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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Methods
 The study area
 Diagnostic survey findings
 Problems, causes, and possible...
 Projected future activities
 Reference
 Appendix I. Participants in diagnostic...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Rice-wheat cropping systems in Rupandehi District of the Nepal Terai : diagnostic surveys of farmers' practices and problems, and needs for further research
Title: Rice-wheat cropping systems in Rupandehi District of the Nepal Terai
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Title: Rice-wheat cropping systems in Rupandehi District of the Nepal Terai diagnostic surveys of farmers' practices and problems, and needs for further research
Physical Description: 33 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrington, L.W
Fujisaka, S
Hobbs, P.R
Publisher: CIMMYT etc.
Place of Publication: Mexico etc
Publication Date: 1989
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Statement of Responsibility: ed.: L.W. Harrington, S. Fujisaka, P.R. Hobbs et al..
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Abstract
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Methods
        Page 2
    The study area
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Diagnostic survey findings
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Problems, causes, and possible solutions
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Projected future activities
        Page 31
    Reference
        Page 32
    Appendix I. Participants in diagnostic surveys, Rupandehi District, Nepal, 1989
        Page 33
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
/6, -2'97


Rice-Wheat Cropping

Systems in Rupandehi

District of

the Nepal Terai:

Diagnostic Surveys of Farmers'
Practices and Problems, and Needs for Further Research


FEBRUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1989


IN SoT s


Editors
L.W. Harrington
S. Fujisaka
P.R. Hobbs
C. Adhikary
G.S. Giri
Kelly Cassaday


National Agricultural Research Center, Nepal (NARC)
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)











Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems
in Rupandehi District of the Nepal Terai:

Diagnostic Surveys of Farmers' Practices
and Problems, and Needs for Further Research



February and September, 1989























Editors
L.W. Harrington
S. Fujisaka
P.R. Hobbs
C. Adhikary
G.S. Giri
Kelly Cassaday




National Agricultural Research Center, Nepal (NARC)
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

























CIMMYT is an internationally funded, nonprofit scientific research and training organization.
Headquartered in Mexico, the Center is engaged in a research program for maize, wheat, and
triticale, with emphasis on improving the productivity of agricultural resources in developing
countries. It is one of 18 nonprofit international agricultural research and training centers
supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which is
sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), and the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP). The CGIAR consists of some 40 donor countries,
international and regional organizations, and private foundations.

CIMMYT receives core support through the CGIAR from a number of sources, including the
international aid agencies of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark,
Finland, France, India, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippines,
Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the USA, and from the European Economic
Commission, Ford Foundation, Inter-American Development Bank, OPEC Fund for International
Development, UNDP, and World Bank. CIMMYT also receives non-CGIAR extra-core support
from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, the Rockefeller
Foundation, and many of the core donors listed above.

Printed in Mexico.


Correct citation: Harrington, L.W., S. Fujisaka, P.R. Hobbs, C. Adhikary, G.S. Giri, and
K. Cassaday. 1993. Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in Rupandehi District of the Nepal Terai:
Diagnostic Surveys of Farmers' Practices and Problems, and Needs for Further Research.
Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT, NARC, and IRRI.

ISBN: 968-6127-75-5
AGROVOC descriptors: Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, cropping systems, farmers, lowland,
Nepal
AGRIS category codes: F01, F08
Dewey decimal classification: 631.582








Contents


Page

v ABSTRACT
vi TABLES
vi FIGURES
vii FOREWORD

1 INTRODUCTION

2 METHODS

3 THE STUDY AREA
3 Rupandehi District
4 Agricultural Support Services
4 Land and Soil Types, and Land Use
5 Lower terraces
5 Middle terraces
5 Upper terraces

6 DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY FINDINGS
6 Rice Crop Management
6 Land preparation and sowing/transplanting
7 Weed control
8 Seed rates
8 Rice varieties
8 Soil fertility management
10 Pests
10 Harvest and post-harvest practices
11 Yields
11 Labor
11 Wheat Crop Management
11 Tillage
11 Timing and method of planting, seed management, and plant stand
12 Wheat varieties
12 Pests
12 Water management
13 Soil fertility management
13 Harvest and post-harvest practices
13 Mixed cropping
14 System Interactions
14 Rice harvest date and wheat planting date
15 Effect of paddy soils on wheat
15 Food security for resource-poor farmers
15 Interaction with other system activities








16 PROBLEMS, CAUSES, AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
18 Near-term Issues
18 Drought in rice and wheat
19 Problems in rice
20 Problems in wheat
26 Sustainability Issues in the Longer Term
26 Nutrient deficiencies
29 Pests
31 Other longer term issues

31 PROJECTED FUTURE ACTIVITIES

32 REFERENCES

33 APPENDIX 1. Participants in Diagnostic Surveys, Rupandehi District,
Nepal, 1989








ABSTRACT


Diagnostic surveys in Rupandehi District of Nepal's Terai (lowlands) in February and September
of 1989 revealed both near-term and potential longer term problems in the area's rice-wheat
cropping pattern. The surveys obtained information on farmers' rice and wheat crop management
(use of land and soil types, water and soil fertility management, pests and disease management,
practices from sowing to harvest) and on interactions between rice and wheat cultivation, and
other enterprises in the farming system. Near-term issues for rice were found to include pests and
diseases, midseason moisture stress, and weeds in direct seeded rice. Near-term issues for wheat
include late planting, early season waterlogging in lower terraces with heavier soils, inadequate
plant stands, late season moisture stress, and problems of replacement of older varieties grown by
farmers with new varieties. Nutrient deficiencies were identified as problems for both rice and
wheat. Potential longer term problems identified include: stagnant or declining rice yields;
nutrient deficiencies which may increasingly limit rice and wheat yields; and pest and disease
buildup. Causes of these problems are explored in detail and research to address both near-term
and longer term problems is suggested.








Tables

Page
4 Table 1. Land types, local classification, and land use, Rupandehi District, Nepal

5 Table 2. Local soil categories (in Bhojpuri), Rupandehi District, Nepal

7 Table 3. Rice production by major strategy, Rupandehi District, Nepal

8 Table 4. Rice varieties, Rupandehi District, Nepal

9 Table 5. Soils after 30 crops of rice and wheat, Bhairahawa Agricultural Farm

17 Table 6. Preliminary list of problems, rice-wheat cropping pattern, Rupandehi
District, Nepal

17 Table 7. Scoring model: ranking of near-term problems in the rice-wheat
cropping pattern, Rupandehi District, Nepal (preliminary, tentative
score)



Figures

Page
2 Figure 1. Rupandehi District, Nepal

3 Figure 2. Rainfall, Bhairahawa, Nepal (10-year average)

3 Figure 3. Air temperature, Bhairahawa, Nepal (nine-year average)

10 Figure 4. Causes of declining use of farm yard manure on rice, which in turn
causes low and declining rice yields for rainfed lowland rice production

19 Figure 5. Late wheat planting: problems and causes

21 Figure 6. Waterlogging of wheat: problems and causes

23 Figure 7. Poor wheat plant stand: problems and causes

24 Figure 8. Late season moisture stress on wheat: problems and causes

27 Figure 9. Soil fertility problems and causes







FOREWORD


The Rupandehi District diagnostic surveys described in this publication were among the first
studies conducted by the NARS-CIMMYT-IRRI collaborative rice-wheat project. A major
objective of this project is to examine problems in the sustainability of rice-wheat cropping
systems in South Asia. Separate reports on the Rupandehi District surveys were circulated
informally in 1989, the year the surveys were undertaken. Wheat survey results are summarized
in S. Fujisaka and L. Harrington (eds.), The Rice-Wheat Cropping Pattern in the Nepal Terai:
Farmers' Practices and Problems, and Needs for Further Research (Bangkok: NARC,
CIMMYT, and IRRI, 1989). Rice survey results are reported in Fujisaka et al., "Rice Research
Needs for the Rice-Wheat System in Nepal's Terai: A Farmer-oriented Assessment," unpublished
report (Los Bafios, Philippines: NARC, IRRI, CIMMYT, 1989).

Subsequent surveys of South Asian rice-wheat systems have been described in special reports
combining the findings on both rice and wheat in each survey area. This report, which is part of
that series, synthesizes the findings of the two Bhairahawa surveys to make them more accessible
to all involved in research on the sustainability of South Asia's rice-wheat systems. We hope our
readers will find this information useful.


The Editors








Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in

Rupandehi District of the Nepal Terai: Diagnostic
Surveys of Farmers' Practices and Problems,
and Needs for Future Research


Introduction

The rice-wheat cropping pattern is extremely important in South Asia. Wheat is grown after rice
on approximately 12 million ha in the region, accounting for about 25% of the region's wheat
production (Huke and Huke 1992). Wheat yields are low (less than 2 t/ha) even where irrigation
is available (Hobbs, Mann, and Butler 1987). Rice yields average about 2.6 t/ha.

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI) are conducting collaborative research on the rice-wheat pattern in South
Asia. This work is implemented in partnership with national agricultural research systems
(NARSs). The collaborative research program has four main objectives:

* Conduct adaptive and applied research in collaboration with national institutions to define and
solve major problems associated with the rice-wheat pattern in selected study areas. Problems
may include near-term productivity issues and longer term sustainability issues.

Conduct a comparative analysis (over countries) of problems affecting the rice-wheat pattern
in South Asia and identify possible solutions (practices or techniques) for these problems, that
are effective under a wide range of local circumstances. Again, near-term productivity
problems and longer term sustainability problems may be addressed.

By means of the above, improve the understanding of CIMMYT, IRRI, and participating
NARSs on how to address problems of sustainability.

Strengthen linkages between international agricultural research centers and NARSs through
collaborative research as well as formal and informal training.

As an initial step in this collaborative research program, scientists from CIMMYT and IRRI
joined with researchers from the National Agricultural Research Center narcC), Nepal, to study
the rice-wheat pattern in Nepal's Terai. This publication reports findings from two diagnostic
surveys of farming systems in Rupandehi District of Nepal's Terai (Figure 1), where the rice-
wheat pattern is central to farmers' livelihoods.1 The first diagnostic survey, conducted during
February 1989 in the dry season, gave particular attention to the standing wheat crop. A second
diagnostic survey conducted in the same area in September 1989 during the wet season focused
on the rice crop.


1 Similar surveys are described in Flinn and Khokhar (1986, 1987), Flinn and Fujisaka (1989), and
Byerlee, Heisey, and Hobbs (1989).








Methods

The diagnostic surveys described in this paper follow in the tradition of informal, exploratory
surveys for rapidly assessing a farming system in a defined area as a means to identify problems
and develop a research agenda. The activity could equally have been called an "RRA," "sondeo,"
"informal survey," or "joint trek." The surveys had three major objectives:

* To understand local farming systems: the rice-wheat pattern, interactions between rice and
wheat, and interactions between the rice-wheat subsystem and other subsystems.

* To define near-term and longer term problems and understand their causes (focusing, where
appropriate, on system interactions).

* To identify further research needs: to improve the definition of poorly defined problems; to
improve researchers' understanding of the causes of major problems; and to identify possible
solutions to well-defined problems.

Survey participants were senior researchers (with expertise in rice or wheat) from the fields of
agronomy, anthropology, economics, extension, pathology, and plant breeding.2 The participants
were divided into subgroups for fieldwork. Morning and early afternoon field interviews
(conducted independently by each subgroup) were followed by structured discussions, attended
by all survey participants. The purpose of the discussions was to synthesize data and determine
problems, their causes, and interactions among system components.


2 Appendix 1 provides a list of the participants in each survey.









Semi-structured guidelines rather than formal questionnaires were used to guide discussions with
farmers and other respondents in the field. These guidelines were redefined daily through group
consensus after thorough discussion of new information and the information still required.

Respondents were selected from all parts of Rupandehi District and included small-scale and
large-scale farmers, extension workers, merchants, and government officials.



The Study Area

Rupandehi District

Rupandehi District is part of Nepal's Terai and ranges in elevation from 100 to 200 masl (Figure
1). The Terai, a part of the Gangetic Plain, represents about 14% of Nepal's total land area and
42% of the country's cultivated land. Five physiographic classes may be distinguished within the
district: 1) river basin, 2) river levee, 3) low terrace, 4) high terrace, and 5) ox-bows or meanders
(APROSC 1986; this document describes results from a semi-detailed soil survey for the
Lumbini Groundwater Project area).

Rupandehi District has a subtropical climate highly influenced by the southwestern monsoon. On
average, total annual rainfall reaches around 1,600 mm and increases from south to north. More
than 85% of the rain falls between mid-June and the end of September. November and December
are the driest months, and light precipitation may be expected in January and February (Figure
2). Mean temperatures are lowest (150C) in January and highest (300C) in May (Figure 3).
Occasional strong, hot, dry westerly windstorms occur in April and May (APROSC 1986).

The population of the district was 380,000 in 1981, growing at a rate of 2.23% per year. There
are about 83,000 ha of cultivable land, of which some 28% is irrigated or partially irrigated.


Rainfall Temperature
(mm) (*C)
600 40--
35- Maximum
500
30- Average
400- 25

300 20

200. 15 Minimum
10

100 -
0. 0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugSep Oct NovDec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Figure 2. Rainfall, Bhairahawa, Nepal (10-year Figure 3. Air temperature, Bhairahawa, Nepal
average). (nine-year average).









Agricultural Support Services


Survey respondents reported that the Agricultural Input Corporation (AIC) provided little wheat
seed directly to the farmers of Rupandehi District. What little seed was available was often
damaged by heat, humidity, and insect pests. The AIC also sold fertilizer at highly subsidized
rates. Respondents said that the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) provided subsidized
loans for irrigation (tubewells and pumps) and biogas but, in contrast, few loans were made for
tractors. The local flour mill was reported to be underused and to have major storage pest
problems.

Land and Soil Types, and Land Use

Farmers use land type classes that correspond closely to technical classifications (APROSC
1986). Farmers' classification of land types, like the technical classifications, is based on
interrelated variations in soil, topography, and hydrology. Table 1 describes farmers' categories
for different land types and Table 2 lists farmers' soil classifications.



Table 1. Land types, local classifications, and land use, Rupandehi District, Nepal

Category, term Translation Comments


Traditional rice-fallow; poor drainage, heavier soils;
some lentil, linseed relayed into rice. Rice varieties
include Masuli, Basmati, Mansari, Kalanamak.


"Lower"
"Where fine-quality
rice is grown"
"Water all season"


Generally used term.
Term not used in all areas.

Hard to drain, plow.


Improved rice followed by wheat or a wheat and
mustard mixture. Lighter soils, better drainage.
Rice varieties include Sarju-49, Sabitri, Janaki,
Masuli, Sarju-52, Durga, BG400-1; wheat varieties
include RR-21, UP-262, NL-297, Siddharth, Kundan.


"Middle"
"Easy to drain, plow"
"Easy to drain, plow"
"Difficult to drain"


Generally used term.
Not used in all areas.
Not used in all areas.
Flat or enclosed fields.


Includes bunded levee lands, lighter soils, improved
rice followed by wheat, wheat and oilseed mixtures,
or winter vegetables. Also, houses, roads, orchards
found here. Rice varieties include Sarju-49, Durga,
CH45.

Generally used term.

Pigeon pea, groundnut, lighter soils, well drained.

Generally used term.


Khala
Jadahaniya

Itahawa


Middle terrace


Madhyam
Parsahawa
Osahaniya
Samtal


Upper terrace


Danda


Uplands


Danda


Lower terraces









Lower terraces
The lower terraces (locally, khala) are characterized by heavier soils and poor drainage and are
used commonly to grow long duration (usually photoperiod-sensitive) traditional rice cultivars,
as well as the indica/japonica improved (but taller) variety, Masuli. Khala land normally is
fallowed after rice. The lowest area (tal khala), which is flooded or wet all year, is planted to rice
and then fallowed. Lower terraces with better drainage are planted to rice-linseed and rice-lentil.
A few fields are also sown to rice-wheat. Lower terrace soils are sticky chimtilya.3

Middle terraces
Middle terraces (osahaniya, "where earlier maturing rice is grown") are characterized by lighter
soils and fewer drainage problems. Common cropping patterns on middle terraces include
medium duration traditional and improved rice varieties followed by wheat, wheat mixed with
mustard, or other winter crops.

Upper terraces
Upper terraces (danda land) are divided into fields where water supplies are relatively secure and
rice is transplanted, and fields that are more drought prone and usually seeded directly. Upper
terrace crops are rice-wheat + mustard and rice-wheat. Mixtures of rice (cv. Padhini), sunhemp,
pigeon pea (for seed), and millet (for fodder) were observed. Rice seedbeds for lower terraces are
located on upper terraces; seedbed plots are then followed by black gram, mustard, and
vegetables. Upper terrace soils are mixed domat and brown-sticky rehar.

Land that farmers classified as danda in the rice season includes land they identified as middle
terraces (osahaniya) in the wheat season. Danda also includes uplands, orchards (bagiya), and
seedbeds (biyad).


Table 2. Local soil categories (in Bhojpuri), Rupandehi District, Nepal

Term Translation Comments

Baluate Sandy General category
Bangari Sticky Difficult to plow
Chikati Sticky Difficult to plow
Chimat In between Clay-loam
Dhusi Sandy General category
Domat Two types Mixture
Doras Two types Mixture (from due/dwe, "two")
Khalo Black Clay-like
Matiyar Clay, heavy Most common for heavy soil
Mati/mato Soil General category, suffix
Miskat Mixed Mixture
Nagad (miti) "Cash (soil)" Fertile, better-drained khala
Pahenlo Yellow Clay-like
Pango Deposited by water Alluvial


3 Parenthetically, it is worth noting that the experiment station of the National Wheat Research Programme
(NWRP), near Bhairahawa, is located on khala land which, as noted above, is not normally used by farmers
for wheat production. Wheat grown on the station is affected by waterlogging problems more often than
wheat grown on farmers' fields. In the absence a of major investment in drainage infrastructure, much of the
program of wheat research, especially on crop management, might best be conducted on farmers' fields.








Diagnostic Survey Findings


Rice Crop Management

Land preparation and sowing/transplanting
The majority of farmers in the survey area transplant rice; a small proportion of farmers use
direct seeding methods. Some farmers employ the stale seedbed method (jotai) for rice. Most,
however, use the stale seedbed for rice nurseries only, while using the wet bed method (puddling)
for transplanted rice. When the stale seedbed method is used, land preparation spans 30-60 days.
Dry soil is plowed and planked. Weeds germinate and emerge after the arrival of rains (Figure 2),
and fields are again plowed. This process is repeated up to four times. Farmers prepare and sow
seedbeds from the end of May until the end of June.

Transplanting in irrigated areas is usually finished within 30-45 days after nursery sowing.
Farmers in rainfed areas do not transplant until after the rains have started. Late transplanting of
the varieties commonly used by farmers was reported to reduce rice yields.

If the rains are delayed, farmers may use one of two kinds of direct seeding: planting sprouted
seeds in puddled soils (if water is available), or dry seeding. Direct seeding, which is more
common in the upper than in the middle terraces, may also be practiced when labor shortages
delay transplanting. Farmers acknowledge that weed control is more of a problem with direct
seeding than with transplanting.

Considerable variation was observed in planting dates within small (rainfed) areas and appears to
result from competing demands for draft power and labor. Individual farmers plant several
varieties both traditional varieties (TVs) and modem varieties (MVs) with the result that
labor demands for planting and harvest are staggered. Farmers invest slightly more labor in
preparing direct-seeded upper terraces (Table 3) compared to transplanted fields.

The timing and sequence of rice establishment is influenced heavily by land type. In June, some
farmers direct seed shorter duration (90-110 days) TVs such as Sariya, Bajarbang, Padhini, and
Fambagari in June on the more drought-prone upper terraces. These are harvested from mid-
September to mid-October. Then, farmers transplant medium duration (115-125 days) MVs such
as Sarju-49 on upper terraces where water supplies are more secure. These fields are harvested
from late October to early November. Finally, farmers transplant medium duration MVs or
longer duration, better quality rice varieties (such as Kanakgira) on the lower terraces. Harvest of
these fields extends from mid-November to as late as mid-January. The most popular rice
varieties grown in the district are Sarju-49, Sabitri, and Masuli.

Although around 90% of the rice area in Rupandehi District is transplanted, it is of some interest
to examine direct seeding practices. About 75% of direct-seeded area is devoted to direct (wet)
seeding of pre-germinated seed (lewa). The remaining 25% is direct seeded under dry conditions
(farari). In the lewa system, seed is submerged for 24 h to encourage pre-germination and then
drained. If seed is pre-germinated and the rains cease, the seed is dried in the shade for one day,
dried in the sun for one day, and stored for up to one month. Seed is moistened prior to sowing.









The more drought-tolerant TVs are direct seeded, whereas improved varieties are not, because
they are less drought tolerant and take longer to mature.

Weed control
Weeds in transplanted rice are controlled through at least one hand weeding 30-40 days after
transplanting. Some farmers perform a second weeding 20-30 days after the first. Weed control
in wet, direct seeded rice is largely achieved through planking and plowing.4



Table 3. Rice production by major strategy," Rupandehi District, Nepal

Upper terrace Upper terrace Lower terrace
TV DSR MV TPR MV TPR

n 21 13 8
Farm size (ha) 2.0 1.9 1.9
Number of parcels 10 10 10
Interview parcel (ha) 0.3 0.6 0.5
Number of large animals 10 10 10
Percent use FYM as fertilizer 54 54 54
Seed (kg/ha) 123 93 77
20-20-0 fertilizer (kg/ha) 40 64 47
Urea (kg/ha) 24 52 35
FYM(t/ha) 4 2 1
Prepare seedbed (pd/ha)b 0 4 7
Prepare land (pd/ha) 45 31 41
Pull seedlings (pd/ha) 0 28 30
Seed or transplant (pd/ha) 1 46 46
Weed (pd/ha)c 45 26 24
Harvest (pd/ha) 39 34 38
Thresh (pd/ha) 20 21 20
Total labor (pd/ha) 150 190 206
Yield (t/ha) 1.8 2.0 1.8

Note: These data were obtained through non-random opportunity sampling covering 42 farmers in several
villages from a single day's interviewing. Resuls should be used with caution.

a Strategies were: a) direct seeding of traditional varieties (TV DSR) on upper terraces, b) transplanting of
modem varieties (MV TPR) in upper terraces, and c) transplanting of modem varieties (MV TPR) on lower
terraces. Nine farmers discussed other combinations: a) transplanting modern varieties on irrigated upper
terraces, b) transplanting modem varieties on irrigated lower terraces, c) transplanting traditional varieties on
upper terraces, and d) direct seeding traditional varieties on lower terraces.
b Person-days/ha based on 7 h/day.
c Includes labor reported for gathering weeds from fields for forage.




4 If the rains come early and there is standing water in the field at 20-25 days after seeding, the rice crop
(which features a 15-30 cm spacing between plants) is at that time shallowly plowed once and then
planked two to four times (a process called bidahani). If there is no standing water in the field at 20-25
days after sowing, farmers wait another 10-15 days for the rains to come and then plow once in dry
soil. The crop is later hand weeded (nirauni-gurauni). Somewhat more weeding is done in direct-
seeded rice (45 person-days/ha) than in transplanted rice (25 person-days/ha) fields.








Seed rates
Seed rates for direct-seeded rice were higher than for transplanted rice. Farmers used an average
of 123 kg/ha seed for upper terrace, direct-seeded TVs; 93 kg/ha for upper terrace, transplanted
MVs; and 77 kg/ha for lower terrace transplanted MVs. Farmers' reasons for direct seeding were
that it saves labor (150 days/ha versus 190-206 days/ha for transplanted rice), the crop matures
and is harvested earlier for food and fodder, and it requires less water. Farmers transplant on
plots where water supplies are assured. Direct seeding of rice is dropped where irrigation is
introduced.

Rice varieties
The characteristics desired by farmers in rice varieties were drought tolerance, high yield, and
medium height (for fodder). Although MVs yield more than TVs, they are much less drought
tolerant. Varieties with the most drought tolerance were the TVs Sariya, Bagari, Fambagari,
Bajarbang, Padhini, and Didai. The highest yielding rice varieties were Masuli, Sabitri, and
Janaki (Table 4). Some farmers prefer better quality, scented rice varieties such as Kanakgira
because of higher market prices.

Farmers change varieties on each plot after three to four years to avoid yield reductions (in part
because of pests). Some farmers reported obtaining greater wheat yields after TVs than after MVs
because MVs "suck more energy" (lassi) from the soil.

Soil fertility management
Soils are calcareous with a pH between 7.0 and 8.0, deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, and
below the critical level for boron. Zinc is limiting because of both low available zinc in the soil
and the moderately high pH (Table 5 and Neue 1989).


Table 4. Rice varieties, Rupandehi District, Nepal

Variety Duration Strategy'

Padhini 90-120 Upper terrace TV DSR; rainfed
Bajarbang 90-100 Upper terrace TV DSR and TPR; rainfed
Saraya 90-100 Upper terrace TV DSR; rainfed
Fambagari 90-100 Upper terrace TV DSR; rainfed
Derai 140-150 Lower terrace TV DSR; rainfed
Kalanamak 170 Lower terrace TV TPR; rainfed
Mansara 170 Lower terrace TV TPR; rainfed
Rambogh 170 Lower terrace TV TPR; rainfed

Sarju-49 110-125 Upper, lower terrace MV TPR; irrigated and rainfed

Japani 110 Upper and lower terrace MV TPR; rainfed
Masuli 150 Lower terrace MV TPR; irrigated and rainfed
Janaki 130-135 Upper terrace MV TPR; irrigated
Sabitri 120-130 Upper and lower terrace MV TRP; irrigated

a MV = modern variety; TV = traditional variety; DSR = direct-seeded rice; TPR = transplanted rice.









Farmers rely on a combination of farm yard manure (FYM) and chemical fertilizer to maintain
soil fertility and to maintain or improve crop yields. Rice and wheat fields rarely receive FYM
applications every year. When FYM is applied, farmers use an average of 4.0 t/ha FYM on upper
terrace, direct-seeded TVs, 2.0 t/ha for upper terrace transplanted MVs, and 1.0 t/ha on lower
terrace transplanted MVs. Individual application rates (and frequencies) were found to depend on
several factors. Farmers followed a set of overlapping "rules" in applying FYM: a) mostly on
vegetables, b) on rice seedbeds, c) on poorer lands, d) on danda land, and e) on rice-wheat fields,
alternating among some fields in a three to five year cycle. Experimental data show that FYM
increases total and available phosphorus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available boron
(Neue 1989).

Unfortunately for crop production, 25-90% of FYM is used as fuel. The FYM used for fertilizer
is collected only during the two to four months of the rainy season when fuel cakes cannot be
dried. A farmer reported that one cow or bullock provides fuel for one person for one year plus
one-third of the total FYM needed for fertilizer. A buffalo produces twice the quantity of manure
produced by a cow. Overall, amounts of FYM applied as fertilizer are decreasing because more
land is cultivated now than in the past; there is less open grazing land; there are fewer forest areas
for fodder and grazing; there are consequently fewer animals; and more FYM is needed for fuel
by more people. Farmers living closer to the few remaining forested areas use more FYM for
fertilizer and less for fuel (Figure 4). Some farmers reported declining rice productivity, possibly
owing to low and declining FYM use. Declining yields were also said to be characteristic of
fields with a longer history of intensified cropping.

Farmers apply inorganic fertilizers at rates of about 20 kg N/ha and 8 kg P20,/ha on upper terrace
direct-seeded TVs; 35 kg N/ha and 13 kg P2,O/ha on upper terrace transplanted MVs; and 26 kg
N/ha and 10 kg P20/ha on lower terrace transplanted MVs. Fertilizers are available at


Table 5. Soils after 30 crops of rice and wheat, Bhairahawa Agricultural Farm

ON, 0P, K FYM' N, P,Kb

pH (1:1 H20) 8.1 8.1 8.1
OC (%) 0.648 1.773 0.771
total N (%) 0.071 0.167 0.088
exch Na (meq/100g) 0.086 0.133 0.092
exch K (meq/100g) 0.069 0.079 0.060
exch Mg (meq/100g) 3.33 4.90 2.80
exch Ca (meq/100g) 19.8 18.2 15.2
CEC 7.12 12.50 7.50
total P (mg/kg) 168 403 248
total Fe (%) 2.01 1.94 2.07
total Mn (%) 153 153 135
total Cu (mg/kg) 10 9 10
Olsen P (mg/kg) nil 16 nil
avail Znc nil nil nil
avail B 0.53 1.73 0.68

Source: Adapted from Neue (1989).
a 10 t/ha farm yard manure applied to every crop every year.
b 100kg N, 30kg P0O,, and 30kg KO for rice and wheat.
c Not detectable with method used.








cooperatives and in town, although localized shortages may occur. Several farmers identified zinc
deficiency as a problem, with Sabitri said to be particularly sensitive. Good sources of zinc
fertilizer are not readily available.

Pests
Farmers identified ricebug, armyworm, and stemborer as insect pests of increasing severity, and
blight and blast as important diseases. Rats are a serious problem in the field and in storage
(particularly in stacked rice, before it is threshed). Rats are also responsible for damage to bunds
and irrigation infrastructure. Farmers reported using few control measures for insects, diseases, or
rats.

For the control of weeds in direct (especially dry) seeded rice, most farmers used high seed rates
(100-180 kg/ha) and cultivation with the local plow, together with hand weeding at 20-25 days
after emergence.

Soil and root samples collected by the nematologist on the team contained from 100 to 1,000
Hirschmanniella oryzae, the rice root nematode, individuals per liter of soil in all samples. This
parasitic nematode appears to be present throughout Rupandehi District. Farmers take no control
measures.

Harvest and post-harvest practices
Rice is hand harvested and usually stacked (i.e., threshing is postponed) to free farmers' labor for
wheat land preparation. Despite this practice, land preparation for wheat can still be delayed by a


Figure 4. Causes of declining use of farm yard manure (FYM) on rice, which in turn causes low and
declining rice yields for rainfed lowland rice production.


Problem:
low and
declining
rice yield








late rice harvest (or a need to further field-dry rice that is too wet to stack). Farmers report having
relatively few problems in stored rice seed compared to wheat seed, as rice seed is stored during
the cool, dry season.

Yields
Farmer-reported yields ranged from 0.7 to 3.2 t/ha, averaging 1.8 t/ha for upper terrace, direct-
seeded TVs and for lower terrace, transplanted MVs and 2.0 t/ha for upper terrace, transplanted
MVs.

Labor
Farmers reported labor shortages for crop establishment and harvest. Migration to urban areas
may exacerbate this problem, as do opportunities for wage labor in the rice season. Wage
employment on government construction projects is most available from June to September;
wages for transplanting rice in neighboring India are much higher than in Nepal.

Wheat Crop Management

Tillage
Farmers usually plow their wheats field around four times and plank twice; the first plowing
requires relatively more time than the others. The number of plowings is often increased when
soils are heavier. In rainfed areas where moisture is limiting, farmers may reduce tillage
operations or wait for the rains.

Full land preparation using the local plow (including at least four plowings) requires 35-45
bullock-pair-days per hectare (at Rs 50-70 per bullock-pair-day). When the newly available three-
tined cultivator is used (in lighter soils), land preparation time can be reduced to 25-30 bullock-
pair-days per hectare. Some farmers exchange labor and animals for plowing.

Turnaround time from rice harvest to wheat planting is around 15-35 days, mostly for plowing
and planking, given the usual circumstances of unfavorable soil moisture and soil physical
condition. Farmers' practices, described above, may result in over-tillage and have detrimental
effects on soil structure, especially compaction.

Tractor numbers are low, but increasing. Some large-scale farmers own tractors that small-scale
farmers can rent (140-150 Rs/h) when the tractors are available. Two passes (criss-cross) by a
tractor using a nine-tined cultivator take only 3 h/ha to complete. Using a tractor to prepare land
may be cheaper (and make turnaround time shorter) than using animal traction. Tractors are most
commonly used, however, for the first plowing only, and subsequent land preparation is done
using animal-traction equipment. Only a few larger scale farmers who own tractors use them for
all tillage and seed incorporation tasks.

Timing and method of planting, seed management, and plant stand
Most farmers broadcast seed into plowed soil and then cover the seed by plowing once again and
planking. Few farmers use line sowing and no farmers use seed drills. Seed rates vary from 120
to 180 kg/ha, with an average of around 150 kg/ha (compared to the recommended seed rate of
120 kg/ha).








Wheat seed is stored through the hot, wet season and often suffers from the effects of pests and
excess moisture. Farmers are reluctant to buy seed from the AIC because of the relatively high
cost (around Rs 8/kg) and variable, often low quality. (In any event, AIC has relatively little seed
available for direct purchase by farmers AIC stocks only enough seed to cover 5% of the
wheat area.) If farmers' own stored seed is badly damaged, replacement seed (usually of Indian
origin, and composed of a mixture of varieties) may be purchased from the market.

Visual observation of numerous fields suggested that only 15-20% of fields were planted during
the optimum period of mid- to late November. Around two-thirds of the fields were planted
somewhat late (during the first two weeks of December) and the remaining 20% after mid-
December. Plant stands were poor (fewer than 200 plants/m2) in about 20-25% of the fields; fair
in 60-65% of the fields; and good (more than 300 plants/m2) in the remaining 10% of the fields.
Poor stands apparently resulted from waterlogging, inadequate land preparation in heavier soils,
and, in some cases, poor seed.

Wheat varieties
The wheat varieties most commonly grown by farmers are RR-21 and UP-262. Several newly
released varieties such as Siddartha and Vinayak are gaining popularity. Given that wheat straw
is less important than rice straw for fodder, straw quality is less important as a criterion for
selecting a wheat variety.

Pests
Insect pests are a major problem affecting stored wheat seed but do not appear to be a problem
for the crop in the field. Rats are a field and storage problem, and farmers have few rat control
measures.

Helminthosporium blight is a major wheat disease in Rupandehi District. Studies on the
experiment station indicate potential losses of over 20%. In addition, experimental evidence
suggests that soil fungi and/or nematodes may be reducing yields. As mentioned earlier, the rice
root nematode Hirschmanniella (cf. oryzae) was present in all soil samples taken, but its effect
on wheat yields is not known.

Some weeds (especially broadleaf leguminous types) were observed in farmers' wheat fields, but
the effect of these weeds on wheat yields is unknown. Farmers cut and carry weeds for fodder as
needed from fields close to the house. Weeds remaining in the field at harvest are cut and mixed
with the straw for fodder. Some weeds (e.g., Phalaris minor and Circium arvense) seem to be
increasing and may become problems as land use intensifies.

Water management
Wheat is grown as an irrigated, partially irrigated, and rainfed crop. (The extent of irrigated,
partially irrigated, and rainfed areas is not precisely known, though the area of irrigated wheat is
clearly ir-reasing.) Partially irrigated wheat usually receives one irrigation from a pond, shallow
well, or similar water source. Irrigated wheat is irrigated two or three times, first within a month
of emergence and again at flowering. Some farmers pre-irrigate if soils are dry, at times even
before the rice harvest.








In the middle terraces (especially in fields with heavier soils) water may stand in the field for
longer than a day after an irrigation. This results in poor tillering, poor growth, and yellowed
plants. Waterlogged patches also occur in poorly leveled, uneven fields. The farmers' practice of
transferring water from one field to the next (a practice borrowed from rice cultivation) can also
contribute to waterlogging. These problems are exacerbated when farmers have access to
irrigation water for only a limited time; they feel compelled to get as much water as possible into
their fields during the short time allotted.

Soil fertility management
Many farmers use inorganic fertilizers on wheat. These farmers reported applying a compound
fertilizer (50-100 kg/ha of 20-20-0) at-planting and urea (30-75 kg/ha) as a topdress at the time of
the first irrigation. Total application of nutrients, then, is on the order of 25-50 kg/ha of nitrogen
and 10-20 kg/ha of phosphate. These doses are well below recommended levels, though higher
doses are used in irrigated areas. Few farmers apply potash.

As noted earlier, farmers reported using most of their FYM as fuel; the remainder is normally
reserved for rice nurseries and vegetable fields. Some farmers with access to more abundant
supplies of FYM occasionally apply small quantities on wheat fields near the homestead or on
fields where declines in productivity have been observed. No green manure crops were found.

Harvest and post-harvest practices
Wheat is harvested by hand. Both men and women participate in harvest activities. Whereas
small-scale farmers normally rely on family and exchange labor, farmers who have more land
hire labor or employ share tenants. Harvest and transport require 20-45 person-days/ha. Many
farmers reported that the onset of hot, dry western winds tended to curtail the crop season, often
affecting grain filling. Other farmers reported advancing the harvest (i.e., harvesting before the
crop is well dried in the field) to avoid damage from pre-monsoon storms. These two weather-
related problems seem inconsistent and are not yet well understood.

Threshing is largely done by bullock trampling, although the use of small power threshers is
increasing. A few of the larger scale farmers thresh by driving tractors over the wheat. Storage
losses caused by monsoon weather and insect pests were not measured but probably are
significant.

Mixed cropping
It was observed that farmers commonly mix mustard (Brassica spp.) with wheat, probably as
insurance in the event that the wheat crop performs poorly. Crop mixtures are more widespread
in rainfed and partially irrigated areas. Some farmers reported that they would shift to pure wheat
cropping if irrigation were assured. Farmers normally do not plant mustard alone, apparently
because of problems with aphids.

Farmers' opinions were mixed regarding the effect of the mustard on wheat yields. Some farmers
felt that mustard reduced wheat yields, whereas others disagreed. (This discrepancy is likely
related to the fact that the proportion of mustard in crop mixtures was quite variable.) Some
farmers grew a short season mustard that must be harvested prior to the wheat harvest. Rapeseed,








however, seems to be gaining in popularity (especially a new, taller Indian variety that matures at
the same time as wheat, thus allowing the simultaneous harvest of both crops). Mustard and
rapeseed may become increasingly attractive in the future as farmers gain access to improved
high-yielding lines from India.

System Interactions

A number of important interactions occur between the rice and wheat enterprises, and between
these enterprises and other activities related to the farming system.

Rice harvest date and wheat planting date
A major source of interactions between rice and wheat is the competition between these two
crops for farmers' land and labor resources during rice harvest and wheat sowing.

Experimental evidence suggests that mid- to late November is the optimum time for planting
wheat. Earlier and later dates result in reduced yields. Farmers seem more concerned about late
planting than early planting, however. They report aiming to prepare and sow wheat fields as
soon as possible after the rice harvest in October and November. Delays in harvesting rice can
cause delays in planting wheat.

During the first days of the wheat diagnostic survey, researchers hypothesized that delays in rice
harvesting might be caused by late rice transplanting, which in turn could be the result of late
nursery establishment and/or late arrival of the rains. Farmers, however, reported sowing rice
seedbeds in June (with irrigation if necessary) and avoiding the transplanting of older seedlings
(over 60 days old). When the rains are late, farmers direct seed up to 15% of upper and middle
terrace rice areas. Changes in farmers' rice planting practices, then, are unlikely to contribute to
more timely rice harvest and wheat planting.

Earlier maturing rice varieties can also lead to an earlier rice harvest, thus allowing more time for
land preparation for wheat. However, farmers on middle terraces (osahaniya) and upper terraces
(danda) are already using varieties of shorter maturity than those grown by farmers on lower
terraces. High yield is associated with longer maturity, so by selecting shorter duration rice
cultivars, farmers are sacrificing a certain amount of rice yield. It is important to evaluate this
compromise on a cropping systems basis.

Farmers are busiest (labor is most scarce) in November and December when rice is harvested and
wheat fields are prepared and sown. As mentioned earlier, farmers save some time by delaying
rice threshing until after the wheat is sown: they stack the rice for later threshing. Rice storage
losses to rats are a consequence (farmers estimated an 8-15% loss). Freshly harvested rice that is
excessively wet cannot be stacked immediately, however; first it must be dried in the field for 4-6
days.

These practices (timely rice transplanting, direct seeding of rice, delayed rice threshing) all aim
to reduce the competition for land and labor between rice and wheat. Some farmers (especially
resource-poor farmers) are nonetheless compelled to delay wheat sowing because of other factors.
An urgent need for food and cash forces some farmers to thresh part of their rice immediately








(prior to preparing wheat fields). Other farmers earn urgently required cash by working off of the
farm, preparing the wheat fields of other farmers before preparing their own.

Effect of paddy soils on wheat
The subsurface pan formed by the puddling of soils for rice cultivation, combined with farmers'
wheat land preparation methods (intensive but shallow tillage), seems to reduce wheat
production.

The subsurface pan apparently contributes to two separate problems related to moisture: it
restricts water percolation (and therefore contributes to waterlogging after irrigation), and it
reduces soil moisture-holding capacity (and therefore contributes to late season moisture stress).
The subsurface pan also restricts root growth to a narrow soil layer, contributing to the depletion
of plant nutrients in that layer. The practice of puddling destroys soil structure, which is difficult
to re-establish. Effects on wheat of soil chemical and physical changes resulting from alternating
flooded and dry conditions are not yet well understood.

The problems noted above are specific to soils on which puddled rice has been grown. Dry,
direct-seeded rice does not require puddling and seems to cause fewer problems for subsequent
upland crops such as wheat, although the problem of compaction caused by repeated shallow
tillage remains.

Food security for resource-poor farmers
Wheat production appears to play an important role in the food security of low-income farm
households. Rice from middle and upper terraces becomes available in October and traditional
rice from lower terraces in December. Wheat becomes available in March, when rice begins to
get scarce. Although rice is the main staple, wheat is widely consumed during the months
immediately after it is harvested. Food of all kinds becomes scarce from July through September,
especially for resource-poor farmers.

Apart from improving the timing of food flows, wheat also improves food security because the
crop can be a source of flexibility: some farmers reported being able to expand wheat area in
response to a poor rice harvest.

Interactions with other system activities
A number of complex interactions exist between rice and wheat on the one hand, and fuel,
fodder, and FYM on the other. Large ruminants bullocks, cattle, and carabao rely on rice
and wheat straw as major sources of fodder; these livestock provide FYM for fertilizer and fuel.
The amount of fodder available appears to limit herd size, however. Fuel demand is increasing
and, given lack of alternatives (i.e., depletion of fuel wood resources) more FYM is being used
for fuel and less for fertilizer.

Fodder
Rice straw is the major fodder source, and taller, long duration rice cultivars (grown on the lower
khala terraces) provide the most straw. Some farmers report having enough rice straw to last all
year, though many do not. Rice straw becomes available in October and begins to run out by
February or March. Fodder becomes increasingly scarce for many farmers by July.








Secondary fodder sources include wheat straw, grazing, and cut grasses and weeds. Seasonally
fallowed lower terraces provide pasturage for grazing after the rice harvest in November but are
depleted by about March. "Weeds" are taken from wheat (and other winter crop) fields in
January-February. Wheat straw (usually mixed with rice straw) is available between March and
July. Grasses, available during the July-October rainy season, are removed from bunds, paths,
terrace faces, and unplanted upland areas. Grasses and weeds are usually cut and mixed with rice
straw. Supplements (maize stalks, oilseed residue and cake, rice husks and bran, sugarcane tops,
cuttings from fodder trees) are also mixed with straw and fed as available, though these
supplements often are reserved for milch cows.

Farmers agree that fodder is particularly scarce from July through September. Many farmers feel
that fodder is increasingly scarce all year, though other farmers report observing little change.
The farmers who noted a worsening fodder situation also indicated that herd sizes (and thus FYM
supplies) are declining.

Fuel and FYM
Given the lack of accessible forest areas in Rupandehi District, firewood has lost much of its
importance as a source of fuel. Dried dung cakes are now used for most local fuel needs. These
dung cakes may account for up to 75% of the FYM produced by a farm household's animal herd.
The few remaining forest groves can be expected to suffer from additional pressure as fuel
resources are exploited by the increasing human population. Though most FYM is used as fuel,
some is still available for use as fertilizer (as mentioned above).

Some farmers report declining herd size, implying that total FYM in the system may be
decreasing. Many farm families say they are using more FYM for fuel, with corresponding
reductions in the amount available for fertilizer. Most of the dung produced during the roughly
four months of the wet season cannot be dried for fuel cakes; it is composted and subsequently
used on rice seedbeds and danda fields reserved for cash crops.


Problems, Causes, and Possible Solutions

A major objective of the diagnostic surveys was to develop hypotheses on problems affecting the
rice-wheat pattern. A "problem" in this context is defined to include: 1) factors that directly
reduce yields; 2) inefficient use of inputs, regardless of the effect on yields; 3) inefficient
cropping patterns or enterprise selection; and 4) factors affecting the sustainability of rice and
wheat productivity.

The first three classes of problem are near-term problems, and can be assessed within the time
frame of a crop cycle (a few months) or a cropping pattern (one year). These near-term problems
in rice and wheat and their corresponding causes are discussed in the sections that follow (see
Table 6 for a list of near-term problems in wheat production, and Table 7 for a scoring model that
gives a preliminary ranking of the relative importance of each one).

The last class of problem ("factors affecting the sustainability of rice and wheat productivity") is
long term in nature and will be discussed separately.









Table 6. Preliminary list of problems, rice-wheat cropping pattern, Rupandehi District, Nepal

Near-term problems

Rice and wheat
Drought

Wheat
Late planting
Early season waterlogging
Inadequate plant stand
Nutrient deficiencies (especially N and P)
Farmers' wheat varieties are less productive than alternatives

Rice
Pests (stemborer, planthoppers) and diseases (blast)
Midseason moisture stress
Nutrient deficiencies (especially N, P, and Zn)
Weed competition (direct-seeded rice)

Longer term problems
Wheat and rice
Nutrient deficiencies will increasingly limit the yields of both wheat and rice
Pests and diseases will increasingly limit the yields of both rice and wheat


Table 7. Scoring model: ranking" of near-term problems in the rice-wheat cropping pattern,
Rupandehi District, Nepal (preliminary, tentative scores)

Yield Number of
Crop/problem loss Frequency farmers affected Priority

Wheat
Late planting X XX XX 1
Early season waterlogging
(irrigated middle terraces with heavier soils) XX XX X 2
Inadequate plant stand XX XX X 2
Late season moisture stress (not every season)b XX X X 2

Nutrient deficiencies X XX XX 1
Variety X X X 3

Rice
Pests/diseases XX XX XX 1
Nutrient deficiencies XX XX XX 1

Midseason moisture stress
(rainfed areas, upper terraces, with lighter soils) X X X 3
Weed competition (direct-seeded rice) XX X 0 3

a XX = important (problem results in large yield losses, occurs very frequently, affects many farmers); X =
somewhat important (problem results in moderate yield losses, does not occur very frequently, affects some
farmers but not all); 0 = not important (problem results in small yield losses, occurs infrequently, and affects
few farmers).
b Problems are probably interrelated.








Near-term Issues


Drought in rice and wheat
In rice, drought is brought on by the uncertain start of rains at sowing and transplanting, and by
prolonged dry periods in the rice reproductive stage. Farmers expected reduced rice production in
1989 because lower terrace (khala) MVs had suffered from a one-month drought during
flowering. Farmers cope with drought largely by selecting tolerant TVs for direct seeding on
upper terraces.

Farmers already direct seed upper paddies using traditional, drought-tolerant and medium-
statured rice cultivars to get an early grain and straw harvest even if midseason drought occurs.
Selection of improved varieties needs to emphasize higher yields and yet maintain straw yields,
targeting the same landscape position and timing of droughts. Selection of varieties for the
drought prone, rainfed lowland rice system is also of high priority. A new phenotype may be
needed for direct seeding if farmers are to adopt this new system of growing rice a variety that
roots better, is taller, and is more competitive with weeds. The following research is suggested:

* Monitor soil moisture at different crop stages and further survey farmers about when (i.e., at
which stage of crop development) drought is a problem.

Screen for drought-tolerant direct-seeded danda cultivars, especially for late season drought
tolerance from panicle initiation to flowering.

Test whether using FYM leads to better soil moisture conservation.

Determine if and how water use efficiency can be improved, especially to increase the area of
rice that can receive a yield saving irrigation.

In wheat, moisture stress late in the cropping season reduces wheat yields. This problem occurs
on all land/soil types on which wheat is produced. The average productivity loss and the
probability of occurrence, however, are not well known at this time. Four major causes of late
season moisture stress were tentatively identified: 1) late planting; 2) hot, dry winds in March or
April that curtail grain filling; 3) avoidance of late season irrigation (given that it tends to
exacerbate lodging problems associated with the strong March winds noted above); and
4) reduced soil moisture availability because of the subsurface pan, which also restricts rooting to
the upper soil layers. (Figure 5).

The following possible solutions to the problem of late season moisture stress in wheat were
discussed:

* Shorter duration wheat varieties or varieties with heat tolerance during grain filling.

* Lodging resistant varieties plus late season irrigation (for those farmers who have access to
water in the dry season).

* Planting wheat earlier.



























Figure 5. Late season moisture stress on wheat: problems and causes.



* Occasional deep tillage or other practices to improve the capacity of soils to store moisture
and extend the rooting zone to deeper layers.

Problems in rice

#1: Pests/diseases reduce rice yields
The near-term problem of pests (stemborer, planthoppers, nematodes) and diseases (for example,
blast) in rice is closely related to the longer term problem of pest and disease buildup. To avoid
repetition, we will discuss both near- and longer term issues related to this problem in the section
below on "Sustainability Issues in the Longer Term."

#2: Midseason moisture stress reduces rice yields
The problem of midseason moisture stress for rice is found in rainfed areas and in areas with
unreliable irrigation. It is especially prevalent in the upper terraces on lighter soils. The narrow
effective root zones left by the plow pan cause soils to dry quickly when water is not available.
As yet, there is little information on average losses attributable to this problem, or to the
frequency and incidence of occurrence.

Possible solutions to the problem include rainfed lowland rice cultivars with some tolerance to
midseason moisture stress and techniques to improve soil moisture-holding capacity (discussed
above).

#3: Nutrient deficiencies limit rice yields
Nutrient deficiencies (especially of nitrogen and phosphorus) are suspected to reduce the yields
of rice (and wheat). To avoid repetition, this problem will be discussed below with other longer
term problems.








#4: Weed competition reduces yields of direct-seeded rice
Farmers' rice cultivars (both local and improved) were selected for transplanting into puddled
anaerobic soil conditions. Under upland aerobic conditions these varieties are less competitive
with wet season weeds. Poor water control on puddled soils leads to more weed competition in
direct-seeded than in transplanted rice.

It seems unlikely that this is a major problem in the study area at present, as less than 20% of
farmers' rice area is direct seeded. However, if direct seeding is seen as a major strategy for
solving problems in wheat (e.g., late planting and waterlogging), then research to solve this
problem is likely to be needed.

Possible solutions for the problem of weed competition in direct-seeded rice include:

* Rice cultivars that compete well with weeds and are suitable for wet and dry direct seeding.

* Chemical weed control.

* New implements for controlling weeds in direct-seeded rice, such as horizontal-blade sweeps
and chain spike harrows.

Problems in wheat

#1: Late planting reduces wheat yields
Late wheat planting appears to be a problem in all land/soil types in which wheat is grown, but is
especially important in the middle terraces. As noted earlier, visual observation of numerous
fields has suggested that only 15-20% of fields were planted during the optimum period of mid-
to late November. Around two-thirds of the fields were planted somewhat late (during the first
.two weeks of December) and the remaining 20% after mid-December. Late planting appears to
have a number of causes, summarized below and depicted in Figure 6.

Late rice harvest
A late rice harvest (assuming constant turnaround time) can delay the sowing of wheat. Most
farmers use improved medium duration rice cultivars on middle terraces, although earlier
maturing cultivars are available (and are used, in fact, on the upper terraces). However, lower
yields are observed with shorter duration rice cultivars.

A late rice harvest can also result from a late transplanting. Where irrigation is inadequate, late
monsoons may delay transplanting and harvest of non-photosensitive cultivars. The effects of
late transplanting can be compounded if older seedlings are used (since tillers have to go through
growth stages already passed by the seedling). As noted earlier, however, some farmers avoid
these problems by direct seeding of early maturing varieties, especially in rainfed upper terraces,
when monsoons arrive late.








Excessive turnaround time
Regardless of the rice harvest date, there is reason to believe that the turnaround time between
rice harvest and wheat sowing (sometimes extending to over one month) is excessively long and
might possibly be reduced. Reasons for the long turnaround time include field condition,
farmers' tillage practices, and competition for farmers' labor.

Fields may be either too wet or too dry for land preparation. Farmers who have access to
irrigation usually pre-irrigate and must wait for the field to dry before beginning tillage
operations. In contrast, farmers who do not have access to irrigation may find fields too hard and
dry for tillage (especially if September-October rainfall is low) and are compelled to wait until a
light rain softens the soil. When plowing begins late because the condition of the field is
unfavorable, however, some farmers report reducing the number of tillage operations.


Figure 6. Late wheat planting: problems and causes.








Competition for farmers' labor can also'extend turnaround time. Field drying of moist, recently
harvested rice can delay tillage operations by four to six days. Some resource-poor farmers delay
plowing because of an urgent need for cash to purchase food; they obtain this cash by threshing
rice or engaging in off-farm employment. Overall, however, the diversion of labor towards rice
harvesting, stacking, and threshing; for planting other winter crops; or for off-farm employment
does not appear to delay wheat planting significantly for most farmers.

An extended turnaround time is also the result of a combination of circumstances. The farmers'
wooden plow, the number of tillage operations required to obtain desirable tilth, the soil structure
remaining after puddled rice, and poor animal health all contribute to a long "normal" turnaround
time.

Possible solutions for late planting
Possible solutions for late wheat planting, given the causes described above, might include:

* Improved animal-drawn implements that allow reduced tillage or zero tillage (e.g., cultivators
using tines or horizontal sweeps, or specialized equipment for zero tillage).

* Expanded mechanization (tractor use).

* Improvements in animal health, to allow faster preparation of larger areas.

* Flexible wheat varieties that perform well whether planted late or on time.

* Installation and/or improved use of supplementary irrigation, and drainage, to improve field
condition.

* Use of modern rice cultivars that mature earlier.

* More widespread use of direct seeding for rice (possibly featuring drum row-seeders for pre-
germinated rice, or animal-drawn seed drills).

#2: Early season waterlogging reduces wheat yields
This problem is most important in irrigated middle terraces with heavier soils. However, there is
little information on the extent of this problem (the proportion of the rice-wheat area affected) or
the average productivity loss.

The waterlogging problem appears to have two interrelated causes: first, the subsurface pan left
in the soil by puddled rice culture (and related problems with soil structure), and second, farmers'
irrigation practices (and related problems with irrigation and drainage infrastructure and water
control) (Figure 7).








The poor water control structures of most irrigation systems compel farmers to irrigate their
wheat as if it were rice, by moving water from field to field. When soils are heavy and when a
plow pan is left over from the previous rice crop, the normal result is water standing in the field,
often for more than 24 hours. This can directly reduce wheat yields, as well as affect plant stands.

Possible solutions for waterlogging
Possible solutions to this problem include:

* Improved water management practices, such as better timing of irrigation for rice and wheat,
secondary and tertiary canals to improve distribution, and drainage systems.

* Occasional deep tillage to break the subsurface pan (a chisel-type plow would provide a
deeper cut through or into the plow pan). However, this may create problems of water
retention for the next rice crop and needs to be evaluated within the annual cycle.

Direct seeding of rice in non-puddled soil to avoid creating the subsurface plow pan and the
breaking down of soil aggregates (though this is likely to require complementary research on
weed control for direct-seeded rice and on the effect of breaking the plow pan on the
subsequent rice crop).


Figure 7. Waterlogging of wheat: problems and causes.
Figure 7. Waterlogging of wheat: problems and causes.







#3: Inadequate plant stands reduce wheat yields
After inspecting numerous wheat fields during the diagnostic survey, researchers found that plant
stands were usually poor to fair. Around one-fourth of the fields observed had poor stands (less
than 200 plants/m2). Over half of the fields had only fair stands (between 200 and 300 plants/m2).
The plant stand problem was especially acute on rainfed middle terraces with heavier soils. A
number of causes were identified for poor stands (Figure 8).

Poor tilth, combined with broadcast seeding
Poor tilth (numerous large clods in the soil) is the result of a compromise between farmers'
understandable desire to plant wheat early and the various causes of late planting discussed
above. If rice is harvested late, if farmers need to work temporarily off of the farm to earn cash,
or if the soil is too hard to till, then farmers may have to sow wheat before desirable tilth is
achieved.

When farmers use broadcast seeding under conditions of poor tilth, the resulting stands are
unlikely to be even, as some seed is either left on the soil surface and does not germinate, is
covered up by large clods and cannot emerge, or is buried too deeply to emerge.


Figure 8. Poor wheat plant stand: problems and causes.








Poor seed quality
Pests, heat, and moisture can damage seed stored by farmers, causing low germination and low
plant vigor. High quality seed is not available from AIC in any significant quantity. Seed
purchased in the market (usually of Indian origin) normally contains a mixture of varieties with
unknown germination rates. These factors undoubtedly explain farmers' preference for relatively
high seed rates (around 150 kg/ha), regardless of where they obtain their wheat seed.

Waterlogging
Another cause of poor plant stand, observed especially on irrigated fields with relatively heavy
soils, is waterlogging. The causes of waterlogging were discussed earlier (see problem #2, above).

Possible solutions for inadequate plant stand
Possible solutions for inadequate plant stand, given the causes noted above, might include:

* Improved tillage practices or implements to produce better soil tilth (with the additional
objective of reducing turnaround time between rice harvest and wheat sowing). (See the
possible solutions for problem #1.)

Line sowing, possibly by means of new animal-drawn equipment.

Improved methods for farm-level wheat seed storage, or improved availability of high-quality
seed.

Techniques to reduce problems with waterlogging (including changes in irrigation or drainage
infrastructure, improved tillage to break the plow pan, and direct seeding of rice to avoid
creating a plow pan) (see problem #2).

Higher seed rates (apparently one way in which farmers compensate for expected low plant
stands).

#4: Nutrient deficiencies restrict wheat yields
Nutrient deficiencies (especially of nitrogen and phosphorus) are suspected to reduce the yields of
wheat and also rice. To avoid repetition, nutrient deficiency in both crops is discussed below.

#5: Farmers' wheat varieties are less productive than alternative varieties
Most farmers currently grow one of two varieties: RR-21 or UP-262. Several newly released
varieties, including Siddartha and Vinayak, are only slowly beginning to be used by farmers. There
seem to be two, interrelated causes for the slow adoption of newly released varieties:

It is difficult for farmers to obtain seed of new varieties.

Many farmers report not being well acquainted with the new varieties (understandably, given
the difficulty they have in getting seed).

Given these causes, possible solutions seem fairly clear: improved seed multiplication-distribution
systems, combined with more active extension both of which are easier said than done,
however.








Sustainability Issues in the Longer Term


The diagnostic surveys aimed to help identify and define problems relating to the longer term
sustainability of rice and wheat productivity. Compared to the near-term issues that have just
been described, less progress was made in defining these longer term issues. It is not yet
completely clear that any serious long-term issues exist. Considerably more diagnostic work is
needed to estimate productivity trends, the relative importance of different problems in
explaining declining productivity, the frequency and incidence of the different longer term
problems, and the causes of each one.

Some of the longer term sustainability issues for which hypotheses were developed during the
diagnostic survey are described below and summarized in Table 6. Note that most of these longer
term problems also have near-term effects.

Nutrient deficiencies
Long-term soil fertility experiments conducted at the Bhairahawa Agricultural Farm in
Rupandehi District confirm that nutrient deficiencies will increasingly limit rice and wheat
yields.5 Data suggest that phosphorus deficiency becomes limiting within two to three years if
this nutrient is not applied, and yields of rice and wheat in this exhaustive system will decline to
zero after six years of non-application. Symptoms of potash deficiency started to appear after 12
years of the experiment. Soil analysis results (Neue 1989) indicate that zinc and boron are two
minor elements that are available at below critical levels in this experiment. The early rice crop
was more susceptible to nutrient mining than the normal second rice crop, and wheat was the
least affected crop. Data from this experiment also indicate that yields of rice and wheat decline
even when recommended quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are applied to every
crop, every year. The data from this experiment are highly variable and the latter conclusion
needs to be confirmed after a more thorough statistical analysis. These data also need
confirmation on farmers' fields. Interestingly, in the plot that received 10 t/ha of FYM,
every crop had the best growth, although deficient in nitrogen.

Field observations during the diagnostic survey suggested that nutrient deficiencies (nitrogen,
phosphate, possibly others) are already restricting wheat yields, especially on lighter soils in the
upper terraces. This is not surprising, given farmers' soil fertility management practices.
Researchers hypothesized that preceding rice crops are probably subjected to similar nutrient
stresses. Further diagnostic work is needed, however, to clarify the relative importance of
different nutrients and identify interactions among nutrients.





5 Results from this experiment should be used with caution. The trial is unrepresentative of farmers'
circumstances in at least three ways: 1) it is conducted on poorly drained, heavy khala land, whereas
farmers rarely cultivate rice-wheat on that kind of land; 2) the experiment features rice-rice-wheat
triple cropping, whereas farmers typically single crop (rice in lower khala) or double crop (rice-wheat,
etc., in upper khala, medium lands, and danda); and 3) except for specific treatment blocks, no FYM is
applied to the experiment, whereas many farmers apply limited amounts of FYM, albeit quite
infrequently.








This problem of nutrient deficiencies seems likely to get worse over time. Those farmers with
longer experience with intensified cropping patterns (rice-wheat instead of rice-fallow) indicated
that yields of both rice and wheat are lower now than when intensified cropping began. (In
contrast, those farmers just now beginning to intensify their cropping patterns reported that yields
are increasing.) Hypothesized causes of nutrient deficiencies are listed below and diagrammed in
Figure 9. Note that many of these causes are likely to have cumulative effects over time:

The rice-wheat cropping pattern tends to exhaust soil nutrients, compared to the earlier
cropping pattern of rice-fallow. As more fields are shifted to this pattern, nutrient deficiencies
are likely to become more common.


Figure 9. Soil fertility problems and causes.








* The subsurface pan (left by puddled rice culture) restricts the rooting zone of wheat as well as
rice, and thus upper soil layers are mined of plant nutrients. Roots are restricted to the upper
layers and cannot tap reserves below the plow pan.

Farmers apply only low levels of inorganic fertilizer to both crops.

As FYM supplies decline, and as FYM is increasingly used for fuel, farmers are reducing to
negligible levels the application of FYM to rice and wheat; many rice and wheat fields
receive no FYM at all.

Crop residues and weeds are fed to livestock rather than incorporated into the soil.

Alkaline soil, associated zinc and boron deficiencies (especially on khala land).

These soils are low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter and have a high pH; phosphorus
can be limiting and fixed if CaCO3 is high. Farmers identified zinc deficiency symptoms as rati
khaira ("red browning") on rice. Use of urea only by some farmers may worsen the problem.

Research agenda on nutrient deficiencies
Although there appear to be no simple solutions to the nutrient deficiency problems, researchers
might consider the following themes:

Realistic and profitable doses (and forms of application) of inorganic fertilizer, possibly
including micronutrients (e.g., zinc for rice).

Test zinc fertility using seed treatments, seedling dips, seedbed treatments, plot treatments,
and foliar applications.

* Screen for a rice variety somewhat tolerant of Zn deficiency.

* Test ways to raise the efficiency of FYM use (e.g., management, storage, application timing,
combining with inorganic fertilizers, and more fuel-efficient stoves).

* Screen and test green manures in khala lands after rice.

* Determine whether the inclusion of a legume or green manure before or after rice is beneficial
(including effects on nematodes).

* Development of alternative sources of fodder, to allow an increase in animal herd size,
increased production of FYM, and the incorporation of more FYM and crop residues back
into the soil [e.g., fitting multipurpose (grain-fodder-green manure) legumes into the system].

* Development of alternative fuel sources, to enable farmers to use FYM as fertilizer instead of
fuel (e.g., agroforestry research to test alternative tree species as sources of fuel and fodder,
etc.).








*Study ways of reversing the soil physical degradation apparent in the rice-wheat systems so
that rooting depth can be increased to improve nutrient and water availability. Study deep
tillage and its effect on rooting.

A suitable research agenda will likely make use of various sources of information, including
monitoring of farmers' fields, conventional researcher-managed and farmer-managed adaptive
research trials, long-term trials, and more exhaustive analysis of past and present data sets
(including available evidence from trials on farmers' fields and at the experiment station). In
addition, specialized kinds of economic analysis are likely to be needed, including an assessment
of input delivery systems and how they may be improved, and an analysis of how policies in
both Nepal and India affect prices and availability of fertilizer.

Pests
There is evidence (some of it obtained from secondary data and the results of earlier experiments)
that a number of pests and diseases reduce rice and wheat yields in the study area.

Rice
Several pests contribute to low rice yields. Bacterial leaf blight (sete khaira = "white browning"),
exacerbated by the lack of durable resistance in rice cultivars, was observed as a serious problem
in many fields. Although farmers have a concept of sickness (rog) that they apply to plants, they
found it difficult to distinguish among symptoms of disease, insect damage, and soil deficiency.
Farmers described sete khaira symptoms as a drying and discoloration from the tip to the base of
leaf and from the top to the bottom of plant. Some botanicals are used to treat bacterial leaf
blight. One farmer stated that a bactericide was necessary to treat sete khaira.

Farmers discussed or pointed out several insect pests, including insects that cut, eat, or chew rice
plants casewormm, leafminer, or hispa); dark-headed and pink stemborers that cause deadhearts
(gawaro); and ricebug (ganaira, patero, or gundi). Paddy crab damage (ukapa) and problems
with termites (dimak) were also reported by a few farmers.

Nematodes were identified as a possible problem during the wheat survey. Hirschmaniella sp. is
associated with rice roots but its effect on rice yields should be quantified further.

Recommended research on rice pest problems includes:

* Bacterial leaf blight: test soaking rice seed with bactericide, test deep plowing to turn under
rice stubble/straw; and screen for durable resistance. Look at the effect of reduced tillage
systems on bacterial leaf blight.

Ricebug: determine yield losses and economic thresholds.

Nematodes: determine the magnitude of the problem.








Wheat
The major wheat disease in the district appears to be Helminthosporium sativum leaf blight.
Although the wheat survey was conducted too early in the crop cycle for us to observe this
disease directly in the field, wheat pathologists familiar with the area are concerned about the
incidence, frequency, and severity of the disease. Additional research to assess these factors
might be warranted.

Recommended research on wheat pest problems includes:

* Helminthosporium sativum leaf blight: look at the effect of reduced tillage on the incidence of
this disease. Develop blight-resistant wheat varieties.

Pest problems affecting both rice and wheat
Rats are a more severe problem for wheat than for rice. Rats damage water control structures, are
a problem in the field, and consume both unthreshed stacked and stored grain. Farmers dig up
burrows and kill rats. They also seal rice seed in pots (dehri) or bins (kuthi, kuthala, and
kutmadi). Wheat seed is stored in bags covered by wheat straw (busa). Poison bait is used in
fields and for stored grain.

Farmers view weeds in rice and wheat as a pest but also as a source of fodder. Harvesting of
selected grasses (by women and children) for fodder continues throughout the rice and wheat
growing seasons. Good land preparation and use of the stale-seedbed method reduce weeds in
rice. Hand weeding starts at 30 days after planting (most farmers hand weed their rice fields at
least once). Most direct-seeded rice fields are plowed and planked at 30 days after planting to
reduce weeds.

Although farmers' weed control strategies are relatively effective, they lack methods to control
other pests. Integrated pest management strategies would be appropriate, and would need to start
with determining the extent of losses caused by the different pests.

Continued interdisciplinary and inter-institutional teamwork by the diagnostic survey participants
in the design and conduct of future experiment station and on-farm research will be essential to
success.

The incidence, frequency, and yield loss associated with each of these pest problems is not yet
well understood. There is widespread concern, however, that these problems may increase in
severity with the passing of time. This is simply because the rice-wheat pattern (which is
relatively new to the study area, and still expanding) is more likely to allow a buildup of pests
and diseases than the earlier rice-fallow pattern. These issues need better definition and
assessment through monitoring and surveys. Research is needed to determine which pests and
diseases (if any) are increasing in severity or frequency.

Other recommended research on pest problems affecting the rice-wheat system includes:

* Rats: represent a research gap, but engineering solutions to this problem may exist.








* Weeds: look for ways to reduce weed seed in FYM; test weed-competitive rice plant types,
hand weeders, herbicides, direct seeding of rice in rows on upper terraces.


Other longer term issues
There was considerable discussion about other kinds of issues affecting the sustainability of the
rice-wheat pattern, such as whether or not farmers were likely to replace the rice-wheat pattern
with other cropping patterns, in response to expected changes in price signals. In the end it was
decided that these were not so much problems as opportunities for farmers. Opportunities to
adjust cropping patterns should not be grouped together with problems affecting the quality of
the resource base (which might in the future confront farmers choosing to continue with the rice-
wheat pattern).

Among the secondary factors, labor shortages during the rice season could be addressed by the
development of labor saving technologies (for example, mechanical transplanters, herbicides,
animal-drawn row-sowing implements, and mechanical weeders). Research on ways to improve
access to agricultural inputs, credit, and appropriate extension would be a first step towards
addressing the lack of institutional support. Efforts to develop income earning alternatives (such
as the Rural Youth Programme) can support kitchen gardens, the home production of baskets,
poultry production, jute rope, and beekeeping.


Projected Future Activities

One goal of the larger rice-wheat collaborative research program is institutional strengthening of
national agricultural research agencies. This strengthening may take the form of formal training
and informal collaboration in field research. Activities directed at strengthening national
programs might touch on a number of themes, including systems and sustainability perspectives,
farmer-participatory research skills, and disciplinary and commodity program integration.
Training in the use of diagnostic and on-farm experimental tools may also be useful, including
tools to investigate and measure sustainability.

Based on the knowledge gained from the diagnostic surveys and given the limitations of such
studies, a national planning workshop may be appropriate as the next step in developing a
collaborative research program. Goals of the workshop might include:

* Refine the ranking of problems identified in the diagnostic surveys.

* Identify needs for further diagnostic work.

* Identify possible solutions to major problems in more detail.

Screen and prioritize potential solutions.

Identify national institutions and their respective contributions.








* Define more clearly the role of IRRI and CIMMYT.


* Specify plans for research to be conducted in 1989-90.

Another expected future activity is participation in an international planning workshop (on rice-
wheat research in Asia), tentatively planned to be held at IRRI later in 1989. Goals of this
workshop include:

* Share information on existing rice-wheat situation in the different participating countries.

* Develop an overall set of goals, objectives, purposes, outputs, schedules of activities, and
resource requirements.

Identify specific roles in the overall rice-wheat research program for the different NARS and
for IRRI and CIMMYT.

Identify new sources of funding to help expand this kind of integrative research and provide
stronger links within and between countries for better communication of ideas and results.



REFERENCES

APROSC. 1986. Semi-detailed Soil Survey: Report for the Bhairahawa Lumbini Groundwater Project.
Kathmandu: Agricultural Projects Services Centre.

Byerlee, D., P.W. Heisey, and P.R. Hobbs. 1989. Diagnosing research priorities for small farmers:
Experiences from on-farm research in Pakistan. Quarterly Journal oflnternationalAgriculture 28(3/
4): 254-265.

Flinn, J., and S. Fujisaka. 1989. Priorities for socio-economics in rice-wheat systems research.
Background paper for a meeting on Raising and Sustaining Productivity and Profitability of Rice-
Wheat Systems of South Asia, 4-6 December, Bangkok, Thailand.

Flinn, J., and B. Khokhar. 186. Rice-wheat in Upper Sind, Pakistan. Draft paper. Los Baiios, Philippines:
International Rice Research Institute.

1987. Temporal determinants of the productivity of rice-wheat cropping systems. Draft paper.
Los Bafios Philippines: International Rice Research Institue.

Hobbs, P.R., C.E. Mann, and L. Butler. 1987. A perspective on research needs for the rice-wheat rotation.
In A. Klatt (ed.), Wheat Production Constraints in Tropical Environments. Mexico, D.F.: United
Nations Development Programme and CIMMYT. Pp. 197-211.

Huke, R., and E. Huke. 1993. Rice/Wheat Atlas of South Asia. Los Bafios, Philippines: International Rice
Research Institute, CIMMYT, and National Agricultural Research System. Draft.

Neue, H.U. 1989. Bhairahawa soils analysis. Mimeo.









Appendix 1


Participants in Diagnostic Surveys, Rupandehi District, Nepal, 1989

In wheat In rice
survey survey
Participant Affiliation" (Feb. 1989) (Sep. 1989)


Adhikary, C.
Bhatta, M.R.
Bimb, H.P.
Bohara, K.
Fujisaka, S.
Ghimire, B.D.
Giri, G.S.
Harrington, L.W.
Hobbs, P.R.
Jyoti, J.L.
Khatiwada, S.P.
Lightfoot, C.
Litsinger, J.
Mishra, D.N.
Moridis, G.
Paudel, M.N.
Pokhrel, T.P.
Prot, J.C.
Quick, G.
Sah, B.P.
Sah, G.
Shah, S.K.
Sharma, B.
Shresta, S.K.
Shrestha, S.P.
Singh, S.P.
Yadov, B.P.


Farming Systems, NARC
NWRP
NWRP
NWRP
IRRI
Lumbini Groundwater Project
NWRP
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
NRIP, Parwanipur
NRIP, Parwanipur
IRRI
IRRI
ADP Janakpur/Naktajhij
IRRI
NRIP, Parwanipur
NWRP
IRRI
IRRI
NWRP
NWRP
Socioeconomics, NARC
Socioeconomics, NARC
NWRP
Farming Systems, NARC
NRIP, Parwanipur
Agricultural Development Office,
Rupandehi District


a NARC = Nepal Agricultural Research Centre; NWRP = National Wheat Research Programme; IRRI =
International Rice Research Institute; CIMMYT = International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;
NRIP = National Rice Improvement Programme, and ADP = Agricultural Development Programme
Extension.




































































Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641. 06600 Mexico. D.F. Mexico




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