• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Chapter 1: Introduction
 Chapter 2: Population distribution...
 Chapter 3: Literacy and educat...
 Chapter 4: Economic activity
 Chapter 5: Marital status and living...














Group Title: WID ; 3
Title: Women of the world
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080504/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women of the world Near East and North Africa
Series Title: WID
Physical Description: vi, 195 p. : col. ill., 1 col. map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chamie, Mary
United States -- Bureau of the Census
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1985]
 Subjects
Subject: Women -- Social conditions -- Statistics -- Middle East   ( lcsh )
Women -- Social conditions -- Statistics -- Africa, North   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment -- Statistics -- Middle East   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment -- Statistics -- Africa, North   ( lcsh )
Women -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 173-178.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mary Chamie.
General Note: "Prepared under a Resources Support Services agreement with the Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development."
General Note: "Issued February 1985."
Funding: Women in development (Washington, D.C.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080504
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001304102
oclc - 12101229
notis - AGF4897

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Chapter 1: Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Chapter 2: Population distribution and change
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Chapter 3: Literacy and education
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
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    Chapter 4: Economic activity
        Page 67
        Page 68
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        Page 103
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        Page 105
        Page 106
    Chapter 5: Marital status and living arrangements
        Page 107
        Page 108
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Full Text

WID-3


Near East
and
North Africa


U.S. Department of Commerce
BUREAU OFTHE CENSUS


U.S. Agency for International Development
OFFICE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT





WID-3


Near East

and

North Africa

by Mary Chamie




This report was prepared under a Resources
Support Services Agreement with the Office of
Women in Development, Bureau for Program
and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency
for International Development.


Issued February 1985



irES OF
U.S. Department of Commerce
Malcolm Baldrige, Secretary
Clarence J. Brown, Deputy Secretary
Sidney Jones, Under Secretary for
Economic Affairs
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
John G. Keane,
Director














BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
John G. Keane, Director
C.L. Kincannon, Deputy Director
Robert O. Bartram, Assistant Director for
International Programs

CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
Samuel Baum, Chief






Acknowledgments


This report on the Near East and North Africa was prepared
under contract with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. It is one of
four regional handbooks in the Women of the World series
prepared under a Resources Support Services Agreement with
the Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Program and
Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development,
Kay Davies, Director. Thanks are due to present and former staff
members of the Agency for International Development for their
contributions to the various stages of the Census Bureau's
Women In Development project. In particular, Jane Jaquette and
Paula O. Goddard, formerly of the Office of Women in Develop-
ment, and Lois Godiksen, formerly of the Economic and Social
Data Services, provided useful guidance in establishing the
Cenusus Bureau's Women in Development Data Base, upon
which these handbooks are based. Jean Ellickson and John
Hourihan of the Office of Women in Development and Annette
Binnendijk of the Economic and Social Data Services provided
support at subsequent stages of the project.
Within the Bureau of the Census, Ellen Jamison, Staff Assist-
ant to the Chief, Center for International Research, prepared the
initial outline for the content and format of the world handbook
series, monitored the contracts, prepared appendix B, and served
as coordinator of the publication preparation activities. For this
report on the Near East and North Africa, James F. Spitler per-
formed the major review tasks while Arjun Adlakha, Eduardo E.
Arriaga, Sylvia D. Quick, and Michael K. Roof provided useful
review comments. John R. Gibson, Vera V. Harris-Bourne,
Eleanor M. Matthews, Margaret A. Squires, and Claire R. Warrick
provided statistical assistance in verifying the tables, and the


typing was done by Larry Owens and Janet M. Sales. All
demographic analysts in the Center for International Research
were involved in the compilation and evaluation of statistics for
the Women In Development Data Base upon which this hand-
book is based. The map was prepared in the Geography Divi-
sion under the direction of Betty L. Adamek in cooperation with
Geography Branch, Data Preparation Division. Editorial services
were provided by Gail Farren and art work was prepared under
the supervision of Nicholas Preftakes, Publication Services
Division.
Thanks are due to various persons in the Statistical Office of
the United Nations for their help. Robert Johnston, Wlliam
Seltzer, and Joann Vanek provided useful review comments, and
Samia EI-Badry assisted in verifying tables calculated by the
author. Finally, acknowledgement is made of the generous col-
laboration by national statistical offices throughout the world
in providing data from their censuses and surveys. Without their
help, these data compilation activities could not be
accomplished.


Library of Congress Card Number 85-600516

For sale by Data User Services Division, Customer Services (Publica-
tions), Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233, or any U.S.
Department of Commerce district office. Postage stamps not acceptable;
currency submitted at sender's risk. Remittances from foreign countries
must be by international money order or by a draft on a U.S. bank. $5.50
per copy.





Women of the World II


Page






Chapter 2. Population Distribution and Change .......................... 5

Figures
2.1. Estimated and Projected Population Size and Components of Population
Change: 1960 to 2025 ............................................. 10
2.2. Population Distribution of Near Eastern and North African Countries: 1983........ 11
2.3. Estimated and Projected Population: 1960, 1970, and 1985 .................. 12
2.4. Sex Ratios of Total Population ........................................ 13
2.5. Percent of All Women in Selected Age Groups ............................ 14
2.6. Sex Ratio of Population in Two Age Groups .............................. 15
2.7. Percent of Rural Women in Selected Age Groups ........................... 16
2.8. Percent of Urban Women in Selected Age Groups .......................... 17
2.9. Sex Ratio of Population in Two Age Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence .......... 18
2.10. Percent of Women Living in Urban Areas: Latest Two Censuses ............... 19

Tables

2.1. Total Population, by Sex, and Sex Ratio ................................. 20
2.2. Estimates and Projections of Midyear Population: 1960 to 1985 ............... 21
2.3. Percent of Female Population in Selected Age Groups ....................... 22
2.4. Percent of Male Population in Selected Age Groups ......................... 23
2.5. Sex Ratios of Population in Selected Age Groups ........................... 24
2.6. Percent of Rural Female Population in Selected Age Groups ................... 25
2.7. Percent of Rural Male Population in Selected Age Groups ................... 26
2.8. Sex Ratios of Rural Population in Selected Age Groups ...................... 27
2.9. Percent of Urban Female Population in Selected Age Groups .................. 28
2.10. Percent of Urban Male Population in Selected Age Groups .................... 29
2.11. Sex Ratios of Urban Population in Selected Age Groups ................... ... 30
2.12. Percent of Population Residing in Urban Areas, by Sex, and Female/Male Ratio
of Percent Urban: Latest Two Censuses ................................ 31
2.13. Percent of Female Population Residing in Urban Areas, by Selected Age Groups.... 32
2.14. Percent of Population Non-National, by Sex, and Sex Ratios of Nationals and
Non-Nationals ................................. .................. 33
2.15. Intercensal Growth Rate of National and Non-National Population, by Sex, for
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria ....................................... 34




Chapter 3. Literacy and Education .................. ................... 35

Figures
3.1. Percent Literate Among Women and Men Age 10 Years and Over .............. 40
3.2. Percent Literate Among Women and Men Age 10 Years and Over, by Rural/Urban
Residence................... ..................................... 41










Chapter 3-Continued

3.3. Percent Literate for Women and Men, by Age ............................. 42
3.4. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate in Rural Areas, for Selected Age Groups..... 44
3.5. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate in Urban Areas, for Selected Age Groups .... 45
3.6. Percent Enrolled in School Among Girls and Boys Age 10 to 14 Years ........... 46
3.7. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled in School in Rural Areas, for Selected Age
Groups .......................................... ............ .. 47
3.8. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled in School in Urban Areas, for Selected Age
Groups ........................................... ............ 48

Tables

3.1. Percent Literate Among Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex and
Rural/Urban Residence, and Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate ............. 49
3.2. Percent Literate Among Population in Selected Age Groups, by Sex ............. 52
3.3. Percent Literate Among Population in Selected Age Groups, by Sex and
Rural/Urban Residence, for Algeria, Jordan, and Lebanon .................... 53
3.4. Percent Literate Among Women in Selected Age Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence 54
3.5. Percent Literate Among Men in Selected Age Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence ... 55
3.6. Percent Female Among Literate Population, by Selected Age Groups and
Rural/Urban Residence ............................................. 56
3.7. Percent Female Among Literate Population Age 15 Years and Over, by Age and
Rural/Urban Residence: Lebanon, 1970 ................................. 57
3.8. Percent of Population Enrolled in School, by Age and Sex .................... 58
3.9. Percent of Rural Population Enrolled in School, by Age and Sex ................ 59
3.10 Percent of Urban Population Enrolled in School, by Age and Sex ............... 60
3.11. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled in School, by Age and Rural/Urban
Residence......: ................................................ .61
3.12. Percent Female Among Enrolled Population, by Age and Rural/Urban Residence .... 63
3.13. Percent of Population, by Literacy/Level of Education and Selected Characteristics,
for Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria ..................................... 64
3.14. Primary School Dropout and Graduation Rates, by Sex: 1970-75 ............... 65




Chapter 4. Economic Activity ........................................ 67



Figures

4.1. Labor Force Participation Rates for Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex .... 75
4.2. Female/Male Ratio of Labor Force Participation Rates .................. ..... 76
4.3. Percent Economically Active, by Sex and Age, for Iran, Jordan, Morocco, and
Turkey ....................................... ................. 77
4.4. Female/Male Ratio of Labor Force Participation Rates in Selected Age Groups ..... 78
4.5. Labor Force Participation Rates for Women Age 10 Years and Over, by
Rural/Urban Residence ............................................. 79
4.6. Labor Force Participation Rates for Women in Two Age Groups, by Rural/Urban
Residence .................................... ................... 80
4.7. Female/Male Ratio of Labor Force Participation Rates in Two Age Groups, by
Rural/Urban Residence ............................................. 81
4.8. Female Share of Rural and Urban Labor Force in Two Age Groups .............. 82
4.9. Percent of Labor Force in Agriculture, by Sex ............................. 83
4.10. Female/Male Ratio of Percent of Unpaid Family Workers in Labor Force .......... 84
4.11. Percent of Unpaid Family Workers in Selected Industries, by Sex, for Algeria, Iran,
Tunisia, and Turkey ............................................... 85


iv Contents


Women of the World









Chapter 4-Continued


Tables

4.1. Number of Economically Active Among Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex
and Selected Age Groups, and Percent of Economically Active Outside Age
Range 15 to 64 Years ............................................. 86
4.2. Labor Force Participation Rates Among Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex,
Female/Male Ratio of Percent Economically Active, and Percent Female Among
Persons in Labor Force ............................................. 87
4.3. Total Labor Force Participation Rates, by Sex and Age ....................... 88
4.4. Female/Male Ratio of Total Labor Force Participation Rates, by Age ............. 90
4.5. Female Share of Total Labor Force, by Age ............................... 91
4.6. Female Labor Force Participation Rates, by Age, for Jordan and Turkey: Latest
Two Censuses ................................................... 92
4.7. Labor Force Participation Rates Among Rural Population Age 10 Years and Over, by
Sex, Female/Male Ratio of Percent Economically Active, and Percent Female
Among Persons in Rural Labor Force ................................... 93
4.8. Rural Labor Force Participation Rates, by Sex and Age ....................... 94
4.9. Female/Male Ratio of Rural Labor Force Participation Rates, by Age ............. 96
4.10. Female Share of Rural Labor Force, by Age ............................... 97
4.11. Labor Force Participation Rates Among Urban Population Age 10 Years and Over,
by Sex, Female/Male Ratio of Percent Economically Active, and Percent Female
in Urban Labor Force .............................................. 98
4.12. Urban Labor Force Participation Rates, by Sex and Age ...................... 99
4.13. Female/Male Ratio of Urban Labor Force Participation Rates, by Age ............ 101
4.14. Female Share of Urban Labor Force, by Age .............................. 102
4.15. Percent of Labor Force in Agriculture, by Sex, and Female/Male Ratio of Percent in
Agriculture ..... ............... ............. .................. 103
4.16. Percent of Unpaid Family Workers in Labor Force, by Sex and Rural/Urban
Residence, and Female/Male Ratio of Percent of Unpaid Family Workers.......... 104
4.17. Percent of Unpaid Family Workers, by Industry and Sex, for Selected Countries .... 105
4.18. Number and Percent of Women Unpaid Family Workers in Selected Occupations
for Lebanon: 1970 ................................................ 106

Chapter 5. Marital Status and Living Arrangements ....................... 107

Figures

5.1. Age by Which 50 Percent of Women and Men Have Ever Been Married .......... 112
5.2. Percent Single and Widowed Among Women Age 15 Years and Over ........... 113
5.3. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Single, by Age .............................. 114
5.4. Percent Single Among Women in Two Age Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence ..... 115
5.5. Percent Widowed Among Women in Two Age Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence ... 116
5.6. Median Number of Persons per Household ................................ 117

Tables

5.1. Minimum Legal Age at Marriage, by Sex ................................. 118
5.2. Age by Which 25 and 50 Percent of Women and Men Have Ever Been Married,
by Rural/Urban Residence ........................................... 119
5.3. Percent of Population Age 15 Years and Over, by Marital Status and Sex ........ 120
5.4. Percent of Rural Population Age 15 Years and Over, by Marital Status and Sex .... 122
5.5. Percent of Urban Population Age 15 years and Over, by Marital Status and Sex .... 124
5.6. Percent Single Among Population Age 15 to 49 Years, by Sex ................ 126
5.7. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Single Among Population Age 15 to 49 Years ...... 128
5.8. Percent Single Among Rural Population Age 15 to 49 Years, by Sex ............ 129


Women of the World


Contents v









Chapter 5-Continued

5.9. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Single Among Rural Population Age 15 to 49 Years 131
5.10. Percent Single Among Urban Population Age 15 to 49 Years, by Sex ........... 132
5.11. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Single Among Urban Population Age 15 to 49 Years .134
5.12. Percent of Women Who are Widowed, by Age and Rural/Urban Residence ........ 135
5.13. Selected Household Characteristics ..................................... 136
5.14. Percent of Households With Female Heads, by Age of Household Head and
Rural/Urban Residence ............................................. 137

Chapter 6. Fertility .................................................... 139

Figures
6.1. Crude Birth Rates .................................................. 141
6.2. Gross and Net Reproduction Rates ..................................... 142
6.3. Distribution of Lifetime Fertility, by Age of Mother .......................... 143

Tables
6.1. Crude Birth Rate, Total Fertility Rate, Gross Reproduction Rate, and Net
Reproduction Rate ................................................ 144
6.2. Crude Birth Rate and Total Fertility Rate, by Rural/Urban Residence ............. 145
6.3. Age-Specific Fertility Rates, by Rural/Urban Residence ....................... 146
6.4. Percent Distribution of Lifetime Fertility, by Age of Mother and Rural/Urban
Residence....................................................... 148
6.5. Contraceptive Use Among Currently Married Women Age 15 to 49 Years ........ 150
6.6. Percent Distribution of Contraceptive Users Among Currently Married Women Age
15 to 49 Years, by Method........................................... 151

Chapter 7. Mortality ................................................... 153

Figures
7.1. Life Expectancy at Birth for Women and Men ............................. 156
7.2. Female/Male Ratio of Infant Mortality Rates ............................... 157
7.3. Proportion of Children Dying Before Their Fifth Birthday, by Sex ............... 158

Tables
7.1. Life Expectancy at Birth and at Age 1 Year for Women and Men, and Female/Male
Ratio of Life Expectancies ........................................... 159
7.2. Life Expectancy at Birth and at Age 1 Year for Women and Men, and Female/Male
Ratio of Life Expectancies, by Rural/Urban Residence ....................... 160
7.3. Infant Mortality Rates, by Sex, and Female/Male Ratio of Infant Mortality Rates .... 161
7.4. Age Pattern of Mortality for Women and Men ............................. 162
7.5. Age Pattern of Mortality for Women and Men, by Rural/Urban Residence, for
Turkey, Afghanistan, and Iran ........................................ 164
7.6. Percent of Children Dying Before Their Fifth Birthday, by Sex, and Female/Male
Ratio of Percent Dying ............................................. 166

Chapter 8. Conclusions ................................................ 167

Appendixes

A References ......................................................... 173
B. Sources of Data ..................................................... 179
Table B.1. Number of Tables in WID Data Base, by Country and Category ........ 181
C. Tables in Women In Development Data Base ................................ 183
D. Population by Age, Sex, and Rural/Urban Residence ........................... 185
E. A abbreviations ....................................................... 195


Women of the Worid


vi Contents





Women of the World


Chapter 1





Introdction-


The Women of the World handbooks present and analyze
statistical data on women in the Near East and North Africa, Sub-
Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the
Caribbean. The statistics are derived from the Women In
Development Data Base (WID Data Base) compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of the Census from national census and survey data
gathered by the countries themselves. The WID Data Base and
handbooks are a part of the National Statistics on Women project
of the Office of Women In Development, U.S. Agency for Inter-
national Development (USAID).
The WID Data Base originally was designed for USAID's policy
and program planners; the decision to analyze and publish the
data in the present series of Women of the World handbooks
grew out of a desire not only to make the information more
accessible to development planners outside USAID, but to share
it with a wider audience. The handbooks are descriptive and ex-
ploratory in nature, although they do strive towards giving some
hints at explanation. They are offered as a necessary first step
towards more elaborate analyses. Time and budget restrictions
prohibited cross-cultural comparison between and among the
variables. Such comparisons are extremely complex, each
requiring much more analysis than could be carried out for a
publication which aims at giving a general overview of the WID
Data Base. If one fact stands out in recent research, it is that
there are few, if any, simple, one-to-one causal relationships
between two variables. As Youssef (1982, p. 178) points out
in a recent exploration of the interrelationships between the divi-
sion of labor in the household and women's roles, and their
impact on fertility, few studies make clear that the relationships
among such variables as education, employment, and marital
status are neither direct nor simple. Each variable affects the
other as well as fertility, and in addition, there may be other
variables that have an equal impact on fertility. Elaborate
analyses depending upon multiple regression techniques were
beyond the scope of the present exploratory data analysis.


The handbooks are offered in full knowledge that they have
many shortcomings inherent in data sets based primarily on cen-
sus sources. Yet we believe they give valuable information on
women that otherwise would simply not be available. No data-
gathering effort matches the decennial census in scope and
coverage, and the results are useful if one is aware of the limita-
tions. Statistics come principally from the 1970 and 1980 census
rounds; in some cases, 1960 census round data are included.1
To supplement the census data, the results of national surveys
are also used for some topics. These handbooks do not simply
present the information on women's status in tables, charts, and
text, but offer a critique on the concepts, availability, and quality
of the data assembled on each variable-the positive attributes,
as well as the major deficiencies. Because census data must be
assessed carefully, and often corrected, by comparison with
other data sources, the handbooks are one step toward providing
better information on women for both planning and scholarly
purposes.



Near East and North Africa

The Near East and North Africa region is derived from three
major areas of the world: (1) North Africa, (2) Western South
Asia, and (3) Middle South Asia. The WID Data Base provides
information on 14 countries of the Near East and North Africa.
The countries were chosen either because their populations total
5 million or more or because they are countries in which USAID
has had assistance programs. Arab countries (that is, countries


'A census round refers to a decade during which the various countries
conduct their censuses; 1960 round censuses were taken during the period
1955 to 1964, 1970 round during 1965 to 1974. The 1980 round is just
being completed, referring to censuses taken during 1975 to 1984.






2 Introduction Women of the World


where the spoken language is Arabic) included in this analysis
are Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia in North Africa; and
Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen (Sanaa)
in Western South Asia. Non-Arab countries selected are Cyprus
and Turkey in Western South Asia and Afghanistan and Iran in
Middle South Asia. (Other countries of Middle South Asia-
Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka-are examined
in a separate handbook on Asia and the Pacific.)



Analytical Summary

This report reviews some of the existing published census and
national survey tabulations relevant to the status of women as
compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in the WID Data Base.
When data are not available from the WID Data Base, examples
are offered from other relevant research in order to highlight alter-
native data sets available for a comprehensive analysis of the
situation of women. Despite the limitations of the data, some
generalizations can be made concerning the status of women
in the 14 countries of the Near East and North Africa investigated
in this handbook.

Population distribution and change. According to 1983 projected
estimates prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1983),


the subregions of North Africa and Western South Asia are
similar in population size and vital rates:

Popula-
tion (in Births Deaths Growth
thou- per 1,000 per 1,000 rate (in
Subregion sand) population population percent)

North Africa 96,455 38-41 11 2.7-3.0
Western South
Asia ....... 96,261 37-38 11 2.5-2.6
Middle South
Asia ....... 56,667 43-45 15 2.7-2.8

The Middle South Asia subregion has the highest crude birth and
death rates. The overall growth rate for this subregion, however,
is tempered by the emigration of 2 to 3 persons per 1,000
population in 1983 from Afghanistan and Iran, the two Near
Eastern countries included in this subregion. These figures are
based on weighted averages and mask differences among in-
dividual countries that are evident from the more detailed tables
presented later.
The distribution of the population by age and sex is an impor-
tant element for developing planning strategies as it identifies
potential candidates for schooling, childbearing, employment,
migration, and other activities. A summary of these percent
distributions for the 14 countries combined based on United
Nations (1982a) projected estimates for 1980 is shown below:


North Africa Western South Asia Middle South Asia


Age Women Men Women Men Women Men


All ages .......... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
0 to 14 years ....... 42.2 43.6 41.9 41.9 44.9 45.5
15 to 49 years ...... 46.3 45.8 46.1 46.8 45.0 45.3
50 to 64 years ...... 7.8 7.3 7.8 7.6 6.8 6.5
65 years and over .... 3.7 3.3 4.1 3.6 3.2 2.7


Although subregional differences are not large, the proportion
of both sexes in the youngest age group is slightly higher in Mid-
dle South Asia than elsewhere, reflecting the higher birth rates
there. In all subregions, the proportion in the older ages is higher
among women than men.
An analysis of sex ratios for selected age groups clearly shows
more women in the working ages (15 to 64 years) in labor ex-
porting countries such as Algeria and Yemen (Sanaa), with more
men in this age group in labor importing countries, for example,
Saudi Arabia.
The one dominant characteristic of the region is migration,
both internal, as shown by the rapid increase in proportions living
in urban areas, and international. The impact that both types of


migration have had upon the composition of the population in
rural and urban areas is illustrated below by the median sex ratios
(males per 100 females) for selected age groups based on nine
countries with available data:


Age Rural Urban


All ages ............ 103.1 107.1
0 to 14 years ......... 108.1 104.8
15 to 64 years ......... 97.7 105.6
65 years and over ...... 107.3 94.2


2 Introduction


Women of the World







Women of the World Introduction 3


Although both women and men participate in the rural-to-urban
movement, more men than women migrate, probably to seek
job opportunities in the cities. As a consequence, the working-
age population remaining in rural areas is dominated by women.

Literacy and education. Literacy and higher levels of education
are recognized as prerequisites to entering the labor force,
especially the modern sectors. Although statistics are not
available for all countries, the use of median percentages based
on data for six or seven countries may illustrate the findings:

Rural Urban


Measure and age Women Men Women Men



Percent literate:
15 to 24
years ....... 15.6 72.7 68.2 84.8
25 to 34 years. 4.5 33.4 41.3 74.0
35 years and
over ........ 0.8 13.6 12.4 43.0

Percent enrolled:
10 to 14
years ....... 34.4 72.8 80.2 90.4
15 to 19 years. 19.0 40.4 43.8 59.2
20 to 24 years. 2.0 9.5 11.0 19.2


Improvements have been substantial in all categories, as
evidenced by higher percentages literate and enrolled among the
younger age groups. Nevertheless, rural women continue to have
the lowest rates while urban men continue to have the highest.

Economic activity. As expected, the available statistics show
a far lower participation of women than men in the labor force,
and a proportionately greater participation as unpaid family
workers, especially in rural areas. This is illustrated by the follow-
ing median percentages for the population age 10 years and over
based on the six countries reporting such information by rural/
urban residence:


Percent of active
Percent persons who are
economically active unpaid family
workers


Residence Women Men Women Men



Rural........... 14.7 71.5 59.4 17.6
Urban ......... 9.9 63.5 6.2 2.0



Supplemental data indicate that occupations in the modern
sector most readily available to women are those of teacher,
nurse, and secretary. Furthermore, women who work in these
occupations, on the whole, are less educated than their male
counterparts.


Marital status and living arrangements. With respect to marriage,
the data offer some interesting contrasts between women and
men. Women marry at younger ages than men, and rural women
marry earlier than urban women. Women who are divorced or
widowed have less opportunity for remarriage than do divorced
or widowed men. Finally, more divorced than widowed women
tend to remarry.


Fertility and mortality. The fertility indicators for the Near East
and North Africa show generally high levels of fertility and
moderate rates of contraceptive use among married couples of
reproductive age in these countries. Cyprus and Lebanon are
farthest along in fertility reduction, and Cyprus is close to the
level of replacement. The remaining countries in the analysis
show high fertility levels, as reflected in their age-specific and
total fertility rates. Knowledge of contraception is generally
widespread, although current use of contraception by married
women varies substantially from country to country. Mortality
patterns by age and sex suggest that in several countries gender
differences in mortality are especially prevalent during the
reproductive ages, but overall differences are not substantial.


Women of the World


Introduction 3









Near East and North Africa


Tunisia-.
Morocco

Algeria


Turkey

Cyprus- Syria
Lebanon-
/Jordan
.Jod Iraq



Egypt


Saudi
Arabia
Yemen
(Sanaa)
/


Note. Countries named in black are included in the analysis of this handbook


Afghanistan





Women of the World


Chapter 2







nlo 40
[Popvuatio

PDistfobufton aoindo


This chapter highlights the differential population distributions
and migration patterns of women and men in the Near East and
North Africa. A recent analysis of the literature available for the
study of population and development indicated that for this
region:

The population issues of major concern to most Arab coun-
tries are: population distribution and internal migration, par-
ticularly rural-to-urban migration and, to some extent,
nomadic movements of Bedouins; international migration,
particularly intra-regional migration among the Arab coun-
tries and the emigration of professionals and skilled
workers to countries outside the Arab world (Tabbarah,
et al., 1978, p. 11).

In this chapter, the specific concerns of girls and women are
discussed within the broader framework of demographic and
population issues. Attention is initially placed upon the availability
of data that distinguish between the sexes for the analysis of
population distribution, composition, and migration patterns. The
second part of the chapter highlights gender differentials found
in the available data on population size, composition, and
migration.

Quality and Availability of Data
Basic demographic data about women and men for each of
the countries included in the Near East and North Africa region
are available from census tabulations and compiled in the WID
Data Base.' The study of migration and population growth or
change as they relate to women requires additional data sources


'In a few instances, in particular for Jordan and Turkey, data in the tables
were updated just prior to publication to reflect a later census, while data
in the charts reflect an earlier censes.


to fill the information gaps. Census data on gender differences
in ethnicity, religion, and language spoken are notable in their
absence.

Population size and composition. Data are available since the
1970's for every country included in the analysis. Rural/urban
composition, by sex, is not available for 5 of the 14 selected
countries. Given the importance of rural/urban differences to any
analysis of the situation of women, this is a significant gap in
information.

Population change and migration data. Six of the 14 selected
countries have at least two censuses available since the 1960's.
For these six countries, estimates can be made of changes in
the rural/urban composition and sex distribution of their popula-
tions over time. Data on nationality, by sex and rural/urban
residence, were available only for Tunisia in 1975 and Turkey
in 1970. Therefore, the analysis of differential female migration
is based upon these limited data and additional supporting
evidence from the literature.

Ethnicity, religion, and language. No data are available from any
of the censuses conducted during the 1970's or early 1980's
that would allow an analysis of language, by sex and rural/urban
residence. One census tabulation is available for Syria in 1970
indicating ethnic group by sex. The 1976 Egyptian and 1976
Iranian censuses do provide data by religion, sex, and rural/urban
residence. Analysis of ethnic, religious, and language composi-
tion, therefore, requires additional research using other sources
and the existing literature.

Findings
In the Near East and North Africa, population growth rates
remain moderately high because of the combined effect of fer-






6 Population Distribution and Change Women of the World


utility, mortality, and international migration (U.S. Bureau of the
Census, 1983). Because of the young age structure of the
population already born, combined with the fact that fertility
declines have not kept pace with declines in mortality, rates of
natural population increase are moderately high but tempered
by net emigration from the region. Figure 2.1 shows the rela-
tionships between fertility and mortality for the combined group
of countries comprising the Near East/North Africa region as
defined for this analysis. These 14 countries have a projected
population increase of about 475 million persons between 1960
and the year 2025 according to the United Nations (1982a).
Population size and the components of demographic change
vary by subregion. Figure 2.2 shows the population distribution
of the subregions (as defined for the present analysis) in 1983.
The Near Eastern countries of Middle South Asia exhibit the
highest levels of fertility, mortality, and net international migra-
tion in 1983. Furthermore, the Arab countries have higher rates
of growth and natural increase than the non-Arab countries.
The following sections discuss various aspects of population
size and composition of individual countries, and provide a con-
text for the analysis in subsequent chapters on education, labor
force, family situation, fertility, and mortality.


Population size. Turkey has the largest population among the
countries included in the study of the Near East and North Africa,
nearly 45 million people according to the 1980 census, followed
by Egypt with slightly more than 38 million people according to
the 1976 census (see table 2.1). The smallest populations are
found in Cyprus (0.6 million in 1976) and in Jordan and Lebanon,
each with about 2 million persons counted in the 1979 census
and 1970 survey, respectively. The relative position of the 14
countries in regard to population size has changed only slightly
since 1960 (see table 2.2 and figure 2.3).
There are more men than women in most of the countries (see
figure 2.4). The exceptions are Cyprus, Algeria, and Yemen.
Algeria and Yemen (Sanaa) are labor-exporting countries, with
Algerian male workers going to France and Yemeni workers to
the labor-importing countries of the Gulf area, such as Saudi
Arabia. There is high male labor emigration from Turkey as well,
going primarily to West Germany, where about 2 percent of the
1977 population was of Turkish origin (U.S. Bureau of the Cen-
sus, 1980). Large-scale emigration of men from Turkey,
however, has less effect upon the overall sex ratio of Turkey
than does the emigration of male laborers from Algeria or Yemen
(Sanaa) upon their respective sex ratios. Labor-importing coun-
tries, such as Saudi Arabia, have sex ratios that are strongly
affected by immigration; 1974 census figures show 114 males
to every 100 females in the country.


Age composition and sex ratio. Most of the countries are
characterized by a relatively young age distribution primarily
because of high rates of fertility and declining mortality. Iraq and
Saudi Arabia, for example, report about half of their populations
under age 15 years (see tables 2.3 and 2.4; and figure 2.5). With
the exception of Cyprus and Turkey, all countries report having
more than 40 percent of their populations under age 15 years.
Approximately 4 or 5 out of every 10 females in this region are


in their reproductive years (see table 2.3 and figure 2.5). Cyprus
has the oldest female population, with 11 percent of all women
age 65 years and over. The rest of the countries have between
2 and 5 percent of their female population in this age group.
In general, the age distribution of males for these countries
is similar to that of females (see table 2.4), but there is usually
a larger percentage of women than men age 65 years and over,
and the younger age groups show a slightly higher percentage
of males than females.
Sex ratios show a preponderance of boys among children
under age 5 years (see table 2.5). With the exception of Algeria,
Lebanon, and Afghanistan, the sex ratio becomes more strik-
ingly masculine at age 10 to 14 years. Except for Afghanistan,
the sex ratio starts to decline by age 15 to 19 years, primarily
because of male emigration for work. For example, in Yemen
(Sanaa), the sex ratio declines from 114 boys per 100 girls at
age 10 to 14 years, to 79 men per 100 women at age 15 to
19 years. Labor-importing countries, such as Saudi Arabia, show
a reverse pattern. The effect of sex-selective labor migration on
the sex ratios also may be seen in figure 2.6. Further discus-
sion of the reasons for such shifts will follow in the section on
migration.

Rural/urban composition. Data on rural/urban residence, by age
and sex, are available for 9 of the 14 countries in this region.
Tables 2.6 and 2.9 show the percent of rural and urban female
populations, respectively, in selected age groups. For every coun-
try with data, larger proportions of children are in rural than urban
areas, except in Afghanistan, where the proportions of females
in the young age groups are similar in rural and urban areas.
There are usually higher proportions of women and men age
15 to 64 years in urban than in rural areas. In addition, higher
proportions of urban than rural women are in their reproductive
years. Rural/urban differences in the proportion of females who
are between ages 15 and 64 years, or between 15 and 49 years,
may be seen by comparing figures 2.7 and 2.8.
There is a higher proportion of elderly women (age 65 years
and older) in rural than urban areas for all countries, with the
exception of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tunisia (see tables 2.6 and
2.9). Similar trends are found for elderly men (see tables 2.7
and 2.10).
Comparisons of sex ratios for selected age groups in rural and
urban areas (see tables 2.8 and 2.11) further highlight the
dramatic shifts that take place in the sex composition of certain
age groups primarily because of the heavy migration of men from
rural areas to work in urban centers. These shifts are shown
graphically in figure 2.9. Among the working age population,
age 15 to 64 years, women often outnumber men in rural areas,
while men usually outnumber women in urban areas. Three ex-
ceptions are noted: Afghanistan and Lebanon, where men out-
number women in both areas; Morocco, where women out-
number men in both areas; and Tunisia, where men and women
are almost equal in both areas.
In general, this region of the world has become substantially
more urban since the 1960's (see table 2.12). The proportion
of the total female population in urban areas, for example, has
risen substantially in Morocco, Iraq, and Turkey in the 1960's


Women of the World


6 Population Distribution and Change






Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 7


and 1970's. Figure 2.10 graphically shows the increase in the
proportions of female population living in the cities. Much of the
growth is concentrated in a single urbanized area:

In Lebanon, for example, more than 75 percent of total
nonagricultural employment is concentrated in Beirut and
its suburbs, while in Jordan more than 90 percent of non-
agricultural employment is concentrated in Amman/Zarka
area. A simple index of primacy can be obtained by dividing
the population of the largest city by the total population
of the three next largest cities. For most countries of
Europe, for example, the value of this index of primacy is
almost invariably less than one, while it is much higher than
one in most of the Asian Arab countries (in fact, also in
most of the African Arab countries). In Lebanon and
Jordan, this index is more than 2.5 (Tabbarah, et al., 1978,
p. 10).

An important consequence of such dramatic increases in primate
city size is the ensuing housing shortage and the shortage of
essential public services such as water, electricity, public
transportation, and garbage collection owing to inadequate infra-
structure to meet the needs of the rapidly increasing population
sizes.
Table 2.13 shows that for each of the countries having data,
a high percentage of women living in urban areas is usually found
at age 15 to 49 years, and a lower proportion among children
under age 5 years and among elderly women age 65 years and
over. The exception is Afghanistan, where the proportions are
similar for each age group. Although there is no immediate ex-
planation for this pattern, it is likely that higher proportions of
women age 15 to 49 years are found in urban areas because
they migrated for educational or work opportunities, or because
they were married to men who moved to the city for work.

Internal migration. As mentioned previously, there has been
significant growth in the cities, resulting in compositional
changes in the proportions of women and men that reside in
urban and rural areas. A large part of the urban growth is due
to migration from rural areas, and women are heavily represented
in the rural/urban movement. The United Nations Economic Com-
mission for West Asia noted that in Egypt,

In addition to the male migrants, more and more women
are believed to have been taking part in the outmigration
from Upper Egypt to the urban centers of Lower Egypt
(UNECWA, 1980a, p. 4-16).

The pattern of the age-specific sex ratios of the migrant popula-
tion to Cairo did not indicate any significant deficit of women.
Similarly, in Turkey, the average annual urban growth rates for
women have been approximately similar but somewhat higher
than male urban growth rates for every year since 1955 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1982, table 2), again indicating that
women are strongly participating in the rural-to-urban movement.

Refugee populations and displaced persons. Although a large part
of the internal migration is explained by rural-to-urban
movements primarily for reasons of greater economic oppor-


tunity, some countries are additionally struggling with unex-
pected movements as people are displaced because of condi-
tions of war.

Since 1975 the armed conflict in Lebanon has produced
large numbers of displaced persons. Entire communities
and villages, particularly in the south of the country but
also in every other region have been uprooted and have
found shelter through charitable institutions, the forced oc-
cupation of buildings, and the construction of housing and
related structures on government and private property.
Resolving the political, social, and legal problems
associated with this dislocation is becoming an increas-
ingly difficult task (UNECWA, 1980c, p. 8-11).

The socioeconomic and demographic ramifications of unplanned
displacement by abrupt migratory movements are largely un-
documented in censuses and surveys because of the
simultaneous disruption of government-supported statistical
offices in areas having civil and international strife. The reloca-
tion of the Egyptian population out of, then back into, the Suez
area, the dislocation of Jordanians and Palestinians on the West
Bank, and the dislocation of families because of fighting in
Cyprus and Afghanistan, are additional examples of politically
induced migration which also alters the age and sex composi-
tion of the population.
There is little quantitative evidence indicating the effects on
women and men of rural/urban migration or political displace-
ment. Much of what is known is gleaned from field observation
and in-depth discussions with recently displaced persons or new
migrants to the city (for example, see Van Dusen, 1976). Quan-
titative studies examining the large-scale effects of rural-to-urban
movement upon the status of women and the differential effects
upon women and men of being war refugees are greatly needed
for this region of the world.


International migration. The significance of international migra-
tion in the Near East and North Africa is readily acknowledged
by demographers (Chamie, 1981; Birks and Sinclair, 1980; and
Tabbarah, et al., 1978). One important indication of gender dif-
ferences in international migration is the proportion of non-
nationals reported in these countries (see table 2.14). The
proportion of non-nationals is estimated at 12 percent in Saudi
Arabia for 1974, 8 percent of women and 15 percent of men.
Turkey, Tunisia, and Egypt, in contrast, report very low propor-
tions of non-nationals for both sexes.
In addition to estimating the proportions of people who have
migrated to these countries, attempts were made to measure
the proportions of persons living abroad.


It is generally agreed that the countries with the largest
proportion of their populations abroad are Democratic
Yemen, Oman and Yemen (about 8 percent of their total
populations). These countries are followed by Bahrain,
Egypt, and Lebanon who have about 5 percent of their
populations abroad (Chamie, 1981, p. 7).


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 7







8 Population Distribution and Change Women of the World


The impact upon the age-sex distribution of such high rates of
emigration is seen in the 1975 census of Yemen (Sanaa), where
there is a noticeable shortage of middle-age men. The impact
of such heavy emigration of males upon the families they leave
behind is largely undocumented. The available evidence suggests
that in Yemen (Sanaa), the large-scale emigration of men has
had a profound economic and social effect upon the lives of the
people residing in Yemen. Myntti (1979) observed that remit-
tances from workers abroad to families at home is one major
reason for the increased wealth and improved socioeconomic
status of women and children in Yemen (Sanaa).
In addition to the significant flow of international migrants for
reasons of work, another type of international migration occur-
ring in this part of the world is due to political displacement. For
example,

During the last 30 years or so migration has played an ex-
tremely important role in the demography of Jordan. Due
to the many military conflicts in the area, large numbers
of both Jordanians and Palestinians have been displaced
and made refugees. In 1948, for example, about 350,000
refugees from western and northern Palestine moved to
the West Bank; as a result of further in-migration as well
as natural increase, the refugee population grew to about
600,000 in 1961, about one-third of the total population
(UNECWA, 1979a, p. 6-13).


Continued conflict, during which time the West Bank became
an occupied territory, has further increased the already substan-
tial movement from rural areas to urban centers in Jordan.
The complex interrelationships between international migra-
tion because of displacement and subsequent movements into
urban capitals, such as Amman, Baghdad, Beirut, Kabul, or
Tehran, are not carefully studied for evidence of the long-term
effects of such displacement and movement upon families and
upon the situation of women. The demographic ramifications
of recent experiences with displacement are largely unknown.
For example, in Lebanon,


At the present time, considering the scarcity of data, it
is not possible to know how many left originally, how many
returned, and how many are currently leaving. It appears,
however, that the armed conflict in 1975-76, motivated
large numbers of Lebanese to emigrate permanently
(mainly to the Americas and Australia); it also prompted
large numbers to migrate less permanently to the Gulf
countries and elsewhere (UNECWA, 1980c, p. 8-10).


Again, the implications of such movements for the persons left
behind and for the new emigrants are largely undocumented.
Demographic evidence of the effects of large-scale emigration
upon the age and sex composition of the remaining population
is still mainly conjectural.
In general, the patterns of sex ratios for non-nationals in these
countries indicate that more men than women have migrated
(see table 2.14). In Turkey in 1970, the sex ratio for non-


nationals was 102. In Egypt (1976) and Saudi Arabia (1974)
they were exceptionally high (142 and 201, respectively), in-
dicating many more male than female non-nationals. (The 1975
sex ratio was high also in Yemen (Sanaa), but the actual number
of non-nationals was too small to attach significance to the
figures). Tunisia in 1975 was unusual in that the sex ratio in-
dicated more female than male non-nationals. In general,
however, people who migrate across national borders are men.
Table 2.14 shows this to be the case among Arab countries in-
cluded in the ECWA region. In contrast to the high sex ratios
of non-nationals, the sex ratios of nationals are close to 100 in
most countries, indicating a balance between the sexes. The ex-
ception is Yemen (Sanaa), whose overall sex ratio is only 91,
indicating a substantially greater number of female than male
nationals residing there at the time of the census.
The de jure population of Yemen (Sanaa) was estimated in
1975 to include approximately 332,000 emigrants, of which 10
percent were women. Among migrating women, none were
reported to be emigrating for work. Over half of the females (59
percent) were reported to be dependent children whose fathers
were migrating for work, and 41 percent were reported to be
mothers of dependent children or spouses of men who were
migrating for work. In contrast, 89 percent of the men who
emigrated were reported to be unaccompanied working adults
(Birks, Sinclair, and Socknat, 1978, reported in UNECWA,
1979c).
Evidence indicating differential growth rates by nationality and
sex for Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria, offer another perspec-
tive on gender differences in the migration experience (see table
2.15). Again, as was the case with sex ratios for nationals, the
growth rates of female and male national populations are similar.
Growth rates of non-national populations are quite different by
sex. In Egypt, during the 1966-76 intercensal period, the non-
national male population was growing at a faster pace than the
non-national female population. In contrast, Saudi Arabia has
a very high sex ratio, indicating that significantly more men than
women have immigrated. The 1963-74 intercensal growth rate
of non-national women in Saudi Arabia, however, was higher
than the growth rate of non-national men, indicating that women
had entered Saudi Arabia at a faster pace than men during that
period. In Syria, the negative growth rates between 1960 and
1970 for female and male non-nationals were almost equal, sug-
gesting that both were leaving Syria at the same rate. These sex
differentials in growth rates suggest that in countries where
migration is a significant demographic factor, the effects of
migration upon the age and sex composition of a nation can be
substantial.
There are two basic problems associated with the measure-
ment of gender differences in migratory experiences. First, migra-
tion for work, either to nearby urban areas or to the Gulf and
other labor-importing countries, not only affects the countries
where the migrants are accepted, but also influences the
demographic composition and socioeconomic conditions of the
remaining population in the place of origin. Since a large pro-
portion of the migration is composed of men migrating for work,
the composition of remaining households is especially affected.
Census data on heads of households, for example, have not ade-


Women of the World


8 Population Distribution and Change








Women of the World Population Distribution and Change


quately dealt with the problem of distinguishing between de jure
and de facto women-headed households. The de facto women-
headed households are likely to be attributable largely to the
migration of men for work. Not only are the numbers of families
affected by such migration underenumerated by censuses, but
the consequences to women and children left behind are usually
undocumented (Youssef and Hetler, 1982).
Second, the seasonal migration of workers, nomadic persons,
and bedouins in such countries as Afghanistan, Jordan,
Morocco, and Saudi Arabia, within and even across national
boundaries, further complicates the measurement and analysis
of migration patterns. In several countries, persons most likely
to be missing from census counts are nomads, refugees, and
persons residing in occupied territories. In Jordan in 1979, for
example, population estimates refer to residents of the East Bank
only because since 1967 the West Bank, including East
Jerusalem, has been occupied by Israel. In Afghanistan, the
1979 census excludes an estimated 2.5 million nomads. In
Lebanon, the 1979 de jure population excludes Palestinian


refugees residing in camps. In Saudi Arabia, approximately
210,000 frontier nomads were missed by the census and added
in by census officials. Such transitory movements and popula-
tion shifts not only make it difficult to establish base population
sizes but also complicate program development plans for women
and men.


Ethnic, linguistic, and religious composition. Data on ethnic,
linguistic, and religious composition indicate the degree
of heterogeneity or homogeneity in the characteristics of
women and men. Data on the language of persons, by sex and
rural/urban residence, are not available for the 1970 to 1983
period. Data were found only for Egypt in 1976 on religious com-
position by sex and rural/urban residence. One table of data on
ethnic group, by sex, was available for Syria in 1970. Given the
importance of such characteristics for the preparation of social
and economic programs for women, the lack of data is
remarkable.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change









Figure2.1. Estimated and Projected Population Size and Components
of Population Change: 1960 to 2025


Rates per thousand population
I 50


Population in millions
1000
Birth
Rate


900



800



700



600



500



400



300



200



100


St1


Growth
Rate


Death
S Rate


- Population


U
1960


1970


1980


1990


2000


2010


2020


Year


Source: United Nations, 1982a.





10 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World







Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 11


Figure 2.2. Population Distribution of Near Eastern
and North African Countries: 1983
6 percent in 10


* Handbook excludes 6 percent of the population of Near East/North Africa.
Of this, 1 percent refers to Israel, which was excluded from the analysis,
and 5 percent refers to 9 countries not presently in the WID Data Base.


Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 11







12 Population Distribution and Change Woma~ of thg Wodd


Figure2.3. Estimated and Projected Population:
1960, 1970, and 1985


Millions
55 -



50


Millions
45 10 -



40 5 -



35 0 -
Tunisia Yemen
(Sanaa)

30



25



20



15 -



10 -



5



0


r-960
1960


M-
1970


ri-E]FI-f


Jordan Lebanon Cyprus


Turkey Egypt Iran Morocco Algeria Iraq Afghanistan Saudi
Arabia


Note: Countries are presented in rank order by population size in 1985.


Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983.


195
1985


Syria


12 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World







Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 13


Figure 2.4. Sex Ratios of Total Population


Males per 100
females
120
110

*100
90
80
70
60
50 -
40
30 -

20 -
10
0
Iraq
1977


Males pi
females
120
110

*100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0


r 100


Western South Asia


Non-Arab country


Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen
1979 1970 Arabia 1976 (Sanaa)
1974 1975


Middle South Asia


.-r..


Males per 100
females
120
ries 120
110
100*

90
80
70
60

50
40

30
20
10
0


Cyprus Turkey
1976 1975

Males per 100
females

dfrica 120
110
-- 100*

90
80

70
60
S 50
40
30
20

10
0-


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1977 1976 1971 1975


* Number of males equals number of females.


Afghanistan Iran
1979 1976


Population Distribution and Change 13


Women of the World







14 Population Distribution and Change Woma~ of th Wodd


Figure 2.5. Percent of All Women in Selected Age Groups


0-14 15-49 50-64 65+

Percent Percent
60 Western South Asia
Arab countries Non-Arab countries
50 50


40 -Tfl rf 40


I I (NA) JIM I J, ll ll \ \.


Saudi
Arabia
1974


Syria
1976


Yemen
(Sanaa)
1975


Iraq Jordan Lebanon
1977 1970


Middle South Asia


Cyprus
1976


Turkey
1975


North Africa


- *Y a 1-*- & A


Algeria
1977


Egypt Morocco
1976 1971


Percent
60


50


-40


30


20


10


- 0


Tunisia
1975


30 -


20 -


10 -


0


Percent
60 -


50


40


30


20


10 -


0


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


14 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World







Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 1 5


Figure 2.6. Sex Ratio of Population in Two Age Groups


Men per
100 women
140 -


120


Western South Asia

Arab countries


Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen Cyprus Turkei
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa) 1976 1975
1974 1975

in


*100


80

60


40


20


0



Men
100
140


120


*100


80


60

40


20


0


North Africa


15-64 65+
15-64 65+


Men per
100 women
140
s
120


100*


-80


60


-40


20


0



Men per
100 women
140


- 120


- 100*


80


60

40


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1977 1976 1971 1975


* Number of men equals number of women.


per
wome


Middle South Asia


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 15








Figure2.7. Percent of Rural Women in Selected Age Groups

F- =I ='7 =m
0-14 15-49 50-64 65 +
Percent Western South Asia Percent
50 r- r- -- 50


Arab countries
7r-L


Jordan Lebanon
1970


(NA)


Saudi
Arabia


I


Syria
1970


(NA)


Yemen
(Sanaa)


Non-Arab countries
.-1


(NA) I
Cyprus Turkey
1975


-- 10


Percent
- 50


-40


30


-20


10


- 0


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1976 1971 1975


(NA)


Iraq
1977


Middle South Asia
._n 7 n


Percent
50 -


40


30


20


10


0


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


16 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the Worl






Women of the World


Figure 2.8. Percent of Urban Women in Selected Age Groups


o-11
0-14 15-49 50-64 65+

Percent Percent
60 Western South Asia 60
Arab countries Non-Arab countries
50 50


40 40


30 30


20 20


10 10

0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0
Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen Cyprus Turkey
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa) 1975


Percent Percent
0 Middle South Asia North Africa

50 50


40 40


30 30


20 20


10 10

(NA)
0 0
Afghanistan Iran Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1979 1976 1976 1971 1975


Population Distribution and Change 17






Women of te WoM


18 Ponulation Distribution and Chanae


Figure 2.9. Sex Ratio of Population in Two Age
Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence


Men per
100 women
140


120 -

*100 --


80

60


40

20


0



Men per
100 women
140 -


120

*100

80


60


40

20

0


Western South Asia


Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa)


Middle
South Asia
-. I-


Rural Urban
mCI E- E J
15-64 65+ 15-64 65-
Men per
100 women
140
Non-Arab countries
120


(NA) I o u I
Cyprus Turkey
1975


North Africa


100*


80


60


40


20

0


Men per
100 women
-1 140


120


100*

80


60

40


20

0


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1976 1971 1975


* Number of men equals number of women.


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


_r____~__~ _~__






Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 19


Figure2.10. Percent of Women Living in Urban Areas:
Latest Two Censuses



Percent
70 Western South Asia
Arab countries N(
60 -


50


40

30


20

10

(NA) (NA)

Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen (
1965/77 1961 1970 Arabia 1960/70 (Sanaa)


Percent
70 Middle South Asia North


60 -


50 -

40


30


20

10 '
o __ 's~~a 'mi -


Algeria Egypt Morocco
1966 1966 1960/71


Earlier Later
census census
C---1 O--


Percent
70
entries
60


50


Cyprus Turkey
1960 1970/75


Percent
70

60


50


S 40

30


20

-10

0
Tunisia
1966/75


Afghanistan Iran
1979 1966/76


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 19









Table 2.1. Total Population, by Sex, and Sex Ratio
(Adjusted population in thousands. Figures may not add to totals due to rounding)


Region and country Year Both sexes Female Male Sex ratio1


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria................ 1977 16,831 8,494 8,336 98.1
Egypt................... 1976 38,036 18,637 19,399 104.1
Morocco................. 1971 16,335 8,089 8,245 101.9
Tunisia2............... 1975 5,577 2,750 2,828 102.8

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq2.................. 1977 12,000 5,818 6,183 106.3
Jordan3................ 1979 2,100 1,013 1,087 107.2
Lebanon4.............. 1970 2,265 1,126 1,140 101.2
Saudi Arabia5.......... 1974 6,726 3,150 3,577 113.6
Syria2....... ........1976 7,726 3,741 3,985 106.5
Yemen (Sanaa) ..6...... 1975 4,526 2,371 2,155 90.9

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus7 .............. 1976 613 307 306 99.7
Turkey ............... 1980 44,736 22,042 22,695 103.0

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan 8........ 1979 13,051 6,342 6,710 105.8
Iran9.................. 1976 33,709 16,352 17,356 106.1

1Males per 100 females.
2Unadjusted population; adjusted figures not available.
3Unadjusted figures which refer to residents of the East Bank only. Since 1967 the West Bank,
including East Jerusalem, has been occupied by Israel. Unless noted otherwise, all figures in
subsequent tables pertain to East Bank residents only.
4Adjusted November survey data moved to beginning of year. Figures exclude Palestinian refugees
living in camps.
5Unadjusted preliminary figures which exclude nationals living abroad and approximately 210,000
frontier nomads. Adjusted figures not available.
6Adjusted figures based on a 3-percent sample of census returns. Final adjusted total figure
(4,519,593) includes 48,602 persons residing in areas not covered by the census and 137,141 persons
omitted in areas covered by the census.
7During the 1976 census of Cyprus, only the population in the government-controlled area was
enumerated. The population in the Turkish-occupied part of Cyprus was estimated on the basis of a
Greeks-to-Turks ratio established in the last full census. The 1976 census figures presented in
this and subsequent tables are adjusted figures for the whole island.
8Refers to the settled population only, excluding an estimated 2,500,000 nomads; estimated
figures for nomads are not available by sex.
9Unadjusted. An adjusted total shows a population of 34,751,000 for 1976; adjusted figures are
not available by sex.


20 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World






Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 21


Table 2.2.


Estimates and Projections of Midyear Population: 1960 to 1985
(Population in thousands)


Annual
rate of
growth,
Region and country 1980
to 1985
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 (percent)


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria............... 10,909 11,963 13,932 16,142 18,828 22,025 3.1
Egypt................. 26,340 29,771 33,197 36,769 42,135 48,407 2.8
Morocco................ 12,423 14,066 15,909 18,177 20,969 24,258 2.9
Tunisia............... 4,149 4,566 5,085 5,691 6,489 7,386 2.6

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq................. 6,822 7,971 9,414 11,118 13,130 15,507 3.3
Jordan ..1,648 1,911 2,233 2,648 3,115 3,641 3.1
Lebanon............... 1,786 2,058 2,383 2,716 2,649 2,619 -0.2
Saudi Arabia.......... 4,855 5,482 6,286 7,282 9,420 11,152 3.4
Syria.................. 4,533 5,326 6,258 7,420 8,795 10,423 3.4
Yemen (Sanaa)......... 3,636 4,044 4,354 4,724 5,304 6,067 2.7

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus................ 573 591 615 618 629 670 1.3
Turkey................ 28,217 31,951 35,758 40,760 46,025 51,259 2.2

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan........... 9,597 10,918 12,422 14,132 15,245 14,792 -0.6
Iran................... 21,577 25,000 28,933 33,379 38,752 45,191 3.1

'Includes West Bank.


Note: Discrepancies between the population totals shown in this table and those


in table 2.1


explained primarily by the different dates during the year to which the data refer and by the
inclusion of estimated nomadic and refugee populations. Population totals in table 2.1 refer to the
respective census dates for each country, while those in table 2.2 all refer to July 1.


Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 21









Table 2.3. Percent of Female Population in Selected Age Groups
(Percentages do not add to 100.0 because of overlapping categories)


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country ----
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria............... 1977 17.9 15.2 12.8 10.0 42.4 49.6 4.5
Egypt.................. 1976 15.1 13.9 12.0 10.4 46.5 54.9 4.0
Morocco.............. 1971 17.1 15.1 13.6 11.3 44.5 51.4 2.8
Tunisial............... 1975 15.9 14.5 13.0 11.2 45.7 53.3 3.2

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq1................. 1977 19.1 16.9 12.5 9.0 40.3 47.2 4.2
Jordan ............... 1979 19.0 17.2 14.5 11.0 41.1 46.6 2.7
Lebanon............... 1970 16.0 14.7 12.6 9.6 42.9 51.3 5.3
Saudi Arabial......... 1974 18.2 17.8 13.0 9.7 40.7 47.4 3.7
Syria1l................ 1976 17.1 15.6 13.9 11.3 43.6 50.0 3.5
Yemen (Sanaa)........ 1975 16.2 16.4 10.6 8.4 45.0 53.3 3.4

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus................ 1976 7.5 7.8 9.3 10.5 51.2 64.4 10.9
Turkey1............... 1980 13.3 13.2 12.0 10.9 47.9 56.2 5.3

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2.......... 1979 18.0 14.6 12.4 10.6 46.3 52.9 2.2
Iran1................. 1976 15.9 15.5 12.5 10.9 45.3 52.6 3.4

iBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


22 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the Workd






Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 23


Table 2.4.


Percent of Male Population in Selected Age Groups
(Percentages do not add to 100.0 because of overlapping categories)


Pre-
school School age Working Elderly
age age
Region and country ---
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria............... 1977 19.0 16.0 13.6 10.6 47.5 3.9
Egypt................. 1976 15.4 14.1 13.2 11.2 53.7 3.6
Morocco............... 1971 17.3 15.2 13.8 11.4 51.1 2.6
Tunisial.............. 1975 16.1 14.8 13.3 11.4 51.9 3.8

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq ..... ....... 1977 19.0 17.2 13.2 7.9 46.5 3.6
Jordan ............... 1979 18.8 17.1 14.7 11.2 46.6 2.8
Lebanon............... 1970 16.5 15.0 12.9 9.9 51.1 4.5
Saudi Arabial......... 1974 16.1 16.0 12.5 10.2 51.5 3.9
Syrial................ 1976 17.1 16.0 14.3 11.2 49.0 3.7
Yemen (Sanaa)......... 1975 18.0 19.4 13.3 7.3 45.6 3.8

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus................ 1976 7.9 8.2 10.1 11.0 64.5 9.3
Turkey ............... 1980 13.5 13.5 12.7 11.3 56.0 4.2

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2.......... 1979 17.8 14.2 12.2 10.5 53.0 2.8
Iran1................. 1976 16.3 15.8 13.0 10.5 51.4 3.6

iBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 23









Table 2.5. Sex Ratios of Population in Selected Age Groups
(Males per 100 females)


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country ---
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria............. 1977 104.2 103.7 104.0 103.9 94.9 94.1 83.3
Egypt............... 1976 105.8 105.7 114.2 112.1 101.5 101.9 92.2
Morocco............. 1971 102.9 103.0 103.2 102.8 100.8 101.3 95.6
Tunisia 1............ 1975 104.3 104.6 105.7 104.4 97.1 100.0 122.2

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq 1............... 1977 105.9 108.4 112.2 93.6 106.2 104.9 93.8
Jordan 1............. 1979 106.2 106.9 108.6 108.4 106.8 107.2 109.2
Lebanon............. 1970 104.2 103.5 103.1 104.7 101.3 100.8 86.5
Saudi Arabia1....... 1974 100.6 102.2 109.1 118.5 121.9 123.4 121.5
Syria 1............... 1970 106.7 108.2 111.4 104.0 102.2 102.4 100.7
Yemen (Sanaa)....... 1975 100.5 107.4 113.7 79.3 76.0 77.8 99.9

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus.............. 1976 104.8 104.4 107.4 103.9 101.6 100.0 85.3
Turkey1............. 1980 104.8 105.3 109.0 106.6 103.2 102.6 82.5

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2........ 1979 104.7 102.9 104.4 104.8 105.5 106.1 135.0
Iran 1............... 1976 108.5 107.6 110.5 102.1 101.0 103.6 111.0

iBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


24 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World









Table 2.6. Percent of Rural Female Population in Selected Age Groups
(Percentages do not add to 100.0 because of overlapping categories)


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country -
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................. 1976 14.9 13.0 12.8 9.2 44.9 54.7 4.2
Morocco................ 1971 16.9 16.2 12.3 8.4 42.4 49.8 4.8
Tunisia1 ............... 1975 18.0 15.1 12.1 10.6 44.1 51.7 3.0

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq .................. 1977 20.1 17.7 11.7 7.8 38.3 45.8 4.5
Lebanon................. 1970 14.4 15.9 12.9 9.8 42.1 50.3 6.3
Syria ................. 1970 19.4 16.9 12.6 9.5 39.7 46.2 4.8

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1975 15.0 14.3 13.1 10.2 44.0 52.3 5.4

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan 2........... 1979 18.0 14.6 12.4 10.6 46.3 52.9 2.2
Iran 1.................. 1976 17.5 16.6 12.2 10.1 43.1 50.4 3.4

iBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 25






26 Population Distribution and change Women of the World


Table 2.7.


Percent of Rural Male Population in Selected Age Groups
(Percentages do not add to 100.0 because of overlapping categories)


Pre-
school School age Working Elderly
age age
Region and country ---- --
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt................ 1976 14.7 14.1 14.5 11.0 53.1 3.6
Morocco.............. 1971 16.7 16.6 14.5 9.4 46.6 5.5
Tunisial............. 1975 17.9 15.2 12.6 11.0 50.2 4.u

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq1................ 1977 21.0 19.4 13.1 5.4 41.5 4.5
Lebanon.............. 1970 14.8 15.9 13.7 10.4 49.0 6.5
Syria ............... 1970 20.0 17.8 13.8 9.2 43.5 4.9

Non-Arab countries

Turkey............... 1975 15.5 14.9 14.5 10.1 50.0 5.0

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2......... 1979 17.9 14.3 12.3 10.5 52.7 2.8
Iran1................ 1976 18.8 17.5 12.8 8.7 47.0 4.0

1Based on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the Word


26 Population Distribution and Change










Table 2.8. Sex Ratios of Rural Population in Selected Age Groups
(Males per 100 females)


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country ---
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................. 1976 101.4 108.3 115.5 122.4 100.5 99.4 88.2
Morocco................ 1971 101.6 105.3 121.3 114.4 93.7 96.1 117.4
Tunisia 1............... 1975 103.6 104.6 108.0 108.2 97.5 100.9 138.7

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraql.................. 1977 106.8 112.2 115.0 71.1 91.4 92.9 101.3
Lebanon................ 1970 106.2 102.9 110.2 109.5 100.1 100.9 106.5
Syria ................ 1970 106.8 109.0 113.4 100.8 96.5 97.7 107.3

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1975 104.1 105.2 111.3 99.2 95.4 96.0 94.0

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan 2........... 1979 104.7 103.2 104.5 103.9 104.2 104.9 136.0
Iran 1.................. 1976 110.6 108.9 108.3 88.9 91.5 96.2 121.0

1Based on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the Worldd


Population Distribution and Change 27









Table 2.9. Percent of Urban Female Population in Selected Age Groups
(Percentages do not add to 100.0 because of overlapping categories)


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country ----
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................. 1976 12.6 11.5 13.0 11.6 51.5 59.8 3.1
Morocco................ 1971 14.7 15.1 14.0 10.9 45.7 52.4 3.8
Tunisial............... 1975 13.8 13.9 13.8 11.8 47.4 55.0 3.4

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraql.................. 1977 18.4 16.4 12.9 9.6 41.5 48.0 4.1
Lebanon................ 1970 13.9 15.1 12.8 10.2 46.2 54.0 4.2
Syrial................. 1970 17.8 16.7 13.4 9.8 41.8 48.1 4.1

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1975 11.0 12.3 11.9 12.0 52.9 60.5 4.2

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2........... 1979 18.0 14.6 12.3 10.2 46.2 52.9 2.2
Iranl.................. 1976 14.1 14.4 12.9 11.8 47.9 55.2 3.5

1Based on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the Word


28 Population Distribution and Change






Women of the World Population Distribution and Change 29


Table 2.10.


Percent of Urban Male Population in Selected Age Groups
(Percentages do not add to 100.0 because of overlapping categories)


Pre-
school School age Working Elderly
age age
Region and country ---
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt................. 1976 12.3 11.5 13.1 12.0 59.8 3.2
Morocco............... 1971 15.6 15.6 14.0 10.7 51.1 3.6
Tunisia1.............. 1975 14.2 14.3 14.0 11.7 53.6 3.6

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraqi................ 1977 17.9 16.0 13.2 9.3 49.3 3.3
Lebanon................ 1970 13.9 15.2 12.8 10.1 54.2 3.8
Syria ................ 1970 17.7 16.7 13.6 9.9 48.6 3.4

Non-Arab countries

Turkey............... 1975 10.9 12.0 11.9 13.0 62.3 2.9

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2.......... 1979 17.3 13.6 11.8 10.3 54.7 2.7
Iran1................. 1976 13.6 13.9 13.2 12.4 56.1 3.2

1Based on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 29









Table 2.11. Sex Ratios of Urban Population in Selected Age Groups
(Males per 100 females)


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country ----
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................. 1976 103.4 105.4 105.6 108.9 104.2 105.6 107.1
Morocco................ 1971 102.4 99.1 95.9 94.7 91.3 93.5 91.5
Tunisial............... 1975 105.3 104.7 103.6 101.0 96.7 99.2 107.8

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraql.................. 1977 105.3 105.9 110.7 104.3 114.2 111.6 88.8
Lebanon................ 1970 103.3 103.9 103.3 101.6 103.3 103.4 94.2
Syrial................. 1970 106.7 107.1 108.8 108.1 109.2 108.3 90.6

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1975 112.6 111.5 113.4 123.6 119.5 117.3 77.6

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2............ 1979 104.5 101.2 104.0 110.5 113.3 112.7 136.4
Iran .................. 1976 105.3 105.9 112.9 115.2 110.8 111.6 99.9

iBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


30 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World









Table 2.12. Percent of Population Residing in Urban Areas, by Sex, and Female/Male
Ratio of Percent Urban: Latest Two Censuses


Earlier census Later census

Percent urban F/M Percent urban F/M
Region and country ratio ratio
Both (male = Both (male =
Years sexes Female Male 1.00) sexes Female Male 1.00)

NORTH AFRICA

Algeria........... 1966 38.8 38.9 38.6 1.01 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Egypt............. 1966/76 41.2 (NA) (NA) (NA) 43.8 43.4 44.1 0.98
Morocco.......... 1960/71 29.3 29.6 29.1 1.02 35.0 35.8 34.3 1.04
Tunisia .......... 1966/75 40.1 39.6 40.6 0.98 49.8 50.1 49.6 1.01

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq............. 1965/77 51.4 50.8 52.0 0.98 63.7 63.0 64.4 0.98
Jordanl........... 1961 43.9 42.6 45.1 0.94 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Lebanon........... 1970 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 60.1 60.2 60.1 1.00
Syrial............ 1960/70 36.9 36.8 37.0 1.00 43.5 43.1 43.9 0.98
Yemen (Sanaa)..... 1975 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 11.6 (NA) (NA) (NA)

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus............ 1960 35.9 35.5 36.3 0.98 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Turkey............ 1970/75 35.7 33.7 37.8 0.89 41.4 39.8 42.9 0.93

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2...... 1979 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 15.1 14.9 15.4 0.97
Iran1............. 1966/76 38.0 37.8 38.2 1.00 47.0 46.3 47.8 0.97

iBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 31






32 Population Distribution and Change Wm~ien of the WaM


Table 2.13. Percent of Female Population Residing in Urban Areas,
by Selected Age Groups


Pre- Repro-
school School age ductive Working Elderly
age age age
Region and country ---
0 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 15 to 49 15 to 64 65 years
Year years years years years years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................. 1976 39.4 39.8 48.8 49.2 46.8 45.6 36.5
Morocco .............. 1971 32.6 34.2 38.9 41.8 37.6 37.0 30.4
Tunisia............... 1975 43.4 48.1 53.3 52.8 51.9 51.6 53.5

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraql.................. 1977 60.9 61.2 65.3 67.7 64.9 64.1 60.6
Lebanon................ 1970 59.2 58.8 60.0 61.3 62.4 61.9 50.1
Syrial................. 1970 40.9 42.7 44.6 43.8 44.4 44.0 39.3

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1975 32.7 36.3 37.6 43.6 44.3 43.4 34.2

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2......... 1979 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.4 14.9 14.9 14.9
Iran .................. 1976 41.0 42.7 47.6 50.0 48.9 48.5 47.0

IBased on unadjusted data.
2Refers to the settled population only.


32 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World









Table 2.14. Percent of Population Non-National, by Sex, and Sex Ratios of Nationals and
Non-Nationals



Percent non-national Sex ratio1
Region and country
Non-
Year Total Women Men Nationals nationals


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................. 1947 0.8 0.8 0.8 98.1 98.1
1960 0.6 0.5 0.6 101.1 112.8
1966 0.3 0.3 0.3 101.9 102.2
1976 0.3 0.3 0.4 103.6 141.7

Tunisia................ 1975 0.9 0.9 0.8 97.1 92.6

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq.................. 1947 1.8 1.3 2.4 87.2 167.9
1965 1.9 1.9 2.0 104.0 105.1

Jordan................ 21961 0.5 0.5 0.5 103.4 113.8
1961 0.4 0.4 0.5 108.8 122.3

Lebanon................ 1970 8.4 8.3 8.4 101.2 101.7

Saudi Arabia.......... 31963 7.0 4.0 9.7 105.6 268.0
1974 11.8 8.3 14.8 94.7 201.4

Yemen (Sanaa)......... 1975 0.3 0.1 0.4 90.8 350.4

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................ 1970 2.5 2.5 2.5 97.7 101.9

IMales per 100 females.
21ncludes West Bank.
3Based on adjusted rates for five cities.

Source: WID Data Base and Chamie, 1981, table 2.


Women of the World


Population Distribution and Change 33




34 Population Distribution and Change


Women of the World


Table 2.15. Intercensal Growth Rate of National and Non-National Population,
by Sex, for Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria
(In percent)


Nationals Non-nationals

Country Period Women Men Women Men


Egypt................. 1960-66 2.4 2.5 -6.7 -8.4
1966-76 1.9 2.0 0.6 3.9

Saudi Arabia.......... 1963-74 2.0 2.0 9.0 6.4
Syria................. 1960-70 3.8 3.7 -5.8 -5.7

Source: Chamie, 1982, table 5.





Women of the World


Chapter 3











Mo tion@10@


Data on literacy, school attendance, and educational attain-
ment are essential measures of the situation of women. This
chapter discusses the conceptual and methodological problems
associated with these data and presents statistics from the WID
Data Base and observations from other available sources.

Quality and Availability of Data

Literacy. Definitions of literate persons used in censuses and
surveys vary, but the essential ingredient used throughout is a
measure of the ability to read and write in some language. For
example, in the 1977 Algerian census, literacy is defined as the
ability to read and write in any language; in the 1976 Iranian
census, it is defined as the ability to read and write a simple text
in any language, to be students at least in the first year of elemen-
tary school, or to be persons in adult education or literacy
campaign classes. The 1979 Jordanian census defined literacy
as the ability to read and write in any language. In the 1970
Population Active Survey of Lebanon, persons who had ever
attended school or who knew how to read and write were con-
sidered literate. In each case, the baseline requirement is the
ability to read and write regardless of whether the person has
formally attended school.
Several problems exist with respect to the measurement of
literacy. First, literacy tests are time consuming and, in many
cases, must be done in more than one language. For this reason,
literacy is often measured by means of self-reporting rather than
by a formal literacy test. Second, since school attendance does
not automatically guarantee the achievement of literacy, there
will be an overestimation of literacy when all persons who ever
attended school are considered literate. Third, the knowledge
of the written language and the purpose for which it was learned
can be quite different. Rote learning of the Koran or other
religious books while attending the traditional Kuttab or religious


school may result in a person being labeled as literate when there
may be little transference of this specialized knowledge into
everyday reading requirements associated with contracts, pro-
clamations from governments or schools, or instructions on drug
labels or other products.
Data on literacy are available from censuses in the region for
the population age 10 years and over. For 9 of the 14 countries
included in this analysis, literacy data were available also by
rural/urban residence, age, and sex.
Age-specific estimates of literacy, by sex, are particularly
important because of the significant amount of change that has
occurred since the late 1950's in the educational systems of
these countries. Significant improvements in female and male
literacy are reflected in the substantially higher literacy rates
among younger persons when compared to those of older per-
sons. Female illiteracy rates are especially difficult to interpret
when age is not considered because in some countries virtually
all women were illiterate 20 years ago, while today almost all
literate women are under 30 or 35 years of age.

School enrollment. Unlike literacy, school enrollment is a measure
of program use, and data collection can be conducted through
the school system or through individual reporting. There is,
unfortunately, no single data source that ideally measures school
enrollment, and unique problems are associated with the use of
each available source. The WID Data Base relies primarily upon
estimates of enrollment derived from census data, with some
data based on aggregated annual reporting of school attendance
and some national survey data on school attendance.
The level of school enrollment reported for any particular coun-
try or subregion is determined partially by the time of year the
data are collected. When enrollment rates are based upon aggre-
gated registration data compiled at the beginning of the school
year, they are likely to be significantly higher than rates which






36 Literacy and Education Women of d~ie World


would have been recorded at the middle or end of the school
year. This is because of the serious dropout problem in many
areas or among particular subgroups of the population. Patterns
of school attendance are not necessarily reflected in school
enrollment rates. Student absenteeism, seasonal requirements
of children to work in agriculture or at home, epidemics and
illnesses, transportational problems especially in poor or rainy
weather, political unrest, and teacher shortages and absenteeism
all contribute to substantial reductions in the number of children
attending school even though the children are registered as
students and are counted as enrolled.
The use of multiple sources of data for estimating school enroll-
ment rates further complicates international comparisons. There
are problems associated with the degree of consistency between
estimates of school enrollment based on census data and data
reported annually by educational institutions (Johnston and
O'Brien, 1981). Among 57 countries for which both census and
aggregated institutional data were available, 36 had data that
were in relatively good agreement ibidd., 1981, p. 5). Unfor-
tunately, gender differences in the quality of data from the two
sources were not compared, primarily because institutional
reportage of school attendance does not typically differentiate
between the sexes.
A statistical assessment is needed of gender differences in
school dropouts and grade repetition to qualify the findings on
school enrollment and provide international comparisons which
take into consideration not only the comparative levels of enroll-
ment for girls and boys but also the schools' ability to keep and
graduate students.
Difficulties or complications arising in international com-
parisons of school enrollment, by sex, can be summarized as
those that are due to:


1) differences in the number of years required to graduate
from school, or in the age at which one starts school;

2) significant overcounting or underreporting of enrollment
by educational institutions owing to data collection
systems that are highly variable in quality;

3) markedly different school completion rates occurring for
women and men even when sex-specific enrollment rates
are similar, owing to significant gender differences in
dropout and repetition rates; and

4) substantially different enrollment rates occurring in public
and private schools which can significantly affect the level
of enrollment for countries that do not collect data on both
school systems; for example, in Lebanon it is estimated
that before the outbreak of fighting in 1975-76, 60 per-
cent of the students were enrolled in private schools
(UNECWA, 1980, p. 8-14). The inclusion or exclusion of
private schools from estimates of overall school enrollment
can substantially change the estimates, especially if one
of the school systems is sex-segregated.

The WID Data Base has age-specific school enrollment data
for 6 of the 14 countries in the analysis (Morocco, Tunisia,
Jordan, Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Iran). These six countries


also provide data by rural/urban residence. In addition, estimates
of female and total enrollment for Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia,
Syria, Yemen (Sanaa), Cyprus, and Turkey are available in
UNESCO (1977a).
Although data were not compiled in the WID Data Base on
school dropouts and repeaters, this subject is briefly addressed
and some relevant literature reviewed.
The study of educational "wastage," as it is generally called,
is hampered by inadequate data, even though the methodologies
designed for the analysis of school wastage are quite
sophisticated. One method of estimating the effects of repeti-
tion and dropouts upon educational performance is through the
calculation of pupil-years of school required in order to graduate
a person from primary, secondary, or some other level of school.
In order to make such estimates, analysts must either have

access to actual school cohort data or derive synthetic cohorts
of students from cross-sectional survey data. The years of school
attendance are standardized through life table techniques in order
to estimate the total number of student-months or student-years
of attendance necessary to graduate one person. For a review
of this and other methods devised for the estimation of school
wastage, see UNESCO (1980).'


Educational attainment. The educational attainment of women
is often estimated by censuses and national surveys. Yet, "...
the fact that women are restricted either by choice or social
customs to particular streams of education is not clearly brought
out by census data" (United Nations, 1980). Data on the number
of years of school completed, or on school level completed or
last attended, must be supplemented by survey and school cur-
riculum data assessing sex-biased curricula and educational
streaming, by sex. Recommendations for statistical measures
that might be used to examine female educational attainment
are discussed by Youssef (United Nations, 1984b). Youssef
noted that educational attainment or school completion data are
reasonably sensitive measures of gender differences in attrition
because they directly measure differences in the amount of
education completed by individuals, rather than relying upon the
more indirect measures of institutional reports of program use.
Data collected on educational attainment are not always com-
parable because attainment can be measured in several different
ways, for example, number of years of school completed,
number of years of school ever attended, highest level of school
ever attended, or highest level of school ever completed. Some
national census and survey data will be examined to illustrate
the kinds of information available on this subject.

Findings

Literacy. Table 3.1 and figure 3.1 show that in every country
for which data are available, proportionately fewer women than
men are literate. Literacy rates among women vary from a low
of 2 percent in Yemen (Sanaa) to a high of 85 percent in Cyprus.
Cyprus is the only country in the region to exhibit a literacy rate


'An example of how this methodology has been applied in the analysis
of educational wastage among women and men in Saudi Arabia is ava1lab!e
in Natto and Khan (1976), especially chapter 1.


36 Literacy and Education


Women of the World






Women of the World Literacy and Education 37


for women above 60 percent. Literacy rates for men vary from
22 percent in Afghanistan to 96 percent in Cyprus. The low
levels of female literacy found in Yemen (Sanaa) and Afghanistan
are remarkable when compared with levels of literacy in the other
countries.
There are significant gender differences in the literacy rates
of rural and urban areas. The female/male ratios of the percent
literate for rural and urban areas presented in table 3.1 indicate
that in the rural areas of Iraq in 1977, the literacy rate for women
was only 12 percent as high as the rate for men, while in urban
areas, it was 55 percent as high. This pattern is typical of the
region, although the degree of difference between the urban and
rural female/male ratios varies. Figure 3.2 compares the literacy
rates of women and men, by rural/urban residence.
The general finding with regard to rural/urban differentials is
that rural women are the least likely to be literate, and urban
men the most likely. For example, in Tunisia, 16 percent of rural
women and 72 percent of urban men are literate, while literacy
rates of rural men and urban women are 46 and 48 percent,
respectively.
In addition to sex, age is a significant factor affecting literacy
rates. Younger persons are more literate than older persons, and
young men are more literate than young women (see table 3.2
and figure 3.3). Some 36 percent of Syrian women age 15 to
24 years are literate compared to 78 percent of Syrian men in
this age group. However, ever though young Syrian women have
substantially lower rates of literacy than do young men, the
literacy rates of women ages 15 to 24 years are much higher
than the rates for women age 35 years and over, 36 versus 8
percent, respectively. Significant reforms and expansion in the
educational systems of most countries have resulted in substan-
tially higher literacy rates for younger than older people. Figure
3.3 shows the higher literacy rates for younger persons, espe-
cially for younger males. Rates for women age 15 to 24 years
are similar to the rates for men age 35 years and over, suggesting
that after approximately 25 years of reform, young women are
achieving the literacy levels of men who were in the educational
system some 20 years ago.
Tables 3.3 and 3.4 illustrate the way that rural and urban
female literacy rates are evolving across the age groups. Each
successively younger age group has higher literacy than its
predecessor. In most cases, improvements are substantial in both
rural and urban areas but, even among younger women, literacy
continues to be more prevalent in the cities. In Tunisia, among
rural women age 35 years and over, fewer than 1 percent were
literate, as compared to 7 percent of urban women in this age
group. Among Tunisian women age 15 to 24 years, 28 percent
were literate in rural and 77 percent in urban areas. This is a
28 point increase in female literacy rates in rural areas over the
last few decades and a 70 point increase in urban areas.
In general, more young urban women than young rural women
are literate. In every country with data, young urban men (table
3.5) have the highest literacy rates and young rural women the
lowest (tables 3.4 and 3.5). The following table shows the ratio
of the percent literate for rural and urban women and for rural
men age 15 to 24 years to the percent literate for urban men
of these ages in selected countries:


Rural Urban Rural
women/ women/ men/
Year or urban urban urban
Country period men men men


Morocco ..... 1971 0.05 0.62 0.44
Tunisia ...... 1975 0.29 0.80 0.78
Syria ......... 1970 0.18 0.72 0.86
Turkey ....... 1970 0.51 0.82 0.88
Afghanistan 1972-73 0.03 0.56 0.54
Iran ......... 1976 0.18 0.80 0.60



These data show, for example, that the literacy rate for rural
women in Morocco is only 5 percent of the corresponding rate
for urban men, whereas for urban women it is 62 percent of the
rate for urban men.
Another indicator used to measure the educational situation
of women is the percent of the total literate population that is
female. Tables 3.6 and 3.7 show this measure by age and
rural/urban residence for various countries. The female share of
the literate population is lowest in rural areas, especially for
women age 35 years or over. The exceptions are Turkey and
Lebanon, where the female share of literate persons is similar
for rural and urban populations under age 30 years. Most of the
improvement in literacy (again, with the exception of Turkey)
has occurred among urban women, and the female share of the
urban literate population is substantially higher than that in rural
areas for age 15 to 24 years.


School enrollment. A lower proportion of women than men is
enrolled in school at every age and for each country (see table
3.8). Gender differences in the percent of young children enrolled
in school differ least in Jordan and Lebanon, where school enroll-
ment is highest. Lowest age-sex-specific enrollment rates are
found in Afghanistan and Morocco, where the rates are espe-
cially low for rural women (see table 3.9). With the exception
of Tunisia, the general trend is for a much greater proportion
of children to be enrolled in school at age 10 to 14 years than
at age 15 to 19 years.
Proportionately fewer urban females than males are enrolled
in school at every age (see table 3.10). In addition, rural females
are much less likely than rural males to be enrolled in school (see
table 3.9). In urban areas, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia, and Iran
show substantially smaller differences between the sexes in
regard to school enrollment than do Morocco or Afghanistan (see
table 3.10). Without exception, every country shows markedly
different rural enrollment rates for girls and boys, although Jordan
and Lebanon do have large proportions of rural girls age 10 to
14 years enrolled in school.
Age-specific rural enrollment rates for women in Morocco and
Afghanistan lag substantially behind those of other countries for
which data are available. Iran and Tunisia are intermediate, and
Jordan and Lebanon show relatively high enrollment rates in rural
areas, especially for girls age 10 to 14 years. As expected, school


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 37







38 Literacy and Education Women of tbe World


enrollment is higher among girls age 10 to 14 years than at any
other age, in both rural and urban areas. These age-specific
enrollment rates refer primarily to the early 1970's, and it is
possible that further improvements in rural and urban female
enrollment have been made since that time.
Table 3.11 and figures 3.7 and 3.8 present female/male ratios
of percent enrolled in school, by age and rural/urban residence.
Even though female/male enrollment ratios are highest at age
10 to 14 years, they still favor boys in every country, especially
in rural areas.
The female share of school enrollment (table 3.12) again
reflects the trends noted in the enrollment rates and in the
female/male ratios of enrollment rates. The female share of
school enrollment is highest among urban girls under age 15
years, with the exception of Lebanon, where the female share
of enrollment is similarly high for rural and urban girls in this age
group.
Among countries with data, the female share of school enroll-
ment for persons age 15 to 19 years in rural areas ranges from
5 to 34 percent. In urban areas, the range is from 28 to 46 per-
cent. In each age group, the educational benefits of residing in
an urban area are clear.


Educational attainment. Educational attainment of the population
age 10 years and over, by sex, nationality, age, and rural/urban
residence is shown in table 3.13. Educational attainment in Saudi
Arabia for 1974 was tabulated by nationality and sex, and in
Syria for 1976 by rural/urban residence and sex. Age
breakdowns, by sex, are available for Egypt in 1976. For
Lebanon, 1970 data on educational attainment, by occupation
and sex, are available for persons who ever attended school,
and the findings are discussed in chapter 4.
In Saudi Arabia, more than half of the entire population in 1974
was illiterate, and illiteracy rates were especially high (81 per-
cent) for Saudi Arabian female nationals. Female non-nationals
were better educated than female nationals. A higher percen-
tage of female non-nationals are reported to have secondary
degrees than are nationals of either sex or male non-nationals.
Female non-nationals are likely to have migrated to Saudi Arabia
for work, and therefore to hold occupations such as teacher,
clerk, secretary, receptionist, and so on, all of which typically
require at least a secondary school diploma. Non-national men
had the highest proportion (6 percent) of college or post-
secondary training.
In Syria in 1976, the proportion of primary certificate holders
is highest for urban men, similar for rural men and urban women,
and lowest for rural women (table 3.13). The ranking of these
population subgroups remains the same for intermediate and
secondary school certificate holders and persons with university
diplomas, although the percent of the population holding such
degrees is much smaller than is the percent who hold primary
school certificates.
In Egypt in 1976, age-specific rates of educational attainment
reflect the significant increase in educational opportunity that
has taken place in recent years. Gender differences in educa-
tional attainment, even among the younger population, however,
remain substantial (see table 4.13).


Educational attainment, by itself, is a powerful measure of
access to schools. Other important measures include estimates
of sex-biased curricula and gender differences in educational
wastage resulting from sex differences in dropout and repeater
rates. Curriculum differences in educational opportunity are sug-
gested in data showing female and male enrollment by type of
educational institution attended. School enrollment data for
Yemen (Sanaa) in 1974-75 (see table below) indicated that in
preparatory and secondary schools, women receiving specialized
educational training were enrolled solely in teacher training in-
stitutes, while men were enrolled in a wider variety of educa-
tional institutions.


Persons Enrolled in Preparatory and Secondary Schools, by Sex
and Selected Types of Training for Yemen (Sanaa): School Year
1974-75

Level and type of education Female Male


PREPARATORY

General studies ........ 1,263 11,765
Teacher training ........ 336 222
Technical institute ...... 0 222

SECONDARY

General studies ........ 376 4,703
Teacher training ........ 180 108
Commerce ............ 0 215
Technical institute ...... 0 115

Source: UNECWA, 1979c, table 14.5.



Dropping out and repeating. In a system where the expected
amount of time required for a child to graduate from primary
school is 6 years, in Egypt (1970-75) it takes an average of 8.2
years of primary school attendance for a girl to graduate and
an average of 7.0 years for a boy to graduate. In Algeria
(1970-75), it is estimated to take an average of 9.8 and 9.2 years
of school attendance to graduate a girl and boy, respectively,
from the 6-year school program (UNESCO, 1977). In Libya, it
takes 7.1 and 6.7 years, for girls and boys, respectively, to
graduate from primary school (UNESCO, 1977). These comple-
tion times are considerably shorter than those found elsewhere
in Africa during this same time period. For example, in Lesotho,
comparable estimates are 14.7 years of attendance for girls, and
16.7 years of attendance for boys to graduate from a 7-year
primary school program. In Malawi, an average 23.8 girl school-
years and 17.9 boy school-years of attendance are required to
graduate a child from a 6-year primary school program (UNESCO,
1975). Sex differences in average pupil-years invested per
primary school graduate are comparatively small for the
above-mentioned North African countries, when compared to
most of Sub-Saharan Africa.


38 Literacy and Education


Women of the World






Women of the World Literacy and Education 39


Other indicators used for international comparisons of educa-
tional wastage are the portion of students who graduate from
school, those who graduate without ever repeating a year, and
those who drop out before completing school. Table 3.14 shows
these rates for primary school students based on cohort analyses
of student populations in the various countries as estimated by
UNESCO (1977).
With the exception of Saudi Arabia, the primary school dropout
rates are much higher for girls than for boys. For example, the
dropout rates in Iraq were 408 girls per 1,000 girl entrants and
295 boys per 1,000 boy entrants. In Jordan, where enrollment
rates are similar for girls and boys, 209 girls and 137 boys per
1,000 entrants drop out of primary school. Ultimately, the similar
school enrollment ratios for girls and boys in Jordan will be
affected by the higher dropout rates for girls, thereby resulting
in lower female educational attainment rates even when primary
school enrollment rates are similar. In this case, the differences
between the sexes in educational attainment are most likely ex-


plained by the dual forces of somewhat lower enrollment rates
for girls and higher dropout rates for girls who do enroll. Table
3.14 shows that for every 1,000 enrollees of each sex in Syria,
748 girls and 821 boys graduate from primary school. If this loss
were added to the additional loss incurred from the higher pro-
portion of girls who never enroll, the differences in educational
attainment would be substantial. When both of these negative
forces upon school attainment are known, a great deal of infor-
mation can be gleaned about national and regional educational
systems.
Attempts have been made to analyze subregions within coun-
tries, with respect to educational enrollment and attainment. For
example, see Maas and Criel (1982) for an interesting analysis
examining the internal distribution of primary school enrollment,
by sex of student, in countries of East Africa. Quite often, census
enrollment data or school registration data would allow a similar
analysis to be conducted for countries in North Africa and the
Near East, but this is beyond the present analysis.


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 39







40 Literacy and Education Women of the Wodd


Figure 3.1. Percent Literate Among Women and Men
Age 10 Years and Over


Women Men


Arab countries


Western South Asia


Non-Arab countries


Percent
100

90 -

80 -

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0




Percent
100

90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10

0 -


Middle South Asia


North Africa


Percent
- 100

- 90

- 80

- 70

- 60

- 50

- 40

- 30

- 20

10

0




Percent
- 100

- 90

- 80

- 70

- 60

- 50

- 40

- 30

- 20

10

0


Algeria1 Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1977 1976 1971 1975


SSee footnotes to table 3.1 for nonstandard age groups.


Iraq Jordan1 Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen Cyprus1 Turkey
1977 1975 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa) 1976 1975
1974 1975


Afghanistan1
1972-73


Iran
1976


40 Literacy and Education


Women of the World










Figure 3.2. Percent Literate Among Women and Men Age 10 Years
and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence


Rural

Women Men


Percent
100 -

90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10

0


Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa)


Urban

Women Men
Percent
100
countries 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0


Cyprus Turkey
1970


Middle South Asia


Algeria1
1977


Egypt Morocco
1971


1See footnotes to table 3.1 for nonstandard age groups.


Non-Arab cc
















INA)


Percent
100 -

90 -

80 -

70 -

60

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10

0 -


North Africa


I i (NA) -


Percent
- 100

- 90

- 80

-70

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

10

0


Afghanistan1
1972-73


Iran
1976


Tunisia
1975


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 41





Wonwn of tho WwNl


42 Literacy and Education


Figure 3.3. Percent Literate for Women and Men, by Age


Western South Asia and Middle South Asia


Women Men
Percent Percent
100 100



90 90

Turkey
1970
80 80 -
Syria
1970

70 70
Iran
1976

60 60 -



~50 -Turkey 50
1970


976


Yemen (Sanaa)
30 30 .. 1975
Syria
1970 ',
Afghanistan .
20 20 1972-73



10 -Afghanistan 10
9972-73 Yemen (Sanaa)


0 0
15-24 25-34 35+ 15-24 25-34 35+
Age Age





Figure 3.3. Percent Literate for Women and Men, by Age Continued


North Africa

Women Men
Percent Percent
100 100




90 90




80 -80



70 70




60 60 -
Egypt
1976


50 50 -
Morocco
1971
Tunisia
40 40 1975




30 30




20 .. Egypt 20
Morocco
1971

10 Tunisia 10
1975


0 0
15-24 25-34 35 + 15-24 25-34 35 +
Age Age


Literacy and Education 43


Women of the World






44 Literacy and Education Women of tb Wodd


Figure 3.4. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate
in Rural Areas, for Selected Age Groups


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
*1.0
0.9 Western South Asia

0.8 Arab countries

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2 -

0.1 -
0.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
0.0


Jordan Lebanon1
1970


Saudi
Arabia


Syria Yemen
1970 (Sanaa)


15-24 25-34 35
15-24 25-34 35 +


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
1.0*

-0.9
Non-Arab countries 0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

-0.4

-0.3

0.2

-0.1
(NA) 0.0


Cyprus


Turkey
1970


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
*1.0

0.9 Middle South Asia

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0


Afghanistan
1972-73


F/M
(male =

North Africa
North Africa 4


(NA) (NA)


Algeria Egypt Morocco
1971


Iran
1976


I 1 -


ratio
1.0)
1.0*

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1
0.0


Tunisia
1975


* Female percent equals male percent.
1 See table 3.3 for nonstandard age groups.


-I kw_


Women of the World


44 Literacy and Education






Literacy and Education 45


Figure 3.5. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate
in Urban Areas, for Selected Age Groups


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
1.0 Western South Asia
0.9 Arab countries

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1 -
0.0 (NA) INA) (NA) (NA) (NA)


15-24 25-34 35 +

F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
1.0*

Non-Arab countries 0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1
(NA)0.0
0.0


Iraq Jordan Lebanon1 Saudi
1970 Arabia


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
*1.0
Middle So
0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1 -

0.0
Afghanistan
1972-73


Syria Yemen Cyprus
1970 (Sanaa)


Turkey
1970


F/M
(male =







1-




- -
- -
.


North Africa


Iran
1976


Algeria Egypt Morocco
1971


Tunisia
1975


* Female percent equals male percent.
See table 3.3 for nonstandard age groups.
See table 3.3 for nonstandard age groups.


ratio
1.0)
1.0*

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0


Women of the World








46 Literacy and Education women of t~ Wadd


Figure 3.6. Percent Enrolled in School Among
Girls and Boys Age 10 to 14 Years


Girls Boys


Western South Asia


Arab countries
















(NA) (NA) (NA)


Percent
100 -

90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10 -

0 -


Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi
1975 1970 Arabia


Non-Arab countries


(NA)


(NA)


Cyprus Turkey


Middle South Asia


(NA)


North Africa


(NA)


Algeria Egypt


Morocco Tunisia
1971 1975


Syria Yemen
(Sanaa)


Percent
- 100

- 90

- 80

- 70

- 60

- 50

- 40

-30

-20

-10

0


Percent
100 -

90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10 -

0


Percent
- 100

- 90

- 80

- 70

- 60

- 50

- 40

- 30

- 20

- 10

0


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


46 Literacy and Education


Wonwn of the Woarl







Women of the World Literacy and Education 4~


Figure 3.7. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled ii
in Rural Areas, for Selected Age Groups


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
*1.0--
Western South Asia
0.9 Arab countries

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
0.0


Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi
1975 1970 Arabia


Syria Yemen
(Sanaa)


n School


5-9 10-14 15-19
F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
-------- 1.0*
Non-Arab countries 0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

-0.1
(NA) (NA) 0.0
Cyprus Turkey
Cyprus Turkey


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
*1.0
Middle South Asia
0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0


Afghanistan
1979


Iran1
1976


F/M
(male =

North Africa


Algeria1
1977


(NA) %


Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1971 1975


*Female percent equals male percent.
See footnotes to table 4.11 for nonstandard age groups.


ratio
1.0)
1.0*

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0


-


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 47










Figure 3.8. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled in School
in Urban Areas, for Selected Age Groups -

5-9 10-14 15-19
F/M ratio Western South Asia F/M ratio
(male = 1.0) (male = 1.0)
*1.0 ------ ---------------- ---------1.0*
Arab countries Non-Arab countries
0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1
(0 NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) INA)
0.0 ---- 0.0


Jordan Lebanon
1975 1970


Saudi
Arabia


Syria Yemen
(Sanaa)


Cyprus Turkey


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
*1.0

0.9 Middle
South Asia
0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1-

0.0 -
Afghanistan
1979


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
-- ------------ 1.0*
North Africa 0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1
INAI
(NA) 0.0

Algeria1 Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1977 1971 1975


* Female percent equals male percent.
1 See footnotes to table 3.11 for nonstandard age groups.


- -
Iran1
1976


48 Literacy and Education


Women of the Wored


~1









Table 3.1. Percent Literate Among Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex and
Rural/Urban Residence, and Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate


Percent literate
Residence, region, and
country Year or Both F/M ratio
period sexes Women Men (male = 1.00)


Total

NORTH AFRICA

Algeria1..................... 1977 41.9 29.1 55.2 0.53
Egypt........................ 1976 41.7 26.8 56.2 0.48
Morocco...................... 1971 25.0 13.1 36.9 0.36
Tunisia...................... 1975 46.3 33.0 59.3 0.56

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq......................... 1977 43.7 26.3 55.1 0.48
Jordan2...................... 1979 66.5 51.8 81.1 0.64
Lebanon...................... 1970 68.3 57.9 78.4 0.74
Saudi Arabia................. 1974 35.2 20.1 47.8 0.42
Syria........................ 1970 45.8 25.9 65.0 0.40
Yemen (Sanaa)................ 1975 12.6 1.9 25.2 0.08

Non-Arab countries

Cyprus3...................... 1976 90.5 84.8 96.5 0.88
Turkey....................... 1980 69.0 54.7 83.1 0.66

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan4................. 1972-73 13.4 3.3 21.6 0.15
Iran......................... 1976 43.2 30.9 54.9 0.56


See footnotes at end of table.


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 49









Table 3.1. Percent Literate Among Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex and
Rural/Urban Residence, and Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate-Continued


Percent literate
Residence, region and
country Year or Both F/M ratio
period sexes Women Men (male = 1.0U)


Rural

NORTH AFRICA


Algerial.....................
Morocco....................
Tunisia.....................

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq.........................
Lebanon .....................
Syria.......................

Non-Arab countries

Turkey ......................

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan4 ................
Iran.........................

See footnotes at end of table.


1977
1971
1975


28.9
13.2
31.5


1977
1970
1970



1970


23.0
60.9
34.1



48.3



10.3
24.6


1972-73
1976


14.8
2.1
16.1


5.0
47.3
11.4



32.2



0.7
12.2


42.3
24.0
46.3


41.4
74.0
56.6



65.7



18.1
37.1


0.35
0.09
0.35


0.12
0.64
0.20



0.49



0.04
0.33


50 Literacy and Education


Women of the Wordd









Table 3.1. Percent Literate Among Population Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex and
Rural/Urban Residence, and Female/Male Ratio of Percent Literate-Continued


Percent literate
Residence, region, and
country Year or Both F/M ratio
period sexes Women Men (male = 1.00)


Urban

NORTH AFRICA

Algerial..................... 1977 55.7 33.8 62.3 0.54
Morocco...................... 1971 46.0 31.9 61.0 0.52
Tunisia...................... 1975 60.1 48.5 71.6 0.68

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq.......................... 1977 54.6 38.2 69.5 0.55
Lebanon...................... 1970 73.1 64.7 81.3 0.80
Syria......................... 1970 61.0 45.3 75.7 0.60

Non-Arab countries

Turkey....................... 1970 73.1 59.1 85.0 0.70

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan4 ................. 1972-73 30.4 17.4 41.1 0.42
Iran.......................... 1976 62.0 51.0 71.9 0.71

1Refers to age 9 to 59 years.
2Refers to age 15 years and over.
3U.S Bureau of the Census, 1983.
4Based on unadjusted 1972-73 survey data. Preliminary 1979 census data for the settled
population age 5 years and over who were attending school or who had already completed the first
grade report the following percentages literate for both sexes, females, and males, respectively:
for total country, 24, 9, and 37 percent; for rural areas, 20, 6 and 34 percent; and for urban
areas, 42, 28, and 56 percent.

Note: Data for Egypt in North Africa, and Cyprus, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen (Sanaa) in
Western South Asia are not available by rural/urban residence.


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 51









Table 3.2. Percent Literate Among Population in Selected Age Groups, by Sex


Women Men

Region and country 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years
Year years years and over years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.................... 1976 37.2 23.0 11.1 61.5 56.4 50.8
Morocco................. 1971 22.6 6.9 2.9 52.9 34.2 20.4
Tunisia................. 1975 53.7 23.9 4.0 85.6 57.3 26.1

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Jordan.................. 1979 84.9 56.6 18.9 96.7 91.4 62.4
Lebanon................ 1970 75.9 1(NA) 1(NA) 90.4 1(NA) 1(NA)
Syria.................. 1970 35.5 21.9 8.0 78.0 69.3 42.0
Yemen (Sanaa).......... 1975 3.1 1.0 0.4 29.2 25.6 21.3

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1980 75.2 57.6 27.9 93.6 91.8 65.4

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2........... 1972-73 6.8 2.3 0.6 34.2 19.7 15.0
Iran.................... 1976 42.1 24.5 9.5 70.5 53.8 28.9


iSee table 3.3 for percent literate
2Based on unadjusted 1972-73 survey


by sex and selected age groups.
data for the settled population only.


52 Literacy and Education


Woman of the World









Table 3.3 Percent Literate Among Population in Selected Age Groups, by Sex and
Rural/Urban Residence, for Algeria, Jordan, and Lebanon


Total Rural Urban
Country, year, and age
Women Men Women Men Women Men


Algeria 1977

15 to 17 years......... 47.6 72.6'
18 to 20 years......... 38.7 75.8
21 to 34 years......... (NA) (NA)
35 to 39 years......... 7.2 35.6 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
40 to 54 years......... (NA) (NA)
55 to 59 years......... 1.6 18.6

Jordan 1979

15 to 19 years......... 89.0 97.6
20 to 24 years......... 78.7 95.3
25 to 29 years......... 64.0 93.0
30 to 34 years......... 49.0 89.7
35 to 39 years......... 33.2 83.3
40 to 44 years......... 22.2 73.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
45 to 49 years......... 17.0 64.7
50 to 54 years......... 15.3 61.2
55 to 59 years......... 12.0 54.1
60 to 64 years......... 8.0 43.6
65 years and over...... 4.9 27.6

Lebanon 1970

15 to 19 years......... 79.3 91.5 72.4 91.5 83.7 91.5
20 to 24 years......... 71.4 89.0 62.7 88.0 76.5 89.6
25 to 29 years......... 62.2 84.8 51.7 82.7 67.9 85.8
30 to 39 years......... 48.7 75.0 33.8 68.8 57.4 78.4
40 to 49 years......... 40.2 68.8 25.9 62.0 49.7 73.0
50 to 59 years......... 33.2 64.6 19.5 54.9 42.2 70.7
60 years and over...... 20.6 46.1 11.0 40.5 29.3 51.8


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 53









Table 3.4. Percent Literate Among Women in Selected Age Groups,
by RuralVUrban Residence


Rural Urban

Region and country Year or 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years
period years years and over years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Morocco................. 1971 3.7 0.8 0.4 50.6 18.3 7.6
Tunisia................. 1975 28.2 5.0 0.5 77.1 40.5 7.4

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Lebanon................. 1970 68.4 1(NA) 1(NA) 80.5 1(NA) I(rA)
Syria.................... 1970 15.6 5.9 1.7 60.6 42.1 17.1

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................... 1970 47.2 28.3 11.4 75.6 59.0 38.4

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2............ 1972-73 1.5 0.4 0.1 31.4 13.9 3.7
Iran.................... 1976 15.5 4.0 1.1 68.2 45.4 19.2


1See table 3.3 for percent literate
2Based on unadjusted 1972-73 survey


among women in selected age groups.
data for the settled population only.


Women of the World


54 Literacy and Education





Women of the World Literacy and Education 55



Table 3.5. Percent Literate Among Men in Selected Age Groups,
by Rural/Urban Residence


Rural Urban

Region and country Year or 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years
period years years and over years years and over

NORTH AFRICA

Morocco................. 1971 36.0 20.6 12.9 81.4 59.4 34.7
Tunisia................. 1975 74.9 37.2 13.9 95.8 74.7 38.5

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Lebanon ................. 1970 90.1 1(NA) 1(NA) 90.6 1(NA) 1(NA)
Syria................... 1970 72.7 57.7 31.0 84.6 80.7 57.0

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................... 1970 81.8 72.4 45.7 92.7 88.6 72.8

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2............ 1972-73 30.0 15.8 11.9 55.6 42.8 34.2
Iran.................... 1976 51.2 29.7 13.2 84.8 73.3 47.4


1See table 3.3 for percent literate
2Based on unadjusted 1972-73 survey


among men in selected age groups.
data for the settled population only.









Table 3.6. Percent Female Among Literate Population, by Selected Age Groups and
Rural/Urban Residence


Rural Urban

Region and country Year or 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 years
period years years and over years years and over


NORTH AFRICA

Morocco................. 1971 9.0 4.6 2.6 40.3 27.7 17.8
Tunisia................. 1975 26.7 13.3 3.0 44.8 37.8 15.5

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Lebanon................. 1970 48.3 1(NA) 1(NA) 49.3 1(NA) 1(NA)
Syria.................... 1970 17.0 11.1 5.1 40.3 33.2 21.8

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................... 1970 39.1 32.7 20.8 36.4 37.6 33.8

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2............ 1972-73 3.8 2.3 0.8 33.2 23.2 7.6
Iran.................... 1976 26.5 14.0 6.6 41.9 37.0 26.3

1See table 3.7 for percent of literate population that is female, by selected age groups
and rural/urban residence.
2Based on unadjusted 1972-73 survey data for the settled population only.


Woffwn of dw4 WwWd


56 Literacy and Education





Women of the World


Literacy and Education 57


Table 3.7. Percent Female Among Literate Population Age 15 Years and Over,
by Age and Rural/Urban Residence: Lebanon, 1970


Age Rural Urban


15 to 19 years.......... 41.9 47.4
20 to 24 years.......... 40.7 44.9
25 to 29 years.......... 41.3 44.1
30 to 39 years.......... 34.3 42.0
40 to 49 years.......... 29.2 38.5
50 to 59 years.......... 26.2 36.4
60 years and over....... 20.0 36.7









Table 3.8. Percent of Population Enrolled in School, by Age and Sex


Women Men

Region and country 5to lOto 15to 20to 5to lUto 15to 20to
Year years 14years 19years 24years 9 years 14years 19years 24years


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria........... 1977 160.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) 181.0 (NA) (NA) (NA)
Morocco........... 1971 15.0 24.8 12.3 2.4 28.8 46.3 29.6 9.9
Tunisia........... 1975 35.3 65.5 59.7 45.5 47.9 87.4 86.9 82.6

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Jordan............. 1975 65.0 89.7 54.5 9.3 68.1 95.6 64.2 16.4
Lebanon........... 1974 (NA) 77.5 38.2 8.8 (NA) 89.1 55.0 25.7
Saudi Arabia2..... 1974-75 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (I;A) (A)
Yemen (Sanaa)3.... 1975 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan4...... 1979 10.4 8.5 3.8 0.5 35.9 50.6 26.6 6.5
Iran.............. 1976 560.5 54.7 25.8 6.3 580.3 80.4 47.0 14.O

1Refers to age 6 to 14 years.
2Enrollment data for 1974/75 indicate that 19.2 percent of women and 35.5 percent of men age 5
to 24 years were enrolled in school.
3Preliminary census results for 1975 indicate that 3.2 percent of women and 26.0 percent of nen
age 5 to 24 years were enrolled in school.
Refers to the settled population only.
5Refers to age 6 to 9 years.


58 Literacy and Education


Women of the World





Women of the World


Literacy and Education 59


Table 3.9. Percent of Rural Population Enrolled in School, by Age and Sex


Women Men

Region and country 5to 10to 15to 20 to 5to 10 to 15 to 20to
Year years 14years 19years 24years years 14years 19years 24years


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria........... 1977 141.5 (NA) (NA) (NA) 172.6 (NA) (NA) (NA)
Morocco........... 1971 3.0 4.3 1.4 0.2 18.8 29.4 17.9 5.8
Tunisia........... 1975 19.4 38.7 34.0 20.6 39.0 76.7 77.0 70.7

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Jordan............ 1975 56.8 77.1 33.7 2.9 63.7 94.5 58.6 13.2
Lebanon........... 1970 (NA) 75.7 31.2 5.7 (NA) 90.1 55.3 21.1

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2...... 1979 8.2 4.7 1.2 0.1 34.4 48.0 23.5 5.1
Iran.............. 1976 342.5 30.2 6.7 1.2 373.0 69.0 25.4 4.4

1Refers to age 6 to 14 years.
2Refers to the settled population only.
3Refers to age 6 to 9 years.









Table 3.10. Percent of Urban Population Enrolled in School, by Age and Sex


Women Men

Region and country 5to lOto 15 to 20to 5 to lOto 15 to 20to
Year years 14years 19years 24 years years 14 years 19years 24 years


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria........... 1977 184.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) 192.5 (NA) (NA) (NA)
Morocco........... 1971 38.2 57.1 27.4 6.0 49.1 79.9 49.4 17.0
Tunisia........... 1975 52.5 88.9 82.7 69.0 57.4 97.3 96.3 93.8

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Jordan............ 1975 68.8 94.4 62.1 11.6 70.1 96.1 66.2 17.7
Lebanon........... 1970 (NA) 78.7 42.5 10.7 (NA) 88.4 54.9 28.3

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2...... 1979 22.6 29.9 18.7 3.2 44.4 65.8 44.4 13.7
Iran.............. 1976 384.3 81.7 45.0 11.3 390.3 92.5 63.6 20.8

1Refers to age 6 to 14 years.
2Refers to the settled population only.
3Refers to age 6 to 9 years.


60 Literacy and Education


Women of the World










Table 3.11. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled in School, by Age
and Rural/Urban Residence
(Male = 1.00)


Residence, region, and 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24
country Year years years years years


Total

NORTH AFRICA


Algeria....................
Morocco....................
Tunisia ....................

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Jordan ....................
Lebanon....................

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA
2
Afghanistan ...............
Iran.......................


Rural

NORTH AFRICA

Algeria....................
Morocco....................
Tunisia....................

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Jordan....... ..............
Lebanon....................

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2................
Iran.......................

See footnotes at end of table.


1977
1971
1975



1975
1970



1979
1976


1977
1971
1975



1975
1970



1979
1976


10.74
0.52
0.74



U.95
(NA)



0.29
30.75


10.57
0.16
0.50



0.89
(NA)



0.24
30.58


(NA)
0.54
0.75



0.94
0.87



0.17
0.68


(NA)
0.15
0.51



0.82
0.84



0.10
0.44


(NA)
0.42
0.69



0.85
0.70



0.14
0.55


(NA)
0.08
0.44



0.56
0.56



0.05
0.26


(NA)
0.24
0.55



0.57
0.34



0.08
0.45


(NA)
0.03
0.29



0.22
0.27



0.02
0.27


Women of the World


Literacy and Education 61








Table 3.11. Female/Male Ratio of Percent Enrolled in School, by Age
and Rural/Urban Residence- Continued
(Male = 1.00)


Residence, region, and 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24
country Year years years years years


Urban

NORTH AFRICA

Algeria.................... 1977 10.92 (NA) (NA) (NA)
Morocco.................... 1971 0.78 0.72 0.56 0.35
Tunisia.................... 1975 0.92 0.91 0.86 0.74

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Jordan..................... 1975 0.98 0.98 0.94 0.65
Lebanon.................... 1970 (NA) 0.89 0.77 0.38

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2............... 1979 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.23
Iran....................... 1976 30.93 0.88 0.71 0.54

1Refers to age 6 to 14 years.
2Refers to the settled population only.
3Refers to age 6 to 9 years.


62 Literacy and Education


Women of the Wodd









Table 3.12. Percent Female Among Enrolled Population, by Age and
Rural/Urban Residence


Rural Urban

Region and country 5to lOto 15to 20to 5to lOto 15to 20to
Year years 14years 19years 24years years 14years 19years 24years


NORTH AFRICA

Morocco........... 1971 13.1 10.7 6.6 4.4 44.0 42.7 37.0 28.5
Tunisia........... 1975 32.2 31.9 29.0 22.9 46.6 46.9 46.0 43.1

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq1............. 1977 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Jordan............ 1975 35.0 23.8 10.1 6.2 44.2 40.2 34.7 25.6
Lebanon........... 1970 47.1 43.3 34.0 20.6 48.1 46.3 43.3 26.5

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan2...... 1979 18.8 8.6 4.8 1.6 33.5 30.4 27.6 17.1
Iran.............. 1976 334.9 28.8 22.9 25.3 46.9 43.9 38.0 33.7


n.d.,
is female.


1According to school administrative data (Central Statistical Organization of Iraq,
tables 14/2 and 14/4), 34.0 percent of all enrollment in primary and secondary school
2Refers to the settled population only.
3Refers to age 6 to 9 years.


Literacy and Education 63


Women of the World









Table 3.13 Percent of Population, by Literacy/Level of Education and Selected
Characteristics, for Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria


Age and sex
Country, year, and
literacy/level 15 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years
of education
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men


Egypt 1976


Total....................

No education................
Able to read and write......
Primary....................
Less than intermediate......
Intermediate ...............
Secondary.................
Some university............
University .................



Saudi Arabial 1974




Total .....................

Il literate.................
Literate....................
Primary.....................
Secondary......................
Higher........... ............
Other.......................
Not stated.................



Syria 1976




Total .....................

Illiterate..................
Literate....................
Primary certificate.........
Intermediate and secondary..
University..................


100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0


61.9
9.8
7.0
11.2
8.9
0.3
0.9
0.0


37.1
14.8
12.2
19.8
14.6
0.3
1.2
0.0


76.5
10.3
2.0
2.2
5.4
0.7
2.8
0.1


42.5
26.2
4.2
4.3
13.2
1.2
8.1
0.3


84.7
9.2
1.6
0.9
2.4
0.3
0.8
0.1


49.5
30.2
4.6
2.4
6.8
0.6
5.6
0.3


100.0 100.0


89.0
7.8
1.4
0.3
1.2
0.1
0.2
0.0


53.5
32.5
5.6
0.7
3.9
0.2
3.3
0.3


Nationality and sex

Nationals Non-nationals

Women Men Women l'en


100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

81.2 52.5 58.4 50.3
12.1 27.0 17.8 30.3
3.8 11.2 6.3 4.3
2.0 7.4 11.6 7.2
0.1 0.8 3.1 5.8
0.2 0.9 2.0 1.9
0.6 0.2 0.8 0.2

Rural/urban residence and sex

Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men


100.0

73.2
14.7
8.6
3.4
0.1


100.0

28.8
35.4
20.5
14.4
0.9


100.0

41.1
25.2
18.6
14.2
1.0


1Refers to age 10 years and over.
Sources: For Egypt, UNECWA, 1980a,
Syria, UNECWA, 1980b, table 12.11.


100.0

16.7
33.8
24.9
20.9
3.7


table 4.10; for Saudi Arabia, UNECWA, 1979, table 11.6; for


64 Literacy and Education


Women of the World








Table 3.14. Primary School Dropout and Graduation Rates, by Sex: 1970-75
(Rates per 1,000 entrants)


Graduated
Dropped out
Region and country Total Without repeating

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys


NORTH AFRICA

Algeria 389 338 611 662 247 282
Egypt 377 171 623 829 441 589

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Iraq 408 295 592 705 165 183
Jordan 209 137 791 863 595 667
Syria 252 179 748 821 433 467
Saudi Arabia 195 251 805 749 305 172


Source: UNESCO, 1977a, table 22.

Note: Data refer to 1970-75 life table estimates of
UNESCO for each country.


dropout and graduation rates prepared by


Women of the Wodd


Literacy and Education 65








Women of the World 6


Chapter 4



E(g fl @ MOD


AEconml
ActDviD


The purposes of this chapter are to: (1) review available cen-
sus and national survey data in the WID Data Base for measuring
women's economic activities, (2) discuss the strengths and in-
adequacies of census and national survey estimates of women's
labor force participation in the Near East and North Africa, and
(3) recommend ways in which the inadequacies identified may
be at least partially resolved through the refinement of measures
used to depict women's economic activities.

Quality and Availability of Data

Estimates of the total number of women who are economically
active are inadequately derived from census data (Doctor and
Gallis, 1964; Boserup, 1975; United Nations, 1980 and 1984a;
Lattes and Wainerman, 1982; and Jamison and Baum, 1982).
Compared to special purpose surveys on economic activity, cen-
suses are methodologically weak when used to collect data on
female economic activities in the agricultural sector and to count
unpaid family workers (Lattes and Wainerman, 1982; and United
Nations, 1984a and 1984b). Census underenumeration of
workers in the agricultural sector and of women and men who
are unpaid family workers is especially prevalent in countries
where economic activities are frequently conducted in the home
and are therefore not clearly differentiated from other household
responsibilities (Boserup, 1975; Dixon, 1982; and Lattes and
Wainerman, 1982). This is undoubtedly the case in large parts
of the Near East and North Africa (Ahdab-Yehia, 1977; Dixon,
1982; Chamie, 1983). Underenumeration of women's economic
activities also occurs when work is seasonal or sporadic and
when rigid time estimates of work are required by enumerators,
especially when the economic activities of women are mixed
with domestic chores rather than clearly defined as either work
or domestic activities. Under such confusing conditions, more
specialized survey techniques, such as time-use surveys, are re-


quired to sort out the various work and nonwork activities of
women. Conceptual problems in the definition of work, sex
biases in the questions used and in the reporting systems de-
signed to measure work, as well as inadequate training of
enumerators, further complicate the measurement of women's
economic activities using census data (United Nations, 1980).
For example, questions and probes used in censuses and large-
scale surveys need to be posed very carefully in order to ensure
their validity and reliability. During a survey of the labor force
in Syria, men were initially asked whether their wives worked.
A large proportion said that they did not. When asked whether
they would be forced to hire a replacement were the wife to stop
assisting them in their work, the overwhelming answer was yes.'
Similarly, responses to questions about women's economic ac-
tivities in Kenya were found to be sensitive to the way in which
specific questions were worded. Anker and Knowles (1978)
found that estimates of adult female activity rates in their Kenya
study varied from about 20 percent when the word "job" was
used to about 90 percent when the word "work" was used.
Such findings suggest the need for careful wording of socially
appropriate expressions for work and for careful protesting prior
to instituting large-scale surveys intended to measure labor force
participation.

Partial activity rates. Even the most critical analysts of the use
of census estimates recommend that findings from censuses can
be utilized to estimate the changing status of women's economic
activity, provided that the estimates are used with considerable
caution and with modification (Boserup, 1975; and Lattes and
Wainerman, 1982). The lack of other data bases, especially for
a historical analysis of women's work patterns, compels one to

'Based upon a discussion with Mehyeddine Mamish, Syrian demographer,
Beirut, Lebanon, July 1979, and cited in Chamie (1983a).






68 Economic Activity Women of the WorW


do so. Recognition of census weakness has resulted in the intro-
duction of refinements to estimates of women's work derived
from censuses. One important modification for the analysis of
economic activity rates is a calculation based on the number of
women who work in the modern sector (Doctor and Gallis, 1964;
Boserup, 1975; and Lattes and Wainerman, 1982). This partial
activity rate is an estimate of the number of women having clear
and regular work patterns typical of nonagricultural work and
includes women working in professional, technical, managerial,
and administrative occupations as well as salaried office workers,
wage-earning salepersons, and nonagricultural wage earners. Ex-
cluded from the modern sector partial activity rates are unpaid
family workers and all other non-wage-earners who are
economically active, as well as agricultural laborers and wage
earners whose earnings are not recognized by governments or
whose earnings are illegal and therefore go unreported. The pur-
pose of the partial activity rate is to analyze those portions of
census data that offer the most valid and reliable observations
of women's work status.
An analysis by Jamison and Baum (1982) compared partial
activity rates with total economic activity rates of women and
concluded that increases in the partial activity rate, or the per-
cent of women in the modern sector, is unquestionably a better
indicator of the improved status of women than is the total
economic activity rate. This conclusion was based upon the
finding that for a number of countries in the WID Data Base, cen-
sus estimates of partial activity rates correlated more highly with
other indicators of the improved status of women than did total
activity rates. These other indicators included literacy rates,
school enrollment rates, total fertility rates, and estimates of con-
traceptive use. Lattes and Wainermen (1982) indicated that the
only partial activity rate producing a ranking of countries with
regard to the status of women participating in the labor force
that was similar to the rate of women working in modern occupa-
tions, is the partial activity rate of female wage earners.


Women's work which does not conform to "modern sector."
The significant loss of information about women who are rural
agricultural laborers, who are unpaid family workers on farms,
who help manage family-owned businesses, or who produce
essential goods or services while in the home environment,
results in the view that partial activity rates are essentially indi-
cators of the extent to which women's economic activities con-
form to industrial work patterns. Women's and men's economic
activities that go uncaptured by census reportage, primarily
because they do not conform to the Western industrialized defini-
tion of "work," are greatly in need of research and require more
focused, highly specialized survey techiques in order to be
measured properly. The status of women working outside of the
modern sector, their economic and social returns from their work,
and the ways in which their work might be upgraded or better
integrated with the modern sector need careful assessment. As
long as a large part of women's economic activities remains
primarily outside of the modern sector, or at least unmeasured
and therefore largely unrecognized, their work remains unpro-
tected by legislation on such factors as social security, work
benefits, maternity leave, sick leave, compensation for work


injuries, fair wages, and opportunities for further specialization.
A significant proportion of women who work throughout the
Near East and North Africa are believed to be outside the bound-
aries of work legislation and regulation.
Approaches to the analysis of women's economic activities
are, therefore, at least two-dimensional. The first dimension re-
quires an analysis of the way in which the traditional economic
activities of women are conducted; the second is the study of
the degree to which women are integrated into the "modern"
economic sector. Both of these dimensions must take into con-
sideration the changing socioeconomic conditions prevalent
throughout much of the region, such as oil-exporting economies,
heavy emigration of men to the Gulf for work, high rates of
urbanization, governmental intervention into the educational and
health systems, and the redefinition of educational credentials
required for legal recognition of members of the work force in
health, business, medicine, agriculture, and education occupa-
tions. Censuses are more prepared to cope with an analysis of
the latter than of the former dimension.
The data presented in the WID Data Base do not provide suf-
ficient information for an analysis of modern sector participa-
tion rates, but some analysis of occupation will be presented
based on other sources.
In the Near East and North Africa, definitions of the
economically active population, for the most part, conform to
the ILO standard. Even when definitions of the economically
active population are clearly laid out by national statistical
offices, there is some doubt as to the validity of the questions
concerning work. Given that in most cases enumerators were
limited to a single question on work or simply to filling in a
response to a heading for a row or column in the census ques-
tionnaire (allowing each enumerator to ad lib the question), the
answers to the questions most likely refer to current work status.
With the exception of Lebanon in 1970, the WID data are from
national censuses. In Lebanon, they are results of a special
national household survey of the economically active popula-
tion completed in November 1970. The findings of these cen-
suses and survey will be supplemented by other relevant pieces
of research whenever possible in order to highlight the status
of working women in the region.

Findings

Economically active population. Table 4.1 and figure 4.1 describe
the total size of the labor force for persons age 10 years and
over, by sex, for countries of the Near East and North Africa
region. In contrast to the 6.8 million women identified as
economically active in Turkey in 1980, 11.7 million men were
reported to be economically active. In Iran, 1.4 million women,
as opposed to 8.3 million men, were identified as economically
active.
The percent of the labor force reported to be outside the ages
15 to 64 years was greater for women than men in every coun-
try. In Egypt in 1976, for example, 16 percent of economically
active women and 11 percent of men were under age 15 years
and over age 64 years. In Afghanistan, 17 percent of women
and 11 percent of men were outside the ages 15 to 64 years.


68 Economic Activity


Women of the World






Women of the World Economic Activity 69


Table 4.2 shows the labor force participation rates of women
and men age 10 years and over for each of the countries. Turkey
reported the highest labor force participation rate of women and
Saudi Arabia the lowest. The labor force participation rates of
men were substantially higher than those of women in every
country. Few, if any, conclusions can be drawn from these com-
parisons, because the composition of the total economic activity
rates is a result of many other factors not taken into account,
for example, the age composition of the populations, the pro-
portion of the populations that are rural, the proportion of persons
attending school, and the definitions of economically active
persons used by censuses. In Turkey, not only is the proportion
of women in the labor force larger than in most other countries
of the region, but census enumerators were instructed to include
nearly all farmers' wives as members of the agricultural labor
force (United Nations, 1980).2 In contrast to the Turkish report-
ing system, wives of farmers in Afghanistan were not
automatically considered members of the labor force. Thus, the
differences in women's participation rates between Turkey and
Afghanistan are a result more of census rules on the counting
of agricultural workers than of significant differences in the rates
of rural women who work in the agricultural sectors of these
two countries.
Although information on the proportion of women active in
modern occupations as a percent of all women age 15 years and
over is not available for these two countries, in nations where
they are available there are differences in the female activity rates
between all occupations and modern occupations. The follow-
ing table shows the percent of women age 15 years and over
who are economically active for all occupations and occupations
in the modern sector:


All Modern
Country Year occupations occupations


Tunisia ..... 1975 19.4 5.3
Iran ....... 1976 15.9 5.4
Egypt ....... 1976 6.4 4.1
Algeria ..... 1977 6.4 2.6

Source: Jamison and Baum, 1982, table 1.


The values for all occupations are much greater than are values
for modern occupations in these four countries. In addition, the
differences in rank when comparing total activity rates largely
disappear for Tunisia and Iran when observing the percent of
women in modern occupations. Also, it seems that Egypt and
Algeria focused their censuses upon the reportage of
nonagricultural workers and wage earners, since the difference
between the activity rates of women for all occupations and for


'Although the United Nations report relates to the 1975 census of Turkey,
it is likely that the enumerators' instructions were the same in 1980, as
changes in women's participation rates were insignificant between the two
censuses.


modern occupations is not very large. In any case, the degree
of diversity of women working in modern occupations for all four
countries is not great, suggesting that few women work in
modern occupations and that a significant proportion of women
workers are outside the modern economic sector. The study did
not compile information from which comparisons could be made
between the proportions of working women and men in modern
occupations.
Table 4.3 and figure 4.3 show total labor force participation
rates of women and men, by age. For 5 out of the 10 countries
having age-specific data (Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Egypt, and
Tunisia), the rates for women peak at age 20 to 24 years. In
Iraq, they peak at age 30 to 34 years. Both Morocco's and
Syria's rates peak at age 15 to 19 years, although the rates for
Morocco are bimodal, with very young women (under age 20
years) and older women (age 55 to 59 years) showing the
highest labor force participation rates. Turkey, for reasons men-
tioned earlier, reports high rates of female labor force participa-
tion at every age, and Afghanistan shows consistently low rates,
probably as a result of underenumeration of women, age
misreporting, and problems with census definitions of work.
In contrast to the age-specific labor force participation rates
of women, men's age-specific rates are uniformly high after age
25 to 29 years, except in Tunisia, where they are somewhat
lower than in other countries. In general, lower rates for women
than men are observed in every country. This is clearly seen in
table 4.4, which shows the female/male ratios of percent
economically active in each age group. With the exception of
children age 10 to 14 years, the female/male ratios are in favor
of males at all ages. Figure 4.4 shows female/male ratios of labor
force participation rates for children age 10 to 14 years, and for
persons ages 20 to 24 years and 25 to 29 years. Among
children, there were higher female/male ratios in Iraq, Lebanon,
and Turkey. In contrast, for these same countries, female/male
ratios for ages 20 to 24 years and 25 to 29 years are substan-
tially lower.
Table 4.5 presents the percent of the labor force that is female,
by age. At the time when males are least apt to be reported as
economically active, the female share of the labor force is
highest, that is, at age 10 to 14 years. The percent of the labor
force that is female rapidly declines at every age thereafter. Even
though the rate of labor force participation increases for women
ages 15 to 19 years and 20 to 24 years in almost every coun-
try, the rate of increase is significantly higher for males, making
the female share of the labor force substantially smaller in each
subsequent age group.
Comparisons over time were possible for two countries. For
Jordan (East Bank), data are available from the 1972 labor force
survey and the 1979 census, suggesting little change over time,
or perhaps slight differences that may be attributable more to
the differing measurement mechanisms than to actual changes
over time. In Turkey, labor force participation rates of women
declined at every age between 1970 and 1975, suggesting that
working women were either overestimated in 1970 or perhaps
undercounted in 1975. Changes during the 1975 to 1980 period
were small, with slight increases in some age groups counter-
balanced by slight decreases in others.


Women of the World


Economic Activity 69








70 Economic Activity Women of the Woild


Rural/urban differences. There is no uniform pattern in the labor
force participation rates of women by rural and urban residence
(see tables 4.7 and 4.11). In Morocco and Lebanon, urban labor
force participation rates of women are higher than rural rates.
In Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and Iran, the opposite is true (see figure
4.5). In all cases, the labor force participation rates of men are
substantially higher than the rates of women for both rural and
urban areas.
According to 1970 data for Turkey, differences between
women and men are smaller in rural than urban areas; 72 per-
cent of women and 86 percent of men in rural areas were
reported as economically active (see table 4.7). In urban areas,
11 percent of women and 70 percent of men were reported to
be economically active (see table 4.11). Participation rates of
urban women are significantly lower than those of rural women
because no assumption is made about the economic activity of
urban wives as is made for rural agricultural wives. In the re-
maining countries, women's rates are substantially lower than
men's in both rural and urban areas. In all of the countries, the
proportion of the labor force that is female does not approach
50 percent, with the exception of Turkey, where the female
share of the labor force age 12 years and over is 48 percent in
rural areas. The definitional problems mentioned earlier relating
to the interpretation of total labor force participation rates also
apply when discussing rates for rural and urban areas.
The economic activity rates of rural and urban women and
men, by age, are presented in tables 4.8 and 4.12. The pattern
of female labor force participation rates which peak at age 20
to 24 years continues to be found for rural and urban Lebanon,
and for urban Iran. Rural rates in Iran peak at age 15 to 19 years
rather than at age 20 to 24 years. Morocco shows its first peak
of female participation rates at age 15 to 19 years in rural areas
and at ages 15 to 24 years in urban areas. Again, Morocco's
overall bimodal pattern was especially discernible in urban areas,
where one out of four women age 55 to 59 years was reported
as economically active. In rural Morocco, there was also a
bimodal pattern, again with more women ages 50 to 59 years
being reported as working than at any other age. Iraq reported
that between one-fourth and one-third of all women in rural areas
were economically active between the ages of 10 and 64 years,
with the highest percentages occurring at ages 40 to 54 years.
In urban Iraq, labor force participation rates of women were
highest at ages 25 to 34 years. Syria reported female labor force
participation rates to be highest among women age 20 to 34
years in urban areas and among women age 10 to 24 years in
rural areas. The 1970 Turkish census reported high rural rates
among women at every age and lower urban rates, peaking at
ages 20 to 24 years. There is little doubt that the lower urban
rates of labor force participation across the age groups reflect,
to a great extent, urban women who are working in the modern
sector, outside of the home, and who are wage earners. The
decomposition of economic activity by occupational and employ-
ment status, age, sex, and marital status for urban and rural areas
would be very helpful when explaining these various patterns
of economic activity reported for women in urban and rural areas.
Tables 4.9 and 4.13 show the female/male ratios of rural and
urban activity rates, by age. Female/male ratios are usually


highest at age 10 to 14 years, and decline significantly thereafter
for all countries with the exception of Turkey, where female/male
ratios in rural areas remain quite high in every age group. Figure
4.7 shows the female/male ratios of urban and rural labor force
participation rates for ages 10 to 14 and 20 to 24 years. For
workers age 20 to 24 years, the ratios indicate substantially
smaller proportions of women than men participating in the labor
force in both rural and urban areas, with the exception of rural
Turkey, where higher percentages of women are reported as
economically active, for reasons already mentioned.
Tables 4.10 and 4.14 show the percent of the rural and urban
labor force that is female, by age. The largest female share
appears at age 10 to 14 years, when male participation in the
labor force is lowest. Figure 4.8 shows the percent of the labor
force that is female in rural and urban areas for ages 10 to 14
years and 20 to 24 years. For the younger groups in Iraq, Syria,
Turkey, and Iran, girls comprise a larger share of the labor force
in rural than in urban areas. Morocco, on the other hand, reports
a substantially higher share for girls in the urban than the rural
labor force. In Lebanon, just over half of both the rural and urban
labor force age 10 to 14 years are girls. Although rural men are
economically active at an earlier age than urban men, the
rates for men are much higher than the rates for women at all
ages between 20 and 64 years (see tables 4.10 and 4.14; and
figure 4.8).



Women in agricultural labor force. Table 4.15 shows the
estimated percent of the labor force in agriculture, by sex, and
the female/male ratio of these percentages. The Arab countries
of North Africa and Middle South Asia report proportionately
fewer women than men in agriculture. Dixon (1982) noted wide
fluctuations in the reporting of women agricultural workers
among North African countries. The 1966 Tunisian census ex-
cluded 250,000 female unpaid family workers from the
agricultural labor force, resulting in an agricultural labor force
that was only 2 percent female. When these unpaid women were
included in the agricultural labor force, women accounted for
38 percent of the total agricultural labor force, or the same pro-
portion that was estimated in the 1956 Tunisian census. Similar
observations may be made for Algeria and Morocco (Dixon,
1982, p. 542).
Arab countries in Western South Asian show a reverse pat-
tern to those in North Africa. A higher proportion of female than
male labor force participants were in agriculture. Non-Arab
Western South Asian countries also recorded higher percentages
of female than male labor force participants in agriculture. The
female/male ratios of the percent in agriculture shown in table
4.15 also reflect these reported differences, with low
female/male ratios of the percent of labor force in agriculture
in North African Arab countries and in countries of Middle South
Asia, and high female/male ratios among Western South Asian
countries. In evaluating these data, however, it should be kept
in mind that the base of the percentages for women is much
smaller than for men, that is, there are generally far fewer women
than men in the labor force overall, and so a larger percentage
of women in agriculture does not necessarily imply a larger actual


70 Economic Activity


Women of the World







Women of the World Economic Activity 71


number of women. There is usually a larger actual number of
men in agriculture just as there is a larger number in the labor
force overall.


Improving census estimates. A recent article reviewed and com-
pared the ILO published figures of the percent of agricultural labor
force that is female, with figures derived from population cen-
suses, FAO agricultural censuses, and labor force surveys
(Dixon, 1982). For the 66 countries having both census and ILO
estimates, the ILO estimates of the total agricultural labor force
were higher than those based on population census and survey
estimates. The "... averages of ILO rates for men are substan-
tially higher than census rates in all five regions, whereas ILO
rates for women are substantially higher only in Asia" (Dixon,
1982, p. 547). The ILO estimates of women working in
agriculture were especially conservative in the'Near East and
North Africa.

There is evidence that women have been counted as at
least one-third of the agricultural labor force in at least one
population or farm census in much of North Africa and the
Middle East (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Turkey, Cyprus,
Syria, Jordan, Iraq) and in Pakistan, and as at least two-
fifths in Egypt and Saudi Arabia-figures quite unlike those
in the generally low estimates of the ILO. For example,
whereas the ILO estimated only 2 percent female in the
agricultural labor force in Iraq in 1970, the 1977 popula-
tion census reports 37 percent female and the FAO
agricultural census of 1971 reports 41 percent. The new
estimates alter substantially our image of the sexual divi-
sion of labor in agriculture in these Muslim countries
(Dixon, 1982, p. 557).

The proportion of the labor force that is female is found to
be generally higher under certain conditions: (1) when a low
minimum number of days or hours of work is used as a criterion
for inclusion in the labor force; (2) when longer reference periods
are used, allowing for seasonal variation; (3) when censuses are
conducted in peak agricultural seasons; (4) when enumerators
ask about usual activities and secondary occupations and activi-
ties rather than just about current primary activities; (5) when
probing is conducted about work activities; (6) when women
rather than just the male heads of households are interviewed;
and (7) when economic activities of children (age 10 to 14 years)
are included in the estimate (Dixon, 1982, p. 562).
Improvements in census estimates depend primarily upon addi-
tional survey information from FAO and other supporting labor
force surveys. Standing (1978) found very different female parti-
cipation rates in agriculture in selected rural areas of Iran based
on 1966 census data compared to rates based on results from
the 1971 and 1973 labor force surveys.

In Sanandaj, Reziiyah, and Rhahabad-Gharb, the census
reported only 3 to 4 percent of rural women as economi-
cally active, while surveys conducted in peak or semibusy
seasons reported from 43 to 47 percent for the same areas
(Standing, 1978, p. 30; cited in Dixon, 1982, p. 563).


The 1960 Egyptian census results indicated that women
accounted for 4 percent of the agricultural labor force. Yet a more
extensive rural labor record survey indicated that approximately
one-fourth of all "nondomestic productive work" done in farm
households was done by women (ILO, 1969, p. 27; cited in
Dixon, 1982, p. 540). Evidence for Tunisia indicates that
although an estimated 13 percent of rural women were labor
force participants in 1972, findings from a small Tunisian village
indicated that 40 percent of adult women in the village were
deriving incomes from work (Nassif, 1976; cited in Van Dusen,
1976, p. 23). Repeatedly, where there is evidence, it appears
that the numbers and rates of women working in agriculture and
in rural areas is underestimated for many Near Eastern and North
African countries.
The estimates shown in table 5.15, indicating the percent of
labor force in agriculture, by sex of worker, are heavily dependent
upon the quality of the survey research techniques and the defini-
tions used for identifying labor force participants. One report sug-
gests that the participation of women in agriculture may even
be increasing in labor-exporting Arab countries, such as Yemen
(Sanaa), and in oil-producing countries, such as Algeria.

Even where male migration may not be to destinations out-
side of the country, it can have a profound effect. In one
oil-producing country, Algeria, the government reported
that female participation in agriculture more than doubled
between 1966 and 1973, primarily owing to male migra-
tion, which resulted in an increased importance of female
labour in self-managed farms (United Nations, 1978, p.
22; cited in Blumberg, 1981, p. 68).

Migration, in itself, however, might not be the sole reason or
even the primary reason for the increases in the proportions of
women who participated in agricultural work in Algeria between
1966 and 1973. In contrast to the above explanation, other
authors stress methodological or conceptual changes as the
reason for rapidly changing female agricultural participation rates
in Algeria.

In some countries, female unpaid family helpers in
agriculture are systematically excluded... In other coun-
tries, women appear and disappear in large numbers from
one survey to the next. In 1954, the Algerian census
counted 981,000 women agricultural laborers (37 percent
of the farm labor force) but in 1966 only 23,000 (2 per-
cent of the total) (Dixon, 1982, p. 539).

If the Algerian estimates can show such a substantial decline
between 1954 and 1966, primarily because of methodological
changes in the definition of economically active persons in
agriculture, then discussions concerning the participation of
women in agriculture must clearly distinguish between findings
that are due to methodological changes and those brought about
by demographic and socioeconomic change.

Unpaid family workers. Over half of the women reported in the
labor force of Saudi Arabia, Yemen (Sanaa), and Turkey were
reported to be unpaid family workers (see table 4.16). In general,


Women of the World


Economic Activity 71






72 Economic Activity Women of the World


the percent of the labor force who are unpaid family workers
is higher among women than men. In most countries with
available data, rural women have the highest proportions of un-
paid family workers, followed by rural men, urban women, and
urban men.
There is evidence that unpaid family workers are primarily
agricultural laborers. In the 1971 Moroccan census, among
agricultural workers, 71 percent of women and 30 percent of
men were classified as unpaid family helpers. In nonagricultural
work, 11 percent of women and 3 percent of men were found
to be unpaid family workers (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980a,
table 21). The 1975 Turkish census reported that 96 percent
of women and 41 percent of men working in agriculture were
unpaid family workers. Among nonagricultural workers, 13 per-
cent of women workers and 2 percent of men workers were un-
paid family workers (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980b, table
20).
The lower percentages of urban women workers who are
reported as unpaid family workers may be attributable partly to
the fact that even less is known about the economic activities
of women outside the modern occupational sector in urban areas
than is known about unpaid family work in rural agriculture.
Various classes of female urban workers, such as domestic
servants who work part time; women who work with their
families in running small shops (or even large businesses);
women who work in the home production of goods that are sold
or exchanged on the streets by peddlers, husbands, or children;
women who are street beggars, prostitutes, marketers, and
traders in local bazaars; indigenous midwives and medical prac-
titioners; have yet to be successfully captured by urban labor
force surveys.



Occupations of unpaid family workers. The Thirteenth Interna-
tional Conference of Labour Statisticians, which met in 1982,
adopted revised recommendations pertaining to statistics on the
labor force, employment, unemployment, and underemployment.
A major change from the viewpoint of statistics on women
related to the concept of unpaid family workers. Unpaid family
workers are recommended to be considered as self employed,
"... if such production comprises an important contribution to
the total consumption of the household" (United Nations, 1983,
p. 17). In addition, unpaid family workers are to be defined as
economically active if they work for at least one hour during a
specified brief period of time, that is, either one week or one
day. Concern was expressed at the Conference that, in many
countries, to include in the self-employed economically active
category unpaid family workers who satisfy the minimum one-
hour requirement might "... enlist virtually the whole of the rural
population into the labour force" (United Nations, 1983, p. 10).
Greater attention would then need to be paid to the occupational
types and socioeconomic levels of unpaid family work in order
to distinguish the kinds of workers that are included in this
economic sector. Although problematic, the one-hour minimum
work requirement for unpaid family workers would help force
a redefinition of work and economic activity that includes the
non-wage-earning labor of rural populations, especially women.


Further conceptual discussions and suggestions for the
measurement of unpaid family workers are found in United
Nations (1984b), Seltzer (1978), and Blacker (1978 and 1980).
Special attention is given in the above reports to problems
relating to the identification of people who work sporadically or
seasonally and those who mix economic activities with other
responsibilities.
Although detailed occupational data by employment status are
not available, several countries do report the percent of unpaid
family workers by major division of economic activity (see table
4.17 and figure 4.11). For Algeria in 1977, it is estimated that
for every 10 female unpaid family workers, 4 were in agriculture,
3 were in manufacturing, 2 were in services, and 1 was in
wholesale or retail trade. In Iran in 1976, 3 out of 10 female
unpaid family workers were reported to be in agriculture and 7
in manufacturing. The large majority of female unpaid family
workers in Tunisia and Turkey in 1980, that is, 9 out of 10, were
found in agriculture. On the whole, most male unpaid family
workers were reported in agriculture. They are also found,
however, in manufacturing, construction, wholesale/retail trade,
and services. These findings suggest that unpaid family workers
are heavily agricultural, but that a significant minority are
engaged in nonagricultural work.
The 1970 Population Active Survey of Lebanon collected data
on the occupations of women unpaid family workers (see table
4.18). The percent unpaid family workers was highest among
women agricultural laborers. The next highest proportion of un-
paid women workers were commissioned sales persons, fol-
lowed by women employed in commerce and sales and skilled
and unskilled laborers. Even among professionals, 2 percent of
women in medicine, dentistry, veterinary science, and nursing,
and 1 percent of teachers were reported as unpaid family
workers. Assuming that these data probably underestimate the
proportions of women workers in Lebanon who are engaged in
unpaid family work, they do suggest that researchers should look
for non-wage-earners who are economically active across a wide
range of occupations and not focus only on women working in
agriculture.
Another major area of concern is domestic food production,
that is, "... household procedures leading to the preservation
of food for storage and later consumption" (Basson, 1982, p.
75). Basson found that the proportion of women working as un-
paid family workers in this economic sphere depends to a certain
extent upon their type of household. Basson's research in rural
Jordan compared the domestic economic productivity of women
residing in male-headed households, female-headed households
(de facto heads due to male migration for work), and households
where women were wage earners outside the home. When
women work outside the home, they are placed in dual and in-
congruent occupational statuses, managing both the domestic
production and the wage-earning job. Although families with
male household heads who are working abroad and families with
wives working outside the home have higher yearly per capital
family incomes, higher income through male emigration for work
increases female domestic economic productivity, whereas
higher income resulting from women working outside the home
decreases it through the substitution of one type of female


72 Economic Activity


Women of the World







Women of the World Economic Activity 73


economic activity for another. Findings such as Basson's sug-
gest that the transition from unpaid family worker to wage earner
must be examined for its effects not only upon family consump-
tion patterns but also upon family production patterns.


Women in industry and services. The shift of labor force partici-
pation from agriculture into the industrial and service sectors is
a shift being made by women as well as men. The ILO (1977)
estimates show a shift in the proportions of the labor force in
agriculture, industry, and services, by sex of worker, for Lebanon
and Egypt since 1950. The transition of women workers out of
agriculture into services is especially remarkable. In Lebanon,
15 percent of women workers were estimated to be in the
service sector in 1950 and 55 percent in 1970. The proportion
of Egyptian women in services is estimated to have increased
from 46 to 58 percent during the same time period. This shift
of the female labor force into services and away from agriculture
is influenced substantially by the rural-to-urban migration flows
prevalent in these two countries. It is also due partially to the
underestimation of women workers in agriculture, as mentioned
previously.
The transition from farm laborer to service worker does not
necessarily imply an improvement in the status of women. In
order to measure women's work status brought about by the
change from agricultural to service work, detailed occupational
analyses are required. Unfortunately, cross-tabulations of occu-
pational status by industry, educational attainment, sex, and
rural/urban residence are not available in the WID Data Base.
Evidence in the literature suggests that, in general, there is occu-
pational segregation by sex, limited occupational diversity among
women workers, and lower status of women workers in the
service and industrial sectors, just as there was (and is) in the
agricultural sector (see Chamie, 1983; Chaudhry, 1980; and
House, 1983). For example, in Lebanon,

The overwhelming majority of women who worked for
remuneration in 1970 were found in the following occupa-
tions classified by category: scientific, technical and liberal
arts and humanities professions (nurses, midwives and
teachers of children); administration and management
(managers of enterprises and secretaries); business and
sales (sales clerks and commissioned sales persons);
services (house servants and janitorial workers); agriculture
(field laborers) and non-agricultural laborers (seam-
stresses). With the exception of the 225 women who
reported managing enterprises, the vast majority of work-
ing women were found in low paying and unprestigious
jobs. In addition, the overwhelming majority of women
were limited to certain socially acceptable "female" occu-
pations (Chamie, 1983, p. 6).


Detailed comparisons of women and men who worked in the
various occupational categories repeatedly showed the lack of
diversity in women's occupations in Lebanon. For example, the
Population Active Survey coded nine general occupational
categories of persons working in the scientific and technical pro-
fessions. Whereas the distribution of men across the nine


categories was diverse, 87 percent of all women in scientific
and technical professions were in a single occupational
category-nursing and midwifery (Chamie, 1983).
House (1983) reached the same conclusion about occupa-
tional status and the diversity of occupations in Cyprus. He noted
that women are concentrated in just a few occupations.

Where they are present in the professional group it is
mainly as paramedical personnel and teachers, while as
clerical and sales workers they serve largely as
stenographers and shop assistants. As production
workers, they are over-represented as relatively low-skilled
tailors and dressmakers, process workers, and labourers.
Their inferior status is revealed by their token membership
in the prestigious professions, such as architecture,
engineering and medicine, and their absence from super-
visory roles. Their concentration in just a few occupations
is brought out by the fact that 18 occupations account
for 85 percent of all females employed in the non-farm sec-
tor (House, 1983, p. 84).

In the category of modern occupations, some of the more
significant occupations of women are teaching, nursing, and
secretarial or clerical work. Several research studies have tried
to compare the situation of women and men in similar economic
sectors, for similar occupations. Their results suggest that even
when working in similar occupations, women are less educated,
have fewer options for advancement, and earn less money than
men do (Chaudhry, 1981; Chamie, 1983; and House, 1983).

Women's wages. Chaudhry (1981) reported on the "... average
gross money wage (i.e., wages before deduction of income taxes
and social security contributions payable by the workers)"
derived from payroll data supplied by "... a sample of
establishments furnishing data on hours and employment" for
Egypt. The average weekly wages in manufacturing (all in-
dustries) were as follows:


Piastres earned per week

Year Female Male


1969 ...... 298 410
1972 ...... 320 468
1975 ...... 375 556

Source: Chaudhry, 1981, table 22.

The majority of women categorized as working in manufactur-
ing in Egypt were tailors, dressmakers, spinners, weavers and
knitters, and clerical workers (Chaudhry, 1981, p. 70). Data
limitations prohibited further exploration into the reasons for the
lower wages.
A study of occupational segregation and discriminatory pay
in the Cyprus labor market (House, 1983) was based upon a
multivariate analysis using regression techniques to predict an-


Economic Activity 73


Women of the World






74 Economic Activity Women of the World


nual earnings of women and men. Predictor variables included
in the multivariate analysis were: educational attainment, quality
of schooling (graduation from an English-speaking university),
work experience, sector or employment, occupation, firm size,
years of tenure on the job, union status, public or private sector,
and location of work. House (1983, pp. 86-87) found that:


The over-all average annual earnings advantage of men
is 0.592 in logarithmic terms, or C895, of which 63 per-
cent is ascribed to wage discrimination as we have defin-
ed it, and 37 percent to the greater endowments of men
with wage-related characteristics... With only one excep-
tion, the endowments of wage-enhancing characteristics
are all favourable for men. The major contributions arise
from their longer years of education, their potential and
firm-specific experience, and their favourable occupational
distribution.

The author suggests that the lower average number of years of
firm-specific experience is a result of women's childbearing
responsibilities which intermittently interrupt their work ex-
perience. Women's lower educational attainment across occupa-
tions is believed to be a result of other forms of discrimination
against women which ultimately curtail their educational oppor-
tunities. House also notes that even when educational
attainment is similar for women and men, men's wages are
substantially higher, reflecting greater opportunity for
advancement.
A recent survey of 42 enterprises in Cyprus found that 19
discriminated against women with respect to wages paid and
that their discrimination could not be explained by differences
in job context (Cyprus, 1978). In general, women who worked
in the public sector in Cyprus were more fairly treated when it
came to average wage earnings than were women who worked
in the private sector (House, 1983). The Cypriot government
uses consistently more egalitarian hiring and promotion pro-
cedures than does the private sector, resulting in greater equality
of the sexes among government workers with respect to annual
earnings. Given that 20 percent of all men and 26 percent of
all women workers are employed in the public sector, its in-
fluence is substantial. Governmental influence upon the private
sector may need to be tried if the discrimination in wages and
promotion is to be reduced.

Educational attainment of women in modem sector occupations.
In Lebanon, evidence gathered from a UNESCO (1973) study
indicated that higher educational attainment did not increase
occupational diversity among women as it did among men. The
overwhelming majority of women university graduates who were
working in 1970 were in three professions: teaching, manage-
ment, and secretarial/clerical work. There were practically no


women university graduates working outside of these three pro-
fessions, primarily because of the limited selection of academic
fields available to them while attending universities (Dibs, 1975).
A typical pattern of career development among professional
women in Lebanon is reflected in the nursing and teaching pro-
fessions. Women who work as nurses or midwives typically have
an elementary education or are illiterate (UNESCO, 1973; and
Chamie and Harfouche, 1976). In Egypt, among medical, dental,
veterinary and related workers, 22 percent of women and 64
percent of men in this category have at least a university degree
(Egypt, CAPMAS, 1980, table 22). Under such conditions, the
meaning of "professional" for women diverges substantially
from the meaning it achieves for men.
According to UNESCO (1973) data analyzing a subgroup of
women respondents age 20 years and over who had ever
attended school from the Population Active Survey of Lebanon
in 1970, women entering the teaching field were less educated
than men and were in greater need of educational and training
opportunities in order to upgrade their current positions. Whereas
educational attainment of most women teachers is at the inter-
mediate level, the level for men is a university degree. In Egypt,
31 percent of women teachers and 40 percent of men teachers
are university graduates (Egypt, CAPMAS, 1980, table 22).
Similarly, in Jordan, the 1980 National Family Expenditure
Survey finds divergence in educational attainment between
women and men teachers:

Percent Distribution of School Teachers, by Educational
Attainment and Sex: Jordan, 1980

Educational attainment Female Male


Number of school
teachers ......... .. 115 81
All levels .............. 100.0 100.0
Illiterate .............. 0.0 1.2
Elementary ......... .. 0.0 0.0
Preparatory ........... 1.7 1.2
Secondary ............ 17.4 4.9
Diploma .............. 59.2 43.2
Bachelor ............. 20.0 45.7
Higher education ....... 1.7 3.7

Source: Jordan Department of Statistics, 1980, table 8.

Women school teachers, on the whole, are less educated than
their male counterparts. Men predominate among those with
Bachelor degrees or higher education, while more women than
men teachers are reported to have only a secondary diploma or
less.


74 Economic Activity


Women of the World






Women of the World Economic Activity 75


Figure 4.1. Labor Force Participation Rates for Population
Age 10 Years and Over, by Sex



Percent
100 -Western South Asia
Western South Asia


90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40

30

20

10

0-


Arab countries


r


- I I - - -


Iraq
1977


Jordan1
1972


Lebanon
1970


Saudi
Arabia
1974


Syria
1970


Yemen
(Sanaa)
1975


Non-Arab coui


(NA) I


Cyprus


Women Men

Percent
100

90
entries

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
0


Turkey
1975


North Africa


(NA) I I I I ii
Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1976 1971 1975


1 See footnotes to table 4.2 for nonstandard age groups.


Percent
100 -

90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10 -

0


Percent
- 100
- 90

- 80

- 70

- 60

- 50

- 40

- 30

- 20

- 10
10
-o


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


Economic Activity 75


Women of the World


r-







Figure 4.2. Female/Male Ratio of Labor Force Participation Rates


F/M ratio
(male = 1
*0.6


0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0


Iraq
1977


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
'0.6 ,-


Western South Asia
Arab countries


H


Jordan Lebanon Saudi
1972 1970 Arabia
1974


S-,HH


Syria Yemen
1970 (Sanaa)
1975


Non-Arab countries


(NA)
Cyprus Turkey
1975


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)


0.6*


0.5

0.4


0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
-n 0.6*


Middle South Asia


North Africa


JIL


(NA) F 1 1 [ 1-
Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1976 1971 1975


* Female rate equals 60 percent of male rate.


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


76 Economic Activity


Women of the World






women of the Woild Economic Activity 77


Figure 4.3.


Percent Economically Active, by Sex and Age,
for Iran, Jordan, Morocco, and Turkey


Percent
100 -


15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65


1 See footnotes to table 4.3 for nonstandard age groups.


Percent
-- 100


Women of the World


Economic Activity 77





Women of the World


78 Economic Activity


Figure 4.4. Female/Male Ratio of Labor Force Participation
Rates in Selected Age Groups


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
1.2-
1.1
*1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0


Iraq Jordan1
1977 1972


Western South Asia
Arab countries

_1----------


Ti


(NA)


Saudi
Arabia


Ih


Syria
1970


Lebanon
1970


Non-Ar


(NA)


Yemen
(Sanaa)


Cyprus


10-14 20-24 25-29
F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
S1.2
ab countries
1.1
-1.0*
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
Turkey1
1975


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
1.2 Middle South Asia
1.1
*1.0------------
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1 -
0.0


(NA)
Algeria


North Africa


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
1.2
S1.1
1.0*
-0.9
-0.8
-0.7
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0


Egypt Morocco Tunisia1
1976 1971 1975


* Female rate equals male rate.
See footnotes to table 4.4 for nonstandard age groups.


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976


T A






Women of the Wofid Economic Activity 79


Figure 4.5. Labor Force Participation Rates for Women Age
10 Years and Over, by Rural/Urban Residence "-

Run

Percent
100 Western South Asia

90Arab countries Non-Arab countries
IArab countries Non-Arab countries


I (NA) F (NA) | (NA)

Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa)


Middle South Asia


80 -

70

60 -

50 -

40

30 -

20

10

0


J


Cyprus Turkey
1970


North Africa


(NA) (NA) F-


(NA)


3r -
al Urban

Percent
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0


Percent
- 100
- 90

- 80

- 70
- 60

- 50

- 40

- 30

- 20

10

0


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1971


See footnotes to tables 4.7 and 4.11 for nonstandard age groups.


(NA)


Percent
100 -

90 -

80 -

70 -

60 -

50 -

40 -

30 -

20 -

10 -

0


(NA)


Afghanistan


Iran
1976


Women of the World


Economic Activity 79








Figure 4.6. Labor Force Participation Rates for Women in Two Age
Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence Rural Urban


10-14 20-24 10-14 20-24
Percent Percent
100 -Western South Asia 100

90 90
Arab countries Non-Arab countries

70 70

60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 I 10
0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0

Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen Cyprus Turkey1
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa) 1970


Percent Percent
100 Middle South Asia North Africa 100

90 90

80 80

70 70

60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 --- t 20

10 I 10
0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0
Afghanistan Iran Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1976 1971


1See footnotes to tables 5.8 and 5.12 for nonstandard age groups.


Women of the World


80 Economic Activity






Women of the World Economic Activity 81


Figure 4.7. Female/Male Ratio of Labor Force Participation Rates in Two
Age Groups, by Rural/Urban Residence Rural Urban
I II C 1 O M
10-14 20-24 10-14 20-24
F/M ratio F/M ratio
(male = 1.0) (male = 1.0)
1.6 -Western South Asia -1.6

1.4 -Arab countries Non-Arab countries 1.4

1.2 1.2
1.0 I 1.0"
1.0- ------- --------- --------------- ----------- 1.0*

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4 I 0.4

0.2 0.2
0.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 0.
0n I M 0.0


F/M ratio
(male = 1.C
1.8

1.6 -

1.4

1.2

*1.0 -

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0


Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen Cyprus Turkey1
1977 1970 Arabia 1970 (Sanaa) 1970
F/M
) (male =


ic

















( r


Idle South Asia


North Africa


NA) 1II


Afghanistan Iran
1976

* Female rate equals male rate.
See footnotes to tables 4.9 and 4.13 for nonstandard age groups.


ratio
1.0)
1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0*

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1971


Women of the World


Economic Activity 81


r






82 Economic Activity Women of the World


Figure 4.8. Female Share of Rural and Urban
Labor Force in Two Age Groups



Percent
70 [ Western South Asia

60 Arab countries


(NA)


(NA)


Rural Urban

O M
10-14 20-24 10-14 20-24
Percent
70

Non-Arab countries
60

50


40

30

-20


(NA)


Iraq
1977


Jordan Lebanon
1970


Saudi
Arabia


Syria
1970


Yemen
(Sanaa)


Middle South Asia


Cyprus Turkey1
1970


North Africa


(NA)


(NA)


Percent
- 70

- 60


-50

-40


(NA)


Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1971


See footnotes to tables 4.10 and 4.14 for nonstandard age groups.


Percent
70

60 -

50 -

40 -


30 -

20 -

10 -

0


Afghanistan


Iran
1976


82 Economic Activity


Women of the Workd










Figure4.9. Percent of Labor Force in Agriculture, by Sex



Women Men

Percent Percent
100 Western South Asia 100

90 Arab countries Non-Arab countries 90

80 80

70 70

60 60

50 50

40 40

30 -- 30

20 20

10 10
0 -- (NA) 0
Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Syria Yemen Cyprus Turkey
1977 1970 Arabia 1979 (Sanaa) 1980 1980
1974 1975

Percent Percent
100 100
Middle South Asia North Africa 100

90 90

80 80

70 70

60 -- 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10
0 -- -(NA
0 rNA) 0
Afghanistan Iran Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1979 1976 1977 1979 1971


Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983.


Women of the World


Economic Activity 83






84 Economic Activity


Figure4.10. Female/Male Ratio of Percent of Unpaid Family Workers in
Labor Force


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

*1.0- ----

00 (NA) (NA)
0.0
Iraq Jordan


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
8.0 --
0 Middle South Asia

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

*1.0 -

0.0


Western South Asia

Arab countries


& .5 A-.


Lebanon Saudi
1970 Arabia
1974


Syria Yemen
1979 (Sanaa)
1975


Non-Arab count


(NA)

Cyprus


- -



Turk
197


North Africa


(NA)

Algeria


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
S8.0

ries 7.0


-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

- -- 1.0*


0.0
ey
0


F/M ratio
(male = 1.0)
S8.0

-7.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

- -- 1.0*

0.0


Egypt Morocco Tunisia
1976 1971 1975


* Female percent equals male percent.


Women of the Worid


Afghanistan
1979


Iran
1976









Figure4.11. Percent of Unpaid Family Workers in Selected Industries,
by Sex, for Algeria, Iran, Tunisia, and Turkey



Women Men
Agriculture I I
Manufacturing

Percent Wholesale/ Percent
100 retail trade I 100


90 90



80 80


70 -- 70


60 60


50 50



40 40


30 30


20 20


10 I 10


0 --- 0
Algeria Iran Tunisia Turkey
1977 1976 1980 1980


Source: ILO, 1982.


Women of the World


Economic Activity 85






86 Women in Economic Activity Women of the World


Table 4.1.


Number of Economically Active Among Population Age 10 Years and Over,
by Sex and Selected Age Groups, and Percent of Economically Active
Outside Age Range 15 to 64 Years
(Numbers in thousands)


Percent
outside the
age range of
15 to 64
Region and country Women Men years

l0years 10to14 65years lOyears 10to14 65years
Year andover years andover andover years andover Women Men


NORTH AFRICA

Egyptl................. 1976 824 128 7 9,608 774 260 16.3 10.8
Morocco ............... 1971 600 68 13 3,404 160 125 13.5 8.4
Tunisia................ 1975 116 9 2 1,248 41 48 9.5 7.1

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq................... 1977 544 71 17 2,586 89 125 16.2 8.3
Lebanon................ 1970 98 9 2 471 9 22 11.3 6.5
Saudi Arabia............ 1974 297 (NA) (NA) 21,620 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Syria3................ 1970 164 32 4 1,361 82 76 22.1 11.6
Yemen (Sanaa).......... 1975 138 (NA) (NA) 998 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

Non-Arab countries

Turkey................. 1980 26,785 643 275 211,663 659 418 15.7 10.2

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan5.......... 1979 296 48 2 3,503 272 123 17.0 11.3
Iran.................. 1976 1,449 220 25 8,347 416 352 16.9 9.2

1Refers to the Egyptian population only.
2Refers to age 12 years and over.
3Refers to the Syrian Arab population only.
4Refers to age 12 to 14 years.
5Refers to the settled population only.


86 Women in Economic Activity


Women of the World










Table 4.2. Labor Force Participation Rates Among Population Age 10 Years and Over,
by Sex, Female/Male Ratio of Percent Economically Active, and
Percent Female Among Persons in Labor Force
(Rates in percent)



Labor force participation rates

Region and country Both F/M ratio Percent
Year sexes Women Men (male = 1.00) female


NORTH AFRICA

Egypt.............. 1976 38.9 6.2 70.5 0.09 7.9
Morocco........... 1971 38.6 11.5 65.9 0.17 15.0
Tunisia........... 1975 35.3 6.1 64.0 0.10 8.5

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq.............. 1977 40.8 14.6 65.5 0.22 17.4
Jordan ........... 1979 43.3 6.7 77.8 0.09 3.2
Lebanon.......... 1970 38.0 13.3 62.1 0.21 17.2
Saudi Arabia..... 1974 43.7 5.5 75.0 0.07 5.6
Syria ............ 1970 39.1 8.6 68.5 0.13 10.7
Yemen (Sanaa)..... 1975 38.5 8.6 73.8 0.12 12.1

Non-Arab countries

Turkey2........... 1980 60.7 45.1 76.2 0.58 36.8

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan4...... 1979 43.0 6.9 76.8 0.09 7.8
Iran.............. 1976 42.6 12.9 70.8 0.18 14.0

1Refers to the population age 15 years and over.
2Refers to the population age 12 years and over.
3Refers to Syrian Arabs only.
4Refers to the settled population only.


Women of the World


Women in Economic Activity 87







88 Women in Economic Activity Women of the World


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Table 4.6. Female Labor Force Participation Rates, by Age, for Jordan and Turkey:
Latest Two Censuses
(In percent)


Jordan Turkey

Age
1972 1979 1970 1975 1980

All ages 4.4 6.7 50.2 44.0 45.1

12 to 14 years...... 10.2 (NA) 45.0 38.8 41.6
15 to 19 years...... 3.2 3.4 54.4 46.7 49.4
20 to 24 years...... 20.8 15.7 53.1 46.0 47.8
25 to 29 years...... 12.3 13.5 51.9 44.5 44.3
30 to 34 years...... 6.5 8.7 50.5 45.3 44.4
35 to 39 years...... 3.3 5.2 51.9 46.0 47.1
40 to 44 years...... 2.8 3.3 53.1 48.9 49.3
45 to 49 years...... 2.6 2.4 52.9 48.2 50.4
50 to 54 years...... 2.3 2.0 53.6 48.9 49.5
55 to 59 years...... 1.1 1.8 50.0 46.3 46.9
60 to 64 years...... 0.5 1.1 47.6 47.6 43.7
65 years and over... 0.5 0.5 35.1 27.3 23.8

1Refers to age 6 to 14 years.


Note: For Jordan, data are from the 1972 labor
data are from censuses for the respective years.


force survey and the 1979 census. For Turkey,


92 Women in Economic Activity


Women of the Wordd






Women of the World Women in Economic Activity 93


Table 4.7.


Labor Force Participation Rates Among Rural Population Age 10 Years and
Over, by Sex, Female/Male Ratio of Percent Economically Active, and
Percent Female Among Persons in Rural Labor Force
(Rates in percent)


Labor force participation rates

Region and country Both F/M ratio Percent
Year sexes Women Men (male = 1.00) female


NORTH AFRICA

Morocco................ 1971 39.1 9.4 68.2 0.14 11.9

WESTERN SOUTH ASIA

Arab countries

Iraq................... 1977 48.6 25.9 71.7 0.36 26.8
Lebanon................ 1970 37.1 12.8 60.6 0.21 17.0
Syria.................. 1970 41.2 10.6 71.3 0.15 12.7

Non-Arab countries

Turkey1................ 1970 78.9 72.3 86.1 0.84 47.7

MIDDLE SOUTH ASIA

Iran................... 1976 47.2 16.6 77.9 0.21 17.6

1Refers to the population age 12 years and over.


Women of the World


Women in Economic Activity 93




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