the greater op-
portunities that women find for
work in the cities and towns.
Women's urban jobs in the Latin
America/Caribbean region,
however, are often in the service
sector, where pay and prestige
are minimal.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1981
Dominican Republic
1970
Haiti
1982
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973
El Salvador
1971
Guatemala
1973
Honduras
1974
Mexico
1970
Nicaragua
1971
Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980
Bolivia
1976
Brazil
1980
Chile
1970
Colombia
1973
Ecuador
1982
Paraguay
1982
Peru
1981
Venezuela
1982


0 20 40 60
Males per


I


I I I I
80 100 120 140
100 females


1

I

I

1----


|

|


|

|
I

I


I

I




1 --


I






Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions I


Chart 3.
Sex Ratios of Working-Age
Population, by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Rural
Urban


Although some women in Sub-
Saharan Africa have moved to
the cities, working-age women
still outnumber men in rural areas
in nearly every country. Rural sex
ratios are especially low in
Southern Africa, where rural
women are often left behind as
men migrate for employment in
urban areas and other countries.

With few exceptions, urban sex
ratios in the working ages are
correspondingly higher than those
in rural areas, reflecting the
tendency for men to predominate
in the urban economic sector.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975

The Gambia
1973

Mali
1976

Senegal
1970
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1970

Ivory Coast
1975

Liberia
1974

Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA
Cameroon
1976

Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Madagascar
1975

Mauritius
1972

Sudan
1973

Tanzania
1978
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1971

Malawi
1977


I i

0 50 100 150
Males per 100 females





1! "Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 3.
Sex Ratios of Working-Age
Population, by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Among the population of working
age, most countries of the Near
East and North Africa have a pat-
tern of slightly higher sex ratios
in urban than rural areas, reflec-
ting the migration of men to the
towns and cities to work. In a
few countries, the differences are
substantial.


NORTH AFRICA
Egypt
1976



Morocco
1982


Tunisia
1975

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1977



Jordan
1979



Lebanon
1970


Syria
1970

Non-Arab countries

Turkey
1975

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan
1979


40 80
Males per 100 females


Rural
Urban






Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions I1


Chart 3.
Sex Ratios of Working-Age
Population, by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 4. Asia


Rural
Urban L


In contrast to the other Asian
subregions, the countries of Mid-
dle South Asia show a very high
sex ratio in the working ages in
urban areas, reflecting the migra-
tion of men to the cities in search
of work.

Elsewhere, the ratio of men to
women is much nearer to parity
in both the cities and the
countryside. Only in East Asia
and two countries in Eastern
South Asia, where opportunities
are greater for women to work in
service, manufacturing, and other
industries, does the rural sex
ratio exceed that in urban areas.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1981

India
1981


Nepal
1971


Pakistan
1981


Sri Lanka
1981

EAST ASIA
Hong Kong
1981

South Korea
1980

EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Burma
1973

Indonesia
1980


Malaysia
1980


Philippines
1980


Thailand
1980


I I I

S40 80 120 16
Males per 100 females


I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 4.
Sex Ratios of Elderly Population,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean Rural
Urban


As was seen in chart 3 for the
working-age population, there is a
predominance also of elderly
women in the cities and towns
and of elderly men in the rural
areas of Latin America and the
Caribbean. In some countries, the
pattern is even more accentuated
among the elderly, with more
than 120 men per 100 women in
the rural areas of several coun-
tries and fewer than 80 men per
100 women in the urban areas of
more than half the countries.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1981
Dominican Republic
1970
Haiti
1982
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973

El Salvador
1971
Guatemala
1973

Honduras
1974
Mexico
1970
Nicaragua
1971
Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980
Bolivia
1976

Brazil
1980

Chile
1970

Colombia
1973
Ecuador
1982
Paraguay
1982

Peru
1981


Venezuela
1982


- pI


Males per 100 females


I


I


I


= i I II






Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 1i


Chart 4.
Sex Ratios of Elderly Population,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Statistics on age in African coun-
tries are generally poor, and this
may be especially true among the
older population. The reported
data show that among the elder-
ly, men outnumber women in
rural areas in most of Sub-
Saharan Africa. In urban areas,
on the other hand, elderly women
outnumber men in half the
countries.

In much of West Africa and parts
of East Africa, rural sex ratios are
especially high among the elderly,
while in Southern Africa a
scarcity of rural men continues
into the older ages.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975

The Gambia
1973

Mali
1976

Senegal
1970
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1970

Ivory Coast
1975

Liberia
1974

Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA
Cameroon
1976

Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Madagascar
1975

Mauritius
1972

Sudan
1973

Tanzania
1978
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1971

Malawi
1977


3 50 100 15C
Males per 100 females


Rural
Urban




16 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 4.
Sex Ratios of Elderly Population,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Among the aged in most of the
North African and Near Eastern
countries, sex ratios are much
higher in rural than urban areas.
In contrast to the working ages,
where men predominate in urban
areas, this pattern reflects a scar-
city of older men in the cities.


NORTH AFRICA
Egypt
1976


Morocco
1982


Tunisia
1975


_________


WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1977


Jordan
1979


Lebanon
1970


Syria
1970


Non-Arab countries
Turkey
1975

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


Males per 100 females


Rural
Urban


|


I


J


------JI




---~





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 11



Chart 4.
Sex Ratios of Elderly Population,
by Rural/Urban Residence Rural
Part 4. Asia Urban

With a few exceptions, MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
women's more favorable Ion- Bangladesh
gevity is reflected in the low sex 1981
ratios of the elderly population in
Asian countries. This is usually India
the case in both rural and urban 1981
areas, though the ratio of men to
women among the elderly is Nepal
usually higher in the countryside 1971
than in the cities and towns.
Pakistan
In Middle South Asia, the situa- 1981
tion is somewhat different, with
much higher sex ratios in some
countries and an occasional Sri Lanka
reverse pattern between rural and 1981
urban areas. EAST ASIA
Hong Kong
1981


South Korea
1980
EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Burma
1973

Indonesia



Malaysia
1980


Philippines
1980


Thailand
1980

0 40 80 120 160
Males per 100 females




1 tWomen of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Rural
Chart 5. Women
Percent Literate Age 10 Years Menl I
and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence Urban
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean Women L
Men _


Literacy rates are high throughout
the cities and towns of Latin
America but remain at somewhat
lower levels in the countryside.
Although the classic pattern ex-
ists of generally lower levels of
literacy among women than men
and lower levels in rural than in
urban areas, gender differences
are small in many countries.

Latin American women, along
with those of East and Eastern
South Asia, rank among women
with the highest literacy rates in
developing regions.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1979

Haiti
1982
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973

El Salvador
1978

Guatemala
1973

Honduras
1974

Mexico
1970

Nicaragua
1971

Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980

Bolivia
1976

Brazil
1980

Chile
1970

Colombia
1973

Ecuador
1982

Paraguay
1982

Peru
1981

Venezuela
1974


20 40


--------1


Percent


60 80 100
60 80 100


I.


J


J


I


I


-fl


I


I


J


I


I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 1l


Rural
Chart 5. Women
Percent Literate Age 10 Years Men I
and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence Urban
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa Women


In Sub-Saharan Africa, as in
much of the developing world,
rural women have scant oppor-
tunity to learn to read and write.

Urban women fare somewhat
better, nearly always exceeding
the literacy levels of rural men,
but still falling well below the
levels of their urban male
counterparts.

West African literacy for both
sexes, but particularly for
women, remains below that of
the other subregions, with fewer
than one in three urban women
and fewer than one in ten rural
women able to read and write.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975

COASTAL WEST AFRICA

Ivory Coast
1975



Liberia
1974



Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA


Cameroon
1976



Rwanda
1978


EASTERN AFRICA

Ethiopia
1970



Kenya
1976



Sudan
1973



Tanzania
1978


40 Percent 60
Percent


80 100


0 20





ZU Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 5.
Percent Literate Age 10 Years
and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Rural
Women m
Men
Urban
Women
Men


For both women and men,
literacy rates in the Near East and
North Africa are higher in urban
than rural areas, in line with the
pattern in other developing
regions and reflecting the greater
opportunity for study in the cities
and towns. Unlike the situation in
the other regions, however,
literacy rates of urban women in
this region often are lower than
those of rural men.

In a few countries, women's
literacy rates in both urban and
rural areas are among the lowest
in the world.


NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
1977


Egypt
1976


Morocco
1982


Tunisia
1975
WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1977


Jordan
1979


Lebanon
1970



Syria
1970
Non-Arab countries

Turkey
1970
MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan
1972-73


Iran
1976


771




















-------------------













S20 40 60 80 100
Percent





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions Z1

Rural
Chart 5. Women
Percent Literate Age 10 Years Men
and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence Urban
Part 4. Asia Women
Men

The classic pattern of literacy in MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
developing countries is seen Bangladesh
again in Asia, though actual 1981
levels of literacy are highly
variable among the subregions.

East Asia and Eastern South India
Asia show rather high literacy 1981
levels for all categories, though
rates are typically lower in rural
than urban areas and lower
among women than men. Nepal
1971
In Middle South Asia, the same
pattern exists, but literacy levels
are usually much lower, and
especially low among rural P
1981
women.


Sri Lanka
1981


EAST ASIA
South Korea
1970


EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1980



Malaysia
1980



Philippines
1970



Thailand
1970

0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent




22 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 6.
Percent Literate Among Women
in Selected Age Groups
Part 1. Latin America and
the Caribbean


Years
15-24
25-34
35 and over


Literacy is more prevalent among
younger than older women in
Latin America and the Caribbean,
as is the case generally in
developing regions, reflecting the
greater educational opportunities
of more recent times. Although
data for men are not presented
on this chart, such data would
show a narrowing of the gender
gap over time, indicating that
women's literacy rates have im-
proved more rapidly than men's
rates to achieve the near-parity
that exists in many countries in
Latin America today.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1979


Dominican Republic
1970
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973


El Salvador
1971

Guatemala
1973


Honduras
1974


Mexico
1IRn


Nicaragua
1971


Panama
1980
A&M


SOUTI


Argentina
1980

Bolivia
1976

Brazil
1980

Chile
1970

Colombia
1973

Ecuador
1982

Paraguay


Peru
1981


vutllzut-l
1974


60 80 100


I


--I


Percent


.


I


I


I


1


I


|


.... .


I


I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions "


Chart 6.
Percent Literate Among Women
in Selected Age Groups
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Years
15-24
25-34
35 and over


In spite of the generally low
levels of literacy in Sub-Saharan
Africa, the data show there are
signs of improvement. As in
other developing regions, each
successively younger age group
of women has higher literacy
levels than its predecessor. The
youngest age group (15 to 24
years), in particular, shows a
large improvement, reflecting the
efforts in recent decades to com-
bat illiteracy in much of Africa.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975


Senegal
1976
COASTAL WEST AFRICA

Ghana
1971


Ivory Coast
1975


Liberia
1974


Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA

Burundi
1979


Cameroon
1976


Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Sudan
1973


Tanzania
1978
SOUTHERN AFRICA

Mozambique
1980


0 20 40 60
Percent




24 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 6.
Percent Literate Among Women
in Selected Age Groups
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Years
15-24
25-34
35 and over


In spite of relatively low female
literacy rates overall, more young
women are literate than their
older counterparts in all countries
of the Near East and North
Africa. In most cases, improve-
ment has been substantial, if one
compares the literacy rates of
women under 25 years with
those of women 35 years of age
and over. In several countries,
more than half the younger
women can read and write, but
even the improved rates in many
countries fall far behind the levels
in much of the developing world.


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt
1976



Morocco
1982



Tunisia
1975

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Jordan
1979



Syria
1970



Yemen(Sanaa)
1975

Non-Arab countries

Turkey
1980

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan
1972-73



Iran
1976


I I
I I I I


Percent


--~---~





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 2Z


Chart 6.
Percent Literate Among Women
in Selected Age Groups
Part 4. Asia


Years
10-24 1
25-34
35 and over


Improvements in women's
literacy are reflected without ex-
ception by higher rates among
younger than older Asian women,
though in much of Middle South
Asia a majority of young women
remain illiterate.

Improvements in literacy levels
are especially apparent in East
Asia and Eastern South Asia,
where literacy has been increas-
ing for many years, as reflected
by much higher rates at age 25
to 34 years compared to women
in the older age group.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1981


India
1981


Nepal
1976


Pakistan
1981


I I I I


~zJ


Sri Lanka
1981
EAST ASIA
China
Mainland
1982


Taiwan
1980


South Korea
1970
EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1980


Malaysia
1980


Philippines
1970


Thailand
1980


.. .. ... .. .'. ..












.Ft







* ...* i.


Percent


`""":i'





_ Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 7.
Percent of Population Age
10 to 14 Years Enrolled in School
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


Girls 77
Boys __


Although there is considerable
variation among Latin American
and Caribbean countries in the
percentage of young people
enrolled in school, differences
between girls' and boys' enroll-
ment are minimal in most cases.
Enrollment levels are especially
high-above 80 percent of eligi-
ble children-in parts of the
Caribbean and South America.

Enrollment of girls exceeds that
of boys in 5 of the 19 countries
shown.


CARIBBEAN
Dominican Republic
1970
Jamaica
1970
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973
El Salvador
1978
Guatemala
1973
Honduras
1974
Mexico
1970
Nicaragua
1971
Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980
Bolivia
1976
Brazil
1970

Chile
1970
Colombia
1973
Ecuador
1974
Guyana
1970
Paraguay
1982
Peru
1972

Venezuela
1982


) 80 100


1


1


Percent


I I I


--


I


..


-------~--L1


I


--


-


| ,


I I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions Ct


Chart 7.
Percent of Population Age
10 to 14 Years Enrolled in School
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


The proportion of young people
enrolled in school is highly
variable among the countries of
Sub-Saharan Africa. Enrollment of
both sexes, but particularly of
girls, is especially limited in
Sahel West Africa but in much
of East Africa it is considerably
higher.

Southern Africa is unique among
African subregions in that more
girls than boys are enrolled in
school, as boys take on an
economic role early in life to
replace their emigrant fathers.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
The Gambia
1973

Mali
1976
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1970

Liberia
1974

Togo
1970

CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1970-71

Cameroon
1976

EASTERN AFRICA
Kenya
1979

Mauritius
1972

Sudan
1973

Tanzania
1978
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1971

Lesotho
1976

Malawi
1977

Swaziland
1976


Percent


Girls
Boys




zo Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 7.
Percent of Population Age
10 to 14 Years Enrolled in School
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Patterns of school enrollment of
girls and boys in the Near East
and North Africa show large gaps
between the sexes in most coun-
tries, with boys' enrollment ex-
ceeding girls' in every case. At
least two-thirds of boys are
enrolled in school in every coun-
try but one, while girls reach that
level in only two of the eight
countries with data.


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria
1977




Egypt
1976


Morocco
1982




Tunisia
1975


I I I


~Imz



__________________________________________________________________ I


WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries

Jordan
1975



Lebanon
1974

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan
1979




Iran
1976


Girls
Boys


7


Percent





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 2,


Chart 7.
Percent of Population Age
10 to 14 Years Enrolled in School
Part 4. Asia


The extent of enrollment of
Asian girls and boys parallels fair-
ly closely their literacy levels.
In most of Middle South Asia,
there is still a large discrepancy
between enrollment of girls and
that of boys, and overall enroll-
ment remains at low levels.

In East Asia and Eastern South
Asia, on the other hand, a large
majority of children of both sexes
is now enrolled, with enrollment
of girls sometimes equalling or
even exceeding that of boys.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1974


India
1981


Nepal
1971


Pakistan
1973


ME i III I


Sri Lanka
1981
EAST ASIA
Hong Kong
1981


South Korea
1980
EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1980


Malaysia
1980


Philippines
1970


Thailand
1980


I I I I I
0 20 40 60 80 1i
Percent


Girls
Boys


I


I





30 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


As in many parts of the world,
low reported rates of women's
participation in the Latin
American labor force may reflect
the failure of censuses and
surveys to count the activities of
women in subsistence agriculture
and urban informal sector jobs.
As a result, caution must be ex-
ercised in interpreting differences
among countries, as the
discrepancies may reflect more
the varying procedures of
measuring economic activity than
real differences in women's
economic behavior.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1970
Dominican Republic
1970
Haiti
1982
Jamaica
1981
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1982
El Salvador
1980
Guatemala
1981
Honduras
1974
Mexico
1980
Nicaragua
1971
Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980
Bolivia
1976
Brazil
1980
Chile
1981
Colombia
1980
Ecuador
1982
Guyana
1970
Paraguay
1982
Peru
1981
Venezuela
1982


Chart 8.
Labor Force Participation Rates for Women
and Men Age 10 Years and Over
Part 1. Latin America and Women
the Caribbean Men


- I I 1 71


Percent


4


I

~I


|


I






Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 8.
Labor Force Participation Rates for Women
and Men Age 10 Years and Over
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa Women
Men |


As in other developing regions,
reported economic activity rates
for women in Sub-Saharan Africa
are usually much lower than
those reported for men. In a few
countries, women's rates appear
to be extraordinarily high. This
great variability in activity rates
may be attributable more to dif-
fering labor force enumeration
procedures in the censuses and
surveys of African countries than
to real differences in women's
activity.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975
Mali
1976
Niger
1977
Senegal
1976
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Benin
1979
Ghana
1970
Ivory Coast
1975
Liberia
1974
Sierra Leone
1974
Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1979
Cameroon
1976
Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Ethiopia
1970
Mauritius
1972
Seychelles
1977
Sudan
1973
Tanzania
1978
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Angola
1970
Botswana
1981
Lesotho
1976
Malawi
1977
Mozambique
1970
Swaziland
1976


0 20 40


Percent


I


I

-

I

I


I


I

I


I


I


I

1

I

1


I


I


r


60 80 100




-4 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 8.
Labor Force Participation Rates for Women
and Men Age 10 Years and Over
Part 3. Near East and North Africa Women

Men


In most of the countries of the
Near East and North Africa, only
a small proportion of women are
reported to be economically ac-
tive, as opposed to the typically
high rates for men. As in other
developing regions, a large part
of the difference may be at-
tributable to labor force concepts
and enumeration procedures that
exclude many of the activities
that women are involved in. With
one exception in Western South
Asia, women's reported labor
force participation in this region
is among the lowest in the world.


NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
1977


Egypt
1980


Morocco
1982

Tunisia
1980
WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1977

Jordan
1979


Lebanon
1970


Saudi Arabia
1974

Syria
1970


Yemen(Sanaa)
1975
Non-Arab countries
Turkey
1980
MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


Percent


I


--------------- ---------


I 2I
L~]




Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 3


Chart 8.
Labor Force Participation Rates for Women
and Men Age 10 Years and Over


Part 4. Asia


Women
Men I


As in other developing regions,
norms in Asian countries often do
not promote the reporting of
women's work as constituting a
formal part of the labor force,
and the resulting statistics show
a large discrepancy between
female and male participation
rates.

These rates are especially low
for women in Middle South Asia.
In East Asia and Eastern South
Asia, women's reported labor
force activity reaches much
higher levels but remains far
below the rates for men.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1981

India
1981

Nepal
1976


Pakistan
1981

Sri Lanka
1980-81
EAST ASIA
China
Mainland
1982
Taiwan
1980


Hong Kong
1981

South Korea
1980
EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Burma
1973

Indonesia
1980

Malaysia
1980

Philippines
1978

Thailand
1980


1


r


I


1


I


I


I


1


----~---~--~


Percent


I


I




0'+ Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 9.
Women's and Men's Share
of Labor Force Age 10 Years and Over
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean

Percent of labor force
Women's share
CARIBBEAN Men's share


Cuba /Haiti
197018 1982 41.0

81.7 59.0




Dominican
Republic i
1970epublic Jamaica
1970/--1 -% __ "'< I ...


MIDDLE AMERICA


Costa Rica
1981

26.4

73.6


El Salvador


When women's reported economic activity is viewed
as a proportion of the total labor force, the female
share falls between 20 and 30 percent in a majority
of Latin American countries.

In parts of the Caribbean, definitions of women's ac-
tivities are more comprehensive, and women's
reported share of the labor force is much larger.





SOUTH AMERICA

Argentina Ecuador
1980 Ecuad ...


Paraguay


Chile
1981
28.8

71.2



Colombia
1980

26.0

74.0


Venezuela





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions U1


Chart 9.
Women's and Men's Share
of Labor Force Age 10 Years and Over
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa
Percent of labor force
Women's share -
Men's share


SAHEL WEST AFRICA

Burkina
1975

47.8


Mali
1976 //A


COASTAL WEST AFRICA


Benin / 12
1979 /\


Ghana


Senegal
1976


Liberia
1974


Sierra


Ivory Coast
1975


CENTRAL AFRICA


Burundi A
1979 A


Rwanda


Women's share of the labor force appears to be
highly variable among the countries of Sub-Saharan
Africa. Although the countries do differ from one
another in a number of respects, it is highly probable
that a large part of the variation results from differing
procedures in deciding just who is to be included in
the concept of labor force. Some of the factors that
cause the variation are differences in the ages of per-
sons for whom data are gathered and how unpaid
family workers are classified.


EASTERN AFRICA


Tanzania
1978


SOUTHERN AFRICA


Angola
1970

84.9



Botswana




59.7



Lesotho
1976 .


67.7


Malawi
1977


Swaziland
1976





o3 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 9.
Women's and Men's Share
of Labor Force Age 10 Years and Over
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Percent of labor force
Women's share .
Men's share I


NORTH AFRICA


Algeria
1977


Egypt
1980


WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries


Saudi


Iraq
1977


In line with the generally low reported labor force
participation rates of women in the Near East and
North Africa, women's share of the total labor force
is shown to be minimal in most of the countries. A
revision of labor force concepts to include more of
women's agricultural activities would undoubtedly
result in a changed picture, with women's share
becoming substantially larger than the present data
indicate.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1979


Jordan
1979


Lebanon
1970





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions J1


Chart 9.
Women's and Men's Share
of Labor Force Age 10 Years and Over
Part 4. Asia


When women's reported economic activity is seen
as a share of the total labor force, there is a large
range of variation among the Asian countries, from a
scant 4 to 5 percent of the labor force in parts of
Middle South Asia to a more substantial third of the
labor force in several Eastern South Asian countries.
In one instance, women comprise nearly half of the
total labor force.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1981




95.0





India 400,
1981 / I


EAST ASIA

China
Mainland


Percent of labor force
Women's share
Men's share


Hong Kong
1981


South Korea


EASTERN SOUTH ASIA


Philippines
1978



64.8


Thailand
1980




38 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


The tendency for young Latin
American and Caribbean women
to migrate to the towns and
cities for work is evident in the
data showing labor force par-
ticipation rates for women age
20 to 29 years in rural and urban
areas. Economic activity rates of
these young women reach or ex-
ceed 40 percent in urban areas in
fully half the countries, while
rural participation usually falls
between 10 and 30 percent.

This region is unique in the
developing world in the concen-
tration of women in the urban
labor force. However, many
young women who come to the
city work as domestic servants or
hold other low-paying jobs.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1970

Haiti
1982
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1981

El Salvador
1971

Guatemala
1973

Honduras
1974

Nicaragua
1971

Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980

Bolivia
1976

Brazil
1980

Chile
1970


Colombia
1973

Ecuador
1982

Paraguay
1982

Peru
1981


Chart 10.
Labor Force Participation Rates
for Women Age 20 to 29 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean Rural n
Urban L

I I









-7_








-------
I


























0 20 40 60 80
Percent





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 10.
Labor Force Participation Rates
for Women Age 20 to 29 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Opportunities for African women SAHEL WEST AFRICA
to participate in modern sector Burkina
employment are limited. Without 1975
exception, young women in ur-
ban areas record lower labor
force participation rates than their Mali
rural counterparts. 1976

While labor force participation
rates of young women are often Senegal
1970
higher than the average for
women of all ages, a majority of COASTAL WEST AFRICA
urban women are not counted as Liberia
economically active in most coun- 1974
tries. Largely because of differing
labor force definitions, rates are
highly variable, even among Togo
countries within a subregion. 1970


CENTRAL AFRICA
Cameroon
1976


Rwanda
1978

EASTERN AFRICA
Ethiopia
1970


Sudan
1973



Tanzania
1978

SOUTHERN AFRICA
Malawi
1977


Rural
Urban


Percent




40 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 10.
Labor Force Participation Rates
for Women Age 20 to 29 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Rural
Urban


Although reported participation in
the labor force in the Near East
and North Africa region is higher
among women in their early
twenties than among women
generally, rates are still rather
low compared to those in other
developing regions. There is no
consistent pattern between rural
and urban areas-in some coun-
tries, participation of young
women is higher in the coun-
tryside and, in others, it is higher
in the towns and cities.


NORTH AFRICA

Morocco
1982




Tunisia
1975

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries

Iraq
1977


Jordan
1979




Lebanon
1970




Syria
1970


Non-Arab countries

Turkey
1970

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA


Iran
1976


30 60
Percent




Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 4


Chart 10.
Labor Force Participation Rates
for Women Age 20 to 29 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 4. Asia


Among Asian women in their
twenties, labor force participation
may be higher in urban or in rural
areas, depending on the country.
Overall participation of women in
this age group is usually higher
than for women of all ages (seen
in chart 8), especially in those
countries where their rural
economic activity is predominant.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1974


India
1981


Pakistan
1981


Sri Lanka
1980-81


EAST ASIA
South Korea
1980

EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1980


Malaysia
1980



Philippines
1970


Thailand
1980


zzz~zr


I I I

20 40 60 8
Percent


Rural
Urban


!!In=





4Z Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 11.
Percent Single Among Women
Age 20 to 24 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


The percent of women who are
still single at age 20 to 24 years
is usually higher in countries of
Latin America and the Caribbean
than in most other developing
regions. This is especially true in
urban areas, where at least 40
percent are single in this age
group in most countries of the
region.

The pattern of later marriage in
urban than in rural areas is
typical of all developing regions,
but the actual percent single in
the age group varies considerably
throughout the world.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1970

Dominican Republic
1970
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973

El Salvador
1971

Guatemala
1973

Honduras
1974

Nicaragua
1971

Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980

Bolivia
1976

Brazil
1980

Chile
1970

Colombia
1973

Ecuador
1982

Paraguay
1982

Peru
1972

0 20 40 60 80
Percent


Rural I
Urban I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 4:


Chart 11.
Percent Single Among Women
Age 20 to 24 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Women marry at a young age in
most of Sub-Saharan Africa, par-
ticularly in Sahel West Africa.

Throughout the region, more
women are still single at age 20
to 24 years in urban than rural
areas, suggesting that urban
women may have some alter-
natives not open to women in the
countryside.

In parts of Southern Africa,
where men frequently emigrate,
women tend to remain single un-
til more advanced ages than
elsewhere on the continent.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975


Mali
1976


Senegal
1970
COASTAL WEST AFRICA

Liberia
1974


Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA

Cameroon
1976


Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Ethiopia
1970


Madagascar
1975


Sudan
1973
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1981


Malawi
1977


L



























II




















0 20 40 60 80
Percent


Rural
Urban




44 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 11.
Percent Single Among Women
Age 20 to 24 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


As in other regions, the propor-
tion of women still single at age
20 to 24 years is smaller in rural
than urban areas in most coun-
tries of the Near East and North
Africa, reflecting the younger age
at marriage in the countryside.

Although nearly all women marry
eventually, a substantial propor-
tion is still single in their early
twenties.


NORTH AFRICA
Egypt
1980


Morocco
1982


Tunisia
1975

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1977


Jordan
1979


Lebanon
1970


Syria
1970


Non-Arab countries
Turkey
1970

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1972-73


Iran
1976


I













I I I
I 20 40 60 8(
Percent


Rural
Urban LW


I


1


I


I


I





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 4!


Chart 11.
Percent Single Among Women
Age 20 to 24 Years,
by Rural/Urban Residence
Part 4. Asia


Women marry young in much
of Middle South Asia, as
reflected by the small proportion
still single at age 20 to 24 years.
This is particularly true in rural
areas, where the proportion
single in this age group is only
half that in urban areas, which
afford more educational and work
opportunities for young women
to pursue prior to marriage.

In East Asia and Eastern South
Asia as well, women marry at
younger ages in the countryside
than in the towns and cities, but
in general marriage takes place at
relatively older ages in these
subregions than in Middle South
Asia.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1981


India
1981



Pakistan
1978-79



Sri Lanka
1981


EAST ASIA
South Korea
1980


EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1980


Malaysia
1980



Philippines
1970



Thailand
1980


~JIzz


I I I
20 40 60 8
Percent


Rural
Urban


I


I




46 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 12.
Percent Widowed Among
Women and Men Age
50 Years and Over
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


Women
Men -


Without exception among the
Latin American countries, propor-
tionately far more women than
men are widowed. This pattern is
found worldwide, because of
various factors, including
women's generally lower mortali-
ty rates combined with the
tendency for wives to be younger
than their husbands.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1979
Dominican Republic
1970
Jamaica
1970
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1973
El Salvador
1971
Guatemala
1973
Honduras
1974
Mexico
1970
Nicaragua
1971
Panama
1980
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1980
Bolivia
1976
Brazil
1980
Chile
1970
Colombia
1973
Ecuador
1982
Guyana
1970
Paraguay
1982
Peru
1981
Venezuela
1974


_I I

I

I














I
























0 10 20 30 40
Percent





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 4;


Chart 12.
Percent Widowed Among
Women and Men Age
50 Years and Over
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Women
Men


In Sub-Saharan Africa, as
elsewhere, widowhood is far
more prevalent among women
than men. Because mortality
rates are so high in much of
Africa, the percent widowed is
generally higher than in other
regions of the world. In a few
countries, where widows are "in-
herited" by their deceased hus-
band's brother, the actual number
of widows may be even higher
than that reported in the census.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
Burkina
1975

Mali
1976

Senegal
1976
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Liberia
1974

Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1970-71

Cameroon
1976

Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Madagascar
1975

Mauritius
1972

Seychelles
1971

Sudan
1973
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Angola
1970

Botswana
1971

Lesotho
1976

Malawi
1977

Mozambique
1970


20 40 60 8
Percent


L~J


-j




4U Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 12.
Percent Widowed Among
Women and Men Age
50 Years and Over
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Women
Men P


A large proportion of women over
50 years of age are widowed in
the Near East and North Africa,
reflecting, as elsewhere, the
greater longevity of women than
men and the limited opportunities
for widowed women to remarry.
In nearly all the countries of the
region, censuses report between
one-third and one-half of the
older women as widowed.


NORTH AFRICA
Egypt
1980


Morocco
1982


Tunisia
1975
WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Iraq
1977


Jordan
1979


Lebanon
1970


Syria
1970


Yemen(Sanaa)
1975


Non-Arab countries
Cyprus
1976


Turkey
1980
MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1972-73


20 40
Percent





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 41


Chart 12.
Percent Widowed Among
Women and Men Age
50 Years and Over
Part 4. Asia


Women
Men


Among the population age 50
years and over, by far a larger
proportion of women than men
are widowed. As elsewhere in
the world, Asian wives are usual-
ly younger than their husbands
and experience lower mortality,
as a result of which they tend to
outlive their husbands. In addi-
tion, men are more likely than
women to remarry after the
death of their spouse, and so
they are no longer reported as
widowers at the time of
enumeration.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1981

India
1981


Nepal
1976


Pakistan
1972

Sri Lanka
1981
EAST ASIA
China
Taiwan
1980
Hong Kong
1981

South Korea
1980

EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1980

Malaysia
1980

Philippines
1975


Thailand
1970


0 20


Percent


40 60


I .


I




bU Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 13.
Percent of Households With
Women Heads
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean





Percent of households
Women
Men


CARIBBEAN


Cuba
1970


The proportion of women who are reported as heads
of households does not vary much among the Middle
and South American countries providing this informa-
tion. In line with the general tendency to report a
male as head if one is present, households with
women heads are usually those in which a marriage
has been dissolved by death, divorce, or separation.

In parts of the Caribbean, in contrast to most other
places, it is not unusual for a woman to be reported
as head of the household, even in the presence of a
male partner. In general, Caribbean studies show a
disadvantaged position of women household heads:
they score lower than men on educational attain-
ment, have higher unemployment, and are more likely
to have jobs in service occupations than in
agricultural or industrial production.


MIDDLE AMERICA


Costa Rica
1973




83.(



El Salvador


Honduras


SOUTH AMERICA



Argentina
1980


Panama


Guatemala


Venezuela





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 5'


Chart 13.
Percent of Households With
Women Heads
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


Percent of households
Women -
Men


SAHEL WEST AFRICA



Burkina
1975 / j


COASTAL WEST AFRICA


Ghana
1970 U


CENTRAL AFRICA


Rwanda
1978


In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of
households reported to be headed by women is fairly
high, over 20 percent in five of the eleven countries
with data.

Particularly in Southern Africa, where a large portion
of the male population has emigrated for work,
women are left to manage their families alone. Even
in this situation, however, the absent husband is
often reported as the nominal head of household.




EASTERN AFRICA



Ethiopia Mauritius
1970 M g 1972



87.6 81.2






Madagascar Sudan
1975 1973 II


SOUTHERN AFRICA




Botswana
1981


Malawi
1970-72





52 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 13.
Percent of Households With
Women Heads
Part 3. Near East and North Africa





Percent of households
Women
Men P


NORTH AFRICA

Morocco /
1971 /


WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries


Jordan9 Syria9
1979 1970


Non-Arab
countries
Turkey
1975


Among the six countries in the Near East/North
Africa region providing data on gender of household
heads, between 7 and 17 percent of households are
reported to be headed by women. Given the general
reluctance of respondents in censuses and surveys to
identify women as heads of households, these
figures are conservative. Female headship rates in
this region are somewhat lower than those reported
in other regions with available data, but it is not clear
whether the differences are real or attributable to
variations in reporting practices.

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA


Iran
1976





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 13.
Percent of Households With
Women Heads
Part 4. Asia


Percent of households
Women
Men
MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Sri Lanka
1981 A


EAST ASIA
China
Taiwan
1980



86.8





Hong Kong -


South


Many of the Asian countries do not tabulate and
report data on gender of household head although
this information usually appears on the census
questionnaire. Among countries providing data,
fewer than one in five households are reported to
be headed by women in most of the countries.


EASTERN SOUTH ASIA


Philippines
1970


Burma
1973









Indonesia
1980



(




Malaysia
1980


Thailand
1980




54 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 14.
Average Lifetime Fertility
per Woman
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


Fertility rates in Latin America
and the Caribbean present a
varied picture. While women in
some countries in each subregion
still have an average of five or
more births, about half the coun-
tries now have a smaller family
size, with a few averaging only
three or fewer children.

In most of the countries, family
planning practices are supported
by government policies, witn pro-
grams in various stages of
implementation.

Overall, fertility levels in this
region are moderate to low com-
pared to other developing
regions. Rates are comparable to
those in some of the Asian
subregions but generally lower
than those in most of Africa and
the Near East.


UAnHIBuAN i


Cuba
1982
Dominican Republic
1974-75
Haiti
1974-77
Jamaica
1976
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1980
El Salvador
1978
Guatemala
1978
Honduras
1974
Mexico
1982
Nicaragua
1970-75
Panama
1979
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1970
Bolivia
1976
Brazil
1976-77
Chile
1975
Colombia
1980
Ecuador
1965-70
Guyana
1970-74
Paraguay
1970-74
Peru
1977-78
Venezuela
1979


2 4 6
Total fertility rate


I


I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I


I


I


1





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 5t


Chart 14.
Average Lifetime Fertility
per Woman
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


In contrast to many developing
countries in other regions, most
African nations have not ex-
perienced declines in fertility from
the very high levels prevalent in
the recent past. In most of the
countries shown, women still
have an average of six or more
children, and it is only in some of
the island nations that they
average fewer than five.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
The Gambia
1973
Senegal
1973-78
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1976-78
Liberia
1970-71
Nigeria
1971-73
Sierra Leone
1974
Togo
1970
CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1970-71
Rwanda
1978
EASTERN AFRICA
Ethiopia
1968-71
Kenya
1977
Madagascar
1975

Mauritius
1979
Seychelles
1980
Sudan
1972-73


Tanzania
1973
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1971
Malawi
1971-72
Mozambique
1970
Swaziland
1976


2 4 6 8 1(
Total fertility rate


I




Uo Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 14.
Average Lifetime Fertility
per Woman
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Fertility is generally high in the
Near East/North Africa region,
with women having an average
of six or more children in seven
of the ten countries reporting
data on fertility. Use of con-
traception is at low to moderate
levels, with from 2 to just over
50 percent of women currently
using a method, according to re-
cent reports.


NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
1978


Egypt
1976


Morocco
1972


III

I



I



I



I



I



I


WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries
Jordan
1975-76


Lebanon
1970


Syria
1976-79

Non-Arab countries


Cyprus
1980


Turkey
1974-75


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Afghanistan
1978-79


Iran
1973-76


I




I I I
2 4 6
Total fertility rate





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions Of


Chart 14.
Average Lifetime Fertility
per Woman
Part 4. Asia


Fertility levels vary considerably MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
among Asian countries, Bangladesh
but they may be fairly well 1978-79
categorized by geographic
subregion. India
1971
In East Asia, women have only
two or three children on average, Nepal
while women in Eastern South 1976
Asia tend to have four or five.
These levels represent con- Pakistan
siderable declines from previous 1979
years, when average family size
was much larger. Sri Lanka
1977
On the Indian subcontinent, fer-
tility has declined only slightly or EAST ASIA
not at all, and completed fertility China
Mainland
still averages six or seven 1981
children per woman.
Taiwan
1981

Hong Kong
1981

South Korea
1979
EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1976-79

Malaysia
1976

Philippines
1977

Thailand
1974-75

0 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5
Total fertility rate




>L Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 15.
Distribution of Lifetime
Fertility, by Age of Mother
Part 1. Latin America and the
Caribbean

CARIBBEAN


Percent of total fertility
Years
Under 25 --
25-341 I
35 and over _


MIDDLE AMERICA

Costa Rica
1980


Mexico
1978


The proportion of total fertility that takes place dur-
ing the various stages of women's reproductive life is
fairly uniform among the Latin American countries. In
Middle and South America, the largest proportion of
total births occurs to women in their midtwenties to
midthirties. Younger women also have a substantial
portion of total fertility, as childbearing tends to
begin at an early age in the region.

In parts of the Caribbean, marriage or cohabitation
begins much earlier, and a larger share of total fertili-
ty is attributable to women in the youngest age group.

SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina Ecuador
1970 1965-70 o





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 15.
Distribution of Lifetime
Fertility, by Age of Mother
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


SAHEL WEST AFRICA

The Gambia
1973 .-


COASTAL WEST AFRICA

Ghana
1976-78
31.0







Liberia
1970-71 37.8









Nigeria
1971-73 35.4


Percent of total fertility
Years
Under 25
25-34
35 and over
Senegal
1973-78


Sierra Leone


CENTRAL AFRICA


Burundi
1970-71


Rwanda
1978
33.5


Consistent with the overall high levels of fertility in
Sub-Saharan Africa, women experience a substantial share
of fertility in each age group. As marriage takes place at an
early age, women begin their reproductive lives at young ages
as well. While the largest share of fertility typically occurs
between 25 and 34 years of age, African women continue to
bear children in their late thirties and into their forties.

EASTERN AFRICA
Ethiopia Seychelles
1968-71 1980

4 204.3 17.4


Sudan
1972-73


Mauritius
1979


SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1971
302 30.1


Mozambique
1970


Swaziland
1976

31.7 22.4




DU Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 15.
Distribution of Lifetime
Fertility, by Age of Mother
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria









1976
18.0 30.8


L\W512


Percent of total fertility
Years
Under 25
25-34
35 and over


Morocco
1972
26.3 25.1


(j~LJ [


WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries

Jordan Syria
1975-76 1977-78 e
29.5 24.9






Lebanon /
1970


Non-Arab countries


Cyprus
1980


Women begin their childbearing early in most coun-
tries of the Near East and North Africa. They con-
tinue to have children into their thirties and forties, in
a pattern consistent with the large average family
size.






MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA


Afghanistan
1978-79





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions u


Chart 15.
Distribution of Lifetime
Fertility, by Age of Mother
Part 4. Asia


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1978-79


India
1971(







Pakistan
1979


Percent of total fertility
Years
Under 25
25-34
35 and over


Sri Lanka IN.
1977
17.1


EAST ASIA


China
Mainland
1981 37.4








Taiwan
1981 42.2

f-- s^


Hong Kong
1981
25.0 1.7







South Korea
1979 28.9 //\
I- J 6.6


Age patterns of childbearing show a relationship to
the average completed family size. In East Asia,
where fertility is lowest among Asian subregions,
women's fertility is nearly completed by 35 years of
age, with one-half to two-thirds of total fertility tak-
ing place between their midtwenties and midthirties.

Elsewhere in Asia, fertility is not completed so
quickly, as a substantial portion of births occur when
women are older.







EASTERN SOUTH ASIA


Malaysia
1976
29.1




J-" Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 16.
Infant Mortality Rates
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


Girls
Boys


In Latin America and the Carib-
bean, there is a broad range of
infant mortality rates that does
not conform to any subregional
pattern. Each subregion includes
countries with both low and high
rates. Some of these rates are
among the lowest in developing
regions, and even the highest
tend to be moderate by Third
World standards.

As elsewhere in the world, boys
in this region have higher death
rates in the first year of life than
girls do.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1982


Haiti
1971-75
MIDDLE AMERICA
Guatemala
1972


Honduras
1974


Mexico
1976-77


Nicaragua
1971


Panama
1975
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1978


Brazil
1974-75


Colombia
1978


Ecuador
1970-75


Paraguay
1972


Peru
1970-75


I I I













































0 40 80 120 160
Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions O,


Chart 16.
Infant Mortality Rates
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa


With few exceptions, African
populations continue to ex-
perience very high levels of infant
mortality. As elsewhere, life
chances for infant girls in Africa
are more favorable than for infant
boys. However, in most coun-
tries, rates for both girls and
boys are above 100 infant deaths
per 1,000 live births and, in parts
of West Africa, they are more
than twice that high.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
The Gambia
1973
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1970

Liberia
1970-71

Sierra Leone
1974
CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1970-71

Cameroon
1976

Rwanda
1970
EASTERN AFRICA
Kenya
1977

Mauritius
1980

Seychelles
1980


Sudan
1968-73
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1964-71

Lesotho
1971


Swaziland
1966-76


Girls
Boys




















































0 50 100 150 200 250
Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births




64 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 16.
Infant Mortality Rates
Part 3. Near East and North Africa


Infant mortality rates are highly
variable among the countries of
the Near East and North Africa,
ranging for girls from only 15 to
as many as 175 infant deaths per
1,000 live births. Although in
general girls experience more
favorable infant mortality rates
than boys, there are some excep-
tions to this typical pattern.


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria
1978




Morocco
1972


WEST SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries

Jordan
1975-76


Non-Arab countries


Cyprus
1980


Turkey
1974-75


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA


Afghanistan
1979




Iran
1974-76


I I I

50 100 150 20(
Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births


Girls
Boys _


III


I




Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 6t


Chart 16.
Infant Mortality Rates
Part 4. Asia


Girls
Boys


In line with the world pattern,
the infant girl in most of Asia has
a better chance of survival than
the infant boy, though in some
countries the differences are
minimal or the pattern even
reversed.

Levels of infant mortality are
very different among the coun-
tries, with relatively fewer infant
deaths in East Asia, moderate
rates in Eastern South Asia, and
far poorer survival chances for
babies born in Middle South Asia.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh
1977-78
India
1978

Nepal
1974-76

Pakistan
1976
EAST ASIA
China
Mainland
1981
Taiwan
1980

Hong Kong
1981

South Korea
1970

EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1976

Malaysia
1975

Philippines
1976


I I I
40 80 120 161
Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births


5


Thailand
1974-75


~I


I


I


M=7




i6 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


Chart 17.
Life Expectancy at Birth
Part 1. Latin America and the Caribbean


Women
Men


Life expectancy at birth in most
of the Latin America/Caribbean
region is among the highest in
the developing world, in most
cases approaching or exceeding
60 years for both sexes although
a few countries lag considerably
behind. Statistics follow the
world norm, indicating that
women can be expected to live
longer than men.


CARIBBEAN
Cuba
1977-78
Dominican Republic
1960-70
Haiti
1970-71

Jamaica
1970
MIDDLE AMERICA
Costa Rica
1972-74
Guatemala
1970-72
Honduras
1974
Mexico
1970

Nicaragua
1971
Panama
1975
SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina
1975-80
Bolivia
1972-80
Brazil
1974-75

Chile
1969-70
Colombia
1975
Ecuador
1970-75
Guyana
1970
Paraguay
1972

Peru
1970-75
Venezuela
1974-75


I I I
20 40 60 81
Years


1


I


I


. i,


I


__7-'

I


]


I


J


,





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions o


Chart 17.
Life Expectancy at Birth
Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa
Women
Men


In parts of Eastern and Southern
Africa, life expectancy at birth is
above 50 years for both women
and men. While this level is only
moderate by world standards, it
represents an advantage over the
briefer life span experienced by
the remainder of the Sub-Saharan
African population.

In all the subregions, women's
life expectancy is higher than
men's as it is in most countries
throughout the world.


SAHEL WEST AFRICA
The Gambia
1973

Senegal
1970-71
COASTAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
1970

Liberia
1970-71

Nigeria
1971-73

Sierra Leone
1974
CENTRAL AFRICA
Burundi
1970-71

Cameroon
1976

Rwanda
1970
EASTERN AFRICA
Kenya
1977

Mauritius
1971-73

Seychelles
1974-78

Sudan
1968-73
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Botswana
1964-71

Lesotho
1971

Swaziland
1966-76


0 20 40 60 80
Years




IDU Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions



Chart 17.
Life Expectancy at Birth
Part 3. Near East and North Africa
Women m
Men
By world standards, life expec- NORTH AFRICA
tancy at birth for both women
and men is at moderate levels in Algeria
much of the Near East/North 1978
Africa region. Among the coun-
tries with data, only in the Arab
countries of Western South Asia
does life expectancy surpass 60 Egypt
years for both sexes. Longevity is 1975
usually more favorable for
women than men, but in the Mid-
dle South Asian countries in-
cluded in this region, the reverse Morocco
1972
is true.

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA
Arab countries

Syria
1974-78

Non-Arab countries ---------- ------------

Cyprus
1979-81




Turkey
1974-75

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan
1979




Iran
1973-76

I I
0 20 40 60 80
Years





Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions 0t


Chart 17.
Life Expectancy at Birth
Part 4. Asia


Women
Men I


In contrast to the world norm,
women in some countries of Mid-
dle South Asia have poorer sur-
vival chances than their male
counterparts for reasons that are
still largely unexplained. Life ex-
pectancies for both sexes in
these countries are rather low by
world standards.

In the rest of Asia, as
elsewhere in the world, women
tend to outlive men, with survival
of both sexes usually meeting or
exceeding the global average. In
East Asia, in particular, life ex-
pectancy at birth has reached
levels that are among the highest
in developing countries.


MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
India
1976-77


Nepal
1976-78


Pakistan
1976


Sri Lanka
1970-72
EAST ASIA
China
Mainland
1981

Taiwan
1981


Hong Kong
1981


South Korea
1978-79
EASTERN SOUTH ASIA
Indonesia
1976


Malaysia
1970


Philippines
1976


Thailand
1974-75


0 20 40 60
Years





70 Women of the World: A Chartbook for Developing Regions


(Continued from page 1)
presented for each topic even though this sometimes means
presenting data for different dates for a given country from one
chart to the next.
Statistics upon which these charts are based have been
screened for quality, and only those judged to be reliable have
been included. Nevertheless, there are often differences from
one country to another in the precise concepts measured by the
censuses and surveys, and no attempt has been made to stand-
ardize the data for such discrepancies. Concepts are discussed
in detail in the four regional reports in the Women of the World
series.
A large portion of the data is taken from the four earlier reports,
but more recent statistics are included whenever they are
available. Sources of the statistics, qualifying information, and
other notes describing minor discrepancies in age groups are
available in the Women In Development Data Base, the Interna-
tional Data Base, and other research files maintained for each
country at the Center for International Research. A few qualifica-
tions to the data will be mentioned here to avoid misinterpreta-
tion. In the case of Jordan, data refer to East Bank residents only,


except for the total population in chart 1, which refers to East
and West Bank combined. For Afghanistan, data refer to the
settled (non-nomadic) population only. In chart 2, where two
census dates are presented for most countries, only one date
is shown in the few cases where countries have not conducted
a second recent census. In chart 6, data for Asia in the youngest
age group refer to age 10 to 24 years instead of 15 to 24 years
as in the other regions. In all charts, a particular country is omit-
ted if no data are available on the topic being presented.
Data sources and related information are available by address-
ing specific questions to the Chief, Center for International
Research, Bureau of the Census, Room 709 Scuderi Building,
Washington, D.C. 20233, USA. Comments on the chartbook
are also welcome.
A limited number of the first four reports in the Women of the
World series are available free of charge for overseas distribu-
tion by writing to the Center for International Research (see
address above). Users in the United States may obtain hard copy
for $5.50 each or microfiche copy (price varies) from Customer
services, Data User Services Division, Bureau of the Census,
Washington, D.C., 20233, U.S.A.


Definition of Terms


The concepts presented graphically in this chartbook are
based on statistics taken principally from censuses and surveys
conducted in the individual countries. While each country defines
terms in its own way, the concepts are alike in at least a general
way, as described below.

Distribution of lifetime fertility. The proportion of total fertility
that occurs in each age group during a woman's reproduc-
tive years. (See total fertility rate.)

Head of household. Most censuses do not provide a precise
definition of household headship. In some areas, where social
norms do not yet support the idea of a female head of
household, both respondents and enumerators tend to assign
nominal headship to any available male.

Infant mortality rate. The number of deaths among infants under
1 year of age per 1,000 live births occurring in the same calen-
dar year.

Labor force participation rate. The proportion of women or men
of specified ages who are employed in the formal economic
sector or seeking work. Some censuses or surveys differ in
including or excluding particular categories of workers or in
their precise definitions of economic activity. The concept of
"unpaid family worker" is especially variable. Throughout the
Third World, women participate actively in informal labor
markets. In many instances, a large proportion of women's
work in general (and women's work in the informal sector
in particular) is traditionally not counted in statistics on the
labor force.


Life expectancy at birth. The average number of years to be lived
by persons born in a particular year if mortality at each age
remains constant in the future.

Literate. A literate person is usually defined simply as one who
can read and write. Some censuses add more specific criteria,
such as the ability to write a statement about everyday life
or the ability to read and write a particular language.

Rural/urban residence. Statistics are presented in the chartbook
by rural/urban residence as defined by each individual coun-
try's census. These definitions may vary considerably ac-
cording to the particular criteria of each nation.

School enrollment. Usually refers to the proportion of children
of a specified age who are enrolled in school on the census
date; occasionally, statistics are based on administrative
records of the school system. The measure does not take into
account actual attendance at school nor does it make
allowance for students who enroll but later drop out.

Total fertility rate. Total lifetime fertility of the average woman
in a country. Specifically, calculated as the average number
of children that would be born per woman if all women lived
to the end of their childbearing years and bore children ac-
cording to a given set of age-specific fertility rates. (Age-
specific fertility rates are the average annual number of births
to women in a given age group per 1,000 women in that age
group at midyear.)

Women's share of labor force. The percentage of all members
of the labor force who are women.





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