• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Introduction
 Agro-climatic zones
 Recommendation domains
 Socio-economic characteristics
 Cultural practices and input use:...
 Rotations, seeding practices and...
 Tables 1-13
 Maps














Group Title: Working paper / Economics Program
Title: An agro-economic evaluation of maize production in three valleys of the Peruvian Andes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080092/00001
 Material Information
Title: An agro-economic evaluation of maize production in three valleys of the Peruvian Andes
Series Title: Working paper Economics Program
Physical Description: 26 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Benjamin, Alan
CIMMYT Economics Program
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Place of Publication: México D.F. México
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Peru
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Alan Benjamin.
Funding: CIMMYT economics program working paper.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080092
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19368557

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Agro-climatic zones
        Page 2
    Recommendation domains
        Page 2
    Socio-economic characteristics
        Page 3
    Cultural practices and input use: Effects of region and economic class
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Rotations, seeding practices and production limiting factors
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Tables 1-13
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Maps
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text
fsVr5~


SCENTRO INTERNATIONAL DE MEJORAMIENTO DE MAIZ Y TRIGO
INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPRO'.. Lr li]T CENTER
'T Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico 6, D.F. Mexico



















AN AGRO-ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF


MAIZE PRODUCTION IN THREE VALLEYS

OF THE PERUVIAN ANDES.

by
Alan Benjamin*

1980 Working Paper




















* The author was working for CIMMYT at the time the research was con-
ducted. He is currently a graduate student in economics in France. He
acknowledges the active support of Ing. Ricardo Sevilla, head of PCIM,
and the efforts of PCIM agronomist Roberto Contreras and PCIM economist
Walter Lau. He also recognizes the contribution of CIMMYT colleagues and
daily exchanges with numerous Peruvian associates and farmers. A special
note of appreciation is due Ing. Efrain Franco who introduced the author
to the Andes and led the research through its first phases. The views
expressed in this working paper are not necessarily those of CIMMYT.

INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTER
Londres 40, ler, Piso, M6xico 6, D.F. M6xico











PREFACE


In cooperation with researchers in many national agri-
cultural research programs, CIMMYT has sought to develop
procedures which help to focus agricultural research squarely
on the needs of farmers. The process involves collaboration
of biological scientists and economists to identify the
groups of farmers for whom technologies are to be developed,
determining their circumstances and problems, screening this
information for research opportunities, and then implementing
the resulting research program on experiment stations and on
the fields of representative farmers.

CIMMYT's Economics Program has emphasized developing
procedures for the first stage of this process, through to
establishing research opportunities. The evolution of the
procedures, now synthesized in a manual "Planning Technolo-
gies Appropriate to farmers: Concepts and Procedures" has
been strongly influenced by collaborative research with many
national programs and with CIMMYT's wheat and maize training
programs. Our efforts with national programs began in 1974
with Zaire's national maize program, they moved to work in
Tunisia, Pakistan, an Egypt. The pace of work accelerated
notably in 1976 with assignment of regional economists
stimulating similar work in Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia, Panama, El Salvador and India. Cooperation
with still other national programs is now underway. We
believe that the resulting procedure offer cost effective
and robust guidelines to national program.

We are now preparing reports that illustrate the imple-
mentation of these procedures in various national programs.
While not all such work can be reported, we take this op-
portunity to thank all of those who have collaborated with
us.

This report describes work undertaken with the national
maize program of Peru, It emphasizes the formal survey and
the formation of recommendation domains in three Andean
maize producing regions.


Donald L. Winkelmann
Director, Economics Program.






AN AGRO-ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF MAIZE PRODUCTION
IN THREE VALLEYS OF THE PERUVIAN ANDES
by
Alan Benjamin

I. INTRODUCTION

Maize research in the Peruvian Andes during the past
twenty-five years has been carried out mainly under experi-
ment station conditions. Such research has had a limited
effect on improving incomes of Andean maize producers, es-
pecially the small farm sector. This disappointing impact of
research on small farm agriculture led Peruvian research
administrators to institute a program of on-farm research as
one component of a national strategy to increase maize
production and improve the welfare of the rural Andean poor.
Peru's program of research in farmers' fields is aimed at
reducing the gap between most maize producers' yields and
the yields reached on experiment stations. This concern led
the National Maize Program of Peru (Programa Cooperativo de
Investigaciones en Maiz de la Universidad Nacional Agraria--
PCIM) to associate with the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in the development of a strategy
to study agro-economic factors affecting maize production in
three valleys of the Peruvian Andes.

Briefly, the research project was organized into the
following phases: tentative identification of agro-climatic
regions based on secondary data and experience of researchers;.
assignment of priorities to agro-climatic regions in terms
of national goals; an exploratory survey of high priority
regions with attention focused on informal discussion with
farmers, traders, and others knowledgeable about production
strategies and problems; a formal survey of a random sample
of farmers; and on-farm trials oriented by survey findings
and perceptions of researchers.

The project, from the start, has been an interdisci-
plinary effort in which farmers, biological scientists,
economists and government planners each have contributed
insights. Three inter-Andean regions of Peru--the Callej6n
de Huaylas Valley, the Mantaro Valley and production areas
around Cuzco--were selected by PCIM staff as the first areas
in which to conduct on-farm research (see map 1).

The purpose of this paper is to summarize findings of
the integrated agro-economic studies undertaken in these
three regions from September 1976 to May 1978. The value of
these studies has been in detecting factors limiting produc-
tion which might then be incorporated into biological re-
search. The results also have provided government planners
and international donors with a succinct knowledge of how,
where, why, and by whom maize is produced in these three
representative regions of the Peruvian Andes.







II. AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES


Three valleys in the Peruvian Andes of special interest
to PCIM were identified as the target agro-climatic zones
for the project (see maps 2, 3 and 4). For each of these
valleys, exploratory survey information suggested that
initial zoning of the regions should be done on the basis of
altitude and access to irrigation. These two natural factors
were thought to greatly influence management strategies fol-
lowed by maize producers.

In the Huaylas Valley, three distinct zones were mapped
according to altitude. Most producers had access to irriga-
tion except in the high zone where a significant number
relied exclusively on rainfall. This led researchers to
identify four tentative agro-climatic zones for the Huaylas
region.

In the Mantaro Valley, a joint maize-potato exploratory
survey effort identified four zones in terms of altitude.\
Producers in only one of these zones, the valley floor,
cultivated significant amounts of maize. Within the valley
floor were irrigated and non-irrigated areas, giving rise to
two tentative zones for the Mantaro region.

The Cuzco study area was made up of three distinct non-
contiguous areas: the Urubamba and Urcos-Tinta valleys, and
a high altitude plateau, the Pampa de Anta. Over 90 per cent
of the maize area in these valleys is irrigated, while less
than 65 per cent of the plateau is irrigated. However,
irrigated areas vary notably, from sporadic and complementary
irrigation (once or twice before the rains come), to regular
irrigations (sufficient for four to five applications).
These considerations led to the delineation of four tentative
agro-climatic zones in the Cuzco region.

III. RECOMMENDATION DOMAINS

The surveys confirmed earlier impressions that essential-
ly three types of farmers live in the regions: small farmers
who consume the bulk of their production on the farm; small
farmers who sell most of their production (i.e. as "choclo",
a soft corn destined for roasting or boiling and sold in
regional or national markets); and large-scale producers,
whether large individual farmers or members of agrarian
reform communal enterprises, who sell most of their production
as dry maize or as choclo. Survey results suggested that
each class of farmer follows sufficiently distinct production
practices to warrant the need for different technologies.
Economic circumstances of farmers emanating from farm size
and response to markets were integrated with natural circum-
stances conditioned by altitude and access to irrigation to
form recommendation domains (RDs).


- 2 -







II. AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES


Three valleys in the Peruvian Andes of special interest
to PCIM were identified as the target agro-climatic zones
for the project (see maps 2, 3 and 4). For each of these
valleys, exploratory survey information suggested that
initial zoning of the regions should be done on the basis of
altitude and access to irrigation. These two natural factors
were thought to greatly influence management strategies fol-
lowed by maize producers.

In the Huaylas Valley, three distinct zones were mapped
according to altitude. Most producers had access to irriga-
tion except in the high zone where a significant number
relied exclusively on rainfall. This led researchers to
identify four tentative agro-climatic zones for the Huaylas
region.

In the Mantaro Valley, a joint maize-potato exploratory
survey effort identified four zones in terms of altitude.\
Producers in only one of these zones, the valley floor,
cultivated significant amounts of maize. Within the valley
floor were irrigated and non-irrigated areas, giving rise to
two tentative zones for the Mantaro region.

The Cuzco study area was made up of three distinct non-
contiguous areas: the Urubamba and Urcos-Tinta valleys, and
a high altitude plateau, the Pampa de Anta. Over 90 per cent
of the maize area in these valleys is irrigated, while less
than 65 per cent of the plateau is irrigated. However,
irrigated areas vary notably, from sporadic and complementary
irrigation (once or twice before the rains come), to regular
irrigations (sufficient for four to five applications).
These considerations led to the delineation of four tentative
agro-climatic zones in the Cuzco region.

III. RECOMMENDATION DOMAINS

The surveys confirmed earlier impressions that essential-
ly three types of farmers live in the regions: small farmers
who consume the bulk of their production on the farm; small
farmers who sell most of their production (i.e. as "choclo",
a soft corn destined for roasting or boiling and sold in
regional or national markets); and large-scale producers,
whether large individual farmers or members of agrarian
reform communal enterprises, who sell most of their production
as dry maize or as choclo. Survey results suggested that
each class of farmer follows sufficiently distinct production
practices to warrant the need for different technologies.
Economic circumstances of farmers emanating from farm size
and response to markets were integrated with natural circum-
stances conditioned by altitude and access to irrigation to
form recommendation domains (RDs).


- 2 -






A few potential recommendation domains were eliminated
from the studies because large farmers or choclo producers
were unimportant in several zones. Also, the circumstances
of large, commercial farmers in the Cuzco area were suf-
ficiently similar that they could be combined with other
large farmers into one recommendation domain. (For the
complete set of 13 recommendation domains see Table 1.)

IV. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

(A) Farm Size

For each of the RDs defined in Table 1, estimates were
made of average farm size and average area in maize per farm
(shown in Table 2). In the study areas, maize occupied one-
third to one-fourth of the average farm's area, with the
exception of the Mantaro region where maize is of lesser
importance. Farmers in the small/commercial class were more
dependent on maize production than other farmers.

The above data, taken from formal surveys, were combined
with data from the 1976 National Census and the 1978 Food
Ministry "Diagnostic" data. A distribution of the number of
farms by size was estimated on the basis of the average area
in maize per farm in each domain as estimated in the surveys
(see Table 3). This distribution shows that small farmers
control the large majority of the maize area in these regions.
In Huaylas and Mantaro, 90 and 82 per cent of maize surface,
respectively, are estimated to be cultivated by small farmers,
mostly for home consumption. In Cuzco, this percentage is
90. Large farms represent a low percentage of farm units and
maize acreage. Thus, it is apparent that maize improvement p
research in the Peruvian Andes will have the greatest
impact when directed towards the production problems of
small farms.

(B) Income Sources-/
Off-farm employment is a key source of income for small
farmers. Small subsistence farmers work mostly as agricultural
wage earners in the region during planting and harvesting
seasons, and as industrial part-time wage earners outside
the region during "off" months--August to September and
February to March. Small commercial farmers often work as
traders who transport agricultural products to regional and
capital city markets. It should be noted that approximately
one third of small farmers producing for home consumption
de-ote more time to'off-farm than to on-farm activities.


1/ As was the case for number of farms and total area in
maize, the significant comparisons regarding income
sources are between economic classes within regions.
Thus, the data will be presented in this fashion.


- 3 -





This percentage is slightly higher for small commercial
farmers. Cooperative farm members also work in various non-
farm activities, but no data were gathered on these. Details
on off-farm employment are shown in Table 4. Income earned
from various sources by small subsistence farmers was estimated
by four fairly gross categories. Agricultural revenues
accounts for about 40 per cent of totallrevenues, while off-
farm livestock and "other" revenues account for some 25, and
10 per cent, respectively (see Table 5);. Regional differences
do exist, with small farmers in Cuzco depending to a greater
extent on farm production.

Table 4 also shows that farmers in all size groups use
hired labor, mostly during planting, cultivation and harvesting
of maize. However, fewer small farmers hired labor compared
to larger farmers.

V. CULTURAL PRACTICES AND INPUT USE: EFFECTS OF REGION
AND ECONOMIC CLASS

(A) Land Use

Differences in land use tend to be determined by economic
class and region. Specifically, small farmers producing for
home consumption grow maize, potatoes, wheat and barley in
about the same proportions whereas small commercial farmers
tend to specialize in one crop (maize in Cuzco and Huaylas
and potatoes in Mantaro). The cropping pattern of large farm
units varies significantly from the previous two farmer
types, as well as from one region to another (see Table 6).

(B) Use of Tractors, Sprayers, Improved Varieties, and
Fertilizers

In all three regions it was found that only small
commercial and large farmers till the soil with a tractor or
own a back-pack sprayer used for insecticide application.
The small subsistence farmer generally ploughs with oxen
(often rented at high prices and difficult to obtain) and
does not apply insecticides (see Table 7 for details).

Only the small commercial farmers in Huaylas use PCIM
improved maize varieties (in this case PMC-561 and Opaco
Huascaran). The Blanco Cuzqueno variety, which is in great
demand in the cities, is adapted to the Urubamba valley
where 40 per cent of the sampled maize plots and 50 per cent
of the surface area in maize is planted to this variety. In
other regions, however, Blanco Cuzquefo is only found in
small areas. In the Callej6n de Huaylas, Blanco Cuzqueno can
be grown with only moderate success in the intermediate
altitude agro-climatic zone. Many farmers have attempted to
grow Blanco Cuzqueio but have abandoned it because of its
susceptibility to insect damage in Huaylas and because it
has too long a vegetative cycle in frost-prone Huancayo,
located in the Mantaro Valley.


- 4 -







Most farmers use their own seed year after year. Only
in Cuzco did farmers report that their seed became "tired"
after three to four years which required them to bring new
seed in from different agro-climatic zones.

The varieties farmers plant are, incidentally, good
indicators of agro-climatic zones within regions. For
instance, in the Callej6n de Huaylas, over 10 local varieties
are grown in significant quantities. The improved varieties
cover a considerable proportion of the low zone; Blanco
Cuzquefo is restricted to the intermediate zone; and yellow
kerneled varieties of the Amarillo Ancash race are pre-
dominant in the intermediate and high zones. The Rojo
Huarotambo variety is grown almost exclusively in the rain-
fed region of the Cordillera Negra.

In the Montaro Valley, a single homogeneous agro-climatic
zone, the San Jer6nimo local, Blanco Cuzquefo, and a cross of
both varieties, are grown for grain and choclo. Choclo-producing
farmers want a variety with large kernels like those of Blanco
Cuzqueio, and one that is at least one or two months earlier
than the latter.

The Urubamba Valley in the Cuzco region is planted
principally with two varieties: Blanco Cuzqueno and Amarillo
de Calca, both large kerneled varieties. In the Urcos-Tinta
zone one finds Amarillo de Calca (Urcos region) and Amarillo
Oro (Tinta region). In the Anta plateau, Amarillo Oro is the
most widely planted variety.

Small subsistence farmers fertilize maize at lower
levels than small commercial and large farmers although, at
least in the case of Huaylas, the use of nitrogen is much
more widespread among small subsistence farmers than was
generally believed. Irrigated maize generally receives
larger doses of fertilizer than rainfed maize, even when
planted by small farmers. In the Huaylas Valley, in recom-
mendation domains H2 and H4, sampled farmers had average per
hectare applications of 72-5-0 and 46-5-0 of NPK, respectively,
whereas in the rainfed domain H5, farmers applied on the
average only 20-0-0 per hectare. In the Anta plateau, NPK
per hectare averages are 36-26-13 for the irrigated domain
C3, and 25-9-6 for the rainfed domain C4. In the Huaylas
Valley farmers use little manure (less is available in this
area), but high levels of chemical fertilizer. In the Mantaro
(M2) and especially in the Cuzco regions (Cl, C2, C3 and
C4), where cattle form an important component of the farmer's
production system, manure is used by a high percentage of
farmers in average doses of two to three metric tons per
hectare.


- 5 -






VI. ROTATIONS, SEEDING PRACTICES AND PRODUCTION LIMITING
FACTORS

In previous sections, data were characterized exclusively
by economic class and region. For further references, however,
the full RD definition must be employed to explain differences
of practices and problems among groups of farmers.

(A) Rotations and Intercropping

In the intermediate zone in Huaylas, small farmers want
a faster maturing variety that enables them to plant two
crops per year. Farmers in the Mantaro Valley apply little
phosphorous to maize because a high percentage of maize is
cultivated after a potato crop, and farmers believe that
maize benefits from high doses of phosphorous applied to the
potato crop. This residual fertilizer effect must be taken
into account in the on-farm experiment stage.

Associated cropping is a common practice in Huaylas,
mainly among small subsistence farmers. Small commercial and
large farmers who grow choclo for market do not intercrop
because of additional cost involved at harvest. Ninety per
cent of all associations are between maize and climbing
beans. In other regions, the association is with broad beans
or barley in the same plot as maize, but with little or no
obvious interaction (see Table 8 for details).

(B) Planting Date and Method

Farmers determine when to plant on the basis of their
objectives and the amount of risk they are willing to take.
In general, small commercial farmers in the low or inter-
mediate altitude zones that have irrigation tend to advance
planting dates in order to secure a better price in the off-
season market, and to be able to plant a vegetable or potato
crop immediately after maize. In the case of the Huaylas
Valley, maize is usually in the ground throughout the year.
However, a few years ago little maize was being cultivated
in the Valley in July or August. This continuous cropping
might have an effect on the general insect complex which is
such a yield-limiting factor in the region.

Small subsistence farmers usually wait for planting
until the rains come, even if they have irrigated land. For
instance, in the Huaylas Valley experimental research has
proven that maize planted in October in the intermediate and
high zones gives the highest yields. Even so, small farmers
producing for home consumption in irrigated zones (much of
which may only be supplementary) often plant in November and
December. With this apparent anomaly, on-farm experimentation
should include planting dates as an experimental variable to
be studied in relation to insect, disease, and frost incidence.


- 6 -






In the Mantaro Valley, farmers are clearly sensitive to
risk. Most maize is planted in October in order to avoid
crop loss through frosts in December (the plant is still at
its initial stages of growth and can recover from a 20C
frost, which often occurs between December 8 and 24). Earlier
plantings of maize are more susceptible to frost damage in
December. However, most choclo is produced in the Pilcomayo
and Chupaca districts where frosts are reported to be less
severe. Planting dates by RD are shown in Table 9.

All maize research at Peruvian experiment stations uses
the seeding technique known as "golpe", whereby two to three
seeds are dropped in the furrow every 40 to 60 cms, resulting
in seed rates of about 62,000 plants per hectare. However, a
large proportion of small farmers (especially those in
rainfed areas and high altitude domains) plant by "chorro",
a continuous flow of seed every 5 to 10 cm, resulting in
seed rates of 75,000 to 85,000 plants per hectare. One
reason for this practice seems to be that in certain domains,
such as Ml, M2, C3 and C4, farmers withdraw up to 30 per
cent of all plants throughout the cycle to feed farm animals.
Dried stalks also are used as fodder after harvest. The
maize plant thus serves a dual purpose: grain for home
consumption and feed for cattle (see Table 10).

(C) Production-limiting Factors

Maize in the Huaylas Valley suffers the most damage
from earworms and fungus leaf diseases. Earworms damage
roughly 40 per cent of the kernels of the average cob
(estimated by Tardieu, 1977, and Contreras, after one year
of trials, 1978). The "Eusesta" insect also seems to be
responsible for much of the ear rot in this valley. Fungus
diseases, identified as fusarium and cercospora, are also
widespread. In the Cuzco region, Urubamba is also plagued by
earworms, but to a lesser degree..Farmers in the region
reported virus symptoms in early plantings. In the higher
altitude regions, soil insects are often reported. It ap-
pears that high seed rates in the Mantaro and Cuzco region
are partly a security against soil insects. An index of the
incidence of various sources of direct damage to maize is
shown in Table 11.

However, farmers reported many other limiting factors
to maize production in addition to the sources of damage
found in Table 11. This more exhaustive list of production-
limiting factors, together with their relative importance by
RD, may be seen in Table 12.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

The preceding report has delineated 13 tentative recom-
mendations domains (RDs) for three regions of the Peruvian.
Andes. In some cases, it was possible to group RDs in order
to examine farmer characteristics and practices (e.g., farm
farm size, income sources, fertilizer use and variety choice).


- 7 -





However, in the end RD distinctions were maintained in order
to determine certain farmer practices (planting date and
method, rotations) and to identify production-limiting
factors).

The information from these studies has proven useful in
the design of agronomic experiments on farmers' fields. It
has been used in the following general ways:

1) To identify representative farmers and their
practices along with representative fields for carrying out
experiments;
2) To identify factors suspected to limit production
by representative farmers, with their eventual incorporation
as experimental variables;
3) To establish levels, dates, and methods for non-
experimental variables in on-farm trials, thereby ensuring
experimental relevance to farmers' conditions; and
4) To make an a priori analysis or pre-screening of
projected costs and returns associated with factors thought
to limit production, and of the compatibility with farmer
circumstances of proposed changes in technology in order to
single out for on-farm experiments desirable and feasible
components.

Specifically, the following elements either were in-
troduced into the research program or given far greater
importance:

1. Stronger emphasis in on-farm experimentation;
2. For relevant regions, a vigorous program of re-
search on control of earworms;
3. Careful analysis of fertilizer response under
representative conditions;
4. For relevant regions, a screening of varieties
from internal and international sources for resistance to
particular leaf diseases;
5. For relevant regions, an examination of elements
of maize and bean associations incorporating varieties and
husbandry;
6. Management of maize when it is both a source of
grain and stover; and
7. A search for shorter season varieties and for cold
tolerance for some regions.

It could be argued that 13 RDs are too numerous and
hence unmanageable for a maize improvement program, especially
considering that only 32,000 hectare of maize are cultivated
in the three regions. Would not 13 different research programs
necessarily follow from this classification? What about the
numerous unidentified domains in other inter-Andean valleys?

It has been shown that in many respects some RDs are
very similar to others. For example, the small farmer high-
land RDs are quite similar. One could almost speak of a


- 8







single RD encompassing all of these for the three regions
studied. However, many variables crucial to on-farm ex-
perimentation such as the insect and disease complex, use of
manure, system of associated cropping, etc., manifest regional
differences which are significant. Therefore, to insure
relevance the RDs must be treated separately in on-farm
experiments and their distinct problems must be recognized
in organizing work on experiment stations.

Instead of aggregating current RDs, a more fruitful
approach might entail expansion of current RD definitions to
other parts of the Andes. It is likely that identified
recommendation domains correspond, grosso modo, to domains
in other regions of the Peruvian Andes. For example, lower
altitude regions of Cajamarca, Ayacucho and La Libertad are
similar to Huaylas with respect to associated cropping
(maize-climbing bean) and to earworm damage; and frosts are
a major problem in the higher altitude agro-climatic zones
of the Apurimac and La Libertad regions.

During its initial stages, on-farm maize research in
the Peruvian Andes can only successfully deal with those
components of the farmer's production system that directly
affect the maize plant. Even so, this research work on maize
explicitly recognizes the role of competing and complementary
activities, e.g.., bean intercropping, planting dates, fodder
requirements. Although a limited research program, it may
significantly increase yields (and fodder where required)
for target farmers. In the future, as maize recommendations
become better adjusted to recommendation domains, researchers
will want to deal in greater depth with other components of
the farmers! production systems. Future research can then be
refocused and recommendations of new farm technologies for
other crops in the system can be made. Thus, a broader
farming system approach may be the logical outcome of a
maize production technology research program, especially
when directed to small farmers.


- 9 -








Table 1. Recommendation Domains Delineated in Three Highland Maize Producing Areas.




Region Agro-Climatic Zone Economic Considerations RD Code

Altitude Irrigation Markets and Farm Sizea/


Callej6n de Low: 2,400-2,600 m Irrigated Commercial/small H1
Huaylas Int.: 2,600-3,000 m Irrigated Home Consumption/small H2
Irrigated Commercial/large H3
High: 3,000-3,500 m Irrigated Home Consumption/small H4
Rainfed Home Consumption/small H5




Mantaro Valley: 3,100-3,500 m Irrigated Commercial/small M1
Rainfed Home Consumption/small M2
Irrigated Commercial/large M3



Cuzco Urubamba: 2,700-3,200 m
Irrigated Commercial/small C1
Urcos-Tinta: 3,100-3,600 m
Irrigated Home Consumption/small C2
Anta: 3,300-3,600 m Irrigated Home Consumption/small C3
Rainfed Home Consumption/small C4
All zones Irrigated Commercial/large C5


a/ Small = less than 7.0 ha.
Large = greater than or equal to 7.0 ha.








Farm Size and Area in Maize Per Farm by Recommendation Domain (RD)


RD Average Average Maize Area % of Farm

Farm Size Per Farm in Maize

(ha) (ha)


H1 3.0 2.1 70
H2 1.9 .7 37
H3 37.2 8.2 22
B4 1.5 .4 27
H5 1.2 .4 33
M1 4.3 .4 9
M2 1.2 .2 17
M3 20.9 2.9 14
C1 2.0 1.3 65
C2 1.6 .5 31
C3 2.9 .4 14
C4 2.5 .5 20
C5 24.0 6.2 26


Table 2.








Table 3. Total Number of Maize Farms and Total Area in Maize by Region and Economic Class



Huaylas Mantaro Cuzco


Small Small Large Small Small Large Small Small Large
Subsis- Corrmer Subsis- Commer- Subsis- Cormrer-
tence cial tence cial tence cial


Total number of
maize farms 7826 262 67 43,585 2748 753 11,354 5560 251

% Farms 96 3 1 92 6 2 66 32 2

Total area in
maize (000 ha) 4.4 .55 .55 8.7 1.1 2.2 6.9 7.2 1.6

% Maize area 80 10 10 73 9 18 44 46 10


Sources:


Number of maize producing farms and cultivated area from II Censo Nacional Agrope
cuario, as well as the three regional maize studies, "Proyecto de Desarrollo de
Malz Amildceo en la Sierra, Diagn6sticos del Area" and Ministerio de Agricultura
y Alimentaci6n, 1978. The distribution of maize area per domain was done with the
Censo and Diagn6stico data. The distribution of number of farms was done on the
basis of the average area of maize per unit.in each domain, as identified in
the PCIM-CIMMYT surveys. Estimates were then regrouped by economic classes within
regions.







Table 4. Off-farm Employment and Use of Hired Labor by Region and Economic Class


Huaylas Mantaro Cuzco

Small Small Large Small Small Large Small Small Large
Subsis- Commner Subsis- Comrner- Subsis- Commer-
tence cial tence cial tence cial



% Farmers who work
off-farm 67 70 NA 76 64 54 57 38 NA

% Farmers who work
off-farm more than
half time 38 50 NA 38 40 NA 30 12 NA

% Farmers who hire
laborers for maize
production 56 90 100 63 65 100 38 46 100


NA = not available.





Table 5. Total Yearly Gross Family Revenues for Small Subsistence

Farmers Surveyed: An Average of Three Regions Studied*


Income Source

1. Gross farm revenues:

Average surface in:


Quantity


Maize 0.40 ha
Potatoes 0.32 "
Wheat and Barley 0.51 "
Vegetables 0.08
Other 0.29 "


Average cultivated surface


2. Off-farm revenues:

Daily regional work

Seasonal out-of-region work

Total


3. Gross livestock revenues:
cattle
pigs
other
oxen (rental)

Total


4. Revenues from other sources:


1.60 ha


Value


$ 80
120
65
15
40

$ 320


$ 85

135

$ 220


1 unit
3 units
8 units


Total yearly estimated gross family revenues:


$ 80
60
40
20

$ 200


$ 100

$ 840


* The averages of survey data are utilized here. Gross farm revenue
is estimated by average yields per cultivated area times June 1978
farm prices. Off-farm revenues is calculated by number of days
worked times average regional and coastal wage rates. Animal and
other revenues is a rough estimate on the basis of animal, handi-
craft, and small commerce value. All incomes have been converted
to US dollars at the exchange rate of S/200.00 to 1 US$.


- 14 -







Table 6. Farm Size and Land Use by Region and Economic Class


Huaylas Mantaro Cuzco


Small Small Large Small Small Large Small Small Large
Subsistence Ccarercial Subsistence Comnercial Subsistence Ccrercial


Average farm size
(ha)


Average area in
maize (ha)

Per cent area in;

maize

potatoes


wheat

barley

vegetables


1.5



0.6


3.0



2.1


37.2



8.2


1.2



0.2


4.3



0.4


20.9



2.9


2.2



0.6


2.0 24.0


1.3


6.2


8 25

7 13

5


4 15 10


--


29 6 15


other 8





Table 7. Input Use and Crop Disposition by Region and Economic Class


Huaylas Mantaro Cuzco


Small Small Large Small Small Large Small Small Large
Input Use and Crop Subsis- Commer- Subsis- Commer- Subsis- Commer-
Disposition tence cial tence cial tence cial


% Farmers plow
with tractor

%..Farmers own back-
pack sprayer

% Farmer bought maize
seed

% Plots planted in
PCIM varieties

% Plots planted in
Blanco Cuzqueio
variety

% Plots receiving N

% Plots receiving P

% Plots receiving K

% Plots receiving manure

Average N dose (kg/ha)

Average P dose (kg/ha)

% Maize sold


85


66


100


0



16

77

69

54

NA

70

42

99


0 14


7 10


9 21


0 0


NA = not available.









Table 8. Type of rotations by Recommendation Domain


RD Rotationa Number of crops % Plots maize % Plots maize
per year after potato intercropped



H1 CH-V 2 easily 14 88
H2 M-B or M-P 2 tightly 34 82
H3 CH-P or
M-P-W 2 tightly 20 90

H4 M-P-W 3 in two years 7 72
H5 M-P-W 1 14 76

M1 P-M-P 1 50 80
M2 P-M-B 1 50 65
M3 CH-B or CH-P 2 tightly 46 77



C1 CH-V or M-P 1 or 2 13 30
C2 P-M-W 1 18 20
C3 P-W-M 1 20 30
C4 P-W-M 1 20 30
C5 CH-V or M-P 1 or 2 30 55





a/ CH = "choclo", M = Maize, P = Potatoes, W = Wheat, B = Barley,
V = Vegetables.


- 17 -











Table 9. Planting Dates by Recommendation Domain


Per-cent of plots planted in

RD July August September October November December


H1 18 30 15 20 17 0
H2 0 2 18 25 39 16
H3 0 0 23 11 59 7
H4 0 0 20 41 28 11
H5 0 0 0 38 26 26


M1 0 12 48 36 4 0
M2 0 0 9 79 12 0
M3 7 38 18 12 7 0


C1 11 32 52 5 0 0
C2 4 35 48 13 0 0
C3 0 63 32 5 0 0
C4 0 35 50 10 5 0
C5 0 40 45 12 3 0


- 18 -







Table 10. Planting Method and Length of Maize Cycle by RD



RD Seeding techniquea Plant density Length of maize cycle
(plants/ha) (months)



H1 Golpe 62,500 6.5
H2 Golpe 67,000 6.5
H3 Golpe 62,500 7.0
H4 Golpe 70,000 7.5
H5 Chorro 75,000 7.5


M1 Chorro 72,000 7.5
M2 Chorro 85,000 7.5
M3 Golpe 65,000 7.5


C1 Golpe 62,500 7.5
C2 Chorro 80,000 8.0
C3 Chorro 83,000 8.5
C4 Chorro 75,000 8.5
C5 Golpe 67,500 7.5


a) Golpe; planted 2-3
Chorro; planted as
between seeds.


seeds/hill with 40-60 cms. between hills
a continuous flow of seed with 5-10 cms.


- 19 -








Table 11. Sources of Direct Damage to Maize Reported by
Farmers by Recommendation Domain




RD Earworm Soils or Stalk Fungus Leaf Virus
Insect Disease Symptoms


(Percent of Farmings
100 NA
80 NA
80 NA
74 NA
90 NA


Reporting Problems)
100
72
45
38
38


5
NA
NA


14
NA
NA
10
NA


- 20 -









Table 12. Limiting Factors in Maize Production Most Often Reported by Farmers by
Recommendation Domain-/




Callej6n de Huaylas Mantaro Valley Cuzco Region
H1 Ii2 H3 H4 H5 M1 M2 M3 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5



Drought *** *** ***
Frost ** ** ** *** ** ** *** *** *
Earworm *** *** *** ** *** *
Soil-stalk Insects ** *
Fungus Disease ** ** ** *
Virus Disease *
Low Levels of
Fertility ** ** **
Technical Assistance *
Market Price ** ** *



* = Moderate, ** = High, *** = Very high.

1/ = Includes only the most important limiting factor reported by farmers.






Table 13. Results of PCIM Maize Study in Other Inter-Andean Valleys of Peru


Cajamarca Apurimac Ayacucho Huancavelica La Libertad


Cultivated Surface in
Maize (ha) 10,000
Altitude Range 2,400-3,200 2,100-3,400 2,400-3,400 2,700-3,400 2,400-3,400
% Associated 70 11 45 10 57
Cropping

Limiting Factors
% Drought '602 30 37 34
Frost 48 40
Earworm 68 20 51 43 51
Soil-stalk
Insects 17 20
Fungus 25 20
Disease
Virus
Disease
Low Levels of
Fertilizer ** ** ** ** **
Hail 47


1 "Factores de Producci6n y Nivel Tecnol6gico del Cultivo de Maiz en la Sierra de
2
Percentage of farmers who reported damage.

3** Limiting factor of first and second order.


Peru" PCIM. Informative de maiz,





MAP OF PLHU AND INTER -ANDEAN VALLEYS


SELECTED FOR


AGRO- ECONOMIC


STUDIES.


IQUITOS
0


CALLEJON DE
\ HUAYLAS


VAIIF D.L
MAN IAHit
M 0t O C


LIMA


.CUZCO


AREQUIPA
o


j= REGIONS STUDIED BY CIMMYT'S ECONOMICS TEAM.
Lir-T'i'r


dib. funcisco rsos c.


- 23 -





AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES IN CALLEJON DE HUAYLAS.



) N







o00



















T re ro


*< \/ )e 260 / m2
S305
\orcoro




V Huo











. I. Low 2,400 -2,600m.
2.Intermediote 2,600 3,000m.
35. High 3,000 3,500 m.


dib. fronc.io-ro$os0C.







AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES

HUANCAYO


HlIEfl VALLEY FLOOR (3,10 -3500m)

jt ." INTEIRMLDIATL LLFT (.UOO-3,95Um)

INTERMEDIATE RIGHT (3,500-3,950m)

I.Mil OHIGH (more thon 3,950m)

dib. froncisco rosos c.


- 25 -







AGRO- CLIMATIC ZONES


: CUZCO


cUco
(3,382)


isipato (3,345)


I URUBAMBA VALLEY
II URCOS -TINTA
I1- ANTA


Comrbo


Sicuoni(3P1)
oC


dib. francisco rosos c


DEPARTMENT OF CUZCO


is Area of study




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs