• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Outdoor games
 Indoor games
 Evening parlour games
 Ventriloquism, mesmerism, conjuring,...
 Athletic sports, accomplishments,...
 The young workman
 Sports
 Home pets
 Science
 Arts
 Games of skill, etc.
 Riddles, acrostics, etc.
 Index
 Back Cover
 Spine














Group Title: Boy's modern playmate
Title: The boy's modern playmate
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080477/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boy's modern playmate a book of sports, games, and pastimes
Uniform Title: Modern playmate
Physical Description: x, 816 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
McManus-Young Collection (Library of Congress)
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Dalziel Brothers
Publisher: Frederick Warne and Co.
Place of Publication: London ;
New York
Manufacturer: Dalziel Bros., Camden Press
Publication Date: 1891
Edition: New ed., thoroughly rev. to date ; with six hundred original illustrations.
 Subjects
Subject: Amusements -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Games -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sports -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pets -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Outdoor games -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indoor games -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Magic tricks -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Carpentry -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Riddles, Juvenile   ( lcsh )
Acrostics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: originally compiled and edited by J.G. Wood.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by Dalziel.
General Note: Rev. ed. of: Modern playmate.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Source: Gift of John J. and Hanna M. McManus and Morris N. and Chesley V. Young, Oct. 12, 1955.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080477
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239935
notis - ALJ0473
oclc - 37836717
lccn - 93133317

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Outdoor games
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 149
        Page 150
    Indoor games
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
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        Page 182
        Page 183
    Evening parlour games
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
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        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Ventriloquism, mesmerism, conjuring, puzzles
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
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        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Athletic sports, accomplishments, etc.
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
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        Page 385
        Page 386
    The young workman
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 394-1
        Page 394a
        Page 394b
        Page 394c
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        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
    Sports
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
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        Page 497
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        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
    Home pets
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
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    Science
        Page 581
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    Arts
        Page 744
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        Page 749
        Page 750
        Page 751
        Page 752
        Page 753
        Page 754
    Games of skill, etc.
        Page 755
        Page 756
        Page 757
        Page 758
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        Page 797
    Riddles, acrostics, etc.
        Page 798
        Page 799
        Page 800
        Page 801
        Page 802
        Page 803
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    Index
        Page 814
        Page 815
        Page 816
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text










~~,k(AAAA i,


















THE BOY'S MODERN PLAYMATE.















:I





4~- d,-



C:


FRONTISPIECE,


-._






THE


BOY'S


MODERN


PLAYMATE.


A BOOK OF
SPORTS, GAMES, AND PASTIMES.


ORIGINALLY COMPILED AND EDITED BY
THE REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A., F.L.S.,
Author of The Ills.'rated A'atlal His'ory."


A NEW EDITION,
THOROUGHLY REVISED TO DATE,
WITH SIX HUiDRED ORIGINAL ILLUSTRATIONS.








LONDON AND NEW YORK:
FREDERICK WARNE AND CO.
1891.

















PREFACE.
-4---

N a work of this character, but small preface is needed, the title
of the book being its own preface.
The Editor believes that in the pages of "The Boy's Modern Play-
mate" are found the rules and modes of playing every game which is in
vogue at the present day, besides those of games which have yet to
make their way, and of those which have been neglected, but will as-
suredly resume the position which they once occupied. For example, the
simple and almost abandoned game of "Rounders" has risen to a
science under the name of "Base Bill"; while such as Hockey, Foot-
ball, Cricket, Lawn Tennis, and La Crosse, are given as they now exist
after many years of practice have reduced their varied rules to a com-
mon standard.
Such accomplishments as Archery, Boating, Sailing, Shooting, Fishing,
Swimming, .1 ,li._.. Bicycling, Tricycling, and Pedestrianism, have been
entrusted to Authors equally skilful in practice and theory while the
whole of the series entitled "The Young Workman" has been written by
gentlemen who have been trained to their various subjects.
The department which includes Science has been executed by gentle-
men who have obtained a wide reputation by their practical and theo-
retical knowledge; such names as Adams, Cherrill, Cooke, Drayson,







vi PREB ACE.

Preece, and Rowsell, being a sufficient guarantee for the excellence of
their work.
The entire volume has been superintended by those who have had very
many years' experience of English boys and their games, and the Editor
confidently trusts that a book of this nature-original in every possible
point-will supply a hitherto existing want, and become the constant
companion of every one who desires to become a


MODERN PLAYMATE.









NOTE TO THE REVISED EDITION.


A Modern Playmate should be up to date. This new edition contains
the latest authorised laws of every outdoor sport now played in thls
country; and in every other particular is abreast of playground practice
at the month of publication. Owing to the growth in popularity of some
pastimes, and the decline of others a complete re-arrangement of the
book was inevitable, but in finding room for the additions it is hoped
that nothing valuable of the old matter has been sacrificed to make room
for the new.






























CONTENTS.




OUTDOOR GAMES.
OUTDOOR GAMES.


Page
C RICKET .................................................. I
FOOTBALL .............................. 31
IOCKEY....................... ........... ........ 42
ROUNDERS .................................. .... 44
BASE BALL ........... ............ ...................... 46
F IVES ............................... ...................... 56
RACKETS ................................................. 58
TENNIS ........................... .. .......... 61
LAWN TENNIS ......................................... 6
BADMINTON ............ .............................. 68
LA CROSSE ............................................. 6
G OLF ............................................. ........ 7
RINGO.L ................ ........... .. 83
OW LS .............................. ....................... 85
QUOITS ......................... ...................... 89
C ROQUET ............................. .................. 91
SKITTLES ................ .............. .. 98
CURLING .......................... .......... .... 9
ICYCLING AND ThICYCLING ........... ........... 103
DOG-STICK AND SPLENT. ........ ................ 110
DUCK AND DRAKE ................................ I10
LES GRACES ................... ................... III
DUTCH PINS ......................... ............... 112
TRAIP-BALL ............................................ 113
KNURR AND SPELL .............................. .... 113
PITCH STONE ........................................ 114
DUCK STONE ............................................. 115
NINE HOLES ....................................... 116
HOP-SCOTCH .............................. .......... 116
BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLECOCK ............... 117


Page
T IP CAT .................. .. .... ........ 17
AUNT SALLY .................................... 119
KNOCK-'EM-DOWNS.................................... 120
SNOWBALLS ............................................. 121
SNOW CASTLE....................................... 121
SNOW G IANT ........................................... 124
TOBOGGANING, COASTING OR SLEDGING......... 124
H oo s .... ............... ................................ 126
K I ES...... .............. ............ .................. 127
LAWN BILLIARDS ............................. ..... 131
SLING..................... ................. 132
JAVELIN ................ .... ......... 133
BOOMERANG ......................... ............... 134
PEA-SHOOTER .................................... 135
CATAPULT ........................................ .... 136
CLEFT STICK ............................. 137
C ROSS-BOW ....................................... .. 133
THROWING THE CRICKET BALI .................. 138
THROWING THE HAMIMIR ........................... 39
H ARE AND HOUNDS.................................. 139
PRISONERS' BASE ........................... ......... 141
BLACKTHORN ..................................... 142
FOLLOW MY LEADER ............................. 142
I S y ..................... ...... ...................... 143
SLING THE MONKEY ............................... 143
WARNING ............... ..... ...... 144
SPANISH FLY ............................ ............. .. 145
L EAP-FROG .............................. .............. .. 145
FLY THE GARTER...................................-. 145
JINGLING .................... ............................ 146










CONTENTS.


OUTDOOR GAMES-cow'inaued.


Page
T IERCE ............................ .. ............. 146
KING OF THE CASTLE................................ 147
COcK-FIGHTING ........................................ 147
DICKY, SHOW A LIGHT ............... :............ 148
F ox ............... .... .. ... ... .... ....... .. ..... 14
BASTE THE BEAR ...................................... 149


INDOOR

N INE P INS ............................ ................. 151
AMERICAN BOWLS ............................ ........ 151
GAMES WITH MARBLES ............. ... ......... I51
GAMES wVTH TOPS .................................. 59
STOOL BALL ........................................ 159
PUFF AND DART .................................... 164
WATCH SPRING GUN ........ ....................... 165
RING THE BULL .................. .............. 167
JACK'S A LIVE ................................... ...... 63
CANNONADE ................... .............. ...... 169
NAVETTE ................................... ......... 17
COCKAMAROO ............... ............................. 171
GERMAN BILLIARDS .................................. 17
GERMAN PALLS ........ ............................... 172
SKITTLE CANNONADE ............................... 73


Page
TUG OF WAR .......................................... 149
T I ....................................... .. .......... .... 15
CROSS TIG ........................................ 150
TIG TOUCIH-WOOD ...................................... 150
KNIG S ................................................ 150



GAMES.

ROYAL STAR ........................ ................ 174
REVOLVING RING .................................... 174
CUP AND DALL ....................... ............... 174
THE FLYING CONE ................................. 175
THE BANDILORE .................................. 176
THE WATER-CUTTER ............................. 177
CUPOLETTE .............................................. 177
LAWN CUPOLETTE ....................... .. 17
PARLOUR RINGOLETTE .............................. 178
SCHIMMEL ............................................... 179
DUTCHI RACKETS ..................................... 18
S UCK ER .............................. .. ................ .. ISO
SQUAILS................ .............. .......... 8
BAGATELLE ............................................. 182
SPILLIKINS .............................. .... ..... .... 183


EVENING PARLOUR GAMES.

THE OI.D FAMILY COACII .......................... 184 ECHADOW BUFF ....................................... 192
TWIRL TlC I TRENCHER ........... ................ 184 FRIGHT .................................. ............... 193
I SUSS IN TIlE CORNER ........ ........................ 5 SIIHADOWS ....................................... ....... 93
HUNT THE SLIPPICR ............. ................ 185 GERMAN DWARF ................... ................... 194
SMlUDGEOGRAPHS ........................ ... ..... 186 THE GIANT................................................ 196
OUTLINES.................... ......... ....... 16 HEAD, BODY AND LEGS........ ................. 97
BLIND 9MAN S BUFF.................. ............... 187 DECAPITATION ........................................ 198
SIMON SAYS ........................................... 8 WAXWORK .............................................. 198
A BLIND JUDGMENT ......... .... ....... ..... 1i8 CONSEQUENCES .................................... 199
POST .......................... ......... ........... .. 83 ADJECTIVES ........................................ .. 200
KNIGHT OF TIH WIIISTLE ... .. ........... 189 CRAMBO ...................... .......... ........... 200
THE ORATO ..................... ...... ............ 18 DEFINITIONS ............................................. 201
WILD IE\Sr SHIOW ............ ..................... 189 HOW DO YOU LIKE IT? .............................. 202
I RESENTED AT COURT ............................ 190 WHAT IS MY THOUGHT LIKE? ..................... 203
DUMB CRAMBO ....................................... 191 CHARADES IN PANTOMIME ........................ 204
MAGIC MusIC ............................................. g PROVERBS .............................................. 205
HAND SHADOWS ......................................... 92 FORFEITS .............................. .............. 206
P,.PER SHA OWS ON T E WAL ............... ... 92 1 II M 'ERSM ..... ..................... ........... 215










CONTENTS.


VENTRILOQUISM, MESMERISM, CONJURING, PUZZLES.

Page Page
VENTRILOQUISM ................................... 207 CONJURING .... .................. .................. 220
PARLOUR M AGIC ............................. ...... 218 SLEIGHT-OF-HAND TRICKS, ETC.......... ....... 228
CARD T RICKS ............................................ 220 P UZZLES ........................ ............... ...... 241


ATHLETIC SPORTS, ACCOMPLISHMENTS, ETC.


GYM NASTICS .................... ............... 247
THE HORIZONTAL BAR .......................... 23
H ANGING BAR ...................... .............. 258
THE PARALLEL BARS ............................ 25
1 IHE VAULTING HOR E ........................... 261
H ANGING RINGS ..................................... 264
CLIMBING LADLERS, ROIES, POLES, ETC... 266

GYMNASTICS WITHOUT APPARATUS-

THE THREE CHAIRS ..................... ........ 268
KICKING THE CORK................................ 268
THE STOOPING STRETCH ....................... 269
STILTS .......................... ....................... 269


THE WALL-SPRING ...... ..... .............. 270
R IDING ................ ........ ............. ...... 271
D RIVING ............................... ...... ........ 287
ARCHERY ................. ............ ........... 290
FENCING ............................................ 302
RIVER-BOATING ....................................... 322
BOATS ................................................. 325
THE ART OF ROWING............................. 328
BOAT-RACING ....................................... 334
SAILING ................... ............... 336
VSWIM ING .................................... ........ 354
SKATING AND SLIDING ............................ 372
PEDrSTRIANISM AND TRAINING .................. 377


THE YOUNG WORKMAN.


CARPENTERING .................................... 387
PLAIN TURNING IN WOOD AND IVORY......... 395
ORNAMENTAL TURNING ........................... 397
HoW TO MAKE A PUMP ............................ 423
,, ,, STEAM-ENGINE ............ 411
,, W ATER -ENGI.E ............. 432


TlE AMATEUR ENGINEER........................... 410
SHIPBUILDING AND RIGGING........................ 434
KNO S AND SPLICES ............................ 445
GARDENING ............................................. 451
T RA PS ............................ ...................... 458


SPORTS.

FISHING .................................................. 468 FLY-FISHING .......................................... 493
ON RODS, LINES, ETC ........................... 473 SEA FISHING ....................... ............ .. 495
B AITS............ .................. ..... .... ..... 492 S OOTING .................................................. 498


HOME PETS.


CAGE BIRDS ........................... ..... ........ 527
CKOWS, ETC ........................................... .. 542
DOGS ...... ................................. 504
PARROTS ......... .......... ................... ... 545
P IGEONS ............................... ................ 551
DOVES ................ ...... ......... 560
R ABBITS .................. ............................ .64


SQUIRRELS ......... ... .......... .................... 565
H ARES .............................. .... ... ...... 566
HEDGEHOGS..................................... ..... 567
MICE ..................... .......... ....... 567
GUINEA PIG ....................................... 568
T ORTOISES ......................... ................. ... 569
F ER T S ................ ... ....................... ... .. ... 569









x CONTENTS.



SCIENCE.


Page
C HEM ISTRY ................... ..................... 581
O PTICS .......................... .. .............. ..... 599
OPTICAL INSTRUMENIS ........................ 606
Acousics .................................................. 609
MECHANICS ............................................ 617
HYDRAULICS ........................................... 635
ELECTRICITY ............................................ 641
STATIC OR FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY ..... 642
DYMATIC OR CURRENT ELECIRICITY ...... 652


PaSe
SUN-D IALS ........................... .............. 86
THE M ICROSCOPE .................................... 9o
B OTANY.............. ................................ .... 7CI
COLLECTING AND PRESERVING PLANTS ... 724
FERNS .................. .... .................. 727
ENTOMOLOGY ........7.......... .......... ......... 74;
PHOTOGRAPHY ......................................... 670
THE W EATHER ... .. ............................. ... 84
GLASS BLOWING AND WORKING .................. 679



ITS.


SURVEING ... ......................................... 744 PHILATELY, OR POSTAGE-STAMP COLLECIING 574
PERSIECT.VE AND SKETCHING ..................... 750 1



GAMES OF SKILL, ETC.

C HESS .. ........ ... .. ..................... 755 D OM IN ES ................ ........................... .... 77 5
D RAUGIITS ............................................ 772 POLISH D RAUG TS ...................... .... ..... 79t
N INE M EN'S M ORRIS CR lh ORELIE ............ 779 eACKGAMMON.................. ...................... 7%5



RIDDLES, ACROSTICS, ETC.

EN GMAS ............................. ............... ... 798 ANS EllRS TO Q UESTIONS .................. .. .. SlI
RIDDLES ................. . ......... ... 80 ,, TO RIDDLES.... ....... ..... ..... Sl[
A CROSi ICS ........................... ..... ............. 807 TO A CROSTICs... ...... ......... ... 813














S;. ,- ._
;-'"










THE BOY'S

MODERN PLAYMATE.









---f7-- ^ <-77=.--; >-^'- M 7- :-5----
-- .. -= _- -_ --_ -





,-7










CRICKET.
Cricket is the king of all outdoor sports-the game which beyond all others
it behoves English boys to learn and master.
At once the most scientific and the most permanently interesting of all open-
air pastimes; while providing healthy, but not too exhausting, exercise for the
body, it stimulates and excites the mind to action not less wholesome and
agreeable.
Nor do its claims to the proud position asserted for it amongst our English
sports and pastimes rest here. It requires from its followers, and, indeed, culti-
vates and confirms in them, habits of patient, unflagging attention to the work
immediately before them ; for of what worth is a would-be cricketer who cannot
concentrate his whole thought and energy on the game; who should venture
to think, I was not looking," sufficient excuse for a catch missed or a run
lost? Habits of ready obedience and self-negation; for who shall call himself
cricketer who respects not the laws of the game, and regards not the august
decisions of their exponents, who cares not to submit to the wholesome dis-
cipline of his captain, or who, steeped in self-conceit and burning with the
lust of personal distinction, cares rather to play for his own hand, to see his
own name blazoned forth prominently in the score-sheet, than to consult the
I







2 CRICK T.

advantage of his side, or to further its ultimate success ? Habits of presence
of mind and unhesitating readiness of action in emergency; for is not the
whole game but one long series of sudden emergencies, demanding instant
and unhesitating treatment?-and a score of other virtues and moral qualities
on which it were tedious to enlarge.
The game of cricket is of some antiquity amongst us. Like most of our
public institutions, it has risen from small beginnings, little by little, a rule
added here, a licence curtailed there, to its present compact and approximately
perfect form.
Of the early history of the game we have very little record. A game called
creag," played with a bat and ball, and common amongst the Saxons, even
before the Norman conquest, is supposed by the best authorities to be the
germ from which, in the course of many generations, our present game of
cricket has been developed.
It is certain that the game was played, and that commonly, more than two
centuries ago; but in its present form, which differs materially from its earlier
constitution, it has not yet existed a hundred years.
Before the year 1781, the wickets, which now form, as it were, the very cen-
tral point of the game, had no practical existence; the bat was in shape like
a hockey-stick or golf-club; and there were many ether points of divergence
from present practice, such that in effect they must have rendered the cricket
of 1769 an almost totally different game from that of the present day.
As, however, our present purpose is rather with the game of our time than with
that of 1769-rather with actual practice than with past history-we will forbear
any further reference to those dark ages, when wickets as wickets were not,
and when bats were bludgeons, and address ourselves to the task immediately
before us.
It is scarcely possible, and, indeed, it is almost an insult, to suppose that
any English boy, who is old enough to read this, can be ignorant of the general
character and theory of cricket. Nevertheless, for the benefit of such be-
nighted beings, if any such there be, a few lines may be not unreasonably
devoted to a due and concise exposition of the leading features and objects of
the game.
There are two methods of playing cricket, viz., single and double wicket,
differing from each other in many important points, yet in elementary consti-
tution and in most leading points of practice essentially the same. A short
glance, therefore, at first principles may well serve for both.
To play cricket, two opposing parties strive in turn to score as many runs"
as possible from the bowling of their opponents, who, of course, strain all
their energies to reduce this score to the smallest practicable dimensions.
The outing side," through its bowler, strives to knock down the wickets
with the ball, delivered from a given point and under certain restrictions;
while the other or "inning side," through its batsman, defends them with the
bat, and, if possible, strikes the ball away to such a distance that, before it
can be returned, he may be able to run from wicket to wicket one or more
times, and each time this distance is accomplished, one is added to the score
of his party.
If he fail to protect his wicket, or if the ball be caught by the opposite party
after he has hit it and before it touches the ground, or if in any other way
specified in the rules he be put out," he has to retire, and another of his
party takes his place, until they are all in turn thus disposed of, The outing








CRICKET.


side then takes their place at the wickets and becomes the inning side, while
they become the outing side.
When this change has been effected twice in due rotation, each side being
allowed two turns or "innings" at the wickets, the runs that each has made
are added up, and that side which has scored the most wins the day.
Amongst its other recommendations, cricket possesses an advantage over
football and most other outdoor games in the universal identity of its rules.
There is one central club, the Marylebone, better known to cricketers as the
M.C.C., to which, by common consent, the whole body of cricketers looks
for the rules and regulations of the game.
As it is imperatively necessary to know the rules of a game, at least in out-
line, before beginning to play it, the rules of the M.C.C., as authorized and
published in 1889, are here given ; and the young reader who burns with the
hope of one day attaining a cricketer's fame is strongly advised to study closely
and carefully not only the rules themselves, but also the explanatory notes
appended to them.
LAWS OF CRICKET.
I. A MATCH is played between two sides of eleven players each, unless other-
wise agreed to ; each side has two innings, taken alternately, except in
the case provided for in Law 54. The choice of innings shall be decided
by tossing.
2. THE SCORE shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored :---st. So often
as the batsmen after a hit, or at any time while the ball is in play, shall
have crossed and made good their ground from end to end. 2nd. For
penalties under Laws 16, 34, 41, and allowances under 44. Any run or
runs so scored shall be duly recorded by scorers appointed for the pur-
pose. The side which scores the greatest number of runs wins the
match. No match is won unless played out or given up, except in the
case provided for in Law 45.
3. Before the commencement of the match two UMPIRES shall be appointed,
one for each end.
4. THE BALL shall weigh not less than five ounces and a half, nor more
than five ounces and three-quarters. It shall measure not less than
nine inches, nor more than nine inches and one-quarter in circumference.
At the beginning of each innings either side may demand a new ball.
5. THE BAT shall not exceed four inches and one-quarter in the widest
part; it shall not be more than thirty-eight inches in length.
6. THE WICKETS shall be pitched opposite and parallel to each other at
a distance of twenty-two yards. Each wicket shall be eight inches in
width, and consist of three stumps, with two bails upon the top. The
stumps shall be of equal and sufficient size to prevent the ball from
passing through, twenty-seven inches out of the ground. The bails
shall be each four inches in length, and when in position on the top of
the stumps, shall not project more than half-an-inch above them. The
wickets shall not be changed during a. match unless the ground
between them become unfit for play, and then only by consent of both
sides.
7. THE BOWLING CREASE shall be in a line with the stumps; six feet
eight inches in length ; the stumps in the centre ; with a return crease
at each end, at right angles behind the wicket.








CRICKET


8. THE POPPING-CREASE shall be marked four feet from the wicket,
parallel to it, and be deemed unlimited in length.
9. THE GROUND shall not be rolled, watered, covered, mown, or beaten
during a match, except before the commencement of each innings and
of each day's play, when, unless the in-s:de object, the ground shall be
swept and rolled for rnot more than ten minutes. This shall not
prevent the batsman from beating the ground with his bat, nor the
batsman nor bowler from using sawdust in order to obtain a proper
foothold.
o1. The ball must be BOWLED ; if thrown or jerked, the umpire shall call
"no ball."
11. THE BOWLER shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground
behind the bowling-crease, and within the return crease, otherwise the
umpire shall call "NO BALL."
12. If the bowler shall bowl the ball so high over or so wide of the wicket
that, in the opinion of the umpire, it is not within reach of the striker,
the umpire shall call "WIDE BALL."
13. The ball shall be bowled in overs of five balls from each wicket
alternately. When five balls have been bowled, and the ball is finally
settled in the bowler's or wicket-keeper's hands, the umpire shall call
OVER." Neither a no ball nor a wide ball" shall be reckoned as
one of the "over."
14. The bowler may CHANGE ENDS as often as he pleases, provided that he
shall not bowl two overs in succession in the same innings.
15. The bowler may require the batsman at the wicket from which he is
bowling to stand on that side of it which he may direct.
16. THE STRIKER may hit a "no ball," and whatever runs result shall be
added to his score ; but he shall NOT BE OUT from a "no ball," unless
he be run out or break Laws 26, 27, 29, 30. All runs made from a no
ball," otherwise than from the bat, shall be scored "no balls," and if
no run be made one run shall be added to that score. From a wide
ball" as many runs as are run shall be added to the score as wide
balls," and if no run be otherwise obtained one run shall be so added.
17. If the ball, not having been called "wide" or "no ball," pass the
striker, without touching his bat or person, and any runs be obtained,
the umpire shall call BYE"; but if the ball touch any part of the
striker's person (hand excepted), and any run be obtained, the umpire
shall call LEG-BYE," such runs to be scored "byes" and "leg-byes"
respectively.
18. At the beginning of the match, and of each innings, the umpire at the
bowler's wicket shall call PLAY ; from that time no trial ball shall be
allowed to any bowler on the ground between the wickets, and when
one of the batsmen is out, the use of the bat shall not be allowed to
any person until the next batsman shall come in.
19. A batsman shall be held to be "OUT OF HIS GROUND" unless his bat in
hand or some part of his person be grounded within the line of the
popping-crease.
20. The wicket shall le held to be "DOWN" when either of the bails is struck
off, or if both bails be off, when a stump is struck out of the ground.
21. THE STRIKER IS OUT if the wicket be bowled down, even if the ball
first touch the striker's bat or person :--" BOWLED."








CRICKET.


22. Or, if the ball, from a stroke of the bat or hand, but not the wrist, be
held before it touch the ground, although it be hugged to the body of
the catcher:-" CAUGHT."
23. Or, if in playing at the ball, provided it be not touched by the bat or
hand, the striker be out of his ground, and the wicket be put down by
the wicket-keeper with the ball or with the hand or arm, with ball in
hand :--" STUMPED."
24. Or, if with any part of his person he stop the ball, which in the opinion
of the umpire at the bowler's wicket shall have been pitched in a
straight line from it to the striker's wicket alid would have hit it:-
LEG BEFORE WICKET."
25. Or, if in playing at the ball he hit down his wicket with his bat or any
part of his person or dress :-" HIT WICKET."
26. Or, if under pretence of running, or otherwise, either of the batsmen
wilfully prevent a ball from being caught :-" OBSTRUCTING THE
FIELD."
27. Or, if the ball be struck, or be stopped by any part of his person, and
he wilfully strike it again, except it be done for the purpose of guarding
his wicket, which he may do with his bat, or any part of his person,
except his hands:-" HIT THE BALL TWICE."
28. EITHER BATSMAN IS OUT if in running, or at any other time, while the
ball is in play, he be out of his ground, and his wicket be struck down
by the ball after touching any fieldsman, or by the hand or arm (with
ball in hand) of any fieldsman :-" RUN OUT."
29. Or, if he touch with his hands or take up the ball while in play, unless
at the reqvusl of the opposite side:-" HANDLED THE BALL."
30. Or, if he wi-fully obstruct any fieldsman :- OBSTRUCTING THE
FIELD."
31. If the BATSMEN HAVE CROSSED each other, he that runs for the
wicket which is put down is out; if they have not crossed, he that has
left the wicket which is put down is out.
32. The striker being caught No RUN shall be scored. A batsman being
run out, that run which was being attempted shall not be scored.
33. A batsman being out from any cause, the ball shall be DEAD."
34. If a ball in play cannot be found or recovered, any fieldsman may call
LOST BALL," when the ball shall be dead" ; six runs shall be added to
the score ; but if more than six runs have been run before "lost ball"
has been called, as many runs as have been run shall be scored.
35. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the wicket-keeper's or
bowler's hand, it shall be "dead"; but when the bowler is about to
deliver the ball, if the batsman at his wicket be out of his ground
before actual delivery, the said BOWLER MAY RUN HIM OUT; but if the
bowler throw at that wicket and any run result, it shall be scored "no
ball."
36. A batsman shall not RETIRE from his wicket and return to it to complete
his innings after another has been in, without the consent of the
opposite side.
37. A SUBSTITUTE shall be allowed to field or run between wickets for any
player who may during the match be incapacitated from illness or
injury, but for no other reason, except with the consent of the opposite
side.








CRICKET T.


38. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the CONSENT OF
THE OPPOSITE SIDE shall be obtained as to the person to act as
substitute, and the place in the field which he shall take.
39. In case any substitute shall be allowed to run between wickets, the
striker may be run out if EITHER HE OR HIS SUBSTITUTE be out of his
ground. If the striker be out of his ground while the ball is in play,
that wicket which he has left may be put down and the striker given
out, although the other batsman may have made good the ground at
that end, and the striker and his substitute at the other end.
40. A batsman is liable to be out for ANY INFRINGEMENT of the laws by
his substitute.
41. THE FIELDSMAN may stop the ball with any part of his person, but if
he wilfully stop it otherwise, the ball shall be "dead," and five runs
added to the score ; whatever runs may have been made, five only
shall be added.
42. THE WICKET KEEPER shall stand behind the wicket. If he shall take
the ball for the purpose of stumping before it has passed the wicket, or if
he shall incommode the striker by any noise, or motion, or if any part
of his person be over or before the wicket, the striker shall not be out,
excepting under Laws 26, 27, 28, 29, and 3o.
43. THE UMPIRES are the SOLE JUDGES of fair or unfair play, of the fitness
of the ground, the weather, and the light for play ; all disputes shall be
determined by them, and if they disagree, the actual state of things
shall continue.
44. They shall pitch fair wickets, arrange BOUNDARIES where necessary, and
the allowances to be made for them, and CHANGE ENDS after each side
has had one innings.
45. They shall allow TWO MINUTES for each striker to come in, and TEN
MINUTES between each innings. When they shall call "play," the side
refusing to play shall lose the match.
46. They shall not order a batsman out unless APPEALED to by the other
side.
47. The UMPIRE AT THE BOWLER'S WICKET shall be appealed to before
the other umpire in all cases except in those of stumping, hit wicket,
run out at the striker's wicket, or arising out of Law 42, but in any
case in which an umpire is unable to give a decision, he shall appeal
to the other umpire, whose decision shall be final.
48. If the umpire at the bowler's end be not satisfied of the absolute
FAIRNESS OF THE DELIVERY of any ball, he shall call "no ball."
49. The umpire shall take especial care to call "no ball" INSTANTLY upon
delivery; "wide ball" as soon as it shall have PASSED THE STRIKER.
50. If either batsman run a short run, the umpire shall call ONE SHORT,"
and the run shall not be scored.
51. AFTER THE UMPIRE HAS CALLED "over," the ball is "dead," but an
appeal may be made as to whether either batsman is out, such appeal,
however, shall not be made after the delivery of the next ball, nor after
any cessation of play.
52. No umpire shall be allowed to BET.
53. No umpire shall be CHANGED during a match, unless with the consent
of both sides, except in case of violation of Law 52 ; then either side
may DISMISS him.








CRICIE T.


54. The side which goes in second shall FOLLOW their innings if they have
scored eighty runs less than the opposite side. On the last day of a
match, and in a one-day match at any time, the in-side may DECLARE
THEIR INNINGS at an end.
ONE DAY MATCHES.
I. The side which goes in second shall follow their innings if they have
scored sixty runs less than the opposite side.
2. The match, when not played out, shall be decided by the first innings.
3. Prior to the commencement of a match it may be agreed that the over
consist of five or six balls.
THE LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET.
The Laws are, where they apply, the same as the above, with the following alterations
and additions.
I. One wicket shall be pitched as in Law 6 ; with a bowling-stump opposite
to it, at a distance of twenty-two yards. The bowling-crease shall be
in a line with the bowling-stump ; and drawn according to Law 7.
2. When there shall be less than five players on a side, bounds shall be
placed twenty-two yards each in a line from the off and leg stump.
3. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a run,
which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling stump or
crease in a line with his bat, or some part of his person, or go beyond
them, and return to the popping-crease.
4. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on the
ground, behind the popping-crease, otherwise the umpire shall call
"no hit," and no run shall be scored.
5. When there shall be less than five players on a side, neither byes, leg.
byes, nor overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught
out behind the wicket, nor stumped.
6. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the ground
between the wicket and the bowling-stump, or between the bowling-
stump and the bounds ; the striker may run till the ball be so returned.
7. After the striker shall have made one run, if he start again he must
touch the bowling-stump or crease, and turn before the ball cross the
ground to entitle him to another.
8. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the same
number for ball wilfully stopped by a fieldsman, otherwise than with
any part of his person.
9. When there shall be more than four players on a side there shall be no
bounds. All hits, byes, leg-byes, and overthrows shall then be
allowed.
o1. There shall be no restriction as to the ball being bowled in overs, but
no more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.
LAWS OF COUNTY CRICKET.
The following were established as the laws of county qualification, at a meeting held in the Surrey
County Pavilion, Kennington Oval, on June 9th, 1870. Representatives present from Surrey, Middle*
sex, Sussex, Kent, Gloucestershire, and Nottinghamshire.
I. That no cricketer, whether amateur or professional, shall play for more
than one county during the same season.
II. Every cricketer born in one county and residing in another shall be
free to choose at the commencement of each season for which of these









8 CRICKET T.

counties he will play, and shall, during that season, play for that county
only.
III. A cricketer shall be qualified to play for any county in which he is re-
siding and has resided for the previous two years ; or a cricketer may elect
to play for the county in which his family home is, so long as it remains open
to him as an occasional residence.
IV. That, should any question arise as to the residential qualification, the
same should be left to the decision of the Committee of the Marylebone Club.
V. That a copy of these rules be sent to the Marylebone Club, with a
request that they be adopted by the club.
DOUBLE WICKET.



7-.C B1 ______r. e
a ft s.v. 5 ft






i



Unlimited.


ss s, the Stumps (the three together forming the Vicket);
n c, the Bowling-crease; c, the Return-crease, p c, the
Poppiag-crease.
SINGLE WICKET.





13i
'en
I wi
s -.----- -----


B, the Bowling-stump, Crease, &c.;
b b, the Bo.udaries.


w, the Wickets, with Popping-crease, as :n
double wicket;







CRICKET.


IMPLEMENTS.-The bat. This is limited in Law 5 both as to length and
width; but the thickness and weight are left to the fancy and capacity of the






r-,
I ii




V ,V













player. In a general way, a tall man can use a heavier bat than a short one.
About 2 lb. is a fair weight for a player of middle height and ordinary muscular
development.
Although it is a great mistake to play with too heavy a bat-for nothing so
cramps the style, and so entirely does away with that beautiful wrist-play
which is the ne fluts ultra of good batting, as attempting to play with a bat
of a weight above one's powers; yet extreme lightness is still more to be de-
precated: it is useless for hard hitting, and can therefore do little in the way of
run-getting against a good field; shooters," too, will be apt to force their way
past its impotent defence.
The points most to be looked for in a bat are these:-First, weight suited
to the player. The young player should play with a heavier bat every year,
until he attains to his full stature. Don't let him think it "manly" to play with
a full-sized bat before he is thoroughly up to the weight and size: it is much
more manly to make a good score.
Secondly, good thickness of wood at the drive and lower end of the bat,
i.e., at the last six inches or so.
Thirdly, balance. Badly balanced bats give a sensation as of a weight
attached to them when they are wielded, while a well-balanced one plays
easily in the hand. Experience alone can teach the right feel of a bat.
1*








CRICKET


The outward appearance of a bat must not always be taken as a certain in-
dication of its inherent merits: varnish and careful getting up may hide many
a defect. There are many fancies, too, in favour of different grains: a good
knot or two near the lower end is generally a good sign; but, after all, nothing
but actual trial of each several "bit of willow can decide its real merits or
defects.
Last, but. not least, the hJandle is a very important consideration. Cane
handles, pure and scl:ple, or in composition with ash or other materials, are
the best: some prefer oval handles, some round. The handle should, at least,
be as thick as the player can well grasp: a thick handle greatly adds to the
driving power of the bat ; it is also naturally stronger, and therefore more
lasting. A good youth's bat costs about eight shillings.
It should be remembered that a good bat, like good wine, improves with
keeping.
In purchasing balls, wickets, and other needful "plant," it will be found
better economy to pay a little more in the beginning, and thus get a good
article. With reasonable care, such first-class goods will last out whole
generations of the more cheaply got-up articles, and prove more satisfactory
throughout into the bargain.
In choosing wickets, attention must be paid to two points: first, that each
stump be perfectly straight; and, secondly, that it be free from flaws or knots.
The least weakness is sure to be found out sooner or later.
Great attention should be paid to the bails, that they are exactly of the
right size, especially that they are not too long. The least projection beyond
the groove in the stump may make all the difference between out" and "not
out,"-between, perhaps, winning a match and losing it.
Stumps and bails, with ordinary care, ought to last a very long time. The
chief thing to guard against is their lying about in the wet, or being put away
damp : moisture is very apt to warp them.
So that the gloves and padsfit, the player may be left pretty much to his own
discretion in selecting a pattern. Vulcanized India rubber is the best for gloves.
Spiked or nailed shoes are a necessity. The player may please himself in
the vexed question of spikes v. nails. Many players keep two pairs of shoes
-with spikes for wet and slippery ground, with nails for dry ground.
It is hardly worth while for a boy in the rapid-growing stage to set up a
regularly built pair of cricketing-shoes: an admirable substitute may be
foun ', though, in the ordinary canvas shoes, as used for rackets, &c., price
half a crown; a few nail, will make them answer all the purposes of the more
legitimate article.
Parents and guardians may be informed that a proper costume of flannel
and shoes is actually better economy than condemning a boy to play in his
ordinary clothes; and for this reason-flannels are made to suit the exigences
of the game, loose where they should be loose, and vice ve-rs, without regard
to the exigences of fashion; they are cheaper, and are nevertheless more
lasting, than ordinary cloth clothes; they never get shabby, will wash when
dirty, and will carry a darn or patch without detriment to their dignity; they
are not injured by perspiration or wet; and, above all, they are great pre-
servatives against colds and other ailments.
Shoes may put in much the same claim. Cricket is marvellously destruc-
tive of the ordinary walking-boot; is it not then better to substitute a cheaper
and more durable article ?









CRICKET. it

If spikes be chosen, they should be arranged thus: 0 Cs not, as is
more usual, thus: ( [e A very short experience
will show the "rca- Q son why." In choosing spikes, care should
be taken to obtain good length and small diameter; a squat, clumsy spike is
an awful nuisance. If nails be the choice, they should not be put much nearer
than a.t intervals of an inch, otherwise they will be liable to clog.
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS.-Before entering upon the science of the
game, I would especially impress upon the minds of my young readers the
desirability of doing things in the rig-t way.
If they play cricket, let that cricket be their very best; any little extra
trouble at first will be more than repaid by the results. It is not given to every
man to be a first-rate cricketer; but most men might play far better than they
do, and many men, who now hardly deserve the name of players, might, with
very little expenditure of trouble in their younger days, have been now men of
mark in the cricketing world.
Be it remembered, then, that there is a riglit way to perform each function
of cricket, and a wrong way, or perhaps I should rather have said, innumer-
able wrong ways.
Now, this rigkt way will hardly come of itself: cricket, by the light of
Nature only, would be a prodigy indeed. The beginner must, therefore, first
ascertain what this -right way is, and thenceforth strive continually to practise
and perfect himself in it, whether it be in batting, bowling, or fielding, until
habit has become a second nature.
And not only must the learner cultivate -good habits, he must diligently
eschew all bad ones ; for bad habits are wonderfully easy of acquirement, but,
once acquired, can hardly ever be completely shaken off.
It is all very well to say, I know the right way, and that is enough," and
then, from sheer laziness or indifference, go the wrong; but when it comes to
the point of practical experience, it will be found that the bad habit will have
an uncomfortable knack of coming into play at critical moments, just when
it is least desired.
For cricket, it should be remembered, is a series of surprises. Give a man
time to think, and he can decide between the right way and the wrong; but
time to ltink is just the very thing a man does not get at cricket: instant,
unhesitating action is his only chance.
If he has habituated himself to one only method of action, he must, he can,
only act in accordance with it; but if there be several conflicting habits, who
shall say which shall be the one that comes first to hand in an emergency?
Let the young cricketer then-and the old one, too, for the matter of that
-make this his rule and study, to make every ball he bowls, he bats, or
he fields, one link more in the chain of good habits, one step farther on the
road to success.

SCIENCE OP THE GAME.
DATTING- BOWLING-FIELDING, ETC.
BATTING.-Like boxing, fencing, &c., batting is quite as much an affair of
the legs and of the body generally as of the hands and arms-at first sight,
the parts almost solely concerned.
The beginner, therefore, must not think that, when he has learnt to hold his








CRICKE T


bat correctly, and to wield it with tolerable facility, he has mastered the
main principles of the art ; he has, indeed, scarcely even acquired the most
rudimentary knowledge of them.
Every kind of ball-it may almost be said every ball-demands for its
proper treatment a distinctly specific attitude of the whole body, by which,
and which only, the bat can be brought to bear with the fullest attainable
effect, or, indeed, with any effect worth speaking of at all; and this attitude,
to avail the batsman anything, must be assumed with unhesitating promptness
and decision the instant a correct judgment of the ball can be formed, which
should be almost as soon as it has left the bowler's hand. A really fine player
"forms," as the phrase goes, at the very instant the ball is delivered.
Demosthenes, being asked the three chief essentials of good oratory, re-
plied, Firstly, action; secondly, action; and, thirdly, action." And so of
batting: the first, second, and third essentials for a good bat are attitude,
attitude, attitude; or, in more hackneyed and familiar phrase, "Attitude is
everything."
It would be impossible, if, indeed, it were necessary, to describe and figure
in the short space of a few pages, every conceivable attitude that can be as-
sumed by the batsman; but the young beginner will find the succeeding cuts
and accompanying explanations and instructions more than sufficient for all
his wants.
A slight expenditure of time and trouble in mastering their leading principles
and details, and a little well-directed zeal and perseverance in reducing them
to practice-care being always taken not to form bad or conflicting habits-
will, in a wonderfully short time, enable even a mere boy to acquire a style
and precision to which very many players only attain after years of hard
practice, and to which, sooth to say, the large majority never attain at all.
Let the young batsman only beware of two t-.ings-of falling in with the too
common custom of mere desultory batting and bowling, than which nothing
is more prolific in the formation of bad habits, fatal to all correct play; and,
secondly, of aspiring to play with a bat of a weight and size in excess of his
powers-an ambition only to be gratified at the expense of acquiring and con-
firming a heavy, ungainly, and, therefore, incorrect and inefficient style.
How TO HOLD THE BAT.-Grasp the handle firmly from behind, near the
shoulder, with the right hand, bringing the fingers well round in ficnt, the
thumb meeting them from the other side, and passing beyond but on the lower
side of the forefinger, and firmly pressed against it; then, placing the lower
end of the blade on the ground, with the face towards the bowler, and the
handle inclined a little forward, bring the left hand down to the font of the
handle, and grasp it above the right hand, the knuckles to the front, and the
thumb pointed downwards. The handle of the bat must lie along the inside
of the left wrist, and only slightly out of the line of the fore-arm (see Fig.
2). This attitude of the hands appears at first to the unaccustomed novice
cramped and ungraceful; but a little practice will render it not only perfectly
easy, but, if he so please, perfectly graceful too.
But this is not the only way in which, in wielding the bat, the hands grasp
the handle; if so, the bat would have little play, and its only possible move-
ments would be those of a pendulum. By shifting the left hand round from
the front to the rear of the handle, still retaining the grasp of the right, a
wonderful addition of power is obtained over the bat: instead of the arms
and bat forming one long rigid line, rotating only at the shoulder, there will








CRICKET 13


FIG. 2.
THE CHIEF POSITIONS:-The block, the cover, the leg hit, the cut, the drive and the draw.

now be added motion of the elbow and perfectly unlimited capacity of action
at the wrist.
This shifting the hand from front to rear of the handle and back again, to
be done smoothly and with perfect facility, will require some trouble and
attention before it is mastered ; but, as it is the very sine qud non of scientific
and, therefore, of effective batting, it will well repay the trouble expended
upon it.
The beginner will find it a useful plan to exercise himself in these and the
following practices and positions at odd times, when he has a few minutes to
spare, with a bat only; or a stick will do. A very fair mastery of the bat may
be obtained without ever playing a ball, as a man may acquire some proficiency
as a marksman without firing a shot.
The next point to which the learner must direct his attention is POSITION.
In standing at the wickets, he must first ascertain-from the umpire at the
bowler's wicket, if any umpire there be-the exact spot on the popping-crease
at which his bat, when held upright, conceals the middle stump of his wicket
from a person standing where the bowler will deliver his ball: this spot is
called the "block."
Having found this "block" (by the way, he should carefully mark it by
scratching the crease in some way, as most convenient), he must take up his
position as follows. Holding the bat as in Fig. 2, he must ground the lower
end of it at block; the right foot must be planted just inside, and parallel
with, the popping-crease; the toe about two or three inches from, and slightly
in advance of, the bat ; the left foot must be advanced slightly, its toe pointing
in the direction of the bowler, both feet planted firmly on the ground, the







CRICKET.


weight resting chiefly on the right, both knees straightened up, the body as
upright as the position of the bat will allow, the left elbow well up, the left
shoulder turned towards the bowler, the head erect and looking over the left
shoulder watching for the ball. This is called the first position. It
ensures an upright bat-the great desideratum of safe play-and gives
the striker a command over any awkward twistings or shootings of the ball
unattainable by any other means. It does not, however, put him into a posi-
tion to strike with any effect: some change has to be made. As the ball is
delivered, the striker throws back the point of his bat to the bails, shifting his
left hand from front to rear of the handle as above described, using the right
wrist as a pivot: in this position the striker is ready for anything. Should
the ball rise or twist, there the bat is waiting for it; should it give an opening
for a hit, the hit will be made with all
the more force and effect; or should it
shoot along the ground-most deadly
of possibilities-the bat's own weight
will almost alone bring it back to the r''
safe position of guard." This position i
is called make ready" (see Fig. 3).
As it is the bowler's first object to knock '
down the wickets, so it must be the
batsman's first object to keep them up:
the integrity of his wickets is the prime .
necessity of the striker's existence; de-
fence, therefore, before d&iance, must
be the learner's motto.
Many balls, if they do not possess
any further element of danger than their ---
straightness, may be safely met and-
played in the form of Fig. 3; but a good-
bowler will take care to pitch the ball
in such a manner as to make this de-
fence, if not impracticable, at least ex-
tremely hazardous. A ball that pitches
from a yard and a half to two yards FIG 3.
from the bat, according to the speed of
the bowling, is called a "length ball," because it pitches just the right length
to be most puzzling to the batsman; and it can only be met with reasonable
safety in one of two ways-either by playing forward and stopping it at the
pitch, or by playing back, and thus gaining time to judge its flight after it takes
the ground.
It should be remembered that the only puzzling part of a ball's flight is after
it takes the ground, not only because, having less distance to travel, it gives
the striker less time to judge it, but because any bias or spin imparted
to it by the bowler can only take effect when it comes into contact with the
ground.
By forward play, the batsman is enabled to smother the ball before this bias
has time to produce much effect; and by back play he gains time to prepare
for, and meet, any unexpected eccentricity in its line of flight.
Forward play is only of service when the pitch is so near that the batsman
can, by reaching forward, get so well over it as to render it next to impossible








CRICKET. 15











At









FI. 4. FIG. .

for the ball, however much it may twist or shoot, to evade the bat; if he can-
not safely reckon upon this, he had better have recourse to back play.
Every ball may be met by back play, and now-a-days it is the more favoured
method; but, none the less, forward play, where it is applicable, is not only
the safest, but the most effective play.
By reaching forward, it will often be possible to make a good hit off a ball
that it might otherwise be difficult to keep from the wickets; whereas, in play-
ing back, it is hardly possible to do more than pat the ball away for one run.
FORWARD PLAY (see Fig. 4) is managed thus: The striker being in the
attitude of "make ready," keeping his right foot, of course, on the ground
inside the popping-crease, strides out with his left, and, leaning well forward,
thrusts his bat in front of him in the path of the ball.
In doing this the bat must be kept rigidly in line with the middle stump,
the handle inclined neither to the right or the left, or it may leave an unguarded
spot for the ball to get past; the handle must, however, be inclined well fr-
ward towards the bowler, that, in case the ball should rise a little too quickly,
it may be beaten back again to the ground, lest flying off the bat it fall a prey
to some ready fieleksman.
In this attitude both hands will be behind the bat, and both, more especially
the right, should hold it in a firm grip; the left shoulder must be thrust for-
ward, and the left elbow be well up.
The learner should practise this and, indeed, all the other positions by him-
self, without a bowler, until he can assume them mechanically, and so be free
to concentrate all his thoughts upon the bowling.
BACK PLAY (see Fig. 5) is, as its name implies, the opposite in every way
of the preceding. The left foot stands fast; the right is thrown back almost








CRICKET


up to the wicket; the upper part of the body leans over the right knee; and
the bat hangs suspended perpendicularly from the wrists, its shoulder level
with the bails, the hands grasping the handle as in Fig. I. Thus posed, the
batsman waits for the ball: if it shoot, he can be down on it; if it rise, he
meets it by a slight movement of his wrist at the moment of contact (the
bat, by the way, in this and all other cases, must never be allowed to hang
a dead weight in the hands), plays the ball down if it be perfectly straight, or
away into the field if it be not.
The young player must learn to make these changes of position with un-
wavering smoothness and certainty. The least unsteadiness of hand or foot
will almost inevitably prove fatal.
He must, above all things, keep constantly before his mind the golden rule,
that the only safety to his wicket lies in rigidly straight/ lay, that is, in meet-
ing the ball with a bat always, as far as inclination to one side or another is
concerned, accurately perpendicular.
HITTING.-The next thing for the beginner, after learning the method of
handling his bat, and the most advantageous method of standing and pre-
paring for the ball, is to learn how to hit. This is not so simple a matter as
might be supposed. Anybody, it is true, can, the first time he handles a bat,
strike the ball with it with more or less force, according to his muscular
strength and natural aptitude; but this is not killing in the cricketer's sense
of the word.
In the first place, a hit, to be clean," requires that the ball should leave the
bat at a distance of from five to eight inches from its point; and the bat itself
must by no means be made to swing round in a huge circle like a sack or a
one-armed windmill, but must be wielded with a short, vigorous, combined
action of the wrists, arms, and shoulders.
In hitting, there are four leading principles to be always kept in mind: hit
har'd, hit late, hit low, and hit by sziht, not by guess. Every hit should be
made with all the force you can bring to bear upon it, since every yard that
the ball is driven adds to the chances of a run, and every run lost or gained is
so much gain or loss to the fortunes of the innings side.
The young batsman should especially cultivate the knack of dropping down
heavily upon shooters," i.e., balls that, after they pitch, run or shoot along the
ground, instead of rising. Most players are content merely to "block" such
balls, that is, to bring the bat down to meet them, with only sufficient force
to stop them or drive them back a short distance, content with merely
rendering them innocuous. But, with a quick hand, a good eye, and a little
practice, the young player may learn to do better than this; he may learn not
only to play these, the most deadly of all balls, with confident security, but
even to drive them away with such force as to make runs from them.
To do this, he must follow the ball carefully with his eye every inch of the
way from the bowler's hand to his bat, and, waiting till it is just on the point
of passing him, bring his bat forcibly to meet it, giving a kind of push or
shove forward at the moment of impact. It is astonishing how far a ball,
blocked in this manner, can be driven by a skilful player.
Hitting should be always as late as possible, that is, the ball should in most
cases be allowed to be level with the body at the moment the bat meets it,
because in that way alone the full force of the stroke is expended in propelling
the ball; whereas, if the hit be made a little earlier, as is mostly the case with
ordinary players, or too late, much of the strength is wasted in the air.








CRICKET. 17

Hitting should be low, that is, the ball should be rather sent skimming
along the ground than soaring in tt1 air, partly, as may be well understood,
for safety, that the striker may not be caught out, and, partly, because in that
way, on good ground, the same expenditure of force drives the ball farther
than by sky-hitting."
Sky-hitting is more attractive to the novice, and far more applauded by the
uninitiated outsiders, than low ground hitting; but the latter is the safer and
the more effective, and therefore indisputably the correct method. A dashing,
slashing sky-hitter may occasionally, with good fortune, make a good score;
but the low hitter is the safe man, and, cateris paribus, will in the long run
make better scores.
And, above all things, hitting should be by sight, not by guess. Too many
players, some even among the very best, habitually hit, not at the spot where
DIAGRAM C,

O.d, c"S.






eLd..

Omid f i.
^ ^ .... ^ -. -----------: "



On O side. P .





w w, Wickets; B, Bowler; s. Slip; Sn., Snick; c, Cut; C.h., Cover-hit; O.d., Drive to the off;
L.., L ng-off; F.d., Forward-drive; L.n., Long-on; M.w., Mid-wicket; S.1, Squ re-leg;
L, Leg hit; D, Draw.
N.B.-The dotted lines only indicate the general direction of each hit.

they see the ball is, but where they think it will be. It is true that, if their cal-
culation be correct, they are thus enabled, by being beforehand with the ball,
to hit well away many that would be otherwise highly difficult to get away at all.
A good eye and good judgment may enable a man to pursue this course
with considerable impunity, or, indeed, with some success for a time; but it
does not pay in the long run: he is sure, in the end, to have his share of "luck,"
in the shape of shooters," and against them he is powerless, for he can only
hit on the chance of the ball rising.
The ball, too, will constantly, after it pitches, change its direction, or un-
expectedly rise higher than ordinary. Fortunate, in these cases, must the
guess-hitter be who does not "put up a catch" for the expectant fieldsmen.
Every ball, according to its greater or less accuracy to the distance of the








CRICKET.


point where it first pitches from the batsman, and to the manner in which it
comes in from the pitch--whether, that is, it rise, twist, or shoot-requires a
totally distinct method of treatment, a different action of the bat, and a diffe-
rent attitude of the body.
As it would be impossible, as I said above, to figure and describe here in
detail every hit upon the ball, the leading and representative hits only have
been delineated and described, while the less marked variations have received
only a passing, but perhaps amply sufficient, notice.
HITS.-The accompanying Diagram C will show, without need of further
explanation, all the hits that are on the ball.
The hit is said to be made on or offas the ball is driven into the field on the
left or right side of the batsman as he faces the bowler.
SLIP.-Properly speaking, slip is not a hit at all, inasmuch as the ball
acquires no additional impulse from the bat; it is only from fast bowling that
it can in any way be of much effect in obtaining runs. In order to make it,
the batsman has only, in case of a rising ball, to let a ball passing a little wide
of the off stump (i.e., the stump farthest from the batsman, the others
being called "middle" and "leg" (glance from his bat, and, if it have any
speed, it will do the rest for itself. He must however, be very careful, in
doing this to a rising ball, to slant the
handle of his bat well over the ball, so
as to play it on to the ground before it
reaches the ready fingersof short-slip,"
who else may bring his innings to an
untimely close.
If the ball be along the ground the
bat should be brought down hard uipcn
it, and more of a hit attempted. This
will, in all probability, drive it between
"slip proper" and cut," where the field
is generally somewhat unguarded.
If a low or ground ball be some six
inches or so wide of the wicket, a modi- -
fication of the slip" may be advan-
tageously employed. The striker must
wait until the ball is well up, and then,
stepping back with his right foot, and -
facing in the direction of cut," bring -
the bat down upon it with a sharp, quick
action of the wrists; the ball will fly off
in the same direction as the preceding.
If well timed and skilfully executed, '-
this hit is most effective. Its technical
name, somewhat expressive, but far .
from graceful, is snicking."
CUT.-The cut proper (Fig. 6) is not FIG. 6.
employed so freely now, in these days
of round-arm bowling, as it used to be in the olden days of underhand, not
because the requisite skill is wanting, but because the present style of bowl-
ing does not favour its use; none the less, it is a useful variation to know and
to practise, for there are some balls, especially if the bowling be in any de-








CRICKET


gree loose, which can be effectively hit or, in cricket parlance, made use of"
in no other way.
The cut is only suited to a ball somewhat to the off, and should, except by
a skilled player, be only attempted with one that is distinctly at least three or
four inches wide of the off stump; a ball much nearer to the wicket can be
much more safely, and mostly quite as effectively, played with an upright
bat.
The cut proper is made by dropping back the right foot towards the wicket,
throwing the bat back over the right shoulder, and then lashing at the ball
just as it is passing the wicket. Some players, in delivering the cut, employ
a quick motion of the wrist: this hit is very neat in appearance, and possesses
this advantage over the former, that it can be made more quickly, and there-
fore allows more time to judge the ball and to guard against accidents; it has
not, however, the driving power of the cut proper, and is, therefore, less effec-
tive. The cut proper can only be made from a rising ball.
The other variety of the cut is, on the whole, preferable to the above. It
is suited to any off ball that "gets up" at all from the ground; it is much
safer, as it always offers a straight bat--the great desideratum of all true
defence-to any twisting or other dangerous peculiarity of the ball, and at
the same time, especially with a tall player, it is little less effective in propelling
power. It has this further recommendation, too, by no means to be despised,
that it gives the batsman a greater power both of playing down the ball and
of placing" it.
COVER-HIT.-This hit is useful with an over-pitched off ball. Let the young
player play hard forward at the pitch, in the attitude of Fig. 3, stepping, of
course, slightly across the line of wickets with his left leg, and the hit will re-
sult of itself. To avoid accidents in the way of catches, the handle of the
bat should be brought well over the ball.
To give full efficiency to this and all similar hits, the bat must be grasped
tightly in the hand, and the ball not only struck, but pushed vigorously forward
by a combined action of the right arm and shoulder, after the manner of a
shoulder-hit in boxing.
DRIVE.-A ball is said to be driven when it is sent back from the bat in,
or nearly in, the direction in which it came. The skilful cricketer is known
by his driving ; it is the mere artful dodger who gets his runs by snicks and
leg hits. To drive neatly is almost as difficult as to cut well.
An over-pitched ball somewhat nearer in line of the off-stump than for
cover-hit, would go for an off-drive ; one on, or almost on, the off stump, goes
to long off; one quite straight, for forward drive ; and one a little to leg (i.e.,
either in a line with or a little wide of the leg-stump), goes to the on.
If the ball be only a little over-pitched, the hit may be made as in cover-hit;
but if pitched well up, so that the point at which it takes and leaves the ground
is well within the batsman's reach, he has two choices before him-either, with
the full swing of his bat, to pick it up at the half-volley," that is, just as it
rises from the ground-the most effective method of hitting a ball-and lift
it well over the heads of all the outlying fieldsmen-a magnificent and telling
_it, if successful; or, by stepping a little forward with his left foot, bring his
left shoulder well over it, and drive it all along the ground.
The latter of these two, though less showy, is in general quite as effective,
and assuredly infinitely safer. They are both valuable in their degree, though







CRICKET


to the young beginner the drive along the ground is more particularly com-
mended for practical use. The soaring hit may occasionally be dangerous: the
drive along the ground is always safe.
Some players will even go forward to meet some balls, and, taking them at
half-volley, make over-pitched balls of them. This, however, is only safe on
a perfectly true ground, and hardly even then; for a mistake, it should be
remembered, can hardly fail to be fatal. Perhaps the chief peril of this "going-
in" lies in its extreme fascination. A successful hit is at once so brilliant and
so profitable-for the ball is sent to the least guarded part of the field-that
the temptation is almost irresistible to try the same hit again; and in cricket,
as in other matters, success has a strong tendency to make men rash. It is
extraordinary how many wickets are lost, even in our great matches, through
this "going-in." It is, however, a useful variation; and, with loose bowling,
piles up the runs at a ruinous rate. Of course, if there be no wicket-keeper,
more liberties may be taken.
MID-WICKET HIT is either a variety of the on-hit, and is the result of pre-
cisely similar play on the part of the batsman, a little extra wideness of the
ball to leg carrying it out into mid-field-on in-
stead of long-on ; or it is brought about by what
used to be called the CAMBRIDGE POlKE
(Fig. 7) from its principal cultivation being
assigned to the credit of the Cambridge players.
It is, as will be seen, not a very elegant style
of hitting, but, with those who have acquired a
mastery over it, it is far from ineffective; but,
on the whole, it is scarcely of such utility as to
make it worth the beginner's time and trouble
spent in learning it-the more so, that almost
any ball which can be met by the Cambridge
poke can be played with equal ease, accuracy,
and success in other and more ordinary forms.
SQUARE LEG, like many other hits, may be
made in two ways, either by meeting forward,
with a straight bat, a ball a little wide of the
leg-stump, thus causing it to fly off almost at
right angles to its former course, or as in Fig. 8,
by stepping out with the left foot, "swiping"
round at the ball, the bat pointing directly to
the pitch. This latter is a very effective hit,
and, if care be taken to hit rather over than
under the ball, and thus avoid the fatal error -
of "skying" it, a reasonably safe one. The same
form of hitting will, if the bowling be fast, and FIo. 1.
the ball be hit a little late, result in LONG LEG.
But the surest, safest, most effective, and most brilliant method of hitting leg-
balls, specially suited for those pitched well up, is, with both feet planted firmly
on the ground, the left about a foot or a foot and a half in front of the right,
its toe pointing to the bowler, to swing the body and shoulders round on the
hips, and catch the ball with full sweep of the bat just on the point of pass-
ing. To do this with fullest effect, the body should be drawn up to its full
height, and the whole frame well balanced and set firm on both feet. A slight








CRICKET. 2 t






-- **^ ^ 'J'1"^^^""
-= -. ---% t... ... :---
,








FIG. S.

rise and fall on the toes just at the moment of striking imparts considerably
additional impetus to the sway of the bat.
DRAW.-Like slip," this hit depends mainly for its effect upon the speed
of the bowling. A ball on, or scarcely wide of, the leg-stump is met with a
full, straight bat, as in the attitude of back play (Fig. 4). A slight action of
the wrist, impossible to describe, but easy to exemplify practically, just at the
moment of contact, confers much additional life to the ball.
Draw, of course, will only be employed when the pitch and character of the
ball render it difficult to make use of it otherwise.
Before we take leave of the subject of hitting, we would again remind the
young player that, to be of any continued good service, all hitting, even of the
most brilliant kind, must be subordinated to a rigid defence. It is of no use
to have the knack of hard hitting, if the first straight ball finds its way to the
wicket, and puts a stop to all hitting whatsoever.
Many a fine hitter bewails his bad luck in not getting some of that loose
bowling he sees an inferior player knocking about at will, when he should in
truth blame his bad flay in not keeping his wicket up, and thus getting the
chance that has fallen to another. Let a man only keep his wickets up long
enough, he is sure to have a sufficiency of loose balls to afford ample scope
for his hitting capacities.
The young player must beware of taking a fancy to one particular hit, and
practising that to the detriment of others. All are equally valuable in their
place, and deficiency in any one point is certain to tell disadvantageously in
the long run. Moreover, a man of one hit soon becomes known; the field is
set accordingly, and his speciality completely neutralized; whereas a player
with a fair average power of hitting all round is always dangerous, for no
arrangement of the field, however skilful, can by any possibility guard every
point, and where the field is weak, there will the all-round hitter be careful to
send the ball.








CRICKET


The learner should endeavour to find out the weak points in his hitting, and
endeavour to strengthen them by careful practice and imitation of better
players. His strong points he need not trouble about-they will take care of
themselves.
And, lastly, let me repeat the injunction to hit hard: try to make every run
a six, and it will surprise you how many threes and fours you will make. A
-hard hitter is always dangerous at a critical moment: in a match, a hard hitter
will often save the game, purely by the force of his hard hitting. Therefore,
above everything, when you do hit, hit hard.

BOWLING.
A good style of bowling-and the same
may be said of batting-is only to be at-
-. -.-. trained by training the muscles of the body
1 into one unvarying system of action; and
'li this can be effected only by continuous
practice in one form, and one form alone.
._.' The simultaneous practice of two or more
styles can only result in another illustration
of the truth of the old adage, "Jack of all
.-- .- 'trades, master of none."
l, To begin with the bowler must take
:-.;- the ball, not in the paln of the hand,
but in the fingers only, the thumb being
S only employed to retain it in its place. He
-,_ must then advance, more or less swiftly,
-.- according to his style, with a pace half-run,
half-walk, and, with a horizontal swing of
the arin straight out from the shoulder,
I launchh the ball at the opposite wicket, just
----as he strides, left foot first, across the bowl-
ing-crease.
i BOWLER The ball should not be allowed to leave
his fingers all at once, but should be made to roll off them, as it were, receiving
just at the last moment of contact a final impulse from their tips. This imparts
to it a spinning motion, which, when it touches the ground, will make it fly off
suddenly at an angle, just as does a top from a wall, to the great discomfiture
of the batsman.
The bowler should accustom himself always to bowl from exactly the same
distance behind the wicket (he will find it a useful plan to mark his starting-
point with a stick or straw), and should always take precisely the same number
of steps in his advance ; his body should be erect and well balanced, and his
eye fixed steadily upon the opposite wicket: above all, his movements, how-
ever rapid, should be unhurried, perfectly steady, and under complete control.
Accuracy of direction is, of course, the first and most important require-
ment in bowling ; but straightness alone will avail little, if attention be not
also paid to accuracy of fitch.
A ball coming directly from the bowler's hand to the wickets, technically
termed a full pitch" or toss," is, of all balls, the easiest for the batsman to
judge and hit away; and one that takes the ground little more than half-way
between the wickets (a long hop) is scarcely less simple.


22








CRICKET.


All that the batsman requires is time, and that the bowler must make it his
special care not to give him.
The most difficult ball for the batsman to hit, and therefore the very best
for the bowler to send him, is one that pitches from four to eight feet in front
of the popping-crease. This distance varies with the pace of the bowling: the
slower the pace, the nearer must the ball be pitched to the crease, and vice
versd. It varies also with the height and style of the striker: a tall player
with a good forward reach leaves the bowler no option but to pitch shorter.
Balls pitched within these limits are called length-balls.
The learner will find it good practice to mark, with a piece of paper or a
dab of chalk, the exact spot on which his ball ought to pitch to be a good
length, and steadily set himself to acquire the art (for it is to be acquired) of
dropping the ball either upon or close upon this mark with unvarying certainty.
However simple his style may be in other respects, this accuracy of pitch
and direction will always render him formidable to any batsman.
In bowling, it must be kept in mind that every batsman has his strong and
weak points: one man, for instance, is a hard leg-hitter, but weak in defending
his off stump, while another can play well forward, and another only back;
and the bowler must give his whole mind to find out these strong and weak
points, to avoid the one, and persistently attack the other.
There is one maxim more for the bowler, perhaps the most important of all.
"Alwvays pitch as near to the striker as he will let you." The nearer he allows
the ball to pitch without hitting it away, the less time does he get to judge it
after the pitch. If he allow it to come too near, his play is cramped and
his hitting powers paralysed.
A really first-class bowler will, to this intent, pitch nearer and nearer to the
batsman, creeping in inch by inch, until he finds out the exact spot beyond
which he dare not go, and, having thus decided it to his satisfaction, will
methodically settle down to work upon it with undeviating pertinacity, until
the fail of the wicket crowns his labours.
Men have been known, in this manner, to wear away the turf in a bald
patch, by the reiterated pitching of the ball in the same spot.
The howler will find it well to study the art of varying the speed and the
curve with which the ball passes through the air, without making any corre-
sponding visible change in his action. Nothing is more deceptive, and, there-
fore, more fatal to the batsman, than a judicious unexpected variation of pace.
The great art consists, not in constant changes-for then the batsman is
on the alert--but in allowing him to get used to one particular pace, and then,
with the second of two balls, following each other in rapid succession (it loses
half its effect after a hit), suddenly increase or slacken the pace: the fall of
many a wicket will reward this manceuvre. Only it must be borne in mind that
the attempt must not be too often repeated, or it will defeat itself. Nor must
the change of pace be too palpable, for the sole object is to catch the batsman
unawares.
Remember that medium pace possesses a great advantage over fast, in the
power it gives the bowler of varying the curves with which it passes through
the air, and thus deceiving the batsman by altering the pitch without his
perceiving it ; for he naturally, at first sight, expects a ball that rises high in
the air to come farther than one of lower flight, and may often be thus led
into fatal error.
Of absolutely slow bowling I do not speak for on good ground, against









anything like scientific and hard-hitting batting, it is the most egregious failure
possible, and, indeed, any player with a good eye and a strong arm may do
with it pretty much as he will; therefore, I at least will none of it. In very
fast bowling the ball merely glints on and off the ground so rapidly, that any
spin it may have upon it has hardly time to act, whereas a slower ball not
only gives more time for the ball to bite" the ground, but, falling more per-
pendicularly, actually takes the ground in a more advantageous manner.
The slower the ball, then, the more effective will be the bias ; but pace and
bias combined are the great desideratum, and each bowler must find out for
himself the point at which he obtains most effect; only be it remembered
that any very exceptional twist-save, perhaps, now and then as a surprise-
is quite unnecessary, nay, even undesirable-a break of a few inches, six or
seven, being quite sufficient for all ordinary purposes.
A ball is said to break in" when it pitches to the leg side and turns in
towards the wicket, and to "break back" when it pitches to the off side and
comes in. The latter is by far the more dangerous bias, and a man who has
such a command of the ball as to make it break in or back" at pleasure
may do pretty well what he likes with the batsman; only be it remembered
that the most perfect accuracy of pitch is indispensable to success. Loose
bowling is always bad : in fast bowling the very pace may prove its safety;
but, with medium pace, pitch alone can yield it immunity from punishment.

FIELDING.
The art of fielding, though of no less importance than that of batting and
bowling, and an acquirement of paramount and vital necessity to the would-
be cricketer-without which, indeed, cricketing itself would cease to bc-yet
it does not, for its due inculcation, demand or, indeed, admit of the same ex-
tended and detailed instruction as has been above bestowed upon these, its
compeers.
With the single exception of the wicket-keeper, and perhaps in some degree
also of the long-stop, it makes little or no difference to the player, so far as
the theory of the art is concerned, what place he may take in the field. "Out-
fielding," it is true, makes greater demands upon one set of qualities, as speed
and hard throwing, and "in-fielding" upon another; but, in all, the duties
required are the same-to stop the ball, catch it if possible, and return it with
all speed to the wickets; and, in performing these three functions-whether
the player be far out in the field or close in to the bat-his action and attitude
will be, and must of necessity be, the same.
A short general summary, therefore, of the various methods of practical
fielding-of catching, stopping, and throwing-and a few concise details as to
the special peculiarities of the several places in the field, will be all that the
young learner will need to set him in the way of at least mliaking a beginning
in this indispensable art.
CATCHING.--The ball may be caught either wiith one hand or two: the
latter is, of course, the easiest and safest way. To catch with both hands, it
is well to wait till the ball is just within reach, and then thrusting out the
hands well forward, with the fingers extended, to receive it into them as into
a bag or net, at the same time allowing the hands to yield, more or less, in
proportion with the speed of the ball.
The hands should not be extended too soon, or the arms become rigid and
less able to bear the shock of the ball: it is less easy, too, to correct any error








CRICKET. 25

that may have been made in judging the flight of the ball. A golden rule in
all catching is to hold the hands in readiness, and dart them out from the
side at the very last moment.
If the ball come in lower than the chest, the hands should receive it as in a
cup, palms uppermost, little fingers together and slightly overlapping: if it
come above the chest, the hands must be formed in the same manner; but the
thumbs must now be brought together, instead of the little fingers, and the
fingers must point upwards.
Great care must be taken never to allow the fingers to point in the direc-
tion in which the ball is coming, under penalty of risking highly unpleasant
fractures or dislocations.
In catching with one hand the same general principles will apply: the ball
should be received well into the palm.
The beginner should specially study catching, and indeed all points of field-
ing, with the weaker hand; the other is sure to go right.
STOPPING.-A ball stopped in mid-air comes under the category of catches,
for which instructions are given above. In stopping a ball along the ground,
the player must, if possible, get in front of the ball, and, just as it reaches him,
draw his heels together as in the position of attention," and reach down
suddenly to it-his hands in the first attitude given for catching, the fingers
being pointed to the ground; the very motion of the ball will help to close
the fingers upon it. The main difficulty here is to time the ball---a difficulty
only to be overcome by practice.
The beginner must also learn to pick up the ball, in like manner, in the
right or left hand as it passes him, to run across the path of a ball at an
angle, and stoop and pick it up without stopping, to take the ball at half-
volley, i.e., just at the bound within a few inches of the pitch (a very difficult
matter), and to throw it in. Many other ways will naturally occur to him in
practice, which need not be more particularly dwelt upon here.
One rule of good fielding requires specially to be dwelt upon. When the
ball is sent towards any fieldsman, he must not wait for it to reach him, but
must run swiftly forward, scoop up the ball without stop or hesitation, and,
continuing his run towards the wicket, send it in sharply home. As every
second lost in the field is so much added to the batsman's chance of a run, so
every second saved is so much taken from it, and so much pure gain to the
outing side.
THROWING.-The out-fielders will, of course, throw in the usual way (it
need scarcely be described); but the in-fielders should practise a quick, sharp,
underhand throw.
In all throwing, there are two objects to attain-one to get the ball in as
quickly as possible, and the other to send it in in the manner most convenient
to the wicket-keeper; both these requirements are fulfilled when the ball is
sent as straight, i.e., with as little curve in the air, as possible to the top of
the stumps. If the distance be too great to do this with certainty, it should
be made to pitch some ten or fifteen yards from the wickets, and so come in
a long hop.
Accuracy of return to the wickets is one of the first requisites of good field-
ing, and should be cultivated accordingly.
All "wild" throwing is to be eschewed; but, above all, let the fieldsman
beware of throwing in to the wicket-keeper's toes, which is, of all bad ways,
the very worst.








CRICKET.

FIELD FOR FAST BOWLING TO A RIGHT-HANDED BATSMAN.



Long Leg.
Long Leg.


Long Slip.


Short Slip.


Third Man.


Wicket-keeper.
-'


Short Leg


Cover Point.


Point.


*
Batsman.


Batsman. *


Mid-wicket.


Mid-on.


Bowler.









CRICKET.


FIELD FOR SLOW BOWLING.


Wicket-keeper.

Slip.


Point.


Batsman.
Cover Point.
*


Batsman.




Mid-off.

Bowler.
*


Long-field off.


Short Leg.
*


Deep Square Leg.



Mid-on.
*


Long-field on.
*


I---- _








CRICKET


The young player must not think, as it has been too much the fashion of
late to think, that good fielding is of less importance than batting; still less
must he fall into the habit of those half-hearted cricketers, unworthy of the
name, who look upon all fielding as a bore.
Let him bear this in mind, that a run saved is a run gained."
Now, the very best bat is never sure of askingng even a single run, while
even a moderate field is certain to save a great many; so that, comparing a
good field and a good bat" together, the "field will generally in the long
run be found to have been of most service to his side.
Fielding, moreover, is first-rate practice for batting, so that the young
player need not suppose that all the time he devotes to the one is taken from
the other; while, on the contrary, practice in batting is of next to no assistance
in fielding.
Let the young cricketer's first ambition be good fielding and bowling, and
the batting will follow as a natural consequence.
In discussing the specialities of various places in the field, the accompany-
ing diagrams, D and E, show the field placed for fast and slow bowling re-
spectively. More than the usual eleven places are given in each, to allow for
the changes that may be necessitated by peculiarities in the bowling or batting.
LONG-FIELD requires quick running, hard throwing, and certainty in catch-
ing balls hit hard and far through the air. To be of any real service, long-
field must be able to cover a great deal of ground," that is, be ready and
active in his movements, so as to make it impossible for a ball to pass on
either side nearer than 20 or 30 yards, or to make one falling anywhere within
that distance a certain catch.
He must stand well out, that the ball may not be hit over his head: no
greater mistake can be made than standing too far in. A good field can stand
a surprising distance out. and yet save the second run: he is not placed to
save the one, and so need not trouble himself about it.
To stand well out, watch the ball, and be ever on the alert, are the chief
requisites of a good long-field.
The same remarks apply to all the out-fieldsmen. Cover-point and long leg
will find that the ball, when it takes the ground, has a tendency to curl or
twist at a sudden angle, and in both cases in the direction of the long-stop;
that is, with cover-point, a ball coming to his right, might break away and
pass to his left, while with long leg a ball coming to the left might pass to
the right. The same holds good of point, third man, the slips, square leg,
and draw.
In all these places, therefore, the player must be on the look-out for this
peculiarity, and be prepared to meet it, or the ball will assuredly elude him
like magic, and he will find, to his shame and confusion, that he has "muffed" it.
POINT.-This is one of the most important places in the field; with some
bowling, the most important.
A good deal of misapprehension exists about the place and duties of point.
The real fact is, they shift and vary with every change of bowling and every
change of batting.
With some bowling, point plays close up in front of the bat, -/ith others
almost in the place of short-slip, while fine off-hitting, unless the bowling be
exceptionally true, will drive him right away out into the field.
Point's distance from the bat must be left to the judgment of each indi-
vidual player. Some are quicker at catching, and can, therefore, stand nearer








CRICKET


in than others. A man's sight, too, varies quite sufficiently to make a per-
ceptible difference from day to day; one might almost say, from hour to hour.
Point cannot make a greater mistake than by standing in nearer than he
can see to catch with certainty. The catches he might by possibility lose by
standing farther out will be more than compensated for by the increased
number of runs he will be enabled to save.
Point and all the near-fieldsmen must watch the ball all the way to the bat,
and hold themselves in readiness to spring to either side, or up in the air from
either foot, without an instant's thought or hesitation, or to dive down and
stop the ball, as it comes spinning and curling off the bat, with both or either
hand indifferently.
Great alertness, activity, and concentrated attention are indispensable
qualifications of a near-field.
LONG-STOP is rarely seen nowadays in a first-class match, but in boy
elevens he is still a necessity owing to the weakness of the wicket-keeper.
He has a great burden laid upon his shoulders; for he has to stop and
return every ball that the wicket-keeper misses.
His vigilance, therefore, must never for one moment tire or slacken: though
all the rest of the field take it easy, he alone and the bowler can know no re-
laxation or remission.
With good ground, true bowling, and fair wicket-keeping, the long-stop's
post need not be a very hard one; but should there be failure in any one of
these items, especially the two
former, his place at once becomes
the hardest and most responsible in
the field.
In any case he must study to field .
every ball clean," that is, to take, I
it at once into the hands, without Iv
any fumbling or clumsiness. A ball I' :! ',
fumbled is a safe run, if the striker
be only on the alert.- -
To be really good at long-stop, a
man should be able to pick up a
ground ball as it passes, with either -
hand, right or left, with the same
ease and certainty as he would with
both.
Instant return to the wicket- -
keeper should be invariably prac-. -
tised. Dallying with the ball not -
only wastes time-of which, in most -
matches now-a-days, there is not
too much-but it very often gives a THE WICKET-KEEPER.
chance of a run, and it certainly en-
courages the striker by a show of slowness in the field.
WICKET-KEEPER stands close behind the wicket, in a stooping posture, the
right foot advanced and close upon the wicket, the hands held in readiness
for the ball just in rear of the bails, the head brought down till the eyes are
within a foot at most of the top of the wickets.
The ball, as it is taken, should be invariably, and as part of the same action,








30 lj U^1\l.AE- J.

brought to the bails, so that a mere turn of the wrist may take them off
should the striker offer the least chance of a stump out."
Every ball that can be taken should be taken, if only for the sake of saving
the long-stop; but the wicket-keeper will do well to exercise a little discretion
with balls that are almost out of reach, since, if he fail to handle them satis-
factorily, he may, instead of stopping them, only succeed in deflecting them
from their course, and thus, perhaps, send them out of the reach of the long-
stop too.
If the long-stop knows beforehand that balls passing outside a certain point
will be left to him, he will find no difficulty in meeting them.
Great care must be exercised that too great eagerness in taking the ball do
not lead the wicket-keeper into violating the 35th rule.
When the ball has been hit, or in any other way a run is being attempted,
the wicket-keeper must at once place himself so that the wickets are between
him and the ball. This enables the fieldsman to detect at once the where-
abouts of the wickets-a very important point-and also gives the ball, if well
thrown, a chance of hitting the wickets before it reaches his hands.
This rule of getting behind the wickets, though of the first importance, is
one that is more commonly neglected, to the loss of many a good run-out,"
than it is observed; it requires, therefore, to be the more strongly impressed
upon the young learner.
A few words of parting advice. Whatever place is taken, whether batting,
bowling, or fielding, the player should give his whole mind to the duties and
responsibilities thereof.
The companion of the striker should remember that the score depends
almost as much upon his promptitude in backing up, as on the hitting powers
of his vis-d-vis.
In running, the first run should be made with rapidity and decision, the
bat grounded just over the crease, and the body turned and held in readiness
for the next, should the chance occur. The runner should never overrun his
crease, unless in the last extremity; the bat in is quite sufficient.
The yard or so thus gained in turning may make all the difference between
a run made or a wicket lost.
At practice the young player is earnestly exhorted to eschew all loose knock-
ing about of the ball : wherever and whenever practicable, sides should be
chosen and a game made.
The really useful practice for batting, and for bowling too, though in a less
degree, is in actual playing for runs.
If sides be not to be had, the bat and ball had better be resigned to those
who are less patient of advice, and a good spell taken at long-stopping or
other fielding.
Loose practice forms loose habits, and it is easier to form a dozen new
good habits than to break through one bad one already formed.
The game should be always played with strict rigour-umpires, creases, &c.;
in this way, observance of rules becomes second nature.
The decision of the umpire, however it may go against the grain, should
always be obeyed at once, and without comment; remonstrance, if any be
needed, is the part of the captain of the side.
Last, though perhaps not least, whatever be the player's fate-run out,
caught, bowled, stumped, even if it be first ball-he should, above all things,
keep his temper and try to look as if he liked it.




































FOOTBALL.

FOOTBALL has of late years grown into such general popularity that it may
be termed the national winter game. Unquestionably one of the most
ancient of our English pastimes, it fell into disrepute owing to the rough
character of the sport during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and
less than twenty years ago was strictly confined to Rugby and our chief
public schools. At the present day it has extended from its original
source to the metropolis and every part of the country, and may be said to
occupy the same position in winter as cricket in summer. Its many merits
recommend it strongly to public favour. To be a good football player
requires a rare combination of skill and activity, no less than the possession
of courage and self-control, and at the same time inculcates the benefits of
good discipline in an explicit manner. The season usually lasts from
October until March, and with the exceptions of snow and frost (which
render it dangerous), changes of the weather have little effect on the pursuit
of the game.
The methods of playing football were formerly varied and numerous, but
since the formation of the two bodies called the Football Association and
Rugby Union, for the purpose of simplifying and amalgamating the different
codes in force, the game has finally settled into two distinct styles, commonly
known as Rugby Union rules and Football Association rules,
81








FOOTBALL.


THE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION.
The following laws, which bear the impress of the Football Association,
are not only very extensively employed in London, but almost universally in
the Northern Counties. The object of this code is to encourage "d.;1.1.!..
or working the ball with the feet to the exclusion of all usage of the hands;
and simplicity has also been carefully studied by the abolition of all clauses
and technicalities calculated to prevent the easy comprehension of the rules.

LAWS OF THE ASSOCIATION.
I. The limits of the ground shall be, maximum length, 200 yards ; mini-
mum length, 100 yards; maximum breadth, Ioo yards; minimum
breadth, 50 yards. The length and breadth shall be marked off with
flags and touch line; and the goals shall be upright posts, 8 yards
apart, with a bar across them 8 feet from the ground. The average
circumference of the Association ball shall not be less than 27 inches,
and not more than 28 inches.
2. The winners of the toss shall have the option of kick-off or choice of
goals. The game shall be commenced by a place-kick from the centre
of the ground in the direction of the opposite goal-line. The other
side shall not approach within o1 yards of the ball until it is kicked
off, nor shall any player on either side pass the centre of the ground
in the direction of his opponents' goal until the ball is kicked off.
3. Ends shall only be changed at half-time. After a goal is won the losing
side shall kick-off; but after the change of ends at half-time the ball
shall be kicked-off by the opposite side from that which originally did
so, and always as provided in Law 2.
4. A goal shall be won when the ball has passed between the goal-posts
under the bar, not being thrown, knocked on, or carried by anyone of
the attacking side. The ball hitting the goal or boundary-posts, or
goal-bar, and rebounding into play is considered in play.
5. When the ball is in touch a player of the opposite side to that which
kicked it out shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where
it left the ground. The thrower, facing the field of play, shall hold the
ball above his head and throw it with both hands in any direction, and
it shall be in play when thrown in. The player throwing it shall not
play it until it has been played by another player.
6. When a player kicks the ball, or throws it in from touch, any one of the
same side who, at such moment of kicking or throwing, is nearer to
the opponents' goal-line is out of play, and may not touch the ball
himself, or in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing
so until the ball has been played, unless there are at such moment of
kicking or throwing at least three of his opponents nearer their own
goal-line ; but no player is out of play in the case of a corner kick or
when the ball is kicked from the goal-line, or when it has been last
played by an opponent.
7. When the ball is kicked behind the goal-line by one of the opposite side
it shall be kicked off by any one of the players behind whose goal-line
it went, within six yards of the nearest goal-post; but if kicked behind
by any one of the side whose goal-line it is, a player of the opposite
side shall kick it from within one yard of the nearest corner flag-post.







FOOTBALL. 33

In either case no other player shall be allowed within six yards of the
ball until it is kicked-off.
8. No player shall carry, knock on, or handle the ball under any pretence
whatever, except in the case of the goal-keeper, who shall be allowed
to use his hands in defence of his goal, either by knocking on or
throwing, but not carrying the ball. The goal-keeper may be changed
during the game, but not more than one player shall act as goal-keeper
at the same time; and no second player shall step in and act during
any period in which the regular goal-keeper may have vacated his
position.
9. In no case shall a goal be scored from any free kick, nor shall the ball
be again played by the kicker until it has been played by another
player. The kick-off and corner-flag kick shall be free kicks within
the meaning of this rule.
o1. Neither tripping, hacking, nor jumping at a player, shall be allowed,
and no player shall use his hands to hold or push his adversary, or
charge him from behind. A player with his back towards his
opponents' goal cannot claim the protection of this rule when charged
from behind, provided in the opinion o0 ihe umpires or referee he, in
that position, is wilfully impeding his opponent.
I I. No player shall wear any nails, excepting such as have their heads driven
in flush with the leather, or iron plates, or gutta-percha on the soles or
heels of his boots, or on his shin-guards. Any player discovered
infringing this rule shall be prohibited from taking any further part in
the game.
12. In the event of any infringement of rules 5, 6, 8, 9, or o1, a free kick
shall be forfeited to the opposite side, from the spot where the infringe-
ment took place.
13. In the event of an appeal for any supposed infringement of the rules, the
ball shall be in play until a decision has been given.
14. Each of the competing clubs shall be entitled to appoint an umpire,
whose duties shall be to decide all disputed points when appealed to;
and by mutual arrangement a referee may be chosen to decide in all
cases of difference between the umpires.
15. The referee shall have power to stop the game in the event of the
spectators interfering with the game.
DEFINITION OF TERMS.
A Place Kick is a kick at the ball while it is on the ground, in any position
in which the kicker may choose to place it.
A Free Kick is a kick at the ball in any way the kicker pleases, when it is
lying on the ground, none of the kicker's opponents being allowed within six
yards of the ball; but in no case can a player be forced to stand behind his
own goal-line.
Hacking is kicking an adversary intentionally.
Triping is throwing an adversary by the use of the leg, or by stooping in
front of him.
Knocking on is when a player strikes or propels theball with his hands or arms.
Holding includes the obstruction of a player by the hand or any part of
the arm extended from the body.
HandizAg is understood to be playing the ball with the hand or arm.








34 FOOTBALL.

Touch is that part of the field, on either side of the ground, which is
beyond the line of play.
Carrying is taking more than two steps when holding the ball.
THE RUGBY UNION.
The following laws, which have been framed after the model of those
originally used at Rugby School, have been largely adopted by minor schools
and clubs in the neighbourhood of London. They are more extensive and
elaborate than those of the Football Association, and to thoroughly master
them a lengthy apprenticeship is necessary. The main idea is to encourage
speed of foot, and kicking is reduced almost to a minimum compared with
the other code, while the objectionable frequency of the mauls, which disfigure
the game invests Rugby Union rules with an atmosphere o' danger almost
unknown in the practice of the laws sanctioned by the Football Association;
nevertheless, the maulerss" are more numerous than the "dribblers,"
boisterous fun having for many youngsters a greater attraction than skilful
kicking of the ball.
LAWS OF THE RUGBY UNION.
I. A DROP KICK is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and
kicking it the very instant it rises.
2. A PLACE KICK is made by kicking the ball after it has been placed in
a nick made in the ground for the purpose of keeping it at rest.
3. A PUNT is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it
before it touches the ground.
4. EACH GOAL shall be composed of two upright posts, exceeding II feet
in height from the ground, and placed 18 feet 6 inches apart, with a
cross-bar 10 feet from the ground.
5. A GOAL can only be obtained by kicking the ball from the field of play
direct (i.e., without touching the ground or the dress or person of any
player of either side) over the cross-bar of the opponents' goal, whether
it touch such cross-bar, or the posts, or not; but if the ball goes
directly over either of the goal-posts it is called a poster, and is not a
goal. A goal may be obtained by any kind of kick except a punt.
6. A TRY is gainedwhena player touches the ball down inhisopponents'goal.
7. A match shall be decided by a majority of goals ; but if the number of
goals be equal, or no goal be kicked, by a majority of tries. If no goal
be kicked, or try obtained, the match shall be drawn. When a goal
is kicked from a try, the goal only is scored.
8. The ball is DEAD when it rests absolutely motionless on the ground.
9. A TOUCH DOWN is when a player, putting his hand upon the ball on
the ground, in touch or in goal, stops it so that it remains dead or
fairly so.
10. A TACKLE is when the holder. of the ball is held by one or more
players of the opposite side.
II. A SCRUMMAGE takes place when the holder of the ball, being in the
field of play, puts it down on the ground in front of him, and all who
have closed round on their respective sides endeavour to push their
opponents back, and by kicking the ball to drive it in the direction of
the opposite goal-line. A scrummage ceases to be a scrummage when
the ball is in touch or goal.








FOOTBALL 35

12. A player may TAKE UP the ball whenever it is rolling or bounding,
except in a scrummage.
13. It is not lawful to take up the ball when dead (except in order to bring
it out after it has been touched down in touch or in goal) for any
purpose whatever. Whenever the ball shall have been so unlawfully
taken up it shall at once be brought back to where it was so taken up,
and there put down.
14. In a scrummage it is not lawful to touch the ball with the hand under
any circumstances whatever.
15. It is lawful for any player who. has the ball to run with it, and if he
does so, it is called a RUN. If a player runs with the ball until he
gets behind his opponents' goal-line, and there touches it down, it is
called a RUN IN.
16. It is lawful to run in anywhere across the goal-line.
17. The goal-line is in goal, and the touch-line is in touch.
18. In the event of any player holding or running with the ball being
tackled, and the ball fairly held, he must at once cry "DOWN," and
immediately put it down.
19. A MAUL IN GOAL is when the ball is held inside the goal-line, and
one of the opposing sides endeavours to touch it down. Those
players only who are touching the ball with the hand when the maul
begins, and then for so long only as they retain their touch, may
continue in the maul. The ball shall be touched down where the maul
is concluded, and shall belong to the players of the side who first had
possession of it before the maul began, unless the opposite side have
gained entire possession of it, or unless it has escaped from the hold
of all parties engaged, in which latter event it shall belong to the
defending side.
20. TOUCH IN GOAL (See plan).-Immediately the ball, whether in the
hands of a player or not, goes into touch in goal, it is at once dead
and out of the game, and must be brought out as provided by Rules
38 and 39.
21. Every player is ON SIDE, but is put OFF SIDE if he enters a scrummage
from his opponents' side, or, being in a scrummage, gets in front of
the ball, or when the ball has been kicked, touched, or is being run
with by any of his own side behind him (i.e., between himself and his
own goal-line). No player can be off side in his own goal.
22. Every player when off s;de is out of the game, and shall not touch the
ball in any case whatever, either in or out of goal, or in any way inter-
rupt or obstruct any player, until he is again on side. In case any
player plays the ball when he is off side the captain of the opposite
side may claim that the ball be taken back and put down at the place
where it was last played before the off side play occurred.
23. A player being off side is put on side when the ball has been run five
yards with, or kicked by, or has touched the dress or person of, any
player of the opposite side, or when one of his own side has run in
front of him either with the ball or having kicked it when behind him.
24. When a player has the ball none of his opponents who at the time are
off side may commence or attempt to run, tackle, or otherwise inter-
rupt such player until he has run five yards or taken his kick. But if
any player when off side tackles or in any way interferes with an









36 FOOTBALL.

E E
SI

D D
F














C A C
















a 51


A. The Field of Play. T. In Goal. C. In Touch.
D. Touch in G al. E. Goals. F. Run in.
G. Mark on Goal-line. H. Place Kick. 1. Cress-bar.

opponent who has the ball before such opponent has run five yards or
taken his kick, the captain of the opposite side may claim a free kick
for the player so interfered with; such free kick shall be either a punt
or a drop kick from the spot where the interference took place, and
shall be taken in accordance with the conditions of Law 41 ; such free
kick shall not count a goal.
25. THROWING BACK.-It is lawful for any player who has the ball to throw
it back towards his own goal, or to pass it back to any player of
his own side who is at the time behind him, in accordance with
the rules of ON SIDE,








FOOTBALL 37

26. KNOCKING ON, i.e., hitting the ball with the hand, and THROWING
FORWARD, i.e., throwing the ball, in the direction of the opponents'
goal-line are not lawful. If the ball be either knocked on or thrown
forward the opposite side may (unless a fair catch has been made
as provided by the next rule) require to have it brought back to the
spot where it was so knocked or thrown on, and there put down.
27. A FAIR CATCH is a catch made direct from a kick or a throw forward,
or a knock on by one of the opposite side, provided the catcher makes
a mark with his heel at the spot where he has made the catch, and no
other of his own side touch the ball. (See Rules 40 and 41.)
28. TOUCH. (See Plan).-If the ball goes into touch a player on the side
other than that whose player last touched it in the field of play must
bring it to the spot where it crossed the touch line ; or if a player,
when running with the ball, cross or put any part of either foot across
the touch line, he must return with the ball to the spot where the line
was so crossed, and thence return it into the field of play in one of the
modes provided by the following rule.
29. He must then himself, or by one of his own side, either (i.) bound the
ball in the field of play, and then run with it, kick it, or throw it back
to his own side ; or (ii.) throw it out at right angles to the touch line;
or (iii.) walk out with it at right angles to the touch line, any distance
not less than five nor more than fifteen yards, and there put it down,
first declaring how far he intends to walk out.
30. If two or more players holding the ball are pushed into touch, the ball
shall belong in touch to the player who first had hold of it in the field
of play, and has not released his hold of it.
31. If the ball be not thrown out straight, the opposite side may at once
claim to bring it out themselves, as in Law 29, sect. iii.
32. A catch made when the ball is thrown out of touch is not a fair catch.
33. KICK OFF is a place kick from the centre of the field of play, and can-
not count as a goal. The opposite side must stand at least ten yards
in front of the ball until it has been kicked. If the ball pitch in touch
the opposite side may claim to have it kicked off again.
34. The ball shall be kicked off (i.) at the commencement of the game;
(ii.) after a goal has been obtained; (iii.) after change of goals at
half time.
35. Each side shall play from either goal for an equal time.
36. The captains of the respective sides shall toss up before commence-
ment of the match ; the winner of the toss shall have the option of
choice of goals, or the kick off.
37. Whenever a goal shall have been obtained the side which has lost the
goal shall then kick off. When goals have been changed at half time,
the side which did not kick off at the commencement of the game shall
then kick off.
38. KICK OUT is a drop kick by one of the players of the side which has
had to touch the ball down in their own goal, or into whose touch in
goal the ball has gone (Rule 20), and is the mode of bringing the ball
again into play, and cannot count as a goal. (See Rule 44.)
39. Kick out must be a drop kick, and from not more than twenty-five
yards outside the kicker's goal-line ; if the ball when kicked out pitch
in touch, the opposite side may claim to have it kicked off again. The







8 FOOTBALL.

kicker's side must be behind the ball when kicked out, and the
opposite side may not obstruct such kicker within twenty-five yards
of his own goal.
40. A player who has made and claimed a fair catch shall thereupon either
take a drop kick or a punt, or place the ball for a place kick.
4r. After a fair catch has been made, the opposite side may come up to
the catcher's mark, and the catcher's side retiring, the ball shall be
kicked frcm such mark, or from a spot any distance behind it, in a
straight line parallel with the touch lines.
42. A player may touch the ball down in his own goal at any time.
43. A side having touched the ball down in their opponents' goal shall try
at goal by a place kick in the following manner-one of the players
shall bring it up to the goal-line in a straight line (parallel to the
touch lines) from the spot where it was touched down, and there make
a mark on the goal-line (unless between the goal-posts, in which case
he shall bring it up to either post), and thence walk straight out with it
in a line parallel to the touch lines such distance as he thinks proper,
and there place it for another of his side to kick.
44. The defending side may charge as soon as the ball touches the ground;
the kicker's side must remain behind the ball until the try has been
decided. If a goal be kicked, the game shall proceed as provided in
Rule 37, but if a goal be not kicked, or if the bringer out fail to make
a mark on the goal-line (except when the try was obtained between
the posts) or allow any of his side to touch the ball before it has been
kicked, the ball shall be dead forthwith and the game shall proceed
by a kick out, as provided in Rule 39.
45. CHARGING, i.e., rushing forward to kick the ball or tackle a player, is
lawful for the opposite side, in all cases of a place kick after a fair catch
or upon a try at goal, immediately the ball touches or is placed on the
ground ; and in cases of a drop-kick or punt after a fair catch, as soon
as the player having the ball commences to run or offers to kick, or
the ball has touched the ground ; but he may always draw back, and
unless he has dropped the ball or actually touched it with his foot,
they must again retire to his mark. (See Rule 46.) Except in a
scrummage, it is not lawful for a player to charge against or obstruct
any opponent, unless such opponent is holding the ball, or such player
is himself running at the ball.
46. In case of a fair catch the opposite side may come up to and charge
from anywhere on or behind a line drawn through the mark made and
parallel to the goal-line. In all cases the kicker's side must be behind
the ball when it is kicked, but may not charge until it has been kicked.
If, after a fair catch, more than one player of the attacking side touch
the ball before it is again kicked, the opposite side may charge
forthwith.
47. No HACKING, or HACKING OVER, or tripping up shall be allowed
under any circumstances. No one wearing projecting nails, iron
plates, or gutta-percha on any part of his boots or shoes shall be
allowed to play in a match.
48. In the case of any law being broken, or any irregularity of play
occurring on the part of either side not otherwise provided for, the
opposite side may claim that the ball be taken back to the place where








FOOTBALL.


the breach of law or irregularity of play occurred, and a scrummage
formed there.
49. That unless umpires be appointed, the captains of the respective sides
shall be the sole arbiters of all disputes, and their decisions shall be
final. if the captain of either side challenge the construction placed
upon any rule, he shall have the right of appeal to the Rugby Union
Committee.
50. Neither half time nor no side shall be called until the ball is fairly held
or goes out of play, and in the case of a try or fair catch the kick at
goal only shall be allowed.
METHOD OF PLAY.
The diagram represents a field of play under Rugby Union Rules. It
should not exceed ino yards in length, nor 75 yards in breadth, and should
be as near those dimensions as possible. The ball used should be egg-
shaped, as seen in the following woodcut :







The object of this is to enable a player to pick it up and run more readily
with it than he would be able to do were the ball perfectly round. There are
usually fifteen players a side in a Rugby match, who are disposed of as
follows : Ten are put forward, two at half-back, one at three-quarters back, and
two at back. Before the commencement of the game the captains toss for
choice of goals. The winner usually selects that which gives him the advan-
tage of having the wind at his back. The players being drawn up in a line
facing each other, the captain of the losing side kicks the ball off from the
centre of the ground, none of the opposite side being allowed to advance to
within ten yards of it until it has been started. Once in the air, the game
has commenced in downright earnest. A player on the opposite side to that
which kicked off usually succeeds in catching the ball, and returns it as far as
he can into his rivals' territory. Here it is again picked up, but probably
before the player can kick it back he is seized upon and held. Once fairly
held, he must cry "Down," when he is released, and the forwards on either
side form themselves into a compact mass, each striving to urge the ball
which has been put on the ground in their midst, towards the others' goal.
This is what is termed a scrummage. Outside the scrummage are the half-
backs on the alert, so that if the ball emerges from it, one of them can pick
it up, and rush towards his adversaries' goal-line. Directly the forwards are
aware that the ball is no longer between them they separate. Meanwhile, the
possessor of the ball is running to touch it down, which must be done by
grounding it behind his rivals' goal-line. But the backs, three-quarter backs,
and half-backs on the other side are in the way to arrest his progress, if they
can. This is done by catching hold of him in any way ; but you must not
trip him or catch him below the knee. Before the rules of the Rugby Game
were modified, you were allowed to stop a man's running with the ball by








FOOTBALL.


kicking or shinning him, which was known as hacking. This practice is now,
however, forbidden. Supposing the player who has the ball is not stopped or
collared by any of his opponents, he runs in and trouches it down, as near
behind their goal as he can-say at the point F. This secures for him a try
(se'e Rule 6). The mode in which the try is made is as follows : One of the
side to whom it belongs picks the ball up at F, and walks towards the goal-
line BB to G ; he here makes a mark with his heel, and then proceeds to the
point H ; a nick is then made in the ground, on which he places it, and another
player, who has been in readiness, rushes at it and kicks it towards the
opponents' fortress. Should it pass over the cross-bar I, a goal is scored (see
Rule 5). Another mode of obtaining a goal is when a player in the midst of
the game gets hold of the ball and drops it (lets it fall to the ground and
kicks it on the rise) over the cross-bar. Until within the past two seasons, a
match could only be decided by goals, but in the absence of these, a game
can now be won by tries (see Rule 7). It is by no means an easy matter to
give hints to players about so intricate a game as that played by the Rugby
Union ; but we may mention that forwards should always keep their eyes on
the ball when in the scrummage, and not go blindly pushing about without
knowing whether they are kicking the ball or not. A scrummage should
always be entered with the head well down, as by that means the forwards
pack much more closely, and present a more compact body to resist their
opponents. Always play together and unselfishly, aiming at victory for your
side, and not at individual distinction; use your feet well, keep always on the
ball, and back up quickly. Immediately the ball has emerged from a scrum-
mage, break up; forwards seldom break away quickly enough from a
scrummage, out of which the ball has issued. The backs, half-backs, and
three-quarter backs have much greater opportunity of distinguishing them-
selves than the forwards. On them in a great measure devolves not only the
task of defending their own fortress in case of an attempt to run in by the
opposite side, but they have much more frequent chances of making the
attack. A half-back should have plenty of dash, good dodging powers,
strength on his legs, and be able to make the drop-kick with either foot.
Backs should be able to catch the ball with safety, run well, drop quickly
and tackle with promptness and firmness.
The Association Game has fewer rules, and is much more simple than its
rival. The ball should be perfectly round, as follows :








ASSOCIATION BALL.
The main principle of the Association Game is dribbling or kicking the
ball along the ground. The use of the hands is forbidden altogether, except
on the part of the goal-keeper, who is allowed to use them in defending his
goal. The field of play is the same as with the Rugby Game, except that








FOOTBALL. 41

there is no touch in goal, and that the object of the players is to kick the ball
under the tape instead of over the cross-bar. There are no tries in the
Association matches, which are decided by the number of goals obtained.
Should a player in trying to defend his goal-line send it behind it himself, he
gives his rivals the privilege of a corner kick. The ball is taken to the angle
where the goal-line and touch-line meet. The attacking party draw them-
selves in a line in front of their opponents' goal. One player then kicks the
ball towards the mouth of the goal, and the others strive to kick it or drive it
between the posts. The following directions are from the pen ofa prominent
player:-(i) Keep moving throughout the whole game. If you cannot run fast,
trot, and, failing that, make the best of your way to reach the ball first. (2) Back
up hard throughout the whole game. (3) Shots at goal are more successful
when made with the side of the foot, and should be made as hard as
possible. (4) Never hesitate. Do at once and quickly what you have to
do. Half-backs should charge at the ball with pluck. This will enable
their backs to take matters more coolly. They (the half-backs) should
take the ball from the opposing forwards and give it to their own forwards,
whenever they may be in a good position. Failing this they should so dis-
connect their enemies that they fall an easy prey to their backs.
One final direction. The eyes must always be fixed on the ball, under what-
Sever circumstances it is played at. Accurate and effective kicking can only
be by sight; therefore at the moment of delivering the kick the eyes must be
on the ball.
To give the ball due impetus, the player generally takes a short run: it need
not be long--o yards at the utmost; but in every case where he kicks the
ball from the ground, whether it be at rest, or he meet, follow, or cross it, he
must use the same form in delivering the kick.
He should specially endeavour to kick equally freely with either leg. The
best way to do this is to practise mainly with the weaker leg; the other will
take care of itself.
Besides the Place-kick, and the various kicks that take the ball from the
ground, there are others that take the ball in the air. These are the Half-
volley, Drop-kick, and Punt.
In the two former the ball is met by the toe just at its rebound from the
ground; in the one case from an ordinary kick, and in the other as it is
dropped from the hands of the player. The punt is made by meeting the ball
let fall from the hands with the instep: it is occasionally a serviceable varia-
tion; but the drop-kick, when practicable, is more effective, and certainly
more brilliant.
The ball is occasionally met with the foot before the pitch; but, except
when the ball is coming with but little force, and time is precious, this method
is not to be recommended.
The knack of kicking the ball with the side of the foot, at an angle to the
line in which the player is running, is not difficult of acquirement, and is in-
valuable in actual play, as also is that of "dribbling the ball," i.e., of patting it
along with the feet while at speed, so as to keep it constantly within reach.
To do this well, with unabated speed, and yet without offering a chance to the
adversary, is the ie flus ultra of fine Dlay.








1HO CEE Y.


HOCKEY.
This is perhaps, next to football, the-best of our open-air winter games, and
is strongly recommended to our young readers, as a very efficient substitute
for that nobler sport. The spirit of the game is pretty much the same as that
of football, the object being to strike a ball through a goal marked by two


PLAN OP GROUND






GO AL GC AL


.......... ......... .............. ...

f ^ F l a Si d I lV.I e 4 \



tiprights, the principal difference being that the instrument of propulsion is a
stick instead of the foot,.and that the ball is smaller and of a different make.
There is much variety of opinion as to the best form of hockey-stick, nearly
every player of any pretensions having his own fancy ; but all kinds of hockey
may be classed under two heads-those with a small hook and those with a
large one, the difference between them being much the same as that between a
rapier and a cavalry broadsword. As may be supposed, the better players
mostly prefer the lighter and more wieldy though less powerful weapon, just
as a first-rate fencer would prefer a light straight sword to a cutlass.
In choosing a hockey, the young player should be careful not to overweight
himself: all the real work of the game is done by pure wrist-work; the hockey,
therefore, must not be of a greater weight than he can easily manage.
With a good player the hockey is scarcely ever lifted above the shoulder,
the ball being driven along by a succession of taps, and is guided in and out
between the opposing ranks of jockeys by the mere action of the wrist; and
it is only occasionally, even where it is necessary to drive the ball, that the
stroke is made with the full sweep of the arm. With this style of play it is
evident that no risk is incurred of receiving or inflicting serious injury.
The following are the present
RULES OF THE GAME OF HOCKEY.
I. A hockey TEAM shall number eleven players, unless otherwise agreed
by the respective captains.
2. THE GROUND shall be 100 yards long, aid not more than 60 nor less than
50 yards wide, marked with white lines, and with a flag at each corner.








iHOCKE Y


The longer sides to be called the "side-lines," and the shorter sides
the "goal-lines."
3. The GOALS shall be in the centre of each goal-line, and shall consist of
two uprights twelve feet apart, with a horizontal bar seven feet from
the ground.
4. In front of each goal shall be drawn a line twelve feet long, parallel to
the goal-line, and fifteen yards from it. The ends of this line shall be
curved round to the goal-lines by quarter circles, of which the goal
posts form the centres. This line to be called the striking circle."
5. The BALL shall be an ordinary cricket ball, painted white.*
6. The STICKS shall have no metal fittings whatever, and no sharp edges,
and they must be able to pass through a ring two inches in diameter.
7. No player is to have any metal spikes or projecting nails in his boots or
shoes.
8. The choice of goals shall be tossed for at the beginning of the game,
and the goals shall be changed at half time.
9. The game shall be started by one player of each side BULLYING THE
BALL in the centre of the ground, and after each goal and after half time,
there shall be a bully in the centre of the ground. The bully shall be
played as follows : Each player is to strike the ground on his own
side of the ball and his opponent's stick over the ball three times
alternately ; after which either of the two players shall be at liberty
to strike the ball.
o1. In all cases of a bully, every player shall be between the ball and his
own goal-line.
SI. A GOAL is scored when the ball has been driven between the goal-posts
under the bar. No goal can be scored unless the ball be hit from a
point within the striking circle. A ball struck from without the
striking circle, and touching or glancing off the person or stick of a
player on the defending side, cannot score a goal.
12. When a player hits the ball, any player of the same side who at the
moment of hitting is nearer his opponents' goal-line is off side, and
may not touch the ball himself, nor may he approach within five yards
of it until it has touched or been hit by one of the other side, or, in
the case of a goal-keeper, until it has been hit or kicked by him ; nor
may he in any way whatever interfere with.any other player unless
there are at least three of his opponents nearer their own goal line.
13. The ball may be caught (but must be at once dropped) or stopped
with any part of the body; but it must not be picked up, carried,
kicked, or knocked on, except with the stick. The ball shall be
played from right to left only, and no left or back-handed play,
charging, kicking, collaring, shinning, or tripping shall be allowed.
The goal-keeper (who shall be named by his captain before the com-
mencement of the game) shall, however, be allowed to kick the ball in
defence of his goal, so long as it is within the striking circle. Fencing
or hooking sticks shall not be allowed, unless one of the players is on
the ball. A player shall not run in between his opponent and the
ball so as to obstruct him, nor cross him from the left so as to foul
him.


* The ball must be painted white, with ordinary white paint.








ROUNDERS.


14. When a player strikes at the ball, his stick must not during any por-
tion of the stroke rise above his shoulder. And no player may inter-
fere in any way with the game unless his stick be in his hand.
15. On the occasion of a FREE HIT, no member of the offending side shall
be within five yards of the spot where such hit is made, and the
striker must not play the ball again until it has touched or been hit
by another player.
16. The PENALTY for any breach of Rules 12, 13, 14 and 15, committed
outside the striking circles shall be a free hit" by one of the opposite
side on the spot where the rule was broken. For any breach of Rules
12, 13, 14 and 15 by the attacking side, committed inside the striking
circle, a free hit may be claimed by the defending side. For any
breach of Rules 12, 13, 14 and 15 committed by the defending side
inside the striking circle, the attacking side can only claim a "bully."
17. When the ball passes over the "side line," it shall be rolled out along
the ground from where it crossed the line by one of the opposite side
to that of the player who last touched it in any direction except for-
ward. No other player shall stand within five yards of the side line.
The ball may be rolled out at once, and the player who rolls it out
must not touch the ball again until it has touched or been hit by
another player.
18. If the ball is hit behind the goal-line by the attacking side, it shall be
brought out twenty-five yards in a direction at right angles to the goal
from a point where it crossed the line and there bullied ; but if the
ball glance off, or is hit behind by any player of the defending side, a
player of the attacking side shall have a free hit from a point on the
side or base line within a yard of the nearest corner flag, and at the
moment of such hit all the defending side must be behind their goal-
line, and all the attacking side must be outside the striking circle.
19. Should there be no umpire or umpires appointed by the two captains,
the captains shall be arbitrators in all disputes, and should two
umpires or arbitrators fail to agree, they must appoint a referee, whose
decision shall be final. Where there are two umpires but no referee
each umpire is to take half the field and to give his decisions in his
half only. The field to be divided across by a line drawn at right
angles to the side lines through the centre of the ground. The two
umpires shall not cross over at half time.
NOTE.-The game is usually played for one hour and ten minutes. Half
.ime being called after thirty-five minutes.

ROUNDERS.
This is a very interesting game, not difficult to learn, yet offering ample
opening for almost any amount of personal skill and address. Its requirements
are not numerous, a ball being the only thing absolutely indispensable.
Ti: G(AME IS PLAYED by first fixing on five equi-distant spots or "bases,"
from fifteen to twenty yards apart, as shown in the annexed figure :-
In the centre of this is a spot, F, where the "feeder" stands, to toss the ball
to the one who has the bat, and who stands at I in diagram. Two sides are
chosen, as in football, one of which goes "in," and the other is "out," this
being decided by tossing up the ball and scrambling for it, or by "heads or








ROUNDERS.


I tails," or by any other fair mode. There should not
be less than ten or twelve players in all, and 24 or 30
are not too many. The "in" side begin by standing at
3 position I in diagram, called the house," one of them
takes the "bat," while the feeder, who is one of the "out"
Party, standing at his "seat," F., tosses (not throws) a
ball at his knees or thereabouts, after calling Play !"
3- 4 The rest of the "out" party are distributed over the
field round the outside of the pentagon. When the ball
is thus given, the batsman's objects to hit it far and low over the field ; and
he is put out at once-first, if he fails to strike it ; secondly, if he tips it
and it falls behind him ; thirdly, if it is caught before it falls to the ground,
or after a single hop or rebound; or, fourthly, if the ball hits him after he
has left his base, and while not standing at another base. The in" player
may refuse to take for three balls consecutively; but if he attempts and
fails, or if he does not strike at the fourth ball, he is out.
The SCORE is made by the "in" party, as follows :-Each player, after
striking the ball, runs from his base to another, or to a second, third, fourth,
or even all round, according to the distance he has hit the ball, and scores
one for each base he touches; and if while running between the bases he is
hit by the ball, he is put out. If the ball falls among nettles or other cover
of the same kind, "lost ball" may be cried by the out" party, and four only
can be scored. After one of the "in" party has hit the ball and dropped the
bat, another takes his place ; and, on receiving the ball as before, he strikes
it, or fails, as the case may be. If the latter, he is put out; but the previous
striker or strikers, if they are standing at their bases, are not affected by his
failure. If the former, he drops the bat like his predecessor, and runs round
the pentagon also like him, being preceded by the previous strikers ; and all
being liable to be put out by a blow from the ball. The feeder is allowed to
feign a toss of the ball, in the hope of touching some one of the players, who
are very apt to leave their bases before the hit, in the hope of scoring an extra
one by the manceuvre.
When only one of the side is left in, the others being all put out, he may
callfor "three fair hits for the rounder," which are intended to give him and
his side another innings if he can effect the following feat :-The outs,"
with the feeder, stand as usual, the rest of the striker's side besides himself
taking no part. The feeder then tosses the ball as usual, which the striker
may refuse as often as he pleases; but if he strikes at it he must endeavour
to run completely round the pentagon once out of three times, he being
allowed three attempts to do it in. If he is struck on the body, or caught, or
if he fails in getting round, he and his party are finally out, and the other
side go in; but if he succeeds in getting round, his side go in again for
another innings, but have not afterwards another such chance of redeeming
their play.
The "out" field are disposed on the same principles as at cricket, part for
slight tips, and the remainder for long balls, and catch, stop, or return them,
just as in that game.








BASEBALL.


BASEBALL.
THE theory of the game of base ball is that two contesting teams must
endeavour to send the greatest number of men around the circuit of the bases
under prescribed rules, within a limited number of innings. That is the
cardinal point in the theory of the game.
Each team must invariably consist of nine men, and the game must be
played upon a regularly marked or laid out field.
The field consists of a continuous runway, these runways being clay
covered paths, laid out in the shape of a huge diamond. At each corner of
the diamond is a base-bag of canvas, filled with curled hair or other material,
and strapped securely to the ground. These bags are known as first base,
second base, third base, and home plate, the distance between bases being
ninety feet. The pitcher (or bowler) stands in the centre of the diamond,
within prescribed lines, four feet wide by five feet four inches long, known as
the pitcher's box. The forward line of the pitcher's box is fifty feet from the
home plate which the pitcher faces when ready to deliver the ball, and beside
which the batsman stands, as he faces the pitcher. Behind the home plate
stands the catcher, it being his duty to receive the ball from and return it to
the pitcher, should it not be batted by the batsman. Just behind the catcher
stands the umpire, who is expected to judge every ball pitched and every
play made during the game, his decision being final in every instance. At
first base stands the first baseman, and at second base stand the second
baseman. The short stop is stationed midway between the second and third
baseman in or near the runway, and the third baseman at third base. These
four men constitute the "in-field" of the team. Facing the diamond, and
stationed from ioo to 125 yards from the in-field are the right, centre and left
fielders. These men constitute the "out-field" of the team.
The choice of going to bat or to field for the opening inning of the
game is optional with the captain of the home team-that is, the team upon
whose ground the game is being played. Should he decide to send his men
to the field he stations them as above indicated, while the nine players of the
opposing team take their seats upon the visiting players' bench. These
players go to bat in the order in which their names appear upon the score
card. When the fielding team has taken its position, the first batsman of the
opposing team steps to the plate, and others follow him in regular turn until
three batsmen have been retired by the efforts of the opposing fielders.
Then the positions of the teams are reversed, the side which was at bat going
to the field, and the side which was doing fielding duty coming in to take
their turn at bat in regulation order. When three of the second team's bats-
men have been retired or put out by the efforts of the opposing fielders, the
innings is ended, each team having sent three or more men to bat, and each
having had three men retired. Nine such innings requiring from one hour
and a half to two hours of play, constitute a game, and the team which has
scored the most runs wins the game. Should rain or any other cause stop
the game before five full innings have been played, however, the game must
be contested over again before it can count in a championship record.
When the batsman steps to the plate he is expected to hit the ball so that it
will pass the intercepting fielders and go to such distance in the out-field as
will enable him to reach first base before the ball can be returned to the








47


fielder stationed there. If he can reach second or third base before, or make
the entire circuit of the bases before the ball has been intercepted by any one
of the in-fielders, or before it has been captured by an out-fielder and returned
to the in-field, so much the better, for the base runner's object is to ultimately
make the circuit and touch the home plate, by which he scores a run for his
side. To put a batsman out, a fielder must catch the batted ball before it has
reached the ground, or must recover it in time to throw it to the base for
which the base runner is making, before the base runner reaches there.
The pitcher is required by the rules to pitch the ball over Il h f/ate and
between the /nee and shoulder of lhe ba/sman. Each time he tries and fails
to do so the umpire calls "ball," and upon five such balls being pitched, the
batsman is entitled to take first base. When three fair balls have been put
over the plate, however, and the batsman has failed to hit them, the batsman
is out, whether he has struck at the ball or not. For each fair ball the
umpire calls "strike."
From the home plate among the runways to and past first and third bases,
are drawn two chalk lines. These are known as foul lines, and any ball
batted outside these lines is called a foul ball and does not count against
either the pitcher or batsman, unless it should be caught by a fielder before
touching the ground, in which case the batsman is out. Very frequently a
swiftly pitched ball is struck at by the batsman who fails to correctly judge it,
and the ball being just grazed by the bat, shoots into the catcher's hands.
This is called a "foul tip," and puts the batsman out.
When the innings begin, and there are no base runners on bases, the
catcher usually stands well back from the plate and takes the ball on the
bound, so as to save his hands as much as possible. When three balls or
two strikes have been called by the umpire, however, or when a batsman has
succeeded in reaching first base on a hit, or by other means, the catcher puts
on his protecting mask and pad and stands close up behind the batsman,
taking the balls as they come over the plate. This is so that he may more
quickly take advantage of any opportunity that may offer to put the batsman
out, or retire the base runner, who may already have reached first base.

RULES.
RULE I.-THE MATERIALS.
Section i.-The ball must weigh not less than five nor more than five and
one-quarter ounces avoirdupois. It must measure not less than nine, nor
more than nine and one-quarter inches in circumference. It must be com-
posed of woollen yarn and of two horse-hide covers, inside and outside, with
yarn between said covers. It shall contain one ounce of round moulded
rubber, vulcanised.
Section 2.-In all games the ball or balls played with shall be furnished
by the home club, and shall become the property of the winning club.
Section 3.-When the ball becomes out of shape, or cut or ripped so as to
expose the yarn, or in any way so injured as to be unfit for fair use, a new
ball shall be called for by the umpire at the end of an even innings at the
request of either captain. Should the ball be lost during a game, the umpire
shall, at the expiration of five minutes, call for a new ball.
Section 4.-The bat must be round or four-sided, and must not exceed


BASEBALL.








48 BASEBALL.

two and one-half inches in diameter in the widest part. It must be made
wholly of wood, and shall not exceed forty-two inches in length.
Section 5.-The bases must be four in number, and they must be placed
and securely fastened upon each corner of a square, the sides of which are
respectively thirty yards. The bases must be so constructed and placed as
to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The first, second and third bases must
cover a space equal to fifteen inches square, and the home base one square
foot of surface. The first, second and third bases shall be canvas bags,
painted white and filled with some soft material. The home base shall be
of white marble or stone, so fixed in the ground as to be even with the
surface and wholly within the diamond. One corner of said base shall face
the pitcher's position, and two sides shall form part of the foul lines.
Section 6.-The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the
home base, and must be directly opposite the second base. The first base
must always be that upon the right hand, and the third base that upon the
left hand side of the striker when occupying his position at the home base.
In all match games, lines connecting the home and first bases, and the home
and third bases, and also the lines of the striker's and pitcher's positions,
shall be marked by the use of chalk or other suitable material, so as to be
distinctly seen by the umpire. The line of the home base shall extend four
feet on each side of the base, and shall be drawn through its centre and
parallel with a line extending from first to third base. The foul lines from
first and third bases to home base shall be continued as straight lines to the
limits of the field, beyond and back of said home base. The triangular
space thus laid off behind the home base shall be for the exclusive use of the
catcher, umpire and batsman; and no player of the side "at bat" (except
the batsman) shall be permitted to occupy any portion of such triangular
space.
RULE II.-THE GAME.
Section I.-The game shall consist of nine innings to each side ; and nine
men shall constitute a full side. Should the score at the end of the nine
innings be a tie, play shall be continued until a majority of runs for one side
upon an equal number of innings shall be declared, when the game shall
end. All innings shall be concluded when the third hand is put out.
Section 2.-The home club shall first take the bat. The fielders of each
club shall take any position in the field their captain may assign them, with
the exception of pitcher, who must deliver the ball from his appointed
position.
[The exception made in the above rule in the case of the pitcher refers
only to the fact that whichever player in the field he may select to take the
regular pitcher's position, such changed pitcher must deliver the ball only
from the regular position. It does not prevent a change of pitchers, but only
requires that the ball in all cases must be sent in from the regularly appointed
position.]
Section 3.--No player taking part in a game shall be replaced by another
after the commencement of the second innings, except for reason of illness
or injury.
Section 4.-No game shall be considered as played unless five innings on
each side shall be completed. Should darkness or rain intervene before the
third hand is put out in the closing part of the fifth innings of a game, the
umpire shall declare "no game."








BASEBALL. 49

Section 5.--Should rain commence to fall during the progress of a match
game, the umpire must note the time it began; and, should it continue for
five minutes, he shall, at the request of either captain, suspend play. Should
the rain continue to fall for thirty minutes after play has been suspended, the
game shall terminate.
Section 6.-When the umpire calls "play," the game must at once be pro-
ceeded with. Should either party fail to take their appointed positions in the
game, or to commence play as requested, the umpire shall, at the expiration
of five minutes, declare the game forfeited by the nine that refuses to play.
When the umpire calls "time," play shall be suspended until he calls "play"
again, and during the interim no player shall be put out, base be run, or run
be scored. The umpire shall suspend play only for illness or an accident or
injury to himself or a player, or on account of rain or lost ball.
Section 7.-The umpire, in any match game, shall, in case of rain or
darkness, determine when play shall be suspended; and, if the game cannot
be fairly concluded, it shall be decided by the score of the last even innings
played, unless one nine shall have completed their innings, and the other
nine shall have equalled or exceeded the score of their opponents in their
incompleted innings, in which case the game shall be decided by the total
score obtained, which score shall be recorded as the score of the game.
Section 8.-When the side last at the bat in the ninth or any subsequent
innings shall score the winning run, the game shall terminate.
[The cases in which Section 7 of the rule applies are as follow :-If the
A nine have played their sixth innings-or any other following innings-and
have scored one run in their six or more innings' play, and the B nine, in
their sixth innings, score a single run before a hand is put out, and the
umpire "calls" or ends the game for any legal cause, in such case the game
terminates in a drawn match. If, under similar conditions, the nine, in their
incompleted sixth innings, score two runs, thereby exceeding their adversary's
score, and the game then and there ends by the umpire's decision, the nine
having the largest score wins. It is the umpire, and he only, who decides
when a game shall end, of course with the exception of the case of full
innings being played with one nine having a majority of runs.]
Section 9.-When the umpire calls "Game," it shall end; but when he
merely suspends play for any stated period, it may be resumed at the point
at which it was suspended, provided such suspension does not extend beyond
the day of the match.
[There are no circumstances known to the rules which admit of a contesting
i.ine legally refusing to continue play in a match after having commenced the
game. When the umpire has been mutually agreed upon, and the contest
proceeded with, it must be played to a close by both parties, under the
penalty of forfeiture by the side refusing to play.]

RULE III.-THE PITCHER.
Section I.-The pitcher's position shall be within a space of ground four
feet wide by six feet long, the front, or four feet line, of which shall be distant
forty-five feet from the centre of the home base, and the centre of the square
shall be equi-distant from the first and the third bases. Each corner of the
square shall be marked by a flat iron plate or stone, six inches square, fixed
in the ground even with the surface.
Section 2.-The player who delivers the ball to the bat must do so while








BASEBALL.


wholly within the lines of the pitcher's position. He must remain within
them until the ball has left his hand, and he shall not make any motion to
deliver the ball to the bat while any part of his person is outside the lines of
the pitcher's position. The ball must be delivered to the bat with the arm
swinging nearly perpendicular at the side of the body, and the hand in
swinging forward must pass below the hip. The pitcher, when taking his
position to deliver the ball, must face the batsman, and shall not, while
delivering the ball, turn his back to the striker.
Section 3.-Should the pitcher deliver the ball by an overhand throw, a
"foul baulk shall be declared. Any outward swing of the arm, or any other
swing save that of the perpendicular movement referred to in Section 2 of
this rule, shall be considered an overhand throw.
Section 4.-When a "foul baulk" is called, the umpire shall warn the
pitcher of the penalty incurred by such unfair delivery; and should such
delivery be continued until three foul baulks have been called in one innings,
or six in the entire game, the umpire shall declare the game forfeited.
Section 5.-Should the pitcher make any motion to deliver the ball to the
bat, and fail so to deliver it-except the ball be accidentally dropped-or
should he unnecessarily delay the game by not delivering the ball to the bat,
or should he, when in the act of delivering the ball, overstep the bounds of
his position, the umpire shall ctll a baulkk," and players occupying the bases
shall take one base each.
Section 6.-Every ball fairly delivered and sent in to the bat over the
home base and at the height called for by the batsman shall be considered
a good ball.
Section 7.-All balls delivered to the bat which are not sent in over the
home base and at the height called for by the batsman shall be considered
unfair balls, and every ball so delivered must be called. When "eight balls"
have been called, the striker shall take first base, and all players who are
thereby forced to leave a base shall take one base. Neither a "ball" nor a
"strike" shall be called until the ball has passed the home base.
Section 8.-All balls delivered to the bat which shall touch the striker's
bat without being struck at, or his (the batsman's) person while standing in
his position, or which shall hit the person of the umpire-unless they be
passed balls--shall be considered dead balls, and shall be so called by the
umpire ; and no players shall be put out, base be run, or run be scored on
any such ball ; but if a dead ball be also an unfair ball, it shall be counted
as one of the eight unfair balls which shall entitle the striker to a base.
[The ball may be tossed in-as in the case of a square pitch-or it may be
sent in by a jerk, or an underhand throw, either method of delivery being
legal under this rule, provided the ball, in the forward swing, passes "below
the waist." In all cases where the ball is sent in on a line with the waist, the
umpire must promptly call "foul baulk."]
RULE IV.-THE BATSMAN.
Section .--The batsman's or striker's position shall be within a space of
ground located on either side of the home base, six feet long by three feet
wide, extending three feet in front of, and three feet behind, the line of the
home base, and with its nearest line distant one foot from the home base.
Section 2.-The batsmen must take their position in the order in which
they are directed by the captain of their club, and after each player has had








BASEBALL. 51

one time at the bat, the striking order thus established shall not be changed
during the game. After the first innings, the first striker in each innings
shall be the batsman whose name follows that of the last man who has com-
pleted his turn (time) at the bat in the preceding innings.
Section 3.-Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat in his order
of striking-unless by reason of illness or injury, or by consent of the
captains of the contesting nines-shall be declared out, unless the error be
discovered before a fair ball has been struck or the striker been put out.
Section 4.-Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat within one
minute after the umpire has called for the striker shall be declared cut.
Section 5.- The batsman on taking his position must call for either a
"hji-h ball," a "low ball," or a "fair ball," and the umpire shall notify the
pitcher to deliver the ball as required ; such call shall not be changed after
the first ball delivered.
Section 6.-A "hkig ball" shall be sent in above the belt of the batsman,
but not higher than his shoulder. A low ball" shall be one sent in at the
height of the belt, or between that height and the knee, but not higher than
his belt. A "fair ball" shall be one between the range of shoulder high and
the knee of the striker. All the above must be over the home base, and,
when fairly delivered, shall be considered fair balls to the bat.
Section 7.-Should the batsman fail to strike at the ball he calls for, or
should he strike at and fail to hit the ball, the umpire shall call one strike,"
and "two strikes" should he again fail. When two strikes have been called,
should the batsman not strike at the next "good ball," the umpire shall warn
him by calling "good ball." But should he strike at and fail to hit the ball,
or should he fail to strike at or hit the next good ball, "three strikes" must
be called, and the batsman must run towards the first base, as in the case of
hitting a fair ball.
[The meaning of the above section is as follows :-Suppose the first ball
sent to the bat should be over the home base and at the height called for,
and the batsman is not prepared to strike at it, or refuses to do so, it is then
the duty of the umpire to call "one strike." If the second ball sent in is
similarly fair, and not struck at, "two strikes" must be called, and should
the third such ball sent in be struck at and not hit, in such case "three
strikes" must be called. Now suppose two fair balls are again sent in, and
the batsman strike at them and fail to hit them, "one strike" and then "two
strikes" must be called as before. But in such case, if the third ball sent in
fair be not struck at, then the umpire warns the batsman by exclaiming,
"fair ball," and then, if the fourth ball be not struck at, or, if struck at, be
not hit, the umpire calls "three strikes ; striker out."]
Section 8.-The batsman, when in the act of striking at the ball must
stand wholly within the lines of his position.
Section 9.-Should the batsman step outside the lines of his position when
he strikes at the ball, the umpire shall call "foul strike and out," and baserunners
shall return to the bases they occupied when the ball was struck at or hit.
Section Io.--The foul lines shall be unlimited in length, and shall run from
the right and left hand corners of the home base, through the centre of the
first and third bases to the foul posts, which shall be located at the boundary
of the field, and within the range of home and first base, and home and third
base. Said lines shall be marked, and on the inside, from base to base with
chalk, or some other white substance, so as to be plainly seen by the umpire.








52 BASEBALL.

Section II.-If the ball from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the
ground, the person of a player, or any other object, either in front of or on
the foul ball lines, or the first or third base, it shall be considered fair. If
the ball, from a fair stroke of the bat, first touches the ground, the person of
a player, or any other object behind the foul ball lines, it shall be declared
foul, and the ball so hit shall be called foul by the umpire, even before touch-
ing the ground, if it be seen falling foul.
The following are exceptions to the foregoing sections :-All balls batted
directly to the ground that bound or roll within the foul lines between home
and first, or home and third bases, without first touching the person of a
player, shall be considered fair. All balls batted directly to the ground that
bound or roll outside the foul lines between home and first, or home and
third bases, without first touching the person of a player, shall be considered
foul. In either of these cases the first point of contact between the batted
ball and the ground shall not be regarded. If a batted ball strikes the bats-
man while standing in his position, it shall be declared dead, and not in play
until settled in the hands of the pitcher, and the batsman shall not be
declared out.
Section 12.-When the batsman has fairly struck a ball he shall vacate his
position, and he shall then be considered a base-runner until he is put out or
scores his run.
Section 13.-The batsman shall be declared out by the umpire as follows :-
If a fair or foul ball be caught before touching the ground, or any object
other than the player, provided it be not caught in the player's hat or cap.
If a foul ball be similarly held, before touching the ground.
If a fair ball be securely held by a fielder while touching the first base with
any part of his person before base-runner touches said base.
If, after three strikes have been called, he fails to touch first base before
the ball is legally held there.
If, after three strikes have been called, the ball be caught before touching
the ground.
If he plainly attempts to hinder the catcher from catching the ball,
evidently without effort to make a fair strike, or makes a "foul strike."
[In reference to putting out base-runners from home base at first base, the
umpire must bear in mind the fact that the rule, by letter as well as spirit,
requires that the ball be held by the base-player before the base-runner
reaches the base, in order to put him out. If it be held simultaneously with
his touching the base, then the runner is not out.]
RULE V.-THE BASES.
Section I.-Players running bases must touch each base in regular order,
viz., first, second, third, and home bases; and when obliged to return to
bases they have occupied, they must retouch them in reverse order, both
when running on fair and foul balls. In the latter case the base-runner must
return to the base where he belongs, on the run and not at a walk No base
shall be considered as having been occupied or held until it has been touched.
Section 2.-No player running the bases shall be forced to vacate the base
he occupies, unless the batsman becomes a base-runner. Should the first
base be occupied by a base-runner when a fair ball is struck, the base-runner
shall cease to be entitled to hold said base until the player running to first
base shall be put out. The same rule shall apply in the case of the








BASEBALL.


occupancy of the other bases under similar circumstances. No base-runner
shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies if the base runner succeeding
him is not thus obliged to vacate his base.
[The rule limits a base-runner's being forced off to the act of the batsman
in running to first base. For instance, if all three of the bases be occupied
when the batsman makes a fair hit, then the moment such hit is made all
three of the base-runners cease to be entitled to hold the bases they then
occupy, inasmuch as the base-runner from home to first base forces the
runner on first to vacate, he on the first forces the runner on second, and he
on the second forces the runner on the third. But if there are runners on
first and third bases only, and the runner on first is forced to vacate that base
by the batsman, the runner on third is not thereby forced to vacate that base
by the runner forced to leave first. If a base runner on third base leaves his
base to run home, and in the interim a runner on second occupies third base
-if the former, finding he cannot reach home safely, runs back to third, the
occupant of third from second base must return to second, he having no
right to hold third base until the regular occupant of that base, who preceded
him, touches the next base.]
Section 3.-Players forced to vacate their bases may be put out by any
fielders in the same manner as when running to first base.
Section 4.--The player running to the first base shall be at liberty to over-
run said base without his being put out for being off the base, after first
touching it, provided that in so overrunning the base he make no attempt to
run to second base. In such case he must return at once and retouch first
base, and after retouching said base he can be put out as at any other base.
If, in so overrunning first base, he also attempts to run to second base, he
shall forfeit such exemption from being put out.
Section 5.-Any player running a base who shall run beyond three feet
from the line from base to base, in order to avoid being touched by the
ball in the hands of a fielder, shall be declared out by the umpire, with or
without appeal; but in case a fielder be occupying the runner's proper path,
attempting to field a batted ball, then the runner shall run out of the path and
behind said fielder, and shall not be declared out for so doing.
Section 6.-One run shall be scored every time a base-runner, after having
regularly touched the first three bases, shall touch the home base before three
hands are out, and players shall score in the order of going to the bat, unless
previously put out. If the third hand is forced out, or is put out before
reaching first base, a run shall not be scored.
Section 7.-When a baulkk" is called by the umpire, every player running
the bases shall take one base without being put out, and shall do so on the
run.
[There is quite a difference between taking bases on baulkss" and taking
them on "called balls." In taking bases on balls, only those occupying
bases who are forced off by the giving of the base on called balls can take
bases ; but in the case of baulks every occupant of a base, whether forced off
or not, takes a base. Thus, if the first and third bases be occupied when the
striker is given his base on balls, only the runner on first base can take a
base ; but in the case of a baulk, then both the occupants of the bases take a
base. Of course the batsman does not take a base on a baulk.]
Section 8.-When "eight balls have been called by the umpire the bats-
man shall take one base, provided he do so on the run, without being put out,







BASEBALL.


and should any base-runner be forced thereby to vacate his base he shall also
take one base. Each base-runner thus given a base shall be at liberty to
run to other bases besides the base given, but only at the risk of being put
out in so running.
Section 9.-A base-runner shall be considered as holding a base, viz.,
entitled to occupy it, until he shall have regularly touched the next base in
order.
[A base is regarded by the rules as being occupied or held if the base-
runner has not touched the next base legally. Thus, if a runner be on first
base and one on second, and the latter, thinking he can steal safely to third,
runs there-the runner on first base in the interim running to second and
standing on second-he can return to second at his option, provided he does
not first touch third base-that base at the time not being occupied or held.
In such case the runner who has touched second must vacate it and return
to first, as he was not entitled to hold second until the runner on second had
touched third, the latter, at the time, having a right to remain on third.]
Section Io.-No race shall be run or run be scored when a fair or foul ball
has been caught or momentarily held before touching the ground, unless the
base held, when the ball was hit, is retouched by the base-runner after the
ball has been so caught or held by the fielder.
Section II.-No run or base can be made upon a foul ball that shall touch
the ground before being caught or held by a fielder, and any player running
bases shall return, without being put out, to the base he occupied when the
ball was struck, and remain on such base until the ball is held by the pitcher.
Section 12.-Any player running the bases on far or foul balls, caught
before touching the ground, must return to the basa he occupied before the
ball was struck, and retouch such base before attempting to make another or
score a run, and said player shall be liable to be put out in so returning, as
in the case of running to first base, when a fai- ball is hit and not caught
flying.
Section 13.-If the player running the bases is prevented from making a
base by the obstruction of an adversary, he shall be entitled to that base, and
shall not be put out.
Section 14.-No player shall be allowed a substitute in running the bases,
except for illness or injury incurred in the game then being played ; and such
substitute shall take such ill or injured player's place only after he reaches
first base. The opposing captain shall select the man to run as substitute.
Section 15.-Any player running the bases shall be declared out if, at any
time while the ball is in play, he is touched by the ball in the hand of a
fielder, without some part of his person is touching a base. The ball must
be held by the player after touching the runner.
If a ball be held by a fielder on the first base before the base-runner, after
hitting a fair ball, touches that base, he shall be declared out.
If a base-runner shall have touched the base he is running for before being
touched with the ball in the hands of a fielder, and such base shall break
from its fastening, he shall be entitled to such base.
Any base-runner failing to touch the base he runs for shall be declared out
if the ball be held by a fielder, while touching said base, before the base-
runner returns and touches it.
Any base-runner who shall in any way interfere with or obstruct a fielder
while attempting to catch a fair fly-ball, or a foul ball, shall be declared out.








55


If he wilfully obstructs a fielder from fielding a ball he shall be declared out,
and, if a batted fair ball strike him, he shall be declared out.
If a base-runner, in running from home to first base, shall run inside the
foul line, or more than three feet outside of it, he shall be declared out.

RULE VI.-THE UMPIRE.
Section I.-The umpire shall be chosen by the captains or officers of the
two contesting clubs, and he shall determine all disputes and differences
between the contesting players which may occur during the game.
Section 2.-The umpire in a match shall be the sole judge of fair and
unfair play, and there shall be no appeal from his decision, except through
the Judiciary Committee of the National Association of Professional Players.
[This is the fundamental rule of umpiring. "The umfnire is the sole judge."
He only can decide upon any disputed point, and in every case, except when
the printed rules of the game are plainly misinterpreted, his decision must be
abided by, and should be silently acquiesced in. There is only one court of
appeal from his decision on any case occurring in the progress of a match,
and that is to the Judiciary Committee, and that appeal must be sent in, duly
attested in writing, and within a certain specified period. By this section the
umpire is empowered to render a decision, on every point of play, whether
specially referred to in the rules or not; he applying the rule of equity in the
case of the absence of any printed rule contained in the code of laws of the
game bearing upon the point.]
Section 3.-The umpire shall not be changed during the progress of a
match game, except for reason of illness or injury, or by the consent of the
captains of the two contesting nines, in case he shall have wilfully violated
the rules of the game.
Section 4.-Before the commencement of a match, the umpire shall see
that the rules governing the materials of the game, and also those applicable
to the positions of batsmen and pitcher, arc strictly observed. Also that the
fence in the rear of the catcher's position is distant not less than ninety feet
from the home base, except it mark the boundary line of the field, in which
case the umpire, for every ball passing the catcher and touching the fence,
shall give each base-runner one base without his being put out.
Before calling "play," the umpire shall ask the captain of the home club
whether there are any special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are,
he shall see that they are duly enforced, provided they do not conflict with
any rules of the game.
Section 5.--No decision rendered by the umpire on any point of play in
base running shall be reversed upon the testimony of any of the players.
But if it shall be shown by the captain of either of the contesting clubs that
the umpire has palpably misinterpreted the rules, or given an erroneous
decision, he shall reverse said decision.
Section 6.-No person not engaged in the game shall be permitted to
occupy any position within the lines of the field of contest, or in any way
interrupt the umpire during the progress of the game. No player except the
captain or player expressly designated by him shall address the umpire con-
cerning any point of play in dispute, and any violation of this rule shall
subject the offender to an immediate reprimand by the umpire.
Section 7.-The umpire shall require the players on the batting side who
are not at the bat or running the bases, to keep at a distance of not less than


BASEBALL.









FIVES.


fifty feet from the line of home and first base and home and third base, or
farther off, if he so decide. The captain and one assistant only shall be
permitted to coach players running the bases, and they must not approach
within fifteen feet of the foul lines.
Section 8.-Should any fielder stop or catch the ball with his hat, cap, or
any part of his dress, the umpire shall call "dead ball," and the base-runners
shall each be entitled to two bases for any fair hit ball so stopped or caught.
Should the ball be stopped by any person not engaged in the game, the
umpire must call "dead ball," and players running bases at the time shall be
entitled to the bases they were running for, and the ball be regarded as dead
until settled in'the hands of the pitcher while standing within the lines of his
position, and the player at the bat shall vacate the position and not obstruct
the catcher when a ball is returned from the field for the purpose of putting
out a player at the home base.
Section 9.-Any match game in which the umpire shall declare any section
of this code of rules to have been wilfully violated shall at once be declared
by him to have been forfeited by the club at fault.
From this voluminous code of rules it will be seen that Baseball throws an
enormous amount of work and responsibility on the umpire. The importance
of the umpire is the weak point of the game, which also differs from other ball
games in the misses being much more numerous than the hits. The fine art
of the baseball player is the making the ball curve in the air when pitched
for the striker to hit-or, rather, to miss. There is a great similarity between
our old fashioned Rounders and Baseball ; but there is one point in which
they differ. In Rounders the ball is gently pitched for the striker to hit ; in
Baseball it is hurled in with all the force of a yorker at cricket.
While these pages are passing through the press, an endeavour is being
made to introduce a Baseball that is not so complicated as the American
game herein described, but the formal rules have not yet been decided on.

FIVES.
THIS is a game of great antiquity, and is generally played with the hand.
It may be played either in an open" or a closed:' court. The former is a
very simple affair, merely requiring a high and smooth wall, with a level
asphalt area in front. For a "closed" court two side walls must be added.
Along the "back" wall, a piece of board, about six inches wide, and the top
edge generally three feet from the ground, should be nailed. The chief point
in the game is for the ball to strike the wall above this line, which is made of
wood; and the sound caused when the ball strikes the board instantly
signals a foul stroke.
The game is now almost entirely confined to our chief public schools,
where it is played according to certain traditional, but unwritten, codes of
laws. In all, however, the main object is to make the ball hit the front wall
above the wooden board. Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Marlborough and Chelten-
ham each play a different kind of game.
Fives is a capital game for a back yard, played, as we have seen it played,
as follows :








FIVES.


The wall and ground require some little preparation, which need not, how-
ever, take more than a few minutes. A line must be drawn horizontally along
the wall with chalk or other suitable substance, at about thirty inches from
the ground; and three lines on the ground, two extending parallel from the
wall, about fifteen feet apart, to a distance of some eighteen or twenty feet; and
one parallel with the wall and about six feet from it. The line on the wall is
called simply the line," the two long ones on the ground "the boundaries,"
and the cross line the scratch." The ball when in play must be made to
strike the wall above the line, and must fall to the ground inside the boundaries.
The number of players may be two or four. As there is no material difference
between the game with two and that with four players, the description of the
one will do for the other; for simplicity's sake, therefore, the game with two
players will be described.
The theory of the game is as follows: One player strikes the ball with his
hand up against the wall above the line, making it fall beyond the scratch,
and the other is then bound to meet it, and before it touches the ground a
second time, to return it again to the wall for the first player to meet it in like
manner, and so on alternately, only that after the ball is served" it is not
requisite that it should fall outside the scratch. The players toss up for first
lead off, and the winner serves or delivers the ball as above described; if he
himself is first to fail in properly returning the ball to the wall, he is out, and
player No. 2 becomes server; but if the second player so fails, the server counts
one towards his game, and serves the ball afresh for a new bout. The game is
mostly eleven or fifteen, the former number being perhaps the more common.
The real art of the game, as in the next game, Rackets," after the knack
of striking the ball fairly with the hand is once mastered, lies in the serving.
The server, as will be perceived, has every advantage: in the first place, if he
fails, he only loses his turn, while if his opponent fail, he loses one to his score,
which is no slight advantage, especially near the end of the game. In the next
place, the server takes his own time in delivering the ball, and is left perfectly
cool and collected to make it as difficult as possible to his opponent to play
it, while the latter must take it as it comes, and very often be only too glad if
he can get it duly back to the wall, without any consideration of the chance
it may offer to the former; so that the server may often have a series of easy
balls to play, while he is enabled to return them in such a manner that his
opponent must strain every nerve to keep the ball up. This cannot but tell
in his favour, and in this way a first-rate server will very often get the better
of a much more active and brilliant, though less crafty, player.
When four play, they play two against two, and the game proceeds exactly
as above, it only being necessary that the ball should be played by one of
either side alternately. Usually they divide the ground between them, one of
either side standing near the wall and the other well back.
It will be seen that the game is very simple in theory, encumbered by few
rules, and therefore very easily learnt; it is, nevertheless, a game of the first
class, and one that can be very strongly recommended to all who are fond of
athletic exercises. It brings into play every muscle of the body, and from its
constant variety never palls or becomes monotonous.
We would advise the beginner, unless his hands are blessed with palms of
a peculiarly horny texture, to wear at first a pair of stout leather gloves until
his hands have become accustomed to the work, or they will get so beaten and
bruised as to be a source of much discomfort for many days after; a very








RACKETS.


short perseverance in tolerably constant practice will soon give the hands the
required measure of hardness and insensibility.
Another piece of advice, too, he will find valuable,-not to play too long or
too hard the first few days. If he is in good general training he may, of course,
venture further than would be otherwise desirable; but even then he will find
so many muscles brought into active use that never did much hard service
before, that even he must not be surprised at developing no inconsiderable
amount of general stiffness the next cay; and as for the unfortunate who,
not being in the habit of taking much violent exercise, should go in without
preparation for a hard bout of fives, words can hardly convey an idea of the
extremity of soreness and stiffness to which every muscle of his body will be
reduced. A little moderation, however, at first, will entirely obviate all chance
of stiffness, and practice will soon inure the hitherto unaccustomed muscles
to almost any amount of work to which they may be put.
Regular fives-courts are very general now wherever there is sufficient popu-
lation to make them pay, but they differ from the ground above described
only in a greater elaboration of fittings and detail, and so require no particular
notice.
It may be, perhaps, well to add a few words upon points in the game not
considered above. If the ball when served strike the wall below the line, or
in rebounding falls without the boundaries, it is "no ball," and the opponent
need not take it, and it must be served again.
If one player in playing at the ball is obstructed by the other, and the ball
is let fall, there is no score, and the ball is called a let ball," and served
afresh. If the ball in the course of play falls without the boundary, the striker
pays the same penalty as if he had missed it. In some places the server
delivers the ball under the same conditions, but the rule given above is the
more general. In any case an agreement should be come to beforehand in the
matter.
A bat is sometimes used instead of the hand, and the game is then called
"Bat-fives," but the hand game is the more common.
RACKETS
This is a game very similar to the above; indeed, it is in all its leading features,
its rules and general theory, almost identical. The only variations arise from
the use of a racket instead of the hand, which necessitates an increase in the
size of the court in which the game is played, and some slight modifications
of the rules. Rackets may be played in the open air, like fives, an enlarged
fives-court answering the purpose very fairly; but the game is generally
played in a specially constructed court, which is indeed absolutely necessary
for the development of the full beauties of the game.
THE BEST AREA for a double-match court is eighty feet by forty feet.
The front wall should be thirty feet high, and the back one twelve feet,
covered in by a roof well lit with skylights. In a single-match court, the
usual area is sixty feet by thirty feet. The "short" line is thirty-two feet
from the back wall in the double court, and twenty-four in the single one;
and the two service spaces in each are eight feet six inches by six feet six
inches. The following is a diagram of the court, which is alike for the
double and single-match, the only difference being in the dimensions that
have just been given.









RACKETS. 59

I Front Wall.





F---




Service Service
space. space.


Shoreline.








Back Wall.
IDl
The back part of the floor of the court is divided into two equal oblongs,
into one of which the ball must be served according to the court from which
the "man in" is serving. A line is drawn across the front wall two feet two
inches above the floor of the court, and all the space below this line should
be covered with deal board, painted black, like the walls of the court. The
object of the wood is to tell by the sound when a ball strikes on it, as in this
case the ace counts against the side that struck the ball. Another white
line on the front wall, seven feet nine inches above the floor is called the
cut line," above which the ball must be served when the player first goes
in. An entrance door, D, flush with the wall on the inside, is placed in the
middle of the back wall, the bottom of it being level with the floor of the
court; and a spectators' gallery is usually built on the top of the back wall,
but not projecting into the court.
THE BEST MATERIAL for the walls is brick, well and evenly plastered, in
order to be true, and then covered with a good coat of black paint.
THE RACKET is composed of a long handle ending in an oval frame, which





is crossed by catgut ; and also is of a regulation-pattern and size.








RACKETS.


THE BALLS are very hard, about the size of a large walnut, and covered
with leather.
THE FOLLOWING RULES are those usually observed :-
I. The game to be 15 up. At 13 all, the out-players may set it to 5; and
at 14 all, to 3, provided this be done before another ball is struck.
2. The going in first, whether odds be given or not, to be decided by lot;
but one hand only then is to be taken.
3. The ball to be served alternately right and left, beginning whichever
side the server pleases.
4. In serving, the server must have one foot in the space marked off for
that purpose. The out-player to whom he serves may stand where he pleases,
but his partner, and the server's partner, must both stand behind the server
till the ball is served.
5. The ball must be served above, and not touching the line on the front
wall, and it must strike the floor before it bounds, within and not touching
the lines inclosing the court on the side opposite to that in which the server
stands.
6. A ball served below the line, or to the wrong side, is a fault, but it may
be taken and then the ace must be played out, and counts.
7. In serving, if the ball strikes anywhere before it reaches the front wall,
it is a hand out.
8. In serving, if a ball touch the server or his partner before it has bounded
twice, it is a hand out, whether it was properly served or not.
9. It is a fault-(a) if the server is not in his proper place ; (b) if the ball is
not served over the line ; (c) if it does not fall in the proper court; (d) if it
touch the roof; (e) if it touch the gallery-netting, posts or cushions. The
out-player may take a fault if he pleases, but if he fail in putting the ball up,
it counts against him.
o1. Two consecutive faults put a hand out.
I An out-player may not take a ball served to his partner.
12. The out-players may change their courts once only in each game.
13. If a player designedly stop a ball before the second bound, it counts
against him.
14. If a ball hit the striker's adversary above or on the knec, it is a let; if
below the knee, or if it hit the striker's partner or himself, it counts against
the striker.
15. Till a ball has been touched, or has bounded twice, the player or his
partner may strike it as often as they please.
16. Every player should get out of the way as much as possible. If he
cannot, the marker is to decide if it is a let or not.
17. After the service, a ball going out of the court or hitting the roof is an
ace ; a ball hitting the gallery-netting, posts or cushions, in returning from
the front wall, is a let; but if it hit the roof before reaching the front wall, it
counts against the striker.
18. The marker's decision is final, but if he has any doubt, he should ask
advice, and if he cannot decide positively, the ace is to be played over again.







TENNIS. 6


TENNIS.
TENNIS is a most ancient game, as well as a most intricate and difficult
one to play. It was probably first played in France during the middle ages,
though remains of ancient buildings very much resembling tennis-courts have
been found in Mexico. About the end of the fifteenth century the French
game was divided into longue faume and course paumne, the latter being the
same as the modern game of tennis.
THE TENNIS COURT is a very complicated one, and the area varies
according to circumstances, but is usually about 95 feet by 35 feet, and is
covered in. A low net, three feet above the floor in the middle, hangs across
the court, exactly in the middle, and is termed "the line." One side of the
court so divided is called the service side," and the other the "hazard side,"
and at the end of the former the "dedans" is situated, where the spectators
sit, and on the hazard side are the "grille" and "tambour." The left-hand
side of the court, looking from the dedans, is divided into a series of galleries,
and the pent-house, or sloping roof, extends along the whole of this side and
the two ends ; the floor being divided into "chases" by lines drawn across.
The game requires a bat somewhat stronger and of a slightly different
shape to a racket one, and a large number of balls.
THE GAME IS PLAYED in "sets" consisting of the best of eleven games,
each of which has four points, viz., 15, 30, 40, and game. When "40 all" is
reached it is called deuce," and then two points in succession must be gained
in order to score the game ; if each side gains one the score reverts to deuce.
A return into the last gallery on the hazard side, the dedans, or grille, counts
a point, but in the case of chases they have to be played out. The other
minutiae of the game are so intricate that they can only be explained by
actually playing.
The best work on the subject has been written by Mr. Julian Marshall. It
is published at the office of the Field newspaper, 346 Strand.

LAWN TENNIS.
LAWN TENNIS requires a level ground; and if of turf, the court must be
marked out with whiting.
The ground is either of turf well rolled and closely cut, or asphalt, or
cement. It is also sometimes made of gravel, cinders, or a mixture of broken
granite and gas tar.
The following are the laws now general throughout the United Kingdom:-

THE SINGLE-HANDED GAME.
I. For the single-handed game the court is 27 feet in width, and 78 feet
in length. It is divided across the middle by a net, the ends of which are
attached to the tops of two posts, A and A, which stands 3 feet outside the
court on each side. The height of the net is 4 feet at the posts, and 3 feet at
the centre. At each end of the court, parallel with the net, and at a distance
of 39 feet from it, are drawn the Base-Lines, CD and EF, the extremities of
which are connected by the Side-Lines, CE and DF. Half-way between the
Side-Lines, and parallel with them, is drawn the Half-Court Line, GH,
dividing the soace on each side of the net into two equal parts, called the








LA WN TENNIS.


Right and Left Courts. On each side of the net, at a distance of 21 feet
from it, and parallel with it, are drawn the Service-Lines XX and YY.
2. The balls shall be not less than 2. inches, nor more than 2-6 inches in
diameter; and not less than 11 ounces, nor more than 2 ounces in weight.
< ............ .. 2 7 ff ............. -
-- ------------ 27 --------------
SA














Y.4

A-..-....-....-.......-.-....-..-. ...............----


















r H- F
PLAN or SINGLE COURT.

3. In matches, where Umpires are appointed, their decision shall be final.
4. The choice of sides and the right of serving during the first game shall
be decided by toss ; provided that, if the winner of the toss choose the right
to serve, the other player shall have the choice of sides, and -vice versd,








LA WNA TENNIS. 63

5. The players shall stand on opposite sides of the net; the player who
first delivers the ball shall be called the Server, the other the Striker-out.
6. At the end of the first game, the Striker-out shall become Server, and
the Server shall become Striker-out; and so on alternately in the subsequent
games of the set.
7. The Server shall stand with one foot beyond (i.e., further from the net
than) the Base-Line, and with the other foot upon the Base-Line, and shall
deliver the Service from the Right and Left Courts alternately, beginning
from the Right.
8. The ball served must drop within the Service-Line, Half-Court Line,
and Side-Line of the Court which is diagonally opposite to that from ivhlch
it was served, or upon any such line.
9. It is a fault if the service be delivered from the wrong Court, or if the
Server do not stand as directed in Law 7, or if the ball served drop in the
net or beyond the Service-Line, or if it drop out of Court, or in the wrong
Court.
o1. A fault may not be taken.
Ii. After a fault the Server shall serve again from the same Court from
which he served that fault, unless it was a fault because served from the
wrong Court.
12. A fault may not be claimed after the next service has been delivered.
13. The service may not be volleyed-i.e., taken before it touches the
ground.
14. The Server shall not serve until the Striker-out is ready. If the latter
attempt to return the service, he shall be deemed to be ready.
15. A service or fault delivered when the Striker-out is not ready counts
for nothing.
16. A ball is returned, or in flay, when it is played back, over the net,
before it has touched the ground a second time.
17. It is a good return, although the ball touch the net; but if the ball
served touch the net, the service, provided it be otherwise good, counts for
nothing.
18. The Server wins a stroke if the Striker-out volley the service, or fail to
return the service or the ball in play, or return the service or ball in play so
that it drop outside any of the lines which bound his opponent's Court, or
otherwise lose a stroke, as provided by Law 20.
19. The Striker-out wins a stroke if the Server serve two consecutive
faults, or fail to return the ball in play, or return the ball in play so that it
drop outside any of the lines which bound his opponent's Court, or otherwise
lose a stroke, as provided by Law 20.
20. Either player loses a stroke if the ball in play touch him or anything
that he wears or carries, except his racket in the act of striking; or if he
touch or strike the ball in play with his racket more than once ; or if he touch
the net or any of its supports while the ball is in play; or if he volley the
ball before it has passed the net.
21. On either player winning his first stroke, the score is called 15 for that
player; on either player winning his second stroke, the score is called 30 for
that player ; on either player winning his third stroke, the score is called 40
for that player ; and the fourth stroke won by either player is scored game
for that player; except as below:-







64


If both players have won three strokes, the score is called deuce; and the
next stroke won by either player is scored advantage for that player.
If the same player win the next stroke, he wins the game ; if he lose
the next stroke, the score is again called deuce ; and so on until either
player win the two strokes immediately following the score of deuce,
when the game is scored for that player.
NOTE.-It is the usual custom to call the Server's score first whether he
win or lose the strike. By this plan a mistake as to the winner of the stroke
called is at once detected.
22. The player who first wins six games wins a set ; except as below :-
If both players win five games, the score is called games-all ; and the next
,. won by either player is scored advantage-game for that player.
If the same player win the next game, he wins the set; if he lose the
next game, the score is again called games-all ; and so on until either
player win the two games immediately follwc;ng the score of games-
all, when he wins the set.
NOTE.-Players may agree not to play advantage-sets, but to decide the
set by one game after arriving at the score of games-all.
23. The players shall change sides at the end of every set, but the Umpire,
on appeal from either party before the toss for choice, may direct the players
to change sides at the end of every game, if, in his opinion, either side have
a distinct advantage, owing to the sun, wind, or any other accidental cause;
but, if the appeal be made after a match has been begun, the Umpire may
only direct the players to change sides at the end of every game of the odd
and concluding set.
24. When a series of sets are played, the player who was Server in the
last game of one set shall be Striker-out in the first game of the next.
ODDS.
25. A BISQUE is one stroke, which may be claimed by the receiver of the
odds at any time during a set; except as below :-
A bisque may not be taken after the service has been delivered.
The Server may not take a bisque after a fault, but the Striker-out may do so.
26. One or more bisques may be given in augmentation or diminution of
other odds.
27. HALF-FIFTEEN is one stroke given at the beginning of the second and
every subsequent alternate game of a set.
28. FIFTEEN is one stroke given at the beginning of every game of a set.
29. HALF-THIRTY is one stroke given at the beginning of the first game,
two strokes at the beginning of the second game; and so on, alternately, in
all the subsequent games of a set.
30. THIRTY is two strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.
31. HALF-FORTY is two strokes given at the beginning of the first game,
three strokes at the beginning of the second game; and so on, alternately,
in all the subsequent games of a set.
32. FORTY is three strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.
33. HALF-COURT: the players having agreed into which Court the giver
of the odds shall play, the latter loses a stroke if the ball, returned by him,
drop outside any of the lines which bound that Court.


LA I TN TENNIS.








LA WN TENNIS. 65

THE THREE-HANDED AND FOUR-HANDED GAMES.
34. The above laws shall apply to the three-handed and four-handed games,
except as below.
35. For the three-handed and four-handed games, the Court is 36 feet in
width. Within the Side-Lines, at a distance of 41 feet from them, and parallel
with them, are drawn the Service-Side-Lines, IK and LM. The Service-
Lines are not drawn beyond the points I, L, K, M, towards the Side-Lines.
In other respects, the Court is similar to that which is described in Law I.
--- ---------------- ?6 ----------->---
C C D
A
















{- ---------------- -..









K --------------------M








H F
PLAN OF COURT.
36. In the three-handed game the single player shall serve in every alter-
nate game.







LA WN TENNIS.


37. In the four-handed game, the pair who have the right to serve in the
first game may decide which partner shall do so, and the opposing pair may
decide similarly for the second game. The partner of the player who served
in the first game shall serve in the third ; and the partner of the player who
served in the second game shall serve in the fourth, and so on in the same
order in all the subsequent games of a set or series of sets.
38. The players shall take the service alternately throughout each game ; no
player shall receive or return a service delivered to his partner ; and the order
of service and of striking-out once arranged shall not be altered, nor shall
the Strikers-out change Courts to receive the service before the end of
the set.
39. The ball served must drop within the Service-Line, Half-Court-Line,
and Service-Side-Line of the Court, which is diagonally opposite to that from
which it was served, or upon any such line.
40. It is afallt if the ball do not drop as provided in Law XXXIX.
In Lawn Tennis Tournaments the competitors are drawn, and the play
conducted on the plan laid down in the revised regulations for the manage-
ment of Lawn Tennis Meetings published at 346, Strand.
HINTS FOR BEGINNERS.-(I) Hold the racket with an open face, i.e., with
the striking face inclined somewhat upwards, instead of perpendicular to the
ground. (2) Stand with the feet about half a yard apart, the shoulder pointed
towards the net, the face looking towards the side of the court. (3) Strike
from the shoulder. Keep the arm extended, the wrist straight, elbow and
knees slightly bent. When taking the ball near the ground the knees must
be considerably bent. Do not too soon attempt to strike hard. (4) En-
deavour to send the ball within 2 feet or 3 feet of the top of the net (but not too
close for fear of playing it into the net), and do not spoon it up in the air.
[In double games where one player stands near the net this does not apply
to the return ; the ball must then be sent high enough to clear the front
man's reach, or placed to one or other side of him, with a "smash," if possible,
which almost precludes the possibility of a return.] (5) Return the ball, as a
rule, as it is falling, and when near the ground. (6) In volleying at the net,
the ball scarcely requires to be hit at all; sufficient strength is obtained by
gently approaching the racket face to the ball, so as to drop it close to the
net. Of late years the Messrs. Renshaw have introduced a plan of game in
which volleys are given and returned with lightning speed, but this is quite
beyond the scope of a beginner. Half-volleying consists in playing the ball
when close to the ground, immediately after it has dropped. Volleys and
half-volleys, as a rule, are only to be played when the ball cannot be con-
veniently taken on the bound, as they are difficult and uncertain strokes.
(7) Learn to place the ball, i.e., to return it to any part of the adverse court,
at will. To do this the stroke must be timed. Thus : the striker is on the
central line, his face looking to the right of the court. If he takes the ball
just before it comes opposite his right shoulder, the return will be to the left
of the central line. If he strikes when the ball is about opposite his shoulder,
it will return parallel to the central line ; if he waits until the ball has passed
his shoulder, its direction will be more to the right of the central line. It is
not necessary to shift the body in order to place the ball; but as the stroke,
when the ball is in a line with the shoulder, gives the fullest command over
the ball, it is advisable, when there is plenty of time, to shift the body slightly
to the right or left to obtain this stroke. (8) The racket held with an open








LA WN TENNIS.


face should be carried downwards and forwards on to the ball. The open
face gives sufficient elevation to the ball to carry it over the net, and the cut
(as it is called) enables the striker to return the ball more sharply, as a cut
ball drops more quickly to the ground than one that is not cut ; hence it can
be played more swiftly than a ball that is not cut, and so the difficulty of the
opponent's next return is increased. Cut can be put on all balls struck low or
at a medium height from the ground. When a ball is not purely cut, but
played with what is called overhand or underhand twist (i.e., by striking the
ball on the side instead of below), the effect is to cause it to describe a lateral
curve in the air, and to bound to the right or left when it touches the ground.
This mode of striking the ball is useful under certain circumstances of the
game, but twist is a stroke that should be sparingly employed by beginners.
(9) Watch your opponent's racket ; if you see him cutting or putting on twist,
make allowance for it thus : If the ball is purely cut, stand well back from it,
as it will rise very little, and will shoot after it comes into contact with the
ground ; if it is twisted overhand, stand almost in front of the spot where it
will drop, as its bound will be from you; if it is twisted underhand (which
you will distinguish from a purely cut ball by the lateral curve taken by the
twisted ball), stand well to the left of the spot on which the ball will drop, as
it will bound to you.
THE SINGLE GAME AS NOW PLAYED.--To play this game in perfection the
player should be equally good in the following points : (I) In the service he
should be able to serve one ball overhand at a smashing pace, and if he
makes a fault, to serve the second with certainty clear of the net, but still at
such a pace as to make the return difficult to place. Lobbing the second
ball is a mistake, because it enables the return to be placed anywhere at the
will of the striker-out. A fast underhand service, with- a slight cut to keep
down the ball, is often very effectual, and has the advantage that it does not
tire the arm nearly so much as the overhand. (2) In returning the ball the
player should be able at discretion to play it on the bound or in volley, but
the latter is seldom effectual except at a great pace called "the smash." As
introduced by the Messrs. Renshaw, the plan is to stand a foot or two behind
the service-line, which will command the ball either way, and then to use
judgment in the selection according to the nature of the return. From this
position an active player can command any ball, whether dropped gently over
the net, or placed near either side-line, while a ball intended for the base-line
must be volleyed. Very few players approach the Renshaws in this all-
round play, and most are deficient in the command of the ball in the air.
Hence there are few who attempt to rival them in this plan of game, but
when mastered it is very telling. Even they often fail in attempting "a
smash," the ball falling into the net instead of passing over it. There is one
great advantage in the volley, viz., that it entirely counteracts all benefit to be
derived from a "cut" or "twist."
THE DOUBLE GAME may be played either (a) by both partners volleying
when they can, the strikers-out both standing near the service-line, or (b) by
one standing at the net and the other near the service-line, or (c) by both
standing well back. The usual modern style is for one striker-out to stand
near the net and the other a few feet behind the service-line, while as regards
the server's partner it is usual for him to stand near the net, and leave the
whole of the back of the court for the server to command. The partners
should not poach on each other's ground, which is doubly bad, because it








BADMINTON.


leads to an uncertain style of play, neither doing his best, and moreover takes
the poacher a long way off his proper ground, which is defenceless in the
next return.
LAWN TENNIS IMPLEMENTS.-Since the reduction of the POSTS from
4 feet to 3 feet 6 inches the difficulty of keeping them upright has largely
increased.
The old fashioned rope stays have been for a considerable time discarded as
being liable to catch the feet, and the iron stay propping up the post from
the inside, or the long foot which has the same effect, only leads to its being
drawn out of the ground unless the back is kept down by some means which
will not allow it to rise. The Cavendish" posts made by Ayres have been
objected to on this score, and he has now done away with the iron pins, and
substituted a powerful screw, which is left in the ground and allows the post
to be drawn away from it for the mowing machine to pass, having a slot cut
in the post on purpose. This post, provided with a small windlass, is
perfectly efficient ; the only other successful plan is to drive an iron socket
into the ground, which is provided with a flange to keep it from leaning. In
the Gardener" and North" posts the flange is perpendicular, but in the
"Ramrod" it lies flat on the ground, and is still more effectual.
RACKETS.-Mr. Tate has long had the reputation of being ahead of his
competitors in this department, and most of the public players swear by him.
It is, however, difficult to obtain one of his make, as he only provides a
limited number in each year. Ordinary players are therefore compelled to
look elsewhere, and in my opinion will be well served if they get a Demon"
from Slazenger and Co., of Cannon Street, London, or in the North from
Messrs. Lunn, of Horncastle. A great feature in the "Demon" is the gut,
which is of a very strong make-peculiar to the firm.
BALLS.-Hitherto no one has touched those made by Ayres, of Aldersgate
Street; either his Champion quality at 14s. a dozen, or his Cyprus quality at
half the money, being unapproachable. Messrs. Slazenger have brought out
a red rubber uncovered ball, which is the best for wet grass or for winter
courts which I have yet seen.
MARKERS.-The Eclipse made by Jaques and Son, of Hatton Garden, or
the Cirencester with a broad band are the best in the market.
THE NETS are now always tarred, and are usually of Bridport make. The
Manchester Cotton cords are excellent.
THE CORD at the top of the net for straining is now generally made either
of galvanized steel at 3s., or of copper at 6s. If of flax or cotton the strain
must be relaxed before rain, or the cord will inevitably break. A hem about
two inches wide of unbleached canvas is added at the top of the net to catch
the eye.
In the matter of PRESSES a very handy arrangement called the Leyton has
been introduced by Messrs. Lunn, of Horncastle. It is a combined bag and
press, and does away with the need of carrying the press independently of
the bag when on a journey.
BADMINTON.
BADMINTON requires a ground similar to lawn tennis, only smaller, viz.
42 feet by 20 feet; posts 6 feet high; net 5 feet high. Shuttlecocks are
used instead of balls ; they should be about 5 inches in height, and about I
ounce in weight. Some players prefer shuttlecocks only three inches high,








LA CROSSE.


and ounce in weight, with a strong thread passed in and out between the
feathers, and tied, to make the diameter at the top about 3 inches. Rackets
similar to those employed in the game of rackets, are required, only rather
smaller.
THE GAME IS PLAYED in precisely the same way as lawn tennis, only
every stroke must be volleyed. If the shuttlecock touches the ground, the
player who allows it to do so loses a stroke.
THE RULES of lawn tennis should be adopted. Some players prefer the
following modifications, wi/ch/, however, are not recommended: (I) The
ground is sometimes narrow in the middle instead of oblong, and the service-
line brought to within 5 feet of the net. (2) The service is sometimes
delivered from any part of the court between the base-line and service-
line, and, if the service-line is brought close to the net as above stated, the
service must drop between the service-line and the base-line of the diagon-
ally opposed court. Under this modified system, a service which drops
between the service-line and the net is a fault. (3) Sometimes, if a service
drops on a line inclosing the court served into, or if a return drops on the
external boundary line, it is a let, and counts for nothing. This rule is
utterly useless. If a let intervenes between two faults, they are deemed
consecutive. (4) Sometimes, if a shuttlecock touches the net or posts and
goes over, it is a fault in the service or loss of a stroke in the return. (5)
Sometimes the game is set thus : At 13-all, the out player may set to 5-i.e.
may take the remainder of the game five up instead of two up; and similarly
at I4-all, the out-player may set to 3. (6) In partner games, the out-players
are sometimes allowed to change courts once during the game to receive the
service.
LA CROSSE.
This game was first played in England at a school near Reading, circa
1865, some Canadian boys having brought crosses with them. In general
tactics it strongly resembles Association football. There are twelve players,
whose object it is to pass a small india-rubber ball through the goal of their
opponents. As the goal is small, being but six feet square, this can only be
accomplished from a comparatively short distance, say twenty yards, at the
outside. It is the manceuvring which takes place in order to get a played
into unimpeded possession of the ball, within goal-throwing range, which
constitutes the beauty of the game. The most absolute accuracy of throwing
from, and catching with, the crosse, from any conceivable position, is
possible ; and in these accomplishments, and the rapidity of their execution,
combined, of course, with superiority of condition, one team excels another.
The goals are placed from Ioo to about 150 yards apart, the longer distance
being for the best twelves ; and the twelve players are divided into defence,
field, and home. The home players stand near the opponents' goal. They
are three in number, and must possess the greatest accuracy in throwing
swiftly at goal, combined with extreme rapidity of movement. The field feed
the home, and should be speedy players. On defence are placed the heavy
men, whose speciality is long throwing. Good defence players frequently, in
the course of a match, throw the ball a clear 120 yards ; and a record of
140 yards 2 feet has been made in Canada. There is absolutely no off-side
rule, and play goes on just as freely behind the goals as in front of them, a
common tactic being the tossing of the ball over from behind, with the object







LA CROSSE.


of having it passed through-a goal of course scoring when made from the
front only.
The ball is started from the centre of the field of play, and when falling
into the possession of a player, it is permissible for any opponent to strike the
crosse carrying the ball with his own, for the purpose of dislodging the ball.
No kind of charging is allowed, but a player may place his body in the way
of an opponent with the ball. He may not, however, in any way interfere
with an opponent who is pursuing one of his own side who has the ball. A
ball going out of bounds is contested for by the two nearest opponents, at the
spot where it crossed the boundary. The ball may not be handled (except
by the goal-keeper), nor, by the United Kingdom rules, may it be played
with the foot or leg.




S -. *- ".7 -_- -**_- _-

T1 I-

-'-" i 1 -- -- -






;-A






The players are disposed all over the field, and it is the duty of each
defence man to closely watch an attacker of the other side, who must not be
allowed an instant of leisure in which to catch the ball on his crosse, or pick
it from the ground, if rolling, otherwise, so great is the accuracy obtained,
the ball will infallibly be sent on into dangerous proximity to the goal. Thus
the players are distributed about the field in pairs, and superior fleetness of
foot tells in enabling players to evade the attentions of their checkers. It is
bad play, however, to indulge in running, when the same object can be
obtained by means of a throw, as all the strength must be reserved for the
frequent dual tussles which take place. Speed must be employed for the
purpose of disarranging the defensive tactics of the opponents : when that
object has been accomplished a throw at goal should be a certainty.
The ball should be picked up by the crosse as you pick up a racket ball.
Go at it hotly, and you arc sure to fail. Violence saves no time, be you ever








LA CROSSE. 71

so hard pressed. If running fast, and on rather uneven grass, you may get
the ball up by simply pushing the top of the crosse under it, with a sharp,
lifting motion, tipping up the crosse to prevent the ball falling off again. If
the ground is very smooth, there is, however, a chance that the ball will
merely be struck forward, and not picked up at all.
The more usual and safe way of picking up the ball is a little troublesome
to learn, and obliges a partial stoppage if it has to be picked up on the run.
Stretch out the crosse on approaching the ball, and catch the latter by the
inside of the top part of the stick-hooking the ball, in fact. Draw it sharply
towards you, and while the ball is still in motion bring back the crosse and
push it underneath. As the crosse is presented to the ball while it is still
rolling towards you, it would probably roll on of itself, but you should help
it by pushing the crosse as directed. There will be little danger of striking
it away from you, even if the edge of the crosse is presented not quite on the
ground. In offering the crosse, the body should lean forward, so as to get the
handle near the ground. This diminishes the incline the ball has to ascend,
and assists in getting it over the stick. Directly the ball is on, tip up the
crosse, and cant it slightly over to the right, so that the ball may rest against
the stick near, but not too close to, the top.
When the ball is flung towards you, and runs along the ground, you can
usually pick it up by holding the crosse to it at an angle, with the top on the
ground: the ball will run up the incline. When coming hard, it may run up
and 'jump into the face or over the head, if the crosse is not inclined suffi-
ciently. If coming very fast, it can only be stopped and picked up afterwards.
If coming on the bound gently, it should be received on the crosse (inclined,
of course); if hard, block it with the crosse inclined forwards, so as to throw
the ball straight down on the ground: catch on the rebound.
As to catching the ball when coming in the air, there is not very much to
be said, except that it requires much the same qualities as catching a ball in
the hand. Receive the ball on the net, and of course drop or draw back the
crosse slightly at the moment of contact. A practised hand will catch the
ball with more facility than can well be imagined, even when it comes straight
breast-high, or even overhead. When coming straight at you above the waist,
hold the crosse perpendicular to stop it. As the ball commences falling,
follow it with the crosse. A rapid twist of the wrist will revolve the crosse
from above to beneath the ball, which will thus be caught.
Catching is entirely a matter of practice, joined with natural aptitude.
To throw the ball well, to catch it on the crosse, and even to pick it up, require
more dexterity than most exercises. But the chief interest of the game lies
in running with the ball; to do this properly needs high qualities, among
which coolness stands pre-eminent. It seems so easy to drop the ball from
the crosse, and so difficult to avoid the blows of the same far-reaching weapon,
that one doubts at first how a good run in" can ever be accomplished. Yet
it is done continually by good players, and it may even be said that, man for
man, the attack is stronger than the defence.
Fig. I. shows the position in running with the ball. The crosse is inclined
more and more in proportion to the speed, the ball being kept in its place by
the pressure of the air in front. The crosse is canted to the right, that the
ball may rest against the stick, which, as already stated, forms the right edge







LA CROSSE.


of the crosse. That, at least, is the way most players prefer to carry it, though
in Canada it seems to be turned either way. The matter is immaterial, of
course. With the light crosses used here one hand is sufficient. (Perhaps
there will be a one-handed versus two-handed controversy some day, as there
is now in croquet.) Steadiness and watchfulness are required to keep the ball
on the crosse, and slipshod running will soon bring it to grief. However, it
is easier than it first appears.
When intercepted by an opponent, and unable to get past without fencing
(discretion is much the best part of valour when running in), prevent your
crosse being struck, if possible. It may sometimes be saved by transferring
it to the left hand, or even behind you, but you risk dropping the ball in this.
If pressed hard, throw up the ball over the enemy's head, and darting quickly
on before he has time to turn, catch it in its descent. This is a pretty piece
of play, and is often done with success. It needs strength of wrist. A slight
jerk of the crossefr-om tie wrist throws the ball over the head of the "checker."

















FIG. r.
Another way is to throw it in the same manner to your right, darting off im-
mediately to catch it. The chances are you get the start, the enemy not being
previously prepared, as you are, for the movement. Still a good "checker"
will not be soon got rid of, and it may become necessary to throw the ball
either at the goal, if near enough, or to another of one's own side. A checker"
may be kept at bay by turning the back to him, which makes it difficult for
him to reach your crosse, and at the same time puts you in the best position
for throwing if necessary. In reaching past your side to strike your crosse,
he gives you an opportunity to turn to the other side and run on.
A vigorous, charging sort of run does not pay at all, at least with good
players. Quickness and suppleness are the chief things.to attend to. Mind
while engaged in front you are not also attacked from behind. When there
are two to one it generally becomes expedient to get rid of the ball at once.
When near enough to the goal, throw to your "home man" without trying to
get too close.
It is well to wear gloves, to save the knuckles from blows of hostile crosses.
The art of checking is of course analogous to dodging." Given an active







LA CROSSE.


man, with a crosse in his hand, and a ball to be knocked off another man's
crosse, and we think he may be pretty well left to self-instruction.
It is assumed that a runner will seldom get beyond point" without having
to throw. Goal-keeper's chief duty is therefore stopping balls thrown, though
sometimes he must engage in checking." If it comes to this, the goal is in
no small danger.
It need scarcely be said that in field play both dodging" and checking" is
the soul of the game. Both branches must be studied before a player can
become perfect in either.
A good plan is to strike the dodger's" crosse down with the edge of your
own; but so as not to hit the ball, which will forthwith jump into the air and
give you a good chance of catching it.
THROWING THE BALL.-Throwing the ball over the head of an opponent
by a jerk of the wrist has already been mentioned in the chapter on running.
The same movement may be employed in throwing the ball short distances,
but it can hardly be reckoned amongst the "methods" of throwing.
A feature in the game which astonishes strangers is the fearful pace with
which players throw at the goal-keeper, without disturbing that functionary's
serenity.
The Indians trusted more to throwing and striking the ball to long distances
than to running with it. The "white" practice lays more stress upon running,
and enjoins that the ball shall only be thrown when its possessor for the time
can run no farther, owing to the opposition he encounters.
When checked hopelessly by an enemy, the runner should throw the ball
to a friend farther advanced or more free to advance
than himself. The commonest plan is to turn the back Q
to the checker, or rather to the person you desire to
throw to, and then throw straight overhead. The finish
of the movement is shown in Fig. 2. It is surprising
how straight a throw can be made in this manner, and
how well distance can be calculated by a rapid glance
over the shoulder before throwing. The ball can be a'
sent to a long distance if required. Turn quickly round,
slanting the crosse sideways as you do so to prevent the -
ball flying off; put the left hand to the handle above
the right, which slide down to the end ; then raise the
crosse over your head with a quick motion, partly from
the shoulder, but chiefly from the elbow; stop it sud-
denly before the hands touch the face, and the ball will
fly off with great velocity. It is easy, with a little prac-
tice, to give either a low and swift throw or a high and
slow one; the latter being the easiest for a friend to
catch, and the former the hardest for an enemy to stop.
A man checking you is baulked by having your back __
turned on him, which makes it hard for him to reach
your crosse. While he is trying at it, you throw in this
way right over him. This overhead throw may be re-
garded as the standard throw, and as the most generally FIG 2.
useful.
A very good method for a short, vicious throw at goal, is to bring the crosse
to the shoulder and throw out straight in front. It requires practice, as the
3*







LA CROSSE.


ball may be easily dropped. Keeping the crosse level, you bring it round
towards your right side, but pointing straight out from the body. At the same
time raise the arm and the crosse; swing the latter round, using the hand as
a pivot, until the net is over the shoulder, and level enough for the ball to
remain on. In coming round the fingers instinctively change their hold on
the handle, and the wrist gets bent back. With a sudden spring from the
elbow and wrist you swing the crosse upwards and forwards, and drive the
ball both hard and sure. The difficulty lies in bringing the crosse round to
the shoulder without dropping the ball. Besides this throwVfrom the shoulder,
there is what we may call
The underlhand throw (to borrow another name from cricket). In this you
face the mark you throw at, and jerk the ball up off the crosse straight before
you. It requires no change of position, and therefore can be done quickly;
but it is the weakest throw of all. It is, however, accurate, for you have the
advantage of a good view. You cannot throw this way wit/l a low trajectory
(to use a term well understood by volunteers), and therefore the ball is easy to
stop. You must hold the crosse short with one hand, and try to get the ball
on the middle of the net. It is not a bad throw to end a run in close to goal.
By turning the left side a little to the mark you gain power. Except in throwing
from the shoulder, the more you face away from the mark the stronger you
will throw.
There are various ways of throwing past the side (the left). You turn your
back to the mark, but with the left side more or less to it. Raise the right
side of the crosse to prevent the ball coming off, and then swing round. In
most of these ways you keep the crosse as close in as possible, and jerk the
ball off just clear of the left side or shoulder. (It is jerked back over the
right shoulder sometimes.) But there is one way in which the crosse is kept
out at right angles to the body the whole time of throwing. This is a good
throw, but a difficult one. It is performed with a short swing and a half jerk.
Of course the left is the natural side to throw past in all these cases, but it is
good to practise with the right as a means of baulking an opponent by an
unexpected throw. A good swinging side throw along the ground is often
effective.
There are several fantastic methods of throwing recommended, such as-
face the goal and throw overhead from behind your back; or throw past your
left side from behind. The latter throw is confusing to an adversary, but only
an experienced hand can risk dropping the ball in the attempt to bring it round
behind. Throwing between your legs is one elegant method, especially recom-
mended if your enemy also happens to be standing in the same position.
Ti fing~ the ball is often done when the player is too hard pressed to be
able to take it up. It consists in just getting the ball on to the stick, and
tipping it forward before it has time to roll off again. It may be described
as a gentle evasion of the rules against hockey. Goal-keeper often tips the
ball to one side as it comes towards him.
There is a way of throwing exactly analogous to throwing by hand. The
crosse is raised and drawn back to the right. At the moment of throwing it
is turned almost edgeways, but the rapid motion prevents the ball from falling.
The arm is moved as in throwing by hand, but the left shoulder must be
brought round. This is a quick, useful throw for short distances.








LA CROSSE.


IMPLEMENTS.
The sole implements are a crosse, costing about 7s. 6d., a special ball,
costing Is. 9d., and four goal posts about two inches in diameter, and standing
six feet, exactly out of the ground.
A crosse, to be of any use, must be made of second-growth hicory, and the
best makers are the half-breed Indians of Caughnawaugha. A hickory
crosse will stand rough usage for two or three seasons ; but one of ash or
other unsuitable wood is very easily broken, and is dear at any price.
India-rubber soles are imperative, and in summer the lightest running
costume is often worn, bare calves being frequently seen in winter even.
THE LAWS.
1. THE CROSSE.-Sec. i.-The crosse may be of any length to suit the player,
woven with raw hide or gut-not cord or soft leather. The netting
must be flat when the ball is not on it. In its widest part the crosse
shall not exceed one foot. A string must be brought through a hole
at the side of the tip of the turn, to prevent the point of the stick
catching on opponent's crosse. A leading string, resting upon the top
of the stick, may be used, but must not be fastened, so as to form a
pocket, lower down the stick than the end of the length-strings. The
length-strings must be woven to within two inches of their termination,
so that the ball cannot catch the meshes.
Sec. 2.-No kind of metal, either in wire or sheet, screws or nails, shall
be allowed upon the crosse. Splices must be made with either string
or gut.
2. THE BALL.-The ball must be india-rubber sponge, not less than
eight inches, and not more than eight and a quarter inches in circum-
ference. It must weigh not less than four and a quarter ounces, and
not more than four and a half ounces. In matches it must be
furnished by the home club.
3. THE GOALS.-The goals shall be placed not less than one hundred
yards, and not more than 150 yards apart, unless otherwise arranged,
and in any position agreeable to the captains of both sides. The posts
must be six feet apart, and the tops thereof, including any ornament,
must be six feet above the ground. In matches they must be furnished
by the home team.
4. THE BOUNDARIES.-The boundaries of the field of play shall be agreed
upon by the captains before the commencement of the match. Should
the ball be thrown out of bounds, the referee shall call "stand," and
the ball shall then be faced" by the two nearest players, four yards
within the bounds at the point where the ball went out.
5. THE UMPIRES.-Sec. i.-There must be only one umpire at each goal,
who shall be agreed to by both captains before the commencement of
the match. They shall not be changed during the progress of a match
without the consent of both captains. They shall not change goals
during a match.
Sec. 2.-No umpire shall, directly or indirectly, be interested in any bet
upon the result of the match. No person shall be allowed to speak to
the umpires, or in any way distract their attention.
Sec. 3.-The umpire shall stand behind the posts. In the event of I '
being claimed, he shall at once decide whether or not the ball has








LA CROSSE.


fairly passed through the goal-space, his decision being simply "goal"
or "no goal." His decision shall be final, without appeal, and he shall
not be required to give a reason.
Sec. 4.-In the absence of a referee, the umpires shall assume his functions,
as set down in Law VI., each over his own half of the field. One only
shall act as timekeeper and starter, failing a referee, and this to be
decided by tossing.
6. TIHE REFEREE.---Se. I.-The referee shall be selected by the officers
of the competing teams at any time prior to the match. He shall be
a disinterested person.
Sec. 2.-Before the match begins, he shall see that umpires have been
properly chosen.
Sec. 3.-He shall draw the players up in lines, and see that the regulations
respecting the crosses, ball, goals and'spiked shoes, etc., etc., are ad-
hered to. He shall ascertain the length of time the match shall last,
directly from both captains, and he shall be sole timekeeper and starter.
Sec. 4.-When a "foul" claimed by any player has been allowed- or in
case of injury or accident, Law VIII., sees. 2 and 3-the referee shall
immediately call "stand." If the ball enter goal, after "stand" has
been called by the referee, it shall not count.
Sec. 5.-The infliction of penalties (Law XII.) shall be in the province of
the referee, without appeal, and any side rejecting his decision or
refusing to continue the match shall be declared the losers.
Sec. 6.-The referee shall arbitrate in all disputes between the captains,
and his decision shall be final.
Sec. 7.-At the commencement of each game, and after "stand" has
been called, the referee shall see that the ball is properly "faced."
7. CAPTAINS. -Sec. I.- A Captain to superintend the play shall be
appointed by each side previously to the commencement of a match.
They shall be members of the club by whom they are appointed. They
may or may not be players in a match ; if not, they shall not carry a
crosse, nor appear in Lacrosse uniform. They shall be the mouth-
piece of their respective teams in all disputes, in which they may be
assisted by one player selected by them, and shall report any infringe-
ment of these laws during a match to the referee.
Sec. 2.-Captains shall arrange, previous to a match, the length of time
it shall last, and shall toss for choice of goals.
8. THE TEAMS.-Sect.I.-NUMBER.---Twelve players shall constitute a
full team. They must be regular members of the club they represent.
Should one side be deficient in numbers at the time fixed for starting
the match, their opponents may either limit their own number to
equalize the sides, or compel them to play with as many as they have.
Sec. 2.--WILFUL INJURY.-Should a player be incapacitated from play-
ing through wilful injury from an opponent during a match, his side
shall be at liberty to replace such injured player by a fresh man, or
compel the other side to take off a player to equalize the sides. No
change of players may be made after a match has commenced, except
in case of injury during the game.
Sec. 3.-ACCIDENTS.-Should an accident occur to any player, which, in
the opinion of the referee, incapacitates him from playing, the other
side must put off a man during his absence.








LA CROSSE. 77

Sec. 4.-SPIKED SOLES.-No player may wear spiked soles under any
circumstances. The soles must in every case be india-rubber, if
boots or shoes are worn.
Sec. 5.-The players on each side shall be designated as follows:-
i, goal-keeper; 2,point; 3, coverpoint; 4, third man ; 5, right defence;
6, left defence; 7, centre; 8, right attack; 9, left attack; Io, third
home ; ii, second home ; 12, first home.
9. THE GAME.-Sec. I.-Each game shall be started by the centres facing
at the centre mark, and when both sides are ready, the referee shall
call play."
Sec. 2.-A match shall be decided by a majority of goals taken within a
specified time, unless otherwise agreed upon. A goal shall be scored
by the ball passing through the goal-space from the front, not being
propelled with any part of the foot or leg.
Sec. 3.-Should the ball be accidentally put through either goal-space by
one of the players defending it, by whatsoever means, it shall be
counted a goal to the opposite side. Should it be put through by any-
one not actually a player, it shall not count.
Sec. 4.-In the event of a goal-post being knocked down during a match,
and the ball put through what would be the goal if the post were
standing, it shall count goal for the attacking side.
Sec. 5.-When goal has been claimed and allowed, the ball shall be again
faced in mid-field ; but when disallowed, it shall be faced where it is
picked up. In no such case shall a ball be faced within ten yards of
either goal-post.
Sec. 6.-Ends shall be changed at "half-time" (unless otherwise agreed
upon), when either side may claim not more than ten minutes' rest,
such rest not being counted as occupied in play.
Sec. 7.-The goal-keeper, while defending goal within the goal-crease,
may put away with his hand or foot, or block the ball in any manner
with his crosse or body.
Sec. 8.-Any player is "out of play" if he drops his crosse during a game,
and may not touch the ball or impede an opponent in any way until
he recovers his own crosse.
Sec. 9.-A match is ended by the referee calling time."
10. FouLS.--Sec. I.-No attacking player may be within 6 feet of either
goal-post, unless the ball shall have passed cover point's position on
the field. Such position shall be marked Io yards in front of the goal.
A player thus trespassing shall be out of play, and no goal shall count,
if taken, while he is out of play.
Sec. 2.-No player shall interfere in any way with another who is in
pursuit of an opponent.
Sec. 3.-No player, except the goal-keeper (Law IX., sec. 7) may touch
the ball with his hand, save when the ball lodges in a place inacces-
sible to the crosse, or about his clothing or person. The player pick-
ing it up must "face" with his nearest opponent, all other players
standing in the positions they may then occupy.
Sec. 4.-Should the ball catch in the netting, the crosse.must imme-
diately be struck on the ground, and the ball dislodged.
Sec. 5.-Kicking the ball under any circumstances with the foot or leg is
foul play (except in the case of the goal-keeper, Law IX., sec 7), but








78 LA CROSSE.

this does not prevent a player stopping the progress of the ball with
foot or leg.
Sec. 6.-No player shall grasp an opponent's cross with his hands, hold
it with his arms or between his legs or under his feet, or kick it.
Ir. ROUGH PLAY.-Sec. I.-No player, with his crosse or otherwise, shall
hold or trip another, nor push with the hand; nor shall any player
deliberately charge or shoulder an opponent, nor wrestle with the legs
entwined, so as to throw an opponent. This does not prevent the use
of the body check," provided the same be strictly as defined (Law
XIII.), nor the pushing an opponent with the shoulder in ground
scuffles.
Sec. 2.-No player shall deliberately strike another, or threaten to do so,
under any circumstances, and anyone considering himself purposely
injured during play must report, through his captain, to the referee.
Sec. 3.-The check commonly known as the "square" or "crosse"
check, which consists of one player charging into another with both
hands on the crosse, so as to make the stick meet the body of an oppo-
nent, is strictly forbidden.
Sec. 4.-No player shall throw his crosse under any circumstances.
12. PENALTIES.--Sec. I.-For breach of Law X., sections 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6,
a face shall be given, at the place where the fo,!l occurred, yet not
nearer either goal-post than o1 yards, unless the "foul" be made by
the defending side.
Sec. 2.-Claiming "fouls" on trivial grounds, as when, in the opinion of
the referee, no foul was intended, cannot be tolerated, and the referee
shall first caution a player so offending, and, if persisted in, shall dis-
qualify him for that particular game (not match). Should the captain
(non-playing) so offend, the same penalty shall be inflicted upon him
as though he were a player.
Sec. 3.-For rough play, (Law XI., sections I, 2, 3 and 4), the penalty for
first offence shall be disqualification for remainder of that particular
game or match. See Law VI., sec. 5.
Sec. 4.-The referee shall be bound in all cases to inflict one or other of
these penalties, but only when appealed to by the captain of the com-
plaining side.
13. DEFINITION OF TERlMS.-GOAL is the space contained between the
two posts.
GOAL-CREASE shall be a ground-space six feet square in tront of the
goal-posts, having for one of its sides the line between the posts. If
not marked, it shall be left to the umpire to decide.
FACE.-The ball shall be placed upon the ground between the crosses
of two opponents, and each of them shall have his left side towards
the goal he is attacking. They shall not move till "play" has been
called.
TRIPPING is the use of the legs, feet, or crosse, to throw an opponent.
HOLDING shall mean clutching with the hand or arm, or detaining an
opponent between the two arms and the crosse, or placing the crosse
against his body so as to impede his movements.
BODY-CHECK is the placing one's body in the way of an approaching
opponent, so that the latter is simply impeded. No checker shall use
force in the body-check.








GOLF 79

STRIKING means the giving a deliberate blow with either crosse or hand.
CHARGING or SHOULDERING implies motion and unnecessary force in
checking, and is forbidden, because the object should be to play the
ball and not the man.
IDRAW means equal number of goals gained at call of "time."
STAND.-The ball is dead when the referee calls "stand," and no player
shall move until the referee calls play."
GOLF.
The ground over which golf is played is called "links," and is usually
interrupted by breaks, bits and inequalities. These interruptions are neces-
sary to impart interest to the game, for where the ground is completely
smooth the sport becomes insipid, there being then little opportunity of
exhibiting dexterity of play. The track along which the players proceed
is denominated "the course," and may be either rectilinear, or a figure
of any number of sides. A series of small round holes, about four inches in
diameter, and several inches in depth, are cut in the turf, at distances of from
1oo to 400 or 500 yards from each other, according to the nature of the
ground. If the lines happen to be broad and expansive, the holes are placed
so as to make the golfing course a somewhat circular one ; if they are long
and narrow, the holes are placed from end to end. But, whether the direction
taken be from the starting-hole once round a course somewhat circular, or
from the starting-hole to the end and back again on a straight course, the
term invariably applied to each series of holes played is a round.
THE MATERIALS employed consist of small hard balls of gutta-percha, and
clubs of forms suited to the nature of the ground. The latter are named as


/ p


/ ,








VARIOUS FORMS OF CLUB-HEADS.
I, Play-club; 2, Putter; 3, Spoon; 4, Sand-iron; 5, Cleek; 6, Niblick.
follows : The play-club, putter, driving-putter, long-spoon, mid-spoon, short-
spoon, bafmfing-spoon, sand-iron, cleek and niblick : the last three have iron
heads, the others are of wood. In some links, several of these clubs may be,
and usually are, dispensed with, and the number reduced to six or seven ; but
in greens such as St. Andrew's, Musselburgh, Prestwick, and some others,
they all come into requisition more or less.








GOLF.


THE PLAY-CLUB, or DRIVER, is for swiping off the tee, and is further used
throughout the green if the ball is lying fair, and the distance more than
a full drive between the ball and the hole you are approaching.
THE LONG-SPOON comes into play when the ball lies in a hollow, or a
declivity, or on slightly rough grassy ground; it derives its name from having
the face scooped, so as to allow of its getting under the ball, and driving it
forth a longish distance, if well struck. This club is useful, too, for elevating
a ball, and driving it over hazards, such as bunkers, whins, &c.
THE SHORT-SPOON is a very useful club, and is frequently in the golfer's
hands during the course of the day. It is used for playing either good-lying
or bad-lying balls when within a hundred yards or so from the hole; this is
termed playing the short game." Much depends on this short game; and
many a far, and even sure, driver through the green has been beaten by the
indifferent swiper but deadly short-game player.
THE PUTTER (u sounded as in "but") is a short-shafted, stiff club, with a
flattish head and square face; it is used when the ball arrives within close
proximity to the hole, generally within thirty yards, and is usually considered
the best club for "holing out" the ball. To be a "good putter," is what all
golfers aim at, and comparatively few ever attain. Long and showy driving
is of much commoner occurrence than deadly" putting, and one who can
gain a full stroke on his opponent between two far-distant holes frequently
loses his advantage by missing a "put" within a yard of the hole!
THE SAND-IRON comes into play when the ball lies in a "bunker," or sand-
pit. It is a short, thick-shafted, stiff weapon with an iron head, hollowed out
in the centre, and somewhat sloped backward. On its lower edge, it is
straight and sharp, which allows of its digging under the ball, and pitching
it out of "grief" on to grass. When a ball lies in whins or other hazards of
a similar nature, in roads amongst "metal," or over the head in long deer-
grass or bents, the iron is the best club for freeing it from such impediments,
and is, therefore, the one generally used. It is well adapted for "lofting"
balls over hazards ; or for lofting or pitching "steimies"-that is, when the
opponent's ball lies so directly between the player's ball and the hole as to
render it impossible for the player to use his putter. He then takes his iron
and attempts to loft his own ball over his adversary's and into the hole-a
feat which, when accomplished, invariably calls forth admiration.
THE CLEEK is not so thick in the shaft, and is rather longer than the sand-
iron; it is used chiefly for driving balls out, or lofting them over, certain
hazards that happen to lie between the ball and hole near the putting green;
it is also useful for putting where the ground is rough. The iron head of the
cleek is straight in the face, and slopes backward.
THE NIBLICK is of very important service when the ball lies in a cart-rut,
horse-shoe print in sand, or any round or deep hollow not altogether beyond
the player's reach, and not well suited for the iron. The head is very small
and heavy, about one-half the size of that of the sand-iron, and is shaped into
a hollow about the size of a crown-piece, with the iron sloping slightly back-
ward. This peculiarity of shape enables the player to raise his ball out of
difficulties from which no other club could extricate it, and ought invariably,
where there are bunkers and roads, to form one of every golfer's set.
THE TRUE METHOD OF HANDLING THE CLUB will be seen at a glance in
the annexed figure. Let the wrists be free, and grasp your club with mode-
rate pressure, but not tightly; in striking, or swiping, as it is called, the eye








GOLF 8

must never for a single instant wander from the ball, and the club should be
swung w th moderate speed over the right shoulder, and brought down quickly
to the ball-three-fourths of a circle being described by the action. This
mode of handling and swinging should be practised before attempting to
strike a ball. Never exert your whole strength in delivering a swipe ; golf is
a game of skill and nice art, not one of brute force, and if too much force be
used, the chances are that youfounder your ball, and either top it or drive it
a comparatively short distance. The easier a stroke is taken, the greater the
chance of hitting the ball correctly ; the mere swing of the club will drive a
ball a long distance, and with more certainty of the beginner's keeping the
right direction than if much force had been applied. In standing to the ball,











the feet should be moderately well apart (about a foot and a half is sufficient),
and the left foot should be nearly opposite the ball, at a distance varying with
the clubs used ; for instance, in using the ordinary driving-club, two feet and
a half is a good distance between foot and ball. Be careful not to exceed
this distance, nor be much within the mark, as the player is apt, when stand-
ing too far from his ball, to fall in to it, and run the chance of making a bad
shot. When standing too near, the ball is often heeled, or struck with that
part of the club-head nearest the shaft. When this is the case, the ball rnes
off to the right. When standing too far, the ball is apt to be drawn" or
"hooked "-that is to say, struck with the point or toe of the club, in
which case the ball flies in to the left.
The manufacture of balls used to be a distinct trade by itself, and that of
clubs another, but now most club-makers also make balls. The price of a
tall is is., and of a club, 4s. 6d. : irons are rather dearer.
The rival players are either two in number, which is the simplest arrange-
ment, or four (two against two), the former being called a single match, and
the latter a double or foursome match, the ball in foursome matches being
struck alternately by each partner ; or the game may be played by three or
more persons, each playing his own ball. The object of every player, whether
in a single or double match, is to drive the ball in a series of strokes from one
hole towards and into another in as few as possible.
The opponents, who are provided each with a set of clubs and balls,
commence at the starting-hole (which is also the finishing-hole), and strike off
their balls in the direction of the first. In playing from hole to hole, he who
succeeds in holeing in fewer strokes than his opponent wins that hole ; but
if both players hole their balls m the same number of strokes, the hole is
halved. From the first they drive towards the second hole ; and so on till
the round is finished-that is to say, till they arrive at the hole from which








GOLF.


they started. The winner is he who has gained more holes in the round than
remain to be played ; thus, the match may be gained by a player being, say,
two ahead and one to play, or three ahead and two to play, or even more.
A match may, however, consist of, say, three rounds, in which case he
who has gained more holes than remain to be played gains the match.
Matches between professional players sometimes extend to as many as io8
holes, played on three different links. Sometimes, when players are very
equally matched, neither party has, at the close of the day's play, gained
an advantage; every round has been halved, or each party has won an
equal number of rounds ; hence the match itself is halved, and remains to be
played another day.
If the skill of one player is superior to that of his opponent, the former
gives odds to the latter, to equalize their play. Thus, A possesses an advan-
tage over B. They start to play a round, and the round consists of, say,
eight holes. If the difference of their skill be not very great, A possibly
allows B two strokes on the round, which, for example's sake, affects B's
chances thus: B agrees to take his strokes between the first and second
and third and fourth holes, and off they go. After having played from the
start to the first hole, which we will suppose they have on equal ierms halved,
A puts his ball into the second hole in five strokes, and B in the same
number. Now, were they playing on even terms, as in the previous hole, the
hole would have been again halved ; but here B's extra stroke does him
service ; so, having been allowed one off, he wins the hole. If A had holed
his ball in five, and B in six strokes, the hole would have been halved, B's
extra stroke, allowed, equalising the reckoning. They strike off towards the
third hole, which A wins; so here they are all even. On the next hole
(between the third and fourth) B has his second and last extra stroke, which
probably makes him the winner of the hole. For the rest of the round they
play on equal terms ; B is one ahead, and three holes yet to play. If he can
succeed in halving, and keeping his advantage, he may win the round, but
he possibly drives his ball into some hazard-such as sand or whin-bushes-
from which he is only extricated after expending one or more strokes in the
operation, and loses at least that hole, if not the match.
THE PRINCIPAL CONDITIONS of the game are as follow :-The lee (which
is a small pinch of sand upon which the ball is placed to present a fair stroke
in playing off from each hole) must be not less than four, and not more than
six club-lengths from the first hole, and may be either in front of or to the
side of it ; and after the balls are struck off, the ball lying farthest from the
whole to which the parties are playing is played first. The balls must not be
changed before the hole is played out. All loose impediments within 12
inches of the ball may be removed when the ball lies on grass-but so as
not to move the ball-or from the futting-green or table-land on which the
hole is placed, which is considered not to exceed 20 yards from the hole.
When the ball lies in a bunker, or otherwise on sand, however, it is not
permitted to remove or touch the sand or other obstacle with the club before
playing. A ball must not be touched or moved except in playing, and there
are penalties for touching, or moving, or stopping the course of a ball. But
whatever happens to a ball by accident, irrespective of the player, must be
submitted to, being considered a rub of the green. If a ball is lost, the owner
loses the hole.








RINGOAL. 83

RINGOAL.
THIS game was introduced by Messrs. Lunn, of Horncastle. It is played
by two persons. Each player takes his stand in front of one of the two
goals, as described in Rules I, 2, 3 and 6, having two sticks, one in each
hand, with which to throw and catch the ring. In order to throw the ring,
both sticks should be thrust into the ring, taking care to put both sticks in
the same side, and not from opposite sides. The sticks should then be
brought up so that the point of the right stick is near the handle of the left
stick, and vice versd; the two sticks being as far as possible parallel on the
same level. The left stick should be in the ring up to its hilt, but only
about 6 inches of the right stick should be in the ring. The left stick should
be held next to the body, the left hand being near the left hip. The right
stick should be held strained away from the left stick, so as to hold the ring
firm and flat. Then with the right hand the ring should be swung off, the left
hand giving the direction. Instead of putting in the sticks from above as
before, and standing over the ring, the sticks can be put in from beneath,
still keeping the right stick from the body and the left stick next to it; the
ring being, in this case, held about the height of the head. It must also be
aimed rather high, as, when thrown in this manner it has a decided down-
ward tendency.
A stroke of this kind, called "a huppimup," is so difficult to catch, that
it should only be used with persons who have had some practice in catching.
The ring is thus thrown to and fro between the two players, the object
being to throw so that the other player is unable to catch. This can best be
done by sending the ring as near to the ground as possible. In doing this,
care must be taken not to let the ring actually touch the ground before it
reach the opponent's crease, this being forbidden by Rule o0.
It will be found that after a little practice that the ring can be thrown with
great precision by holding the right stick at right angles to the left, instead
of parallel to it, but this will not be found quite so easy as the other way, being
in fact a natural development of it.

I F IGHT HAND





^ ^ ::::: --------7 ^--------

6FEET 1. C- 7 FEET
IL \N OF GROUND.

THE RULES are: I.-There shall be two goals, each 8 feet in height and
o1 feet in width, with or without stop nets, but connected by webbing from
post to post, if stop nets are not used.
2.-There shall be two courts formed by a line or crease in front of each
goal, and parallel with it, at a distance of 6 feet from it, and completed by







RINGOAL.


parallel lines drawn from the extremities of each crease to the adjoining goal
post, and by the goal itself.
3.-The two goals shall be 78 feet apart, facing each other. The creases
will be then 66 feet apart.
4.--The rings shall be made of split cane, covered with leather, and shall
be not less than 7 inches nor more than 8 inches in diameter measured
from the inside, and not less than 32 ounces, nor more than 4 ounces in
weight.
5.--The choice of sides and the right of serving first shall be decided by
toss; provided that, if the winner of the toss choose the right to serve, the
other player shall have the choice of sides, and vice versd.
7.-The game shall consist of fifteen points.
8.-The server shall score one point by sending the ring past the receiver,
through his goal, provided that the ring does not touch the ground before
reaching the receiver's crease.
9.-The server shall score one point if the receiver deliberately or inad-
vertently prevent the ring from going through the goal by stopping it with
any part of his person or clothing, or by stopping it with the sticks, or turning
it aside so as to miss the goal, without actually catching it.
io.-The receiver shall score one point if the ring, before it is touched by
him, shall hit the ground between the two creases, or outside of the court,
either by passing above the webbing or net or passing outside the goal.
i .-If the ring hit the goal-post and glance off it through the goal, it
shall score a point to the server. If, however, it bound back off the post, or
glance off it outside the goal, it shall score a point to the receiver as a wide
throw.
12.-If the receiver catch a throw which is clearly, in the opinion of the
server (or umpire) off the goal, the receiver shall score a point for it as a wide
throw ; but in any case where it is doubtful whether or not the ring would
have passed through the goal, it shall not score against the server, the receiver
having stopped it at his own risk ; and if the receiver have failed to catch it,
it shall score a point to the server.
13.-If in stopping a wide throw, the receiver, failing to catch it, shall turn
the ring into the goal, it shall score a point to the server.
14.-The game being fifteen points, if the score shall reach thirteen all, it
shall be at the option of the player who is at that moment the receiver, to
"set five," i.e., to declare the score "love all," and regard the player who first
scores five points as winner of the game ; and in the same manner, if the
score reach fourteen all, it shall be at his option to "set three."
NOTE.-For ordinary play, the foregoing rules will be found sufficient,
but at all tournaments and matches Rule 15 will be brought into
force in place of Rules 12 and 13, having been found necessary for
the sake of the umpires.
15.-The ring is in play until it has passed the goal-posts (whether inside
or outside), unless it has previously touched the ground. If, therefore, the
receiver be of opinion that the throw is a wide throw, he must leave it alone
altogether, since by trying at it he accepts it as a "good" throw. If the
receiver in trying to catch the ring touch it, but fail to catch it, it shall score a
point to the server, whether the throw be wide or not, but if the ring be
caught the catch is "good," and neither side scores.








BO WLS. 85


BOWLS.
DEFINITIONS.

JACK.-A ball (often made of white earthenware) to be played at by the
respective players with their bowls.
PEs.--Two pegs or pins, usually of bone or wood connected by a cord
made fast to one peg, and working freely though a hole in the other peg.
They are used for measuring.
STANDARD.-Some light substance (usually a straw or reed) used when a
very precise measure is required. It can only be claimed when the bowls
lie within a yard of the jack.
MlEASURE.-Ascertaining by the aid of pegs or a standard which of two
opposing bowls is the nearer to the jack after an end has been played.
RUB or SET.-When a jack or a bowl in its transit strikes or touches any
object or thing on the green which alters or impedes its motion.
FOOTER.-A small piece of carpet or other material or thing placed to
indicate the spot on which the player is to stand whilst in the act of
delivering the jack or bowl.
CAST or POINT.-Used in counting the game, which is called "up" when
a sufficient number of casts have been scored by one side.
DEAD BOWL.-A bowl played or knocked off the green, or against a bowl
lying in the ditch, or an 'ii.- i.i ... l.1 bowl. No bowl after becoming dead
shall be allowed to remain on the green. If fencing be used at any part of
the green, then if any bowl or the jack do touch such fencing it shall be
deemed off the green.
MARK and SET A 1IARK.-The delivery of the jack at the beginning of
each end, in and for the purpose of actual play. To constitute a mark the
jack must be bowled twenty-one yards at the least from the footer, and must
be on, and at least three feet from the edge of, the green. No objection can
be made to a mark after a bowl has been played at it.







BO TWLS.


TURNING THE JACK.-A player doing any palpable act to indicate that
he claims the game to be up as the bowls then lie, and his opponent allowing
the claim. The only period in a game at which this can be done is when
the claimant or his partner has one bowl to deliver after all the bowls of the
opposite side have been played.
VOID END.-When neither side can score a cast.
CALL THE GAME.-Openly declaring in the hearing of the players the
state of the score (that is, the number of casts obtained) on each side. The
score of the side entitled to the jack must be first called.
UMPIRE.-A person appointed to mark the score, measure, call the game,
and decide all questions which may arise during a game. The umpire shall
not in any case give any advice to the players, and he shall not give them
any information except when either player shall appeal to or ask him for
information. Each side may have an umpire. If there be two umpires, and
they cannot decide, they may call in a disinterested third person as referee.
Every decision of the umpires or referee shall be final and binding on the
players.
THE LAWS.
I. T-H GAME.-The game may be played by several single players, or
two or more partners on each side. The players shall play alternately
until each shall have delivered both his bowls. In case of partners,
one on either side shall play alternately Ioth bowls, the others
following in like manner.
2. PARTNERS AND THE LEAD.-At the commencement of each game the
players may cast lots or toss for partners, the lead and for the choice of
the jack, which shall be one of the jacks belonging to the green, and
not one belonging to an individual.
3. SETTING THE MARK.-The leader shall set the mark, but he shall not
deliver the jack without allowing his opponent following the oppor-
tunity of seeing its delivery and watching its course from a point near
the footer. If the leader in two trials shall fail to deliver the jack a
mark, his opponent is then entitled to set the mark, but not to play
first at it. The defaulter must play first, after an opponent has set the
mark. If the opponent at one throw of the jack do fail to set a mark,
the jack is again taken by the first defaulter or his partner, subject to
the original penalty.
4. BOWLS AND JACKi.-Each player shall have two bowls, which may be
of such size and bias as he shall think fit. The jack shall be not less
than 3I inches, nor more than 31 inches in diameter. The jack shall
not be changed during a game except by mutual consent of the
players. The bowls may be changed, but not during the playing of
an end, nor after the jack has been delivered for an end.
5. THE FOOTER.-Each set of players shall have a footer. Every player
must place his foot on the footer whilst in the act of delivering either
the jack or his bowl. If a player deliver his bowl with the right hand,
his right foot must be on the footer ; and if he deliver his bowl with
his left hand, his left foot must be on the footer when playing. In
case a bowl be played in contravention of this law, such bowl may, at
the option of the opponent, be declared a dead bowl. In case a
player shall have taken up the footer after playing his bowl, which by
reason of a rub or set has to be replayed, the footer shall be replaced








BO WLS.


as nearly as possible in its former position, by or with the consent of
an opponent.
6. PLACING THE FOOTER.-After each end is concluded, the footer shall
be placed by the last player at the jack. The leader in the succeeding
end may, before playing the jack, remove the footer anywhere he
pleases within the space of one yard from the spot where the jack lay
at the termination of the preceding end. A void end shall be included
in this provision. When the jack is knocked off the green, the footer
must be placed a yard from the edge of the green, and within a yard
on either side from the spot where the jack is taken out of the ditch;
provided that if more than half the bowls have not been played, the
jack and the bowls actually played shall be returned, and play
resumed from the spot where the footer was then placed.
7. PLAYING OUT OF TURN.- If either play out of turn, the other side
must play two following bowls if there are two to be played, but no
other penalty will attach.
8. PLAYING BEFORE A PREVIOUS BOWL HAS STOPPED.-No player shall
deliver a bowl whilst the jack or a preceding bowl is in motion,
otherwise his bowl shall be deemed a dead bowl. The leader shall
always follow (i.e., play the first bowl after) the jack.
9. PLAYING AN OPPONENT'S BOWL.--Whenever an opponent's bowl is
played by mistake he may play the other's bowl, or he may take up
the wrongly played bowl and substitute the proper bowl as nearly as
possible in the exact position in which the other rested.
10. I)ISPLACEMENT OF JACK.-If a jack be displaced by a bowl belonging
to another party, the end shall be deemed a void end.
II. THE SCORE.-Before commencing play, the number of casts to be
scored to make the game up shall be fixed. The player or side first
scoring the number so fixed, shall win the game.
12. SCORING THE GAME.-After an end is played, the players' side, whose
bowl or bowls is or are placed nearest to the jack, shall count one cast
in the game for each bowl so placed. The leader must call the game
before setting a fresh mark ; and if he neglect to do so, his opponent
may claim to have the jack returned, but this must be done before a
bowl is played. If, after the game is so called, an objection be not
made before the succeeding end is finished, the game shall be deemed
to have been correctly called, and cannot afterwards be corrected or
questioned. In case an objection be made, the question must be
settled before proceeding with the game.
13. MEASUREMENT.-If any doubt arise as to which bowl or bowls is or
are nearest to the jack, either side may claim a measure. In measuring,
one player shall hold the measuring apparatus to his own or his
partner's bowl, and the opponent shall hold it to the jack. If a stan-
dard be claimed, the party leading must make and give the standard
to the opposing party. In measuring with a standard, the bowl first
measured must be taken away; and if the opponent can make the
standard rest on his or his partner's bowl and jack, he wins the cast.
If a second standard be claimed for a second cast, the party winning
the first cast by standard measure must make and give the second
standard.
14. DISPLACEMENT OF BOWLS OR JACK IN MEASURING.-If during a




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