• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 List of Acronyms
 Introduction
 Setting
 Project Objectives and Stakeho...
 Project Accomplishments
 Challenges Confronted
 Lessons Learned
 Guidelines for Future Projects
 Back Cover














Group Title: GENESYS special study ; # 14
Title: Gender and socio-economic considerations in environmental programs and projects
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080508/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender and socio-economic considerations in environmental programs and projects lessons learned in the Brazilian Amazon
Series Title: GENESYS special study
Physical Description: 26 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muirragui, Eileen I
Anderson, E. Suely
United States -- Agency for International Development
Futures Group -- The Genesys Project
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Sustainable development -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Sexual division of labor -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Eileen I Muirragui, E. Suely Anderson.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "March 1995."
General Note: "Genesys, a project of The Futures Group"--P. 4 of cover.
Funding: Genesys special studies ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080508
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 33098078

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    List of Acronyms
        Section
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Setting
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Project Objectives and Stakeholders
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Project Accomplishments
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Challenges Confronted
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Lessons Learned
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Guidelines for Future Projects
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text






SPECIAL STUDY #14






Gender and Socio-Economic
Considerations in Environmental
Programs and Projects: Lessons
Learned in the Brazilian Amazon





Eileen I. Muirragui
E. Suely Anderson



March 1995




SAID
I niled S ath es Agency for
llilc'I'ile aional D Ueelopinel l
(llice of Women in DItelopmienl
















CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION .............



THE SETTING ...............


PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND
STAKEHOLDERS ............. 4



PROJECT
ACCOMPLISHMENTS ......... 6


CHALLENGES
CONFRONTED ..............



LESSONS
LEARNED .................


GUIDELINES FOR SIMILAR
PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS 24


This paper analyzes the experiences of the Gender
in Economic and Social Systems
(GENESYS)IBrazil Project, a three-and-a-half
year pioneering endeavor in the Brazilian
Amazon, supported by the Office of Women in
Development of the U.S. Agency for Interational
Development (USAID) and USAID/Brasilia, to
research the themes of socio-economics and
gender in relation to the environment; and to
incorporate and institutionalize gender
considerations into the activities of organizations
working on a major, multi-faceted environmental
program, the Brazil Global Climate Change
Program (GCC).

This project worked with Brazilian environmental,
labor and non-government organizations and U.S.
counterparts to build up local capacity to
investigate socio-economic and gender themes of
relevance to dwellers ofAmazonian communities,
and to promote and monitor the inclusion of both
men and women as participants and beneficiaries
of program activities such as marketing of non-
timber forest products. GENESYS/Brazil was an
innovator in this arena, since when the project
began, its implementors had practically no
guidelines on how to carry out their mission with
myriad heterogenous organizations and
communities in a setting as remote, large and
complex as the Amazon.

The project had numerous challenges and
successes which are documented in this paper.
These experiences, along with the lessons learned
from them are also discussed and can be of great
value to others designing or implementing natural
resource programs and projects.









UST OF ACRONYMS


CEPASP Centro de Educacgo, Pesquisa e Assessoria Sindical e Popular in MarabB, Para

CNS O Conselho Nacional dos Seringueiros

ECOGEN Ecology, Community Organization, and Gender

FUTURES The Futures Group International

FVA Fundacio Vit6ria Amaz6nica

GAD Gender in Development

GCC Global Climate Change

GENESYS Gender in Economic and Social Systems

ISPN Institute for the Study of Society, Population and Nature

MERGE Managing the Environment and Resources with a Gender Emphasis

NGO Non-governmental Organization

NTFP Non-timber Forest Product

PESACRE Grupo de Pesquisa e Extensio em Sistemas Agroflorestais do Acre

REBRAF Rede Brasileira Agroflorestal

STR Sindicato dos Trabalhadores Rurais de Paragominas

USAID United States Agency for International Development

WHRC Woods Hole Research Center

WID/R&D Women in Development/Research and Development

WWF World Wildlife Fund






















Environmental damage or stewardship
is frequently affected by the actions of
individuals and communities responding
to their socio-economic situation.















The GENESYS Project sought to
investigate these connections in the
Brazilian Amazon, and to contribute to
the institutional strengthening of local
organizations working in this area.


INTRODUCTION


In recent years, there has been a growing focus on "people"
and gender issues in discussions about natural resources,
sustainable development and poverty alleviation. The
international research and development communities are
increasingly aware that the factors that drive men and women
to either environmental destruction or stewardship lie at the
heart of critical environmental issues such as land use
management, deforestation, loss in biodiversity and climate
change. Experiences which can help clarify the connection
between human intervention and the environment, and
possible alternatives to unsustainable environmental
destruction, deserve closer attention. These experiences are
particularly important because in many regions throughout
the world, policies, programs and projects often continue to
disregard the key--and frequently distinct--roles that men and
women play in relation to the environment.

One initiative that has much to teach in this area is the
Gender in Economic and Social Systems (GENESYS)/Brazil
Project, a three and a half year pioneering endeavor in the
Amazon implemented between 1991 and 1995. The project
was supported by the Office for Women in Development
(WID) of the U.S. Agency for International Development
(USAID) to incorporate socio-economic and gender
considerations into a major US$ 17.5 million environmental
initiative of USAID/Brasilia, the Global Climate Change
Program (GCC). The aims of the latter are to identify and
promote environmental and socio-economically viable
alternatives to deforestation and sustainable use of the
Amazon forest, institution building and policy reform in view
of reducing the greenhouse effect caused by forest burning.

GENESYS/Brazil, a sub-project of the GCC Program,
worked with local Brazilian environmental, labor and non-
government organizations (NGOs) participating in the GCC
Program, to investigate the connection between socio-
economic and gender factors and the environment; to
develop socio-economic research, gender and related
monitoring and evaluation capabilities in local organizations,
and to increase their capacity to promote marketing of non-
timber forest products by local communities. The uniqueness
of GENESYS/Brazil was that it was not an isolated and small
women in development initiative. Rather, it incorporated the
full complexity of carrying out socio-economic research, often
with community input and participation; promoting models



































The project's area of implementation
was the Brazilian Amazon, which
contains the world's most biologically
diverse rainforest, yet faces enormous
environmental degradation. It is also
the site of tremendous socio-economic
problems related to the poverty and
dislocation occurring in other parts of
the country. Project staff worked with
numerous natural and social scientists
and committed political activists who
strive to combat these problems in
association with diverse scientific and
grassroots organizations.


institutional strengthening in diverse organizations, and
advancing alternative environmentally and economically
sustainable activities for Amazonian dwellers. The project's
challenge--and ultimately its contribution--was to work in the
complicated socio-economic and institutional realities of the
Amazon to begin breaking misconceptions about, and
resistance to, preconceived notions about women in
development. By striving to incorporate broader gender
considerations at several important levels of the GCC
Program's activities, GENESYS/Brazil pioneered inquiry and
discussion on the present and potential future roles of men
and women vis-a-vis the environment at the NGO and
community level.


THE SETTING


The Brazilian Amazon, which makes up 57 percent of the
territory of South America's largest country, is a genuine
magnet for those interested in natural resource issues.' This
region's 5 million square kilometers of tropical forest contain
some 50 percent of the plants and animals found on the
globe, estimates which range from two million to 30 million
species." The biological diversity in the Amazon is greater
than in any other region of the world, with an assessed 20,000
species of flowering plants, 2,000 species of fish, 1,000 species
of birds and 60 species of primates. This area contains 60-80
billion cubic meters of timber, enough to meet the world's
consumption of tropical wood for several centuries. Yet this
tremendously rich biome suffers the daily threat of damage
and destruction from practices that include road-building,
ranching, subsistence farming, forest clearing/burning, logging
and pollution of rivers from mining. Brazil is one of the five
largest contributors to the greenhouse effect, predominantly
because of the burning of its tropical forests.

The Brazilian Amazon is the stage for the replication of
socio-economic issues that have not found solutions in other
parts of the country. These problems include poverty and
large income differentials; concentration of land ownership


"Le Breton, Binka, Voices from the Amazon, West Hartford,
Connecticut, Kumarian Press, 1993, p. ix.

""Sustaining the Amazon," Scientific American (July 1992) 92.



















In the Amazon, environmental and
socio-economic problems are intimately
connected.















Despite detailed scientific
documentation of the causes and
consequences of environmental
degradation, little research has been
done on socio-economic and gender
relations at the community and
household level, where key decisions
regarding the environment are made.
The GENESYS/Brazil Project began to
fill this void.


and lack of access to land by the poor; inadequate social and
government services; few employment opportunities, and
widespread violence. These problems have been reproduced
in the Amazonian region, home to 17 million people.' Their
severity is greater in areas of rapid frontier expansion such as
eastern Park, where the population increase is over 10
percent per year, in contrast to a two percent rate of growth
in all of Brazil. Another example is in the state of Rond6nia,
where the influx of settlers driven out of the south of Brazil
by the expansion of soybean production fueled a 16 percent
population increase from the late 1970s into the 1980s.
During this period, 20 percent of Rond6nia's forest was
destroyed. In the state of Maranhio, 80 percent of the rural
population is landless, and predictably most of the tens of
thousands of gold miners wreaking environmental disaster in
Yanomani Indian lands come from Maranhao. These are but
a few examples of how environmental and socio-economic
problems are intimately related.

Many different individuals and organizations are working to
deal with these environmental and socio-economic problems.
They include natural scientists studying disturbances to the
Amazonian ecosystem; social scientists analyzing
anthropological, sociological and economic variables, and
committed political activists promoting social and political
transformation. Recent research conducted by many of these
individuals and organizations has documented in detail the
causes and consequences of environmental degradation in the
region.

Interestingly though, these analyses have largely ignored how
the causes and consequences of deforestation might be
related to socio-economic relations at the household and
community level, where key decisions regarding the
environment are made. Despite the existence of well-
developed research institutions, a robust community of non-
government organizations (NGOs) and growing influx of
international funding, socio-economic analysis of
environmental issues remains insufficient, and gender analysis
practically non existent. The GENESYS Project in Brazil
pioneered efforts to transform this situation by promoting
and strengthening the capacity of local NGOs to integrate
socio-economic and gender considerations into their research,
environmental and community development programs.



'Le Breton, p. viii.



















GENESYS/Brazil was part of a larger
USAID project to institutionalizegender
considerations into the agency's
programs and projects. It responded to
a directive of the U.S. Congress to
incorporate and increase the number of
women who are participants and
beneficiaries of U.S. foreign assistance
programs. The budget for the Brazil
activity represented one of the highest
amounts allocated to incorporategender
into an environmental initiative in one
country.




















The GENESYS/Brazil Project worked
with a heterogenous group of
organizations throughout the Amazon
involved in environmental and
agroforestry research and extension, and
advocacy for rural labor.


PROJECT 0
STAKEHOLDERS


OBJECTIVES


AND


GENESYS/Brazil, implemented between 1991 and 1995, was
a component of two much larger initiatives--the broader
GENESYS Project and the Brazil Global Climate Change
Program. GENESYS was a US $18.9 million project funded
by USAID's Office for Women in Development (WID) to, as
stated in its Project Paper, "support the WID Office to
institutionalize gender considerations in A.I.D. programs and
projects and thereby increase women's contribution to and
benefit from economic and social development." The
concrete purpose of GENESYS was to increase Bureau and
Mission capacity to incorporate gender into USAID
programs and projects such as the Brazil GCC Program.
Both GCC and GENESYS were responses to separate
mandates of the U.S. Congress to: 1) promote initiatives to
reduce global climate change, and 2) incorporate and
increase the number of women who are participants and
beneficiaries of U.S. foreign assistance programs.

GENESYS/Brazil, a US $1.1 million project, was a buy-in by
USAID Brasilia into the broader GENESYS Project. It was
implemented by the prime contractor on the GENESYS
Project, Washington-based, The Futures Group International
and its Brazilian partner, the Brazilian Agroforestry Network
(REBRAF) based in Rio de Janeiro. GENESYS/Brazil
represented about 15 percent of the overall GENESYS
Project obligations through July 1994. The respective
contributions of the WID Office and USAID/Brasilia to
GENESYS/Brazil activities were US $0.6 and 0.5 million.
With the WID Office contribution, the GENESYS
component in Brazil was about 6.3 percent of the total funds
obligated to the Brazil GCC Program. Furthermore, the
WID Office contribution represented one of the highest
amounts allocated to incorporate gender into an
environmental initiative in one country.

The GCC Program works with heterogenous NGOs involved
with research, extension, and organized rural labor.
GENESYS worked with these diverse GCC NGOs: 1)
CEPASP (Centro de Educacgo, Pesquisa e Assessoria
Sindical e Popular); 2) CNS (O Conselho Nacional dos
Seringueiros); 3) FVA (Fundagio Vit6ria Amaz6nica); 4)
PESACRE (Grupo de Pesquisa e Extens.o em Sistemas
Agroflorestais do Acre), and 5) STR-Paragominas (Sindicato
dos Trabalhadores Rurais de Paragominas.










The local organizations and their
respective missions were:

CEPASP--Center for Education,
Research and Popular and Technical
Assistance, Marabd, Pard.

Mission: Defend the environment and
advance sustainable development efforts
through -informal education and
technical assistance to local rural labor
unions and social movements.

CNS--The National Rubbertapper's
Council, Macapd, Amapd.

Mission: Represent and defend the
rights of rubbertappers and other forest
dwellers Amazon-wide, by working to
reorient regional development policies;
providing social services, and supporting
favorable pricing for products from
extractivee reserves."

FVA--The Vit6ria Amaz6nica
Foundation, Manaus, Amazonas.

Mission: Identify and map conservation
priorities in the Amazon basin; develop
a plan for the management/protection of
Brazil's largest national park, the Jau,
for the direct benefit of inhabitants of
the Rio Negro basin.

PESACRE--The Group for Research and
Extension on Agroforestry Systems, Rio
Branco, Acre.

Mission: Study ecological and socio-
economic aspects offorest management
and agroforestry systems used in Acre;
explore means to increase incomes of
small producers and reduce
environmental pressures.

STR--The Paragominas Rural Workers
Union, Paragominas, Pard.

Mission: Defend rural workers' rights;
develop a political/union organization,
and provide informal education and
extension in agricultural production,
natural resource management and
health.


GENESYS/Brazil was called upon to provide training,
research, technical assistance and logistical support to
strengthen NGO capabilities to include socio-economic and
gender considerations in the design, implementation, and
evaluation of sustainable activities in extractive reserves, park
buffer zones, and agroforestry projects supported by the
GCC Program.

The logic of incorporating GENESYS into the GCC Program
was to enhance the probability that GCC-promoted forest
uses and management practices would be adopted. The
hypothesis was that in the Brazilian Amazon, both women
and men play important productive roles in all the extractive
and agroforestry systems, as sources of traditional knowledge
about the habitat, as collectors of forest products, as
processors of products, and as sellers. Yet there had been
little research and information about the division of labor
and other gender considerations in the Amazon region in
general, and in renewable resource management systems in
particular. Consequently, it was argued that socio-economic
information and sex-disaggregated data on the knowledge,
skills and labor of both men and women must be considered,
and should ultimately influence agro-forestry project activities
and decision-making.


The specific GENESYS/Brazil scope of work included the
following objectives:


1) Strengthen the capacity of Brazilian NGOs to
incorporate gender considerations into their
activities, plans and programs.

2) Assist NGOs in socio-economic research
activities in their communities.

3) Improve the socio-economic, analytical and
methodological skills of NGOs.

4) Improve project-level monitoring and
evaluation.

5) Sponsor research to contribute to project
socio-economic sustainability.





























Project implementors sought to give
operational meaning to objectives, with
few previous guidelines or blueprints as
beacons. The task was quite formidable
given the size and remoteness of the
Amazon, the heterogeneity of client
organizations and communities, and the
relative novelty of certain subjects such
as gender differences minimum data
sets, or marketing of non-timber forest
products.


PROJECT ACCOMPLISHMENTS


The implementors of the project had to transform the
objectives listed above into anticipated accomplishments.
The latter would be benchmarks by which to judge what was
actually achieved. The objectives were turned into the
following specific targeted accomplishments:

1) Improving NGO socio-economic research
skills and ability to do gender analysis.

2) Identifying and training local gender/social
science specialists to integrate gender
considerations into NGO workplans, and
carry out needed socio-economic research.


Producing a gender differences "minimum
data set."


4) Identifying socio-economic and gender-
focused indicators of project results.

5) Developing a participatory research approach
for working with communities.

6) Producing a marketing report on a specific
non-timber forest product, and disseminating
training materials on how to implement
market analysis and planning for other non-
timber forest products (NTFPs).

Those analyzing the anticipated and actual accomplishments
must understand that although these anticipated
accomplishments may look clear, straightforward and logical
on paper, at the beginning of the project there were very few,
if any, guidelines on how to cany them out, anywhere, let alone
in a place as remote, large and complex as the Amazon. There
were no concrete previous success stories to follow; the road
simply had not been travelled before. Furthermore, the
project worked with multiple heterogenous organizations and
communities, and many of the themes and activities--such as
gender-differentiated data sets and indicators, or marketing
of non-timber forest products--were relatively new in the
development field. GENESYS/Brazil was thus a pioneer in
attempting to identify and follow a highly ambitious agenda
without a clear map of how to get to the desired destination.















These were some concrete project
accomplishments:


1) GENESYS training and technical
assistance allowed the NGOs to carry
out surveys, and improve their skills in
socio-economic research and gender
analysis.

2) GENESYS identified and trained
eight NGO staff members to serve as
local gender/social science specialists,
and integrate gender considerations into
the workplans of five NGOs.

3) GENESYS surveys produced a
substantial amount of sex-disaggregated
data at separate NGOs, but a gender
differences "minimum data set" proved
more difficult to organize.

4) GENESYS aided the NGOs to
begin identifying socio-economic and
gender-focused indicators of project
results.

5) In at least two of the NGOs,
GENESYS was a catalyst in the
development/use of a participatory
research approach for working with
communities.

6) GENESYS provided technical
assistance and training, and produced a
seminal manual and workbook to guide
organizations and communities in the
marketing ofnon-timberforestproducts.

7) GENESYS initiated a process that
led to unanticipated results, the most
important of which are the creation of
networks throughout the Amazon, the
use of innovative approaches to
training, and the translation of
documentation on gender into
Portuguese.


Given this reality, the concrete accomplishments are
substantial:

1) The NGOs improved their socio-economic research skills
and ability to do gender analysis.

GENESYS/Brazil provided close to 600 person-days of
technical assistance to support socio-economic research and
investigation of gender considerations. In addition, it
delivered six training courses on gender awareness/analysis
and research-related themes including rapid rural appraisal,
marketing of non-timber forest products, and monitoring and
evaluation. Nearly 80 people (51 percent women)
representing 22 organizations working in the Brazilian
Amazon were systematically trained. The influence and
impact of these individuals is likely to be felt over time. For
example, some have already begun to give presentations or
courses on the themes taught in GENESYS courses.
However, it must be remembered that most of the GCC
NGOs in the Brazilian Amazon are non-research
organizations. Although they are still unable to
independently do sophisticated gender analysis or carry out
work that meets academic standards of appropriate research
design, questionnaire development, data analysis,
interpretation, comparison and replicability, their research
skills and use of research have improved. Furthermore, even
though they are male-dominated, the NGOs do now
understand the purpose of gender information and analysis.


2) GENESYS identified and trained eight NGO staff
members to serve as local gender/social science specialists to
carry out socio-economic research and integrate gender
considerations into the workplans of five NGOs.

Instead of hiring outside social scientists/gender experts,
GENESYS/Brazil picked individuals already working with the
NGOs to work part-time (ten hours per week) for the
project. Over the life of the project, six women and two men
worked as the GENESYS "Gender Specialists." They were
given training, technical assistance and logistical support to
incorporate gender and socio-economic elements into the
activities of their respective NGOs. Conveying these new
concepts and approaches was not an easy task. The project
had to work with both the individual specialists and their
organizations to generate awareness of and commitment to
project objectives. In particular, GENESYS had to transmit
the notion of the "invisibility" of women and other rural




















Creative symbolism and humorous
attention-getting devices were employed
to promote awareness and commitment
to project objectives. For example,
enormous "GENESYS glasses" were
used to correct "gender-blindness" and
allow the wearer to see the "invisibility"
of rural women.















Project implementors struggled with the
concrete meaning of a "gender
differences minimum data set" and
discovered the difficulty of assembling it
from data collected by multiple
organizations that had different
informational needs and data collection
methodologies.


stakeholders, and why this oversight might be deleterious to
overall environmental and developmental objectives. The
process of obtaining this commitment was designed to be
creative and symbolic. For example, project leadership
promoted the idea of a GENESYS "vision" and mission by
using enormous glasses and ears (os oculos e as orelhas
GENESYS). These were attention-getting devices to get
people to think about whether they were "gender blind" or
deaf, and could thus not "see the invisibility" and "hear the
silence" of women and other stakeholders who are often not
seen, heard or listened to, and thus ignored by projects.
GENESYS also had to develop the specialists' capacity to
work in groups; do critical thinking about gender in terms of
efficiency and equity; understand and manage differences;
and transmit information to others.

As a result of this process, it was anticipated that gender
considerations and sex-disaggregated information would
become incorporated into the organizations' socio-economic
research, project design and evaluation activities. The
strategy has begun to bear fruit. To varying degrees gender
is being taken into account by the NGOs in their choice of
survey and questionnaire design; in strategic planning; and in
activities such as literacy promotion, marketing and training.

3) GENESYS surveys produced a substantial amount of sex-
disaggregated data at separate NGOs, but a gender
differences "minimum data set" proved more difficult to
organize.

Although one of the project's objectives was to produce a
gender differences "minimum data set," at the project's outset
there were no guidelines as to what it should include or for
what it would be used. Furthermore, in the process of
implementing the project, GENESYS/Brazil discovered how
little research had been done on gender and gender
differences in the Brazilian Amazon. By sponsoring extensive
bibliographic searches from data bases in the United States,
Europe, Latin America and Brazil, the project documented
that literature on gender, and research relating to gender and
the environment in the Amazon are either sparse or at an
early stage. Yet due to GENESYS surveys, there are now
initial sex-disaggregated data in spheres such as age; health;
education; migration; participation in community
organizations; labor force employment; division of labor in
agricultural and processing activities; land tenure/titling;
possession of vital records and legal documentation; and
access to marketing, credit and media. Unfortunately the












Project-sponsored surveys yielded sex-
disaggregated data in spheres such as
age; health; education; migration;
participation in community
organizations; labor force employment;
division of labor in agricultural and
processing activities; land tenure/titling;
possession of vital records and legal
documentation; and access to
marketing, credit and media.
Unfortunately the same data were not
systematically collected by all of the
NGOs.









The project provided a tool for
identifying socio-economic and gender
indicators, and developing monitoring
and evaluation plans.






GENESYS/Brazil also enabled local
community members to become
involved in data collection, and to apply
the findings to socio-economic and
environmental issues affecting them.
The results of one participatory survey
were used to lobby for a school, and to
challenge the projected impact on the
local population of a proposed mining
project during landmark environmental
public hearings.


same data were not systematically collected by all of the
NGOs. Part of the reason for this gap was that since
GENESYS supported participativee research," the various
NGOs used distinct methodologies to gather different types
of sex-disaggregated data. Consequently, these data were not
necessarily comparable, nor was it always possible to
aggregate them. Yet all NGOs did become aware of the
importance of data on both men and women, and one
organization used separate male and female questionnaires
in its survey. It produced results that a senior specialist for
a major international conservation organization, the World
Wildlife Fund (WWF), characterized as "invaluable," since
she stated it was one of the first of its kind she had
encountered in the context of a conservation project.

4) By the end of the project, GENESYS/Brazil was able to
begin identifying socio-economic and gender-focused
indicators of project results.

Part of the difficulty in attaining this objective was that an
appropriate instrument to assist in the formulation of
indicators was not available. Furthermore, it would have
been very laborious to identify appropriate indicators for the
numerous projects being undertaken by the NGOs. Yet by
the end of the project, GENESYS had developed a tool for
assisting the process of identifying socio-economic and
gender indicators, and for developing monitoring and
evaluation plans.' The approach was disseminated during a
highly successful monitoring and evaluation training
workshop, which was attended by the GENESYS Specialists
and individuals from other Amazonian organizations.

5) In at least two of the NGOs, GENESYS was a catalyst in
the development/use of a participatory research approach
that enabled communities to collect socio-economic data and
apply the findings to issues affecting them.

GENESYS sponsored research that enabled one of the rural
labor NGOs to involve members of the community in the
planning and implementation of a survey. Survey results


'Debbie Caro and Virginia Lambert, Consideragoes S6cio-
Econ6micas e de Genero em Monitoramento e Avaliavao,
Instrumento para Desenvolver Pianos de Monitoramento eAvaliagao.
Focalizag~o Especial em Recursos Naturais e Meio Ambiente, edited
for use in Brazil by Eileen Muirragui, GENESYS/Brazil, August
1994.























Before the GENESYS Project,
marketing guidelines for non-timber
forest products in the Brazilian Amazon
did not exist. The GENESYS goal was
to help local NGOs better assess
marketing situations, and formulate
appropriate decisions and solutions to
specific marketingproblems, taking into
account the respective roles of men and
women, and the barriers each face.




A reviewer from a leading marketing
school in Sao Paulo, the country's
financial capital, characterized the
GENESYS manual as "one of the most
important marketing books produced in
Brazil," not because it answers all
questions, but because it incorporates
the challenge of environmentalism with
social and economic questions.


were used to lobby for keeping a school open. During
several landmark environmental public hearings, the findings
were also used to challenge the purported impact of a
proposed mining project on the population. This use of
research by an NGO in favor of communities is practically
unheard of in the Amazon. In another NGO, the results of
GENESYS-funded research and technical assistance were
returned to community members and to their marketing
cooperative to help them understand the constraints they
faced in production and marketing of a non-timber forest
product, cupuaqu.

6) GENESYS produced a manual and workbook for the
marketing of non-timber forest products (NTFPs).
Furthermore, the project provided technical assistance,
carried out training, and disseminated training materials on
how to implement market analysis and planning for NTFPs.

Before the GENESYS Project, marketing guidelines for non-
timber forest products in the Brazilian Amazon did not exist.
GENESYS made the first systematic attempt to produce a
manual that would help local NGOs to better assess
marketing situations, and formulate appropriate solutions to
specific marketing problems and questions.' The ultimate
goal was to raise family income in a sustainable fashion.
GENESYS tried to develop a new approach to integrate
economic, social and environmental issues into marketing
decisions. It was a difficult endeavor due to the complexity
and relative novelty of the issues, and the difficulty of finding
qualified personnel. Yet the project produced a second,
revised version of a user-friendly marketing manual, which a
reviewer from a leading marketing school in Sio Paulo, the
country's financial capital, characterized as "one of the most
important marketing books produced in Brazil,"" not because
it answers all questions, but because it incorporates the
challenge of environmentalism with socio-economic issues.
Furthermore, in the workbook that accompanies the manual,
users are urged to symbolically use the GENESYS glasses to
focus on relevant gender issues in the marketing chain, and
to begin to analyze the visible and invisible barriers men and
women might face at each level.


'Warner III, P.D. and Andrea Coutinho Pontual. Manual de
ComercializaFgo de Produtos Florestais, GENESYS/Brasil,
Washington, D.C. and Rio de Janeiro, 1994.
"Ibid, p. 9.





















The process aspects of the project led to
unanticipated results that were as
important as the content of the intended
accomplishments.









GENESYS played a catalytic role in the
creation of personal and professional
networks among NGO staff working in
the Amazon. These networks were
initiated and maintained through a
number of innovative training courses
that combined components of critical
thinking and technical skills with music,
art, dance and participation of
community members.


7) GENESYS initiated a process that led to unanticipated
results, the most important of which were the creation of
networks throughout the Amazon, the use of innovative
approaches to training, and the production and translation of
Portuguese-language documentation on gender.

The comparison between intended and actual
accomplishments shows that GENESYS/Brazil was quite
successful. Yet the analysis of concrete accomplishments
tells only part of the story. For behind these achievements
there was also a less tangible process, an approach to
implementation that led to some very positive unanticipated
results that are equally, and perhaps even more valuable in
terms of sustainability of project goals. For example, one of
the great unforeseen achievements of GENESYS/Brazil was
the catalytic role that it played in the creation of personal
and professional networks among those working across the
Amazon. GENESYS/Brazil was the only GCC cooperator
able to work directly with all of the GCC NGOs, and with
U.S. implementors such as the University of Florida, the
World Wildlife Fund, The Woods Hole Research Center, and
others that generally work in only one or two sites. This
networking role led to the establishment of personal and
professional bonds that will hopefully continue after the end
of the project.

GENESYS also developed a reputation for carrying out
unique and highly original training courses that exposed
potential trainers to creative training methodologies and
sessions. These included use of a male-female capoeira
(marshall arts/dance) troupe to stimulate discussion on
changing gender roles; art; training props such as the
GENESYS glasses and ears; actual "key" indicators to open
the treasure chest of sustainable development and improved
standard of living in the Amazon; participation of an
influential Amazonian environmental women's group, the
Quebradeiras de Babaqu; participation of community
members in training; use of teams of trainees to do research
in communities near where the courses were held in support
of the NGO's information needs; and a unique "aquatic
workshop" on an Amazonian river boat into Brazil's largest
national park, Jau. Furthermore, because almost no
Portuguese-language documents on gender were available,
GENESYS/Brazil produced numerous documents and
supported the translation of an impressive amount of
documentation which was disseminated to organizations
throughout Brazil.


























Near the end of the project, the Field
Coordinator reflected upon the
accomplishments and implementation
process, and wrote to GENESYS
collaborators at each NGO:

"To speak of "gender considerations" is
no longer a seven-headed monster for
any ofus....It is true that we are only at
the beginning, starting to collect the
fruits of the work... There is still a long
road to follow before women and men
have equity vis-a-vis the benefits of
projects. There is much to be done, but
Ifeel that the commitment exists on the
part of each of you, to go
forward.....(T)he fact is that you now
know more about gender issues than
most researchers that are working in the
Amazonian region. The responsibility is
now yours to use and disseminate that
knowledge, to use the GENESYS
glasses to turn visible what is invisible,
and the GENESYS ears to hear the
silence."


Yet even with the anticipated and unanticipated
achievements, the broader and more important questions are:
Did the project make a difference and have an impact on the
organizations involved? Will they as a result be able to
better meet the needs of the Amazonian communities--the
men and women--with which they work? Did the project
accomplish its broader objective of increasing USAID
Mission capacity to incorporate gender into the GCC
Program and projects? Perhaps one way to judge is by citing
excerpts of correspondence that took place near the end of
the project. The first was a letter sent by the Brazil-based
Project Coordinator to the Gender Specialists in which she
reflected upon the process and accomplishments of
GENESYS/Brazil. It read:

"To speak of "gender considerations" is no longer a seven-headed monster for
any of us who participated in the courses provided by GENESYS/Brazil. In
some of the NGOs like PESACRE and FVA, gender considerations are being
successfully included from the design phase of the project, when it is
appropriate to do so. In others, like STR/Paragominas, FVA and PESACRE
there were socio-economic surveys sensitive to gender, particularly in terms of
the division of labor among dwellers of the communities where the research
took place. In the case of STRIP we have a concrete example of how to
carry out participative research. CNSIAP is planning a course in Gender
Analysis for the leadership of the associations of dwellers in the extractive
reserves ofAmapd, and CEPASP is doing market research on the market for
cupuaqu derivatives with the Araras' Women's Group. None of this existed
when we began, most of you didn't even know each other....... It is true that
we are only at the beginning, starting to collect the fruits of the work of
training and awareness. There is still a long road to follow before women and
men have equity vis-a-vis the benefits of projects. There is much to be done,
but I feel that the commitment exists on the part of each of you, to go
forward. You received the training and materials sufficient to deserve the title
"specialist," at least in terms of gender and socio-economic research. Some
of you don't like that qualification, and others maybe don't feel like specialists,
but the fact is that you now know more about gender issues than most
researchers that are working in the Amazonian region. The responsibility is
now yours to use and disseminate that knowledge, to use the GENESYS
glasses to turn visible what is invisible, and the GENESYS ears to hear the
silence."

The reply by one Gender Specialist was as follows:

"I received your letter ... which stimulated me to write this letter to you as
GENESYS representative in Brazil. I want to tell you simply what GENESYS
represented for my NGO, as well as for my growth as an advisor to (it). My
organization will be ten years old this year...much work has been done, but
only in 1992 did I have the opportunity to enter the organization as a result
of GENESYS, despite the fact that (this NGO) lived within me since 1984.

I began to work for GENESYS in May 1992, I found it difficult, all for me
was new, all was hard the first job was the tabulation of data of the 1992
















An NGO staff member expressed these
views:

"I want to tell you simply what
GENESYS represented for my NGO, as
well as for my growth as an advisor to
(it)...GENESYS for me was a school I
had never had, I met many people, with
each of these persons I learned a lot...
According to what we have been told,
GENESYS will end now...What a pity
that the spring was so short, when we
began to harvest the flowers, spring was
ending...The research and market study
promoted by GENESYS was important
because it was participative and gave
the opportunity to the directors of the
Marketing Cooperative and the
Women's Group to directly participate
in the work. This is not only my view,
but also that of the Women's Group
and of the Cooperative."










In hindsight, it becomes clear that the
implementation approaches developed
by the project were a response to the
difficulties that emerged. Among the
most important challenges were: 1)
resistance to an externally-generated
mandate; 2) lack of understanding of
the concept of gender, and dearth of
tools for gender analysis; 3) lack of a
model for institutionalization of gender
considerations within highly
heterogeneous implementing
organizations; 4) limited knowledge of
actual gender roles, and divergent needs
for socio-economic information among
organizations, and 5) lack of
monitoring and evaluation tools and
mechanisms.


survey, then the report on the surveys of 1990 and 1992 that is half finished,
at the end of 1992, beginning of 1993 I participated in the market survey of
cupuagu, and during these two years there have been various workshops, all
but the last of which I have attended.

GENESYS for me was a school I had never had I met many people, with
each of these persons I learned a lot. In January 1994, I was elected President
of my NGO by the Board all of this has enriched my knowledge, the
challenges have been so many.....

According to what we have been told, GENESYS will end now in October,
and I only have to thank you and say that it was great to meet you, with
whom I learned a lot. What a pity that the spring was so short, when we
began to harvest the flowers, spring was ending, that is why it was not possible
to realize the research and promotion of products.....

The research and market study of cupuagu promoted by GENESYS was
important because it was participative and gave the opportunity to the directors
of the Marketing Cooperative and the Women's Group to directly participate
in the work. This is not only my view, but also that of the Women's Group
and of the Cooperative."

These words express some of the distance travelled, both
literally and figuratively, on an unknown road in the Brazilian
Amazon between the project's beginning and end. The
changes that have occurred, and the new directions being
taken by persons within the NGOs that have worked with
GENESYS/Brazil, are particularly impressive when the
challenges faced by implementing staff are examined with the
wisdom available only ex-post.



CHALLENGES CONFRONTED


The implementation of the ambitious design framework of
the GENESYS Project in Brazil met numerous challenges.
In hindsight, it is clear that the implementation approaches
developed by the project were a response to the difficulties
that emerged. It may be that many of these problems are
common to projects of this nature, particularly those that are
gender-focused. Among the most important challenges were:
1) resistance to an externally-generated mandate; 2) lack of
understanding of the concept of gender, and dearth of tools
for gender analysis; 3) lack of a model for institutionalization
of gender considerations within highly heterogeneous
implementing organizations; 4) divergent needs for socio-
economic information and limited knowledge of socio-
economic realities and gender roles, and 5) lack of
monitoring and evaluation tools and mechanisms. Each of
these challenges is discussed in turn.



















The GENESYS/Brazil Projectrepresents
one of the longest sustained and most
amply funded attempts of the
USAID/WID environmentalportfolio to
implement the mandate of the U.S.
Congress to make men and women
equal beneficiaries and participants of
U.S. foreign assistance programs. Yet
the project confronted various degrees of
resistance, since some felt that it thrust
an externally generated agenda onto
local programs and projects.









There was widespread confusion on the
part of people working with the project
about the GENESYS mandate, and on
the conceptual differences between sex
and gender roles, and women in
development versus gender in
development.


Resistance to an Externally Generated Mandate

The GENESYS/Brazil Project represents one of the longest
sustained and most amply funded attempts of the
USAID/WID environmental portfolio to implement the
mandate of the U.S. Congress to make men and women
equal beneficiaries and participants of U.S. foreign assistance
programs. The Percy Amendment, which set that mandate
into law, sprung from lobbying within the United States by
those supporting equal opportunity for women overseas.
Some people feel that the transfer of this mandate to other
countries through U.S. foreign aid programs thrusts an
externally generated, "top-down" agenda onto program and
project implementors. This view has been voiced by
individuals from USAID, the U.S. organizations funded by
the Agency, and local counterpart institutions.

The directive poses no problem where a propensity to
support it exists. Where it does not, the resistance to the
mandate will become quite apparent. GENESYS/Brazil
encountered behavior ranging from disinterest to benign
neglect, and at times outright hostility. Furthermore,
although the broader GENESYS Project was designed to
devise means to incorporate gender considerations within
USAID, GENESYS/Brazil had to work primarily with in-
country organizations. Part of the problem among local
organizations stemmed from the widespread suspicion of
outsiders, and particularly of USAID, an agency that was
compromised by its support of policies sponsored by the
former Brazilian military dictatorship. With some
organizations, resistance to USAID was at least as great, if
not greater, than worries about the WID mandate.

Lack of Understanding of the Concept of Gender
and Dearth of Gender Analysis Tools

There was widespread confusion on the part of people
working with the project about the GENESYS mandate, and
the conceptual differences between sex and gender roles,
women in development and gender in development. It was
not clear to many that gender analysis addresses the division
of rights, responsibilities, resources and knowledge between
men and women, and that "women's issues" cannot be
addressed properly without this broader focus. This
confusion led many to the assumption that GENESYS was a
"women's project," rather than a research project focusing on
gender roles and socio-economic factors. The different





























Another problem was the dearth of tools
for gender analysis applicable to
situations confronted in the Amazon.


concepts were explained during training at the beginning of
the project, but apparently only became clear to project staff
at the NGO level during a staff retreat/training session late
in the project. The fact that GENESYS/Brazil was
considered by some to be an unimportant "women's project"
brought to it much of the condescension and lack of
attention that often are associated with this stereotype.
Furthermore, attempts to incorporate gender at the local
level by GENESYS/Brazil were not matched with parallel
efforts with expatriate GCC Program cooperators.

A related problem was the dearth of gender analysis tools
applicable to the Amazon reality. Many of the early general
gender analysis tools that examine roles, responsibilities and
access to power and resources can be applied to projects in
the environmental and natural resources field. Others
specific to this sector, such as those of the Ecology,
Community Organization and Gender (ECOGEN) Project,
produced under a USAID-funded agreement with Clark
University and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute have only
been developed and disseminated within the last few years.
These tools are analyzed in a recent GENESYS publication',
which is part of the Gender Analysis Tool Kit produced by the
overall GENESYS Project to assist policy makers and project
implementors to address gender issues. Yet the field
application and testing of these methods are at a relatively
early stage.

Among the methods and tools for gender analysis
disseminated by GENESYS/Brazil were activities profiles;
resources, activities and social mapping; agricultural
calendars; rapid rural appraisals; and survey questionnaires.
Yet projects in the Amazon have site-specific conceptual and
practical challenges for which new methodologies and tools
are necessary to facilitate: 1) gender analysis of production
and marketing of non-timber forest products; 2) analysis of
constraints to participation in community agro-forestry
projects by sex; 3) shadow-pricing women's and children's
labor; 4) analysis of organizational affiliation and
participation by sex; 5) incorporation of gender into
questionnaire design, and how to sex-disaggregate data that
already exists; and 6) development of men's, women's and
mixed sex micro-enterprise for non-timber forest products
and environmentally sustainable agro-forestry projects.
'Deborah Caro and Ame Stormer, Gender Research Guide for the
Agriculture, Environment and Natural Resource Sectors: A Tool for
Selecting Methods, USAID/G/R&D/WID, April 1994.






















Another early challenge was the lack of
a model of how to institutionalize
gender considerations into
organizations. Eventually the attributes
of institutionalization were defined in a
series of stages: 1) Awareness of
importance of gender issues for
development outcomes; 2) Commitment
to addressing gender issues in the
institution's activities; 3) Capacity to
formulate relevant questions; 4)
Capacity to carry out gender and social
analysis; 5) Capacity to apply findings
of gender and social analysis to the
institution's portfolio; 6) Capacity to do
systematic monitoring and evaluation of
gender-specific program impact; and
7) Systematic reporting of gender-
relevant lessons leame, and subsequent
program adaptation.


In addition to the sparsity of relevant gender methods and
tools, none of these were available in Portuguese.
Translations were not always applicable to local realities, and
project participants eagerly requested Amazonian examples
to illustrate concepts and tools. Some of these were
developed as training materials.

Lack of Gender Institutionalization Model for
Highly Heterogeneous Implementing Organizations

Another major difficulty for GENESYS/Brazil was that a
model of how to institutionalize gender considerations did
not exist at the beginning of project activities. Furthermore,
because the project was not able to find many social scientists
or gender specialists who were available, willing and able to
work in the Amazon, project management decided to choose
staff members from each of the NGOs as "Gender
Specialists." Yet even with this staff, at the early stages of
the project, implementors did not know how to begin
incorporating and institutionalizing gender into an
organization's activities. In the last year of the project, the
GENESYS Project in Washington defined the elements of
"institutionalization":'

1) Awareness of importance of gender issues
for development outcomes;

2) Commitment to addressing gender issues
in the institution's activities;

3) Capacity to formulate relevant questions;

4) Capacity to carry out gender and social
analysis;

5) Capacity to apply findings of gender and
social analysis to the institution's portfolio;

6) Capacity to do systematic monitoring and
evaluation of gender-specific program impact;

7) Systematic reporting of gender-relevant
lessons learned, and subsequent program
adaptation.

van den Oever, Pietronella, GCID Framework.A Tool forAssessing
Institutionalization of Gender Concerns in Development
Organizations, USAID/G/R&D/WID, GENESYS, September 1994.



























Given the social diversity existing in the
Amazon, strong and focused
management and control of research
methodologies and questionnaire design
by trained social scientists are needed to
allow eventual data use and
comparisons at different sites. This
requisite for expert knowledge at times
conflicted with the grass-roots NGOs'
participatory and "popularized"
approach to research, used as a means
of combatting the status differentiation
and paternalism that tend to prevail in
the region.





In GENESYS-supported work, the
degree of community participation in
the research cycle varied.


This framework was communicated and discussed with the
local GCC NGOs. Yet these organizations were
heterogeneous and included a research institute of natural
scientists, a consortium of members from academic,
government and non-government agencies and rural worker
unions. Consequently, the organizational agendas, interest
and educational levels of staff members were extremely
varied. The heterogeneity affected the nature of technical
assistance, logistical support and training, and required
adaptation to each of the various situations encountered.

Divergent Needs for Socio-economic Information
and Limited Knowledge of Socio-Economic
Realities and Gender Roles

Socio-economic research in the Amazon can be challenging
since relatively little is known about the socio-economic
characteristics of communities, in part because of the
continual external and internal migration in the region.
Furthermore, there is widespread social differentiation
among groups that include rubber tappers, small farmers,
indigenous tribes, ranchers, miners and loggers. In such a
diverse setting, strong and focused management of research
methodologies are needed to allow eventual data use and
comparisons. Yet this type of management was not easily
implemented due to an important Amazonian socio-economic
consideration which affected the GENESYS-sponsored
research. Since the social dynamic in the Amazon has
traditionally fostered strong paternalism, the counter-
tendency, particularly among grass-roots and labor-oriented
organizations, has been to encourage communities to actively
participate in endeavors and decisions that affect them.
Socio-economic research has not escaped this trend, and
many different staff members of the NGOs and community
members have been involved in the research process to
various degrees.

In GENESYS-supported work, the degree of community
participation in the research cycle varied. One community
had a voice in what a survey would cover; in other
communities, the local NGO and donors determined survey
content. In most instances there was little community
involvement in data analysis, although most organizations had
plans to communicate the research results to the community.
To the extent that research becomes more participatory or
"popularized," unless it is carefully monitored by a trained
social scientist, it runs the risk of losing its "scientific"






















NGOs and their clients often have very
practical research and information
needs, related to their desire to serve
their clientele and gain access to
government services and legal rights.
These information and research needs
were, at times, quite different from the
research agenda of externally funded
projects and programs such as GCC.
The fact that GENESYS-funded
research was also destined to partially
serve outside program/project
management and reporting needs was
notgenerally very well understood by the
NGOs.


qualities and standards which include a valid research design
which permits replicability and incorporates expert knowledge
in a subject area.

In the case of gender considerations, for example, some
persons assumed that little expertise or specialized knowledge
were required. As a member of one of the NGOs put it vis-
A-vis the title of the "Gender-Specialist" colleague: "We do
not like the term specialist, here we are all specialists." An
external project like GENESYS thus appeared to create
internal status differences, which tended to go against the
more egalitarian ethos of the labor organizations. In
contrast, this problem manifested itself less in the NGOs that
were research-oriented, even when the NGO staff members
overseeing the research were not social scientists.

Furthermore, NGOs and their clients often have very
practical research and information needs. In the project
area, examples of these needs included gaining access to
government programs and services; gaining land title; fighting
reduction in services (e.g. closing down of schools);
identifying affiliation to unions; and setting up park
management plans. These information and research needs
of the NGOs were, at times, quite different from the research
agenda of externally funded projects and programs such as
GCC. The fact that GENESYS-funded research was also
destined to partially serve these outside program/project
management and reporting needs was not generally very well
understood by the NGOs. For example, the NGOs have had
a difficult time comprehending the function of monitoring
and evaluation to meet the U.S. congressional mandate, and
the need to show impact on target populations, not just
expenditure of funds for agendas pertaining to local interests.

The interaction among the competing agendas and different
methodologies used for data gathering produced varied
results. The lack of social science expertise naturally
encouraged the use of relatively simpler techniques such as
rapid rural appraisal techniques (the sondeio) and
participatory rapid rural appraisal. However, the sondeio
does not produce in-depth information, so more formal
surveys were also chosen. In cases where the latter
methodology was used, it required extensive technical
assistance which, given the limited availability of expertise,
led to extremely long time lines for field work and research
analysis. Yet even with technical assistance, it proved
difficult to synthesize and validly compare research findings
into data sets such as one for "gender differences."











There are numerous monitoring and
evaluation tools, yet the challenge was
adapting them to include gender in
three of the major components of the
project: research, institutional
strengthening, and strategies for
environmentally and economically
sustainable income generation.







The project learned several valuable
lessons:

1) The process of integrating gender
considerations into organizations is
slow, and requires strategies that
produce short-term benefits to a targeted
organization.

2) Without specific attention to gender
and women in development issues,
socio-economic research does not
necessarily provide information on
differences between men and women's
roles, responsibilities and rights, and
women may continue to remain
"invisible" and by-passed by technical
assistance and other project activities.

3) Socio-economic research skills
within NGOs are not easily developed
without trained social scientists and
technical assistance, but simpler rapid
rural appraisal methods can meet many
information needs.

4) The quality and relevance of
repeated exposure to socio-economic
and gender issues appear to influence
how these are incorporated by an
institution, as does existence of a key
individual or group continuously
promoting awareness of, and
commitment to, them.

5) A system of monitoring and
evaluation of socio-economic and
gender indicators is critical to reinforce
the link between research findings and
planning, and to improve project
implementation and reporting.


Another problem in doing research to elucidate gender
differences, is that there were few guidelines on
questionnaire design. This type of information-gathering
corresponds to the second stage of the institutionalization
process, which is to ask the right questions. In the Brazilian
Amazon, almost any question that sheds light on gender roles
and differences is the right question, yet few of these have
been asked. GENESYS discovered this fact by sponsoring
extensive bibliographic searches in the United States, Europe,
Latin America and Brazil. As a result, the project
documented that literature on gender and research relating
to gender and women in the environment in the Amazon are
either sparse or at an early stage.* GENESYS was thus
literally opening up unchartered territory.

Lack of Monitoring and Evaluation Tools and
Mechanisms

Although a component of the project design was to assist in
the process of monitoring and evaluation of gender issues, an
appropriate tool to guide in the process was not available
until the end of the project." There are, of course,
numerous monitoring and evaluation tools; the challenge is
adapting them to include gender. Part of the difficulty
stemmed from the lack of baseline data, and the need to
identify socio-economic and gender indicators in three of the
major components of the project: research, institutional
strengthening, and strategies for environmentally and
economically sustainable income generation.



LESSONS LEARNED


Valuable lessons can be learned from the accomplishments
and challenges of the GENESYS/Brazil project. One of the

'Woortman, Ellen, John Sydensticker and Donald Sawyer. Genero
e Meio Ambiente na Amaz6nia Legal, GENESYS/Brazil and ISPN,
1994.
"Deborah Caro and Virginia Lambert, Consideragoes S6cio-
Economicas e de G&nero em Monitoramento e Avaliagao,
Instrument para Desenvolver Pianos de Monitoramento eAvaliagao.
Focalizafao Especial em Recursos Naturais e Meio Ambiente, edited
for use in Brazil by Eileen Muirragui, GENESYS/Brazil, August
1994.
































The entry into an organization where an
external mandate is introduced requires
a great deal of cultural sensitivity, tact
and interpersonal skills. "Making the
case" also requires a carefully thought
out analysis and presentation of the
efficiency and equity reasons why
integration of socio-economic and
gender considerations is important to
the organization's programs.


fundamental facts discovered by the staff and participants of
GENESYS/Brazil was how little is actually known, how much
still remains to be investigated and revealed about the roles
men and women play in the complex reality of the
Amazonian region. Furthermore, even with the data
available, new tools and methods to carry out socio-economic
and gender analysis need to be developed, and the
information derived from the analysis should be fed back into
project and organizational activities.

Yet despite these limitations, GENESYS/Brazil was the first
actor in the Amazon to systematically begin the process of
incorporating gender issues into environmental projects, and
into the organizational culture of a number of NGOs that
implement them. Many seeds were planted through the
different activities sponsored by GENESYS. As was seen in
the discussion of accomplishments, some of these seeds have
even begun to germinate. One has to start from somewhere
to promote socio-economic and gender considerations, and
projects that follow GENESYS/Brazil will not begin with a
blank slate. The University of Florida's MERGE (Managing
Environment and Resources with a Gender Emphasis)
Project, which has begun working in Brazil, Ecuador and
Peru, is a case in point. Projects that follow the same or
similar goals, be it in Brazil or elsewhere, should carefully
consider the following important lessons derived from over
three years of GENESYS field experience:

1) The process of integrating gender considerations
into an organization is slow. The first steps of
generating awareness and commitment are critical, and
to be successful require thoughtful strategies that
produce some short-term results that benefit the
targeted organization.

The entry into an organization where an external mandate is
introduced requires a great deal of cultural sensitivity, tact
and interpersonal skills. One of the reasons
GENESYS/Brazil was successful in gaining entry into the
organizations was the highly developed observation,
communication and interpersonal skills of the Brazil-based
Project Coordinator. But in addition to these skills, to "sell"
"people-focused" development and gender, the organization
must be persuaded that integration of socio-economic and
gender issues advances its own goals. Those promoting the
project from the outside must have arguments and reasons to
show how this is so. "Making the case" will require a









carefully thought out analysis and presentation of the
efficiency and equity reasons why integration of socio-
economic and gender considerations is important to the
organization's programs. Arguments specifically tailored to
each organization could show that project implementation
might be more successful--for example, that the
organization's knowledge of its client base and influence
could increase--or that it is more equitable and democratic to
not exclude half of the population from project activities and
benefits. This process is not necessarily easy, but generating
awareness and commitment can be accomplished by almost
anyone working on environmental and development projects
who is willing. What it takes is vision, time and the use of
methods developed by those with expertise in the field of
socio-economics, gender and organizational change and
development.

2) Without specific attention to gender and women in
Even with its mandate, GENESYS development issues, socio-economic research does not
experience shows that it was easy for
consultants and NGO staff to neglect or necessarily provide information on differences between
overlook gender issues, and the role and men's and women's roles, responsibilities and rights, and
position of women, while focusing on women may continue to remain "invisible" and by-passed
common socio-economic research units technical assistance and other project activities.
such as the household and family. by technical assistance and other activities.
If women as well as men are to be incorporated into project
and NGO activities, specific focus on gender issues in
general, and the role of women in development in particular,
is crucial. For example, the evaluation done on
GENESYS/Brazil showed that even in this project with a
strong gender/WID mandate, 55 percent of technical
assistance went to marketing, 34 percent to socio-economic
research, and only 11 percent was exclusively devoted to
incorporation of gender considerations. Furthermore, in
several cases, sex-disaggregated information was not collected
in project-financed formal surveys, although some were
designed in such a way that it was possible to disaggregate
ex-post. Project experience shows that it was easy for
consultants and NGO staff to neglect or overlook gender
issues, even while focusing on common socio-economic
research units such as the household and family.

For this reason, it is important to have tools that show survey
designers how and when to sex-disaggregate questionnaires.
For example one of the documents in the GENESYS Tool
Kit shows how to sex-disaggregate information from a rural
survey to make explicit significant differences between men's


























GENESYS experience shows that for
interests of women and other "invisible"
stakeholders to come to the forefront, it
is necessary to have people, projects and
institutions constantly raising awareness
and commitment to their existence. It is
also necessary to devise and encourage
mechanisms that will provide local
women and girls with the resources and
means to openly manifest their needs.



Building up NGO socio-economic
research capacity, even at a very
minimal level, required a great deal of
technical assistance. Yet even less than
"ideal" socio-economic information can
be used for many applications, and can
be a powerful catalyst for planning and
promoting community organization and
participation.


and women's participation in local and regional economies.
This type of tool contributes to correcting the commonly held
view of the household as a detached unit in which the
principal income-generator and decision-maker is the male
head of household.

Project implementors can also include gender considerations
in consultants' scopes of work, and link payment to the
satisfactory addressing of gender and women in development
concerns. In conjunction, it is necessary to educate NGO
representatives of the availability of such types of technical
assistance.

GENESYS experience shows that for interests of women and
other "invisible" stakeholders to come to the forefront, it is
necessary to have people, projects and institutions constantly
raising awareness and commitment to their existence. Those
in leadership positions should be encouraged to remind
project staff of the importance of considering gender and
women's participation, and to reward those that do so. It is
also necessary to devise and encourage mechanisms that will
provide local women and girls with the resources and means
to openly manifest their needs.

3) Socio-economic research skills within NGOs are not
easily developed without trained social scientists on staff
or high levels of technical assistance, yet with less
training and outside technical assistance rapid rural
appraisal and participatory rural appraisal can meet
many NGO information needs.

Most GCC NGOs in the Brazilian Amazon are not research
organizations. Building up their socio-economic research
capacity, even at a very minimal level, required a great deal
of technical assistance. The socio-economic research that
they can do independently probably rarely meets academic
social science standards of replicability and comparability.
Skills are weak in research design, questionnaire
development, data analysis and interpretation. However,
academic standards of socio-economic research may not

'Caro, Deborah, Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for
Analyzing Income and Employment Data from Surveys,
GENESYS/USAID/G/R&D/WID, July 1994. This survey was
designed to gather information on non-farm income sources and
farm and non-farm employment from all members of the household
age 6 or older.































NGOs with a history of involvement
with socio-economic issues and
professional interaction with social
scientists with a gender orientation
appear to be more likely to incorporate
gender into activities such as project
design, implementation, and monitoring
and evaluation. The presence of a key
individual or group constantly
promoting these concerns also appears
critical.


always be that important in the context of the local NGOs.
Less than "ideal" socio-economic information can be used for
many applications, especially if it meets the needs and
interests of the local organizations, and if the users of the
findings do not require extremely high levels of accuracy and
refinement. Furthermore, socio-economic research can be a
powerful catalyst for planning, regardless of how scientific it
is, and NGOs can use it as a tool to promote community
organization and participation. But at the very least, NGOs
interested in research must come to understand the problem
of bias, and the trade-offs between the choice of method
used, research quality and accuracy, cost and timeliness.

4) The quality and relevance of repeated exposure to
socio-economic and gender issues appear to influence
how these are incorporated by an institution, as does
existence of a key individual or group continuously
promoting awareness of and commitment to them.

NGOs with a history of involvement with socio-economic
issues and professional interaction with social scientists with
a gender orientation (as is the case of PESACRE with staff
from the University of Florida) appear to be more likely to
incorporate gender into activities such as project design,
implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. In the
Brazilian Amazon, prior to GENESYS most GCC NGOs had
not had this kind of exposure and experience.

The presence of a key individual or group constantly
promoting these concerns also appears critical. With
PESACRE, these key people have been both NGO staff and
outsiders. For this reason, it makes sense to identify and
support "gender" experts from academic, research or
technical assistance institutions, preferably near the local
institutions, to assist in the promotion of a gender focus. Yet
outsiders can also provide some of the cutting-edge tools and
research that have been developed elsewhere. Mechanisms
should also be set up to allow these local experts to network
and share experiences with counterparts in other locations,
both nationally and internationally. As a follow-up to
GENESYS, USAID/Brasilia is promoting precisely this kind
of opportunity by supporting the University of Florida's
MERGE Project cited above. Means to reward and give
legitimacy to gender concerns also need to be developed and
implemented, such as through promotions and access to
activity and travel funds.
















GENESYS/Brazil can provide field-
tested guidelines for those wishing to
integrate gender and socio-economic
considerations in similar projects:


1) Generate awareness and
commitment at the highest level of the
organization by effectively "making the
case" in terms of efficiency and equity.

2) Clarify early on to all important
parties the differences between sex and
gender, and women in development
(WID) versus gender and development
(GAD).

3) Work to develop a research culture
of "asking the right questions" through
critical thinking skills and hypothesis
testing with the participation of local
communities.

4) Disseminate gender analysis tools
for field testing and develop new tools
applicable to specific settings.

5) Identify key individuals and build
networks and synergy, and reward
successes in integrating gender.

6) Use training and targeted technical
assistance for institutional development,
and simultaneously promote gender
considerations.

7) Identify indicators of success and set
up monitoring and evaluation system
early.

8) Disseminate lessons learned

9) Be creative, original and innovative.


5) A system of monitoring and evaluation of socio-
economic and gender indicators is critical to reinforce
the link between research findings and planning, and to
improve project implementation and reporting.

Two of the NGOs used results of GENESYS-supported
research for planning. Indeed, the research provided
previously unavailable baseline and management data. Other
NGOs are still focusing on the collection and analysis of
data. Yet technical assistance and training are essential to
ensure that there is a feedback loop between data gathering,
monitoring and project implementation. In the process,
socio-economic and gender indicators need to be identified
and tracked, with sex-disaggregated data to measure the
inclusion of both men and women as project beneficiaries.
Even with its mandate, GENESYS/Brazil did not find this
task easy, but it could have been facilitated by earlier
development of an M&E plan. Other implementors can
profit from this experience.

The identification of indicators will assist in the reporting
process. With a monitoring and evaluation plan tied to
indicators, it is easier to identify what to report, and how to
track progress. For example, the GENESYS Project could
have asked NGOs to report the participation of women
relative to men in important community meetings or as part
of survey teams, or to monitor questionnaires to ensure
information on male/female differences in literacy, major
health problems, or access to technical assistance on pilot
agroforestry techniques.


GUIDELINES FOR FUTURE PROJECTS
AND PROGRAMS

The main lessons derived over more than three years of
GENESYS/Brazil field experience can be used to derive
more specific guidelines for those wishing to integrate gender
and socio-economic considerations into their projects and
programs. The most important of these are:

1) Generate awareness and commitment at the highest
level of the organization by effectively "making the case"
in terms of efficiency and equity. This undertaking is the
first step of the institutionalization process. The organization
must be effectively persuaded that the incorporation of socio-
































Perhaps the most critical guideline is
that the processes used in
implementation are as important as the
content of the ultimate goals. Project
implementors should attempt to be
creative, original and innovative.


economic and gender considerations advances its own agenda
and effectiveness.

2) Clarify early on to all important parties the
differences between sex and gender, and women in
development (WID) versus gender and development
(GAD). Institutions need to decide where they stand on
WID and GAD. This step helps to strengthen the process of
"commitment." The best expression of commitment is
through incorporation of gender into strategic planning
documents, and M&E targets and indicators. When this
approach is taken by several collaborating project entities
such as donors, expatriate and local implementing agencies,
synergy and chances of success are enhanced.

3) Work to develop a research culture of "asking the
right questions" through critical thinking skills, and
hypothesis testing with the participation of local
communities. Critical thinking skills and hypothesis testing
can be done with both less formal and more formal research
methodologies, and GENESYS/Brazil developed training
modules to build this capacity in NGO staff. Helping those
involved in projects distinguish between fact and opinion
about sex and gender, factual statements that are provable,
factual statements that are false, fallacious reasoning, and
how to determine what information is available will do much
to help local development organizations ask the right
questions to advance the process of correct gender analysis.
Communities should also be brought into this process.

4) Disseminate gender analysis tools for field testing
and develop new tools applicable to specific settings.
Once the organizations begin to ask the right questions,
gender analysis will help to elucidate the different roles of
men and women, the constraints on each, and the inequities
that may be hampering development efforts. Local and
outside expertise can be used to develop and adapt gender
analysis tools to specific circumstances. Sometimes there will
be an iterative loop between the questions initially posed and
gender analysis, with the latter leading to a reformulation of
the former.

5) Identify key individuals to build networks and
synergy, and reward successes in integrating gender.
Persons who are committed to gender issues are absolutely
critical. These people should be supported and linked with
those having similar interests. They should also be given







incentives and rewards such as promotions, grants and travel
opportunities to legitimize their efforts and encourage others
to emulate them.

6) Use training and targeted technical assistance for
institutional development, and to simultaneously
promote gender considerations. Gender-informed training
and technical assistance that provide needed technical skills
to an organization can be used to advance its institutional
needs and the promotion of gender considerations. Both can
be promoted simultaneously. For example, general
development of monitoring and evaluation plans and systems
can be coupled with identification of gender indicators;
development of general marketing plans can be linked with
analysis of specific barriers to women and men in marketing.
Attention to gender should also be included in consultants
scopes of work, and payment can be contingent on its
satisfactory inclusion.

7) Identify indicators of success and set up a
monitoring and evaluation system early. The
incorporation of a monitoring system for tracking gender and
socio-economic indicators is critical to maximizing and
measuring the efficiency of project activities. To the extent
that it is possible, these should be generated at the time an
organization expresses commitment to incorporating gender
into its activities and programs.

8) Disseminate lessons learned. Dissemination of
successful and less successful experiences is important for
networking, improving efforts to integrate gender,
development and refinement of tools, strengthening
organizational development, and improving the access of both
men and women to program and project benefits.

9) Be creative, original and innovative. At all stages, use
techniques such as the GENESYS glasses, or innovative
technical assistance and training approaches to "make the
case." These attention-getting strategies are very effective
when properly designed and used. For maximum
effectiveness, they should always be tailored to mesh with the
local reality and culture.















A Project of
The Futures.Group in
collaboration with.
Management Systems
International
Development Alternatives Inc.
1050 17th Street, NW, Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202) 775-9680
Fax: (202).775-9699
Telex: 9102504173FUTURESWASH
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