Citation
CIMMYT review

Material Information

Title:
CIMMYT review
Alternate title:
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo review
Creator:
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Place of Publication:
Mexico
Publisher:
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo.
Creation Date:
1981
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

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Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Issuing Body:
Vols. for <1974-> issued by the center under its Spanish name: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo.

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
02171783 ( OCLC )
75645900 ( LCCN )
0304-5463 ( ISSN )

Full Text
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CIMMYT REVIEW 1981
CENTRO INTERNATIONAL DE MEJORAMIENTO DE MAIZ Y TRIGO 1981 Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, M6xico 6, D.F. M6xico







contents
4 TIrustees
5 Staff
9 Director General's Overview
MAIZE
12 Introduction to Maize Program
13 Maize Summary
15 Germplasm Development
19 Population Improvement
27 Nutritional Quality improvement
30 Special Research Activities in Mexico
33 Wide Crosses
35 Maize Training
37 Maize Cooperative Projects Outside Mexico
WHEAT
44 Introduction to Wheat Program
45 Wheat Summary
47 Bread Wheat
53 Durum Wheat
56 Triticale
60 Bar-ley
62 Special Germplasm Development
64 Wide Crosses
67 Milling and Baking Laboratory
67 Pathology
68 Agronomy
70 International Testing
73 Wheat Training
75 Wheat Cooperative Projects Outside Mexico
ECONOMICS
82 Introduction to Economics Program
83 Procedures
84 Training
86 Regional Programs
SUPPORTING SERVICES 90 Experiment Stations
91 Laboratory Services
93 Data Processing Services
94 Information Services
97 FINANCIAL STATEMENT
3




trustees (as of March 15, 1981)
FRANCISCO MERINO RABAGO ROBERT D. HAVENER
President, CIMMYT Asamblea Director General
Secretary of Agriculture and Water Resources CIMMYT Mexico USA
VIRGILIO BARCO HUSSEIN IDRIS
Chairman, Board of Trustees Technical Cooperation among
Colombia Developing Countries, UNDP
Sudan
EDUARDO ALVAREZ-LUNA W. A. C. MATHIESON
Vice-Chairman, Board of Trustees Consultant
Director General United Kingdom
National Institute of Agricultural Research Mexico KAN-ICHI MURAKAMI
Professor of Agriculture
ENRIQUE AMPUERO P. University of Tsukuba
Inter-American Development Bank Japan
Ecuador
W. GERHARD POLLMER
Professor of Plant Breeding
GUY CAMUS University of Hohenheim
Director Germany
Organization de Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer O. M. SOLANDT
France Consultant
Canada
J. D. DRILON, JR.
Director, Southeast Asian Center for Graduate H.K. JAIN
Study and Research in Agriculture Director
The Philippines Indian Agricultural Research
Institute
WALTER P. FALCON India
Director
Food Research Institute STERLING WORTMAN
Stanford University Consultant
USA USA
4




staff lI: (as of March 15, 1981)
OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL Robert ). Havener, USA, Director General Robert D. Osler, USA, Deputy Director General and Treasurer W. Clive James, Canada, Deputy Director General Gregorio Martinez V., Mexico, Public Affairs Officer
MAIZE
Ernest W. Sprague, USA, Director R.L. Pal wal, India, Associate Director Carios De Leon, Mexico, Collaborative Research Dietmar Dehne, Fed.Rep.of Germany, Back-Up Unit N.L. Dhawan, India, International Testing Kenneth S.Fischer, Australia, Special Projects Bantaye-u Gelaw, Ethiopia, Quality Improvement Peter Goertz, Fed.Rep.of Germany, Advanced Unit Takumi Izuno, USA, Back-Up Unit Elmer C.Johnson, USA, Special Projects Federico Kocher, Switzerland, Training John Mium, USA, Advanced Unit Alejandro Ortega C., Mexico, Advanced Unit A.F.E. Palmer, UK, Training Shivaji Fandey, India, Back-Up Unit David Sperling, USA, Quality Improvement Surinder K. Vasal, India, Quality Improvement Alejandro Violic, Chile, Training
Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Daniel Hinderliter, USA David Jewell, Australia Alfred Moshi, Tanzania Hiep Ngoc Pham, USA Margaret Smith, USA
Andean Region
James B. Barnett, USA (Based in Colombia) Gonzalo Granados R., Mexico (Based in Colombia) Suketoshi Taba, Japan (Based in Ecuador)
Asian Region
Bobby L. Renfro, USA (Basee in Thailand)
Central America and Caribbean Region Hugo S. C6rdova, El Salvador (Based in Guatemala) Willy Viiena D., Bolivia (Based in Mexico)




Maize staff con't)
Mideast Region
Wayne L. Haa j, USA (Based in Turkey)
West African Region
Magni Bjarnason, Iceland (Based in Nigeria)
Ghana
Gregory Edmades, New Zealand
Pakistan
Richard N. Wedderburn, Barbados
Tanzania
James Deutsch, USA
Zaire
Thomas G. Hairt, USA
WHEAT
Norman E. Borlaug, USA, Acting Director
Arthur R. Klatt, USA, Associate Director
Maximino Alcala S., Mexico, International Nurseries
Girma Bekele, Ethiopia, Pathology
Santiago Fuentes F., Mexico, Pathology Peter R. Hobbs, UK, Agronomy A. Mujeeb Ka;:i, USA, Cytology Sanjaya Rajaram, India, Bread Wheat, Breeding Enrique Rodriguez C., Mexico, Barley, Breeding Ricardo Rodriguez R., Mexico, Germplasm/Breeding David A. Saunders, Australia, Study Leave Bent Skovmard, Denmark, Triticale, Breeding Enrique Torre:;, Colombia, Pathology Gregorio Vazcuez G., Mexico, Durum, Breeding Hugo Vivar F., Ecuador, Training Patrick Wall, I eland, Agronomy Francis J. Zillinsky, Canada, Triticale, Breeding
Postdoctoral Fellows Pedro Brajcich G., Mexico Larry Butler, .JSA Edwin Knapp USA Pierre Malvoisin, France Guillermo Ort(z F., Mexico Christopher E. Mann, Fed.Rep.of Germany
Andean Region
H. Jesse Dubirn, USA (Based in Ecuador)
6




Wheat staff (con't)
East Africa Region Gerbrand Kingma, Netherlands (Based in Kenya) Henk Bonthuis, Netherlands (Dutch Associate, Based in Kenya)
ICARDA Region
Walter -. Nelson, USA
Latin America Southern Cone Region Matthew A. McMahon, Ireland (Based in Chile) Man Mohan Kohli, India (Based in Chile)
Mediterranean and Mideast Region J.Michael Prescott, USA (Based in Turkey) Maarten Van Ginkel (Dutch Associate, Based in Turkey)
North and West African Region George Varuguese, India (Based in Portugal)
South and Southeast Asia Region Eugene E. Saari, USA (Based in Thailand)
Pakistan
Homer Hepworth, USA
ECONOMICS
Donald L.Winkelmann, USA, Director Derek Byerlee, Australia Larry Harrington, USA
Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows Steven Franzel, USA (Based in Kenya) Robert Tripp, USA (Based in Ecuador) Michael Yates, USA (Based in Haiti)
Andean Region
R. Edgardo Moscardi, Argentina (Based in Ecuador)
Asian Region
Roger Montgomery, USA (Based in Thailand)
Central America Region
Juan Carlos Martinez, Argentina (Based in Mexico)
East Africa Region
Michae P. Collinson, UK (Based in Kenya)
Algeria
Philippe Masson, France
7




LABORATORIES
Evangelina Villegas M., Mexico, Biochemist, in Charge of General Laboratories Enrique Ortega M., Mexico, Postdoctoral fellow, Protein Qual ty
Arnoldo Amaya C., Mexico, Cereal Chemist, in Charge of Wheat Industrial Quality Laboratory
DATA PROCESSING SERVICES
Margaret Snyder, USA, Head
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
John Stewart, UK, Head
Compton Paul, Guyana, Assistant Head
Roberto Varela, Mexico, Training Officer
INFORMATION SERVICES
Christopher Dow swell, USA, Communications Coordinator
Linda G. Ainswo th, USA, Head, Visitor Services
Andre Jesequel, USA, Head, Audio Visuals
K. Robert Kern, JSA, Science Writer/Editor, Consultant
Anita Povich, USA, Science Writer/Editor
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
Richard Clifford, USA, Financial Officer
Alberto Bourlon ., Mexico, Head Buildings and Grounds Services
Susana Eng M., Vexico, Supervisor, Accounting Services
Ma.de los Angeles Ezeta, Mexico, Purchasing Manager
Jose Ramfrez R., Mexico, Personnel Officer
Ana Laura Sobriro de G6mez, Mexico, Head, Travel Services
8




DIRECTOR GENERAL'S OVERVIEW
Significant changes have recently occurred in the CIMMYT leadership. We have lost the services of Dr. KeithW. Finlay, Deputy Director General- Research, and Dr. R. Glenn Anderson, Director of the Wheat Program, who each succumbed to cancer. Their contributions to CIMMYT will live on, although their leadership, experience, and dedication will be sorely missed.
To help fill this void, we have recently appointed Dr. Olive James as Deputy Director General for Research. He comes to CIMMYT with strong credentials as a scientist and in research administration.
CIMMYT's collaboration with agricultural scientists in over 120 developing countries continued to strengthen in 1980. New regional programs were established for North and West Africa (wheat), West Africa (maize, in collaboration with IlTA), and South and Southeast Asia (wheat). We continue to broaden our crop improvement objectives to include greater attention to those rainfed production areas characterized by greater agroclimatic stresses. Our increased emphasis on crop management research is being strengthened through the collaboration of our regional agronomists and economists in national on-farm research programs.
During 1980, additional facilities were completed to accommodate visiting scientists made possible by a grant from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, and a new wheat germplasm facility, financed through a grant from the Government of Japan, will be operational in 1981.
To help guide program priorities and activities in the 1980s, we recently completed a program review and planning exercise. Our program priorities were exposed to critical review and debate at a planning conference held at CIMMYT in April 1980. The changing comparative advantages and the tasks which must be performed during the 1980s by the many organizations concerned with agricultural development in the developing world were highlighted by many participants at the conference.
9




Outside obsEcrvers and representatives of donor agencies
identified key research and training activities in which CIMMYT must play a vital role in the years ahead. In particular, germplasm development (including more collaboration in basic research activities), training (shifting ever more to the support of in-country training activities and train-the-trainer programs), and the development and diffusion of improved research procedures were singled out as key activities for
CIMMYT involvement.
Given the c-anging and increasing demands being made
on CIMMYT by developing country research organizations, we must continuE to secure modest expansions, in real terms, of the generous ,upport provided in the past, as well as to maintain sufficient program flexibility if we are to respond effectively to the new challenges and research opportunities
within our mandal:e.
Robert D. Havener
10




maize improvement




INTRODUCTION TO MAIZE PROGRAM
During the iast two decades, world maize production
has increased at an average rate of 3.5 percent per year, higher than either wheat or rice. Production increases in developing countries, however, have only registered a 2.4 percent per year growth rate, equal to the aggregate rate of population increa:;e over the same time period, and less than the progress achieved in wheat and rice. Most of the growth in developing country maize production is attributable to area expansions, with yield increases averaging only 1.1
percent per year.
Improved ge-mplasm has been developed for most maizeproducing areas :)f the developing world. If varieties emanating from this broad base of improved germplasm were planted in farmers' fields, average national yields in most developing counties could easily be doubled. Faced with this production gap between the "actual" and the "potential", and with the existence of improved germplasm, our emphasis is shifting towarcs strategies to help get improved varieties
and production technologies into use.
We are convinced that multidisciplinary and integrated
production-orient-d research and extension systems and more effective inut delivery systems (seed, fertilizers, and agricultural chemicals) can make a significant impact in raising yields in the developing countries. Our efforts to help increase national average yields are reflected in the production-orientation of our in-service training programs, in the strengthening of our regional programs, and in the production focus of our consultation with collaborators in
national programs
The highlights of CIMMYT's maize program activities
for 1980 are presented in the pages which follow. We are involved in collaborative research with maize scientists in more than 90 countries. In brief, this network of scientists continues to make contributions in germplasm improvement and in production research which can enhance the dependability and productivity of the maize crop in the developing
world.
E .W .Sprague
12




MAIZE SUMMARY
Germplasm Development
CIMMYT's germplasm improvement strategy begins with the creation of gene pools classified on the basis of climatic adaptation, maturity characters, and grain type. A range of gene pools have been formed to serve tropical and subtropical zones.
Most of these gene pools have reached the stage of having agronomically acceptable plant types. In recent years, therefore, we have initiated work to improve the insect and disease resistance of these materials. Added emphasis has been given to the development of early-maturity, disease-resistant germplasm with high yield potential.
Several special research efforts continued to develop improved germplasm for highland tropical areas (particularly floury maize types). Our emphasis is on the development of broadly adapted, early-maturity types with greater resistance to specific diseases and insects.
Research efforts to develop broad-based temperate x tropical gene pools have generated considerable enthusiasm among maize scientists in temperate areas. The three special pools we have formed to date are permitting the introduction of exotic germplasm into temperate base materials, which in turn will serve as a mechanism to move desirable genes from temperate materials into tropical germplasm.
Population Improvement
Superior germplasm from CIMMYT's different gene pools continues to be identified and transferred into corresponding advanced maize populations. CIMMYT begins to distribute the advanced populations through the international maize testing network as soon as they are considered to be of utility to scientists in national programs. These collaborators play a key role in the improvement of the populations and in the development of experimental varieties.
In 1980, CIMMYT shipped 734 individual trials to collaborators in 78 countries. The data from these trials confirm the progress made in raising the yield potential, improving the insect and disease resistance, and increasing the environmental stability of CIMMYT materials.
Work is being intensified on three major diseases of maize: downy mildew, streak virus, and corn stunt. Good progress has been achieved in developing high-yielding materials with resistance to downy mildew and corn stunt.
CIMMYT continues to receive mounting seed requests from national collaborators for our advanced materials. In 1980, forty-two national maize programs asked CIMMYT for supplemental seed shipments with intentions to increase this seed for varietal demonstrations on farmers' fields.
13




Nutritional Quality Improvement
CIMMYT scientists have been able to accumulate genes to produce nutritionally superior maize materials with a hard shiny kernel which look and taste like normal maize. We now have a range of high-yielding, nutritionally superior maize materials to fit many agroclimatic conditions and food preferences. Our best high-yielding quality protein materials have less vulnerability to ear rots and stored-grain pests, and have a relatively uniform hard kernel appearance. Such materials, in CIMMYT's view, ar. approaching suitability for commercial use during
the 1980s.
Special Research Activities
In 1980, special research studies were under way which dealt with yield efficiency in tropical maize, drought tolerance, early maturity, and wide adaptation. In these projects, our researchers assess and/or develop new ideas arid techniques, usually confining their study to one or a few populations. Some of the conclusions reached in these special research activities hive led to modifications in the improvement priorities
and/or methodologies used within central program activities.
Wide Crosses
Crosses between maize and two alien genera, sorghum and
Tripsacum, are beiig pursued to determine the feasibility of using potentially valuable genes from these genera for maize improvement.
The aim of this wok is to make maize a more environmentally stable crop. Several hybrics have emerged from this work. A cytologist joined the staff in 1981 to help unravel the identity of these hybrids and to help increase our u understanding about the mechanism for the production of such hybrids.
Maize Training
Seventy trainees from 33 countries received in-service training in Mexico in 1980. Another 22 visiting and associate scientists came to Mexico on special assignments and/or for orientation to CIMMYT's maize research prcgram. In addition, CIMMYT cooperated in the training of 6 maste 's degree candidates and 5 predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows.
Maize Cooperative Projects Outside Mexico
Four CIMMYr staff were assigned to national maize programs in 1980. An additional eight scientists were posted to regional programs in Africa, Asia, and .atin America. Considerable emphasis is being given in regional programs to production agronomy research and to maize
improvement research on specific disease and insect problems.
14




GERMPLASM DEVELOPMENT
CIMMYT's maize program is designed for a multidisciplinary focus on a wide range of problems that have restricted maize production in the developing world. The germplasm improvement strategy followed by CIMMYT
begins in what we call the "Back-Up Unit", whose staff is charged with the first stages of improvement for different types of maize. The Back-Up Unit evaluates materials from around the world, maintains CIMMYT's maize germplasm bank (the largest in the world for maize), and creates and improves gene pools classified (see table 1) on the basis of climatic adaptation, maturity characters, and grain type. Each year, superior introductions and bank accessions are systematically evaluated and added to one of 31 gene pools. At present, there are 12 gene pools for tropical-lowland zones, 8 for the subtropical-temperate zones, 7 for tropical highland zones, and 4 special pools for temperate regions. Superior germplasm in these pools is identified and transferred to CIMMYT's corresponding advanced maize populations, which are regularly distributed to national collaborators through the international maize testing program.
Table 1. Agro-climatic characteristics considered in classifying maize
gene pools.
Adaptation and
Maturity Altitude Days to
range (W) Latitude Temperature* harvest
Tropical lowland
early 0-1600 0-30N-S 25-280C Up to 90
medium 0-1600 0-30N-S 25-280C 90-105
late 0-1600 0-30N-S 25-28oc 105 and
more
Tropical highland
early 1600 0-30oN-S 15-170C Up to 125
medium 1600 + 0-30N-S 15-170C 125-150
late 1600 + 0-30N-S 15-17oC 150 and
more
Temperate-subtropical
early 0-1600 30-40oN-S 20-22oc Up to 95
medium 0-1600 30-40ON-S 20-220C 95-120
* Mean of main growing season.
15




Germplasm Bank
CIMMYT maintains a maize germplasm bank for its own
breeding requirements and as a service to national collaborators. Each year, our staff evaluates a portion of the bank collections, and also regenerates different collections of maize (and rela-:ed species) that are held in the bank.
CIMMYT provides free samples of seed from the germplasm bank to all research organizations who make requests. In 1980, 719 collections were supplied in response to 46 requests
from scientists in :28 countries.
Introduction Nurseries
During 1980, several hundred new introductions from
tropical lowland, subtropical-temperate, and tropical highland areas were evaluated in Mexico. These new introductions were evaluated for agronomic attributes including maturity, height, yield potential, and reaction to certain diseases and insects. Superior materials among these new introductions
were then added 1o the appropriate gene pools.
Improvement of Gene Pools
A gene pool is a mixture of diverse germplasm undergoing continuous recombination, from which materials can be taken out and/or added as required. CIMMYT's gene pools have been improved using the half-sib selection method (halfbrother or half-siter) as modified by CIMMYT. Two guidelines are followed in the recombination and improvement of the pools: (1) a low level of selection pressure is applied when improving the gene pools to maintain as broad a germplasm base as possible, and (2) provision is made for the systematic introduction of additional promising germplasm into each pool. Tnis improvement system has proven to be very successful in increasing yield potential and in improving agronomic characters in pool materials. These pools are grown twice a year in Mexico at several locations. The seed of the ears from the best plants in superior families is used to
constitute the next improvement cycle of each pool.
Pools are also grown on bulk basis by some of CIMMYT's
outreach staff. Tie selections they make are added to the
pools in Mexico to broaden their adaptation.
16




Improving the pest resistance of the CIMMYT gene pools is an important research objective. Here, a maize pathologist is reviewing pool materials to select resistant plants to upgrade the overall disease resistance in the CIMMYT pools.
Improving Insect and Disease Resistance in Pools
Most of CIMMYT's maize gene pools have reached the stage of having agronomically acceptable plant types. In recent years, therefore, we have initiated work to improve the insect and disease resistance of these materials. Different pools are artificially inoculated with disease-causing organisms or are artificially infested with insect larvae according to the principal disease and insect problems (e.g., earworm, fall armyworm, borers, ear rot, stalk rot, leaf blight, rust, etc.) in areas where each pool is meant to serve. In 1980, several pools were tested to determine the progress achieved in developing greater disease and/or insect resistance. Greater resistance to certain insect and disease problems was evident in the latest cycles of selection in some pools compared to the original pool materials.
Early-Maturity Germplasm
CIMMYT has had a considerable amount of high-yielding germplasm in the intermediate and late maturity ranges.
17




The Back-Up Uiit staff, in recent years, has made a special effort to deve op more germplasm with early-maturity
characters. Earl),-maturity materials are now flowing into the Advanced Unit populations and to collaborators through the
international test ing program.
Reorganization cif Highland Pools
To better s .rve the germplasm requirements of highland
tropical areas, CIMMYT's highland pools were reorganized in 1979. Particu ar emphasis was placed on the improvement of floury-type materials, the dominant maize types in the highland areas cf the Andean countries of South America.
CIMMYT's research efforts in Mexico in highland maize improvement are closely coordinated with the work of a CIMMYT staff member stationed in Ecuador. We are emphasizing the development of early-maturity types with greater resistance to ear rots and earworms. An important objective has involved str itegies to broaden the germplasm base of
floury maize.
Temperate x "Fro )ical Gene Pools
In 1978, CIMMYT began to assemble broad-based
temperate x tropical gene pools with the objective of broadening the genetic base of both types of materials. Three pools were form,.!d according to their adaptation to (1) the northern temperate climatic ranges, (2) intermediate belts of temperate regiors, and (3) the southern temperate belts.
(Similar ranges i i the southern hemisphere correspond to the northern hemisphere, but in reverse order.) These pools are permitting CIMMYT scientists to introduce exotic germplasm into temperate base materials, which in turn would serve as a mechanism to move genes from the temperate region materials irto tropical lowland and highland germplasm.
These pools, distributed in North America and Europe,
have generated considerable enthusiasm among collaborating scientists. We ar, receiving strong confirmation that this research project is making significant headway toward
broadening the ge'ietic base of both germplasm groups.
Sharing of Pools with National Collaborators
CIMMYT distributes pool materials upon request to
national collaborators for use in their breeding programs.
18




Many of these early-generation materials are proving to be extremely useful to national scientists as they seek to develop higher-yielding varieties with good agronomic characters. This policy of germplasm sharing can accelerate the improvement efforts in national maize programs with higher levels of scientific manpower and adequate financial resources for research.
POPULATION IMPROVEMENT
Within the total maize improvement process, CIMMYT has assigned responsibility to its "Advanced Unit" to refine more advanced maize materials to a point where they are ready for systematic international testing and use by most national programs.
In 1980, the Advanced Unit team worked on 26 different populations. These populations have been assembled on the basis of climatic adaptation (tropical, subtropical, temperate), maturity period (early, intermediate, late), grain color (white, yellow), and kernel type (flint, dent). Variable relative weights are given to different traits for improvement in each population according to the geographic areas the population is meant to serve. In one population, greater disease and/or insect resistance may receive the highest improvement priority. In another, the objective may be to improve the manageability (shorter height, better standability). In another, added earliness may be the major objective.
Each population undergoes continuous selection using within- and among-family variation. Advanced Unit populations are grown and improved for three generations in Mexico; in the fourth generation (or once every two years) they are tested in international trials at 3 to 6 sites, worldwide. Whereas the gene pools in the Back-Up Unit are selected mainly on the basis of visual observations at growing sites in Mexico, the Advanced Unit populations are improved on the basis of their performance in replicated yield trials in the agroclimatic conditions where the population will be used.
This system of maize improvement, using a full-sib breeding scheme (full brother or full sister), followed by multilocational international testing (described in more detail
19




later), has demonstrated its effectiveness to improve the adaptability and yield dependability of maize germplasm for
the tropics and subtropics.
DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE
CIMMYT continues to improve certain populations for disease and insect resistance in the manner described earlier.
For disease resistance, populations grown in Mexico are artificially inoculated with stalk- and ear-rotting organisms.
At appropriate intervals after inoculation, each family is scored for disease damage, and progenies with the least
damage are retained for future recombinations.
For insect resistance, populations are infested in Mexico with larvae of fall armyworms, earworms, southwestern corn borer, or sugarcane borer. These are the most important maize pests in 1he western hemisphere and are related to species causing serious damage on other continents. At different growth stages after infestation, visual ratings for insect damage are made for each family. Progenies showing the least damage, are retained for recombination and use in
future improvement cycles.
Special Disease Research Activities
Starting in 1974, three collaborative breeding projects
were organized )etween CIMMYT and six national maize programs to develop germplasm resistant to three major diseases of maize in tropical areas. These diseases are: downy mildew, caused by a fungusfound mainly in South and Southeast Asia, but now spreading to Africa and Latin America; maize streak viru:;, disseminated by a leaf hopper throughout tropical Africa; aid corn stunt, a disease also spread by a leaf hopper in tropical Latin America. In this research CIMMYT and its collabora.:ors followed a "shuttle breeding" strategy.
Alternate cycles cf selection were carried out in disease-prone areas in collaborating countries to identify sources of resistance, and in Mexico to improve the agronomic characters
of the resistant selections.
By 1980, good progress had been made in developing
material with resistance to downy mildew and to corn stunt.
20




The progress on streak virus had not been as successful, due to the lack of an insect-rearing facility (streak virus is disseminated by a leaf hopper) located in virus-affected areas of Africa for uniform inoculation and disease screening.
CIMMYT has now shifted its center of activities in these disease research projects to regional programs located in affected areas. The work on downy mildew resistance, including the preparation and distribution of international nurseries, is now centered in Thailand with full involvement of Thai and Asian region scientists. We have shifted our international breeding program for streak virus resistance to Nigeria, with full involvement of IITA and West African scientists. The international breeding work for corn stunt remains as a collaborative research effort between CIMMYT, Mexico, and two Central American countries, Nicaragua and El Salvador.
INTERNATIONAL TESTING
International testing plays a major role in identifying and developing improved materials for the areas where they are meant to serve. C IMMYT begins to distribute populations through the international testing program as soon as they are considered to be sufficiently advanced to be of utility to scientists in national programs. This international testing program is designed to: (1 ) serve national programs that are at different levels of development, and (2) to combine into one mechanism a system for continuous improvement of maize germplasm as well as a delivery system to and from national programs. A key feature in this system is the partnership role that national program scientists play in the improvement of populations and the development of experimental varieties.
In 1980, CIMMYT shipped 734 individual trials to collaborators in 78 countries. These trials included 67 progeny trials, 394 experimental variety trials, and 273 elite experimental variety trials.
Most of the data from the results of 1980 international trials are still to arrive. Therefore, the report which follows is based upon the 1979 international testing program, since the final reports are available on these trials.
21




Distribution of international maize trials 1978-81
1978 1979 1980 1981*
Region and Nation trials trials trials trials
Central America and Caribbean 194 188 199 109
Bahamas 2 4 1 2
Barbados 0 3 2 2
Belize 4 6 5 3
Costa Rica 14 12 8 6
Dominica 4 0 0 0
Dominican RepuLlic 3 4 11 6
El Salvador 12 10 8 8
Grenada 1 1 1 1
Guatemala 16 15 20 13
Haiti 12 10 10 0
Honduras 20 14 19 8
Jamaica 13 12 3 3
Mexico 59 62 69 29
Nicaragua 12 11 9 7
Panama 19 16 24 14
St. Kitts 0 1 1 1
St. Vincent 1 1 0 1
Trinidad 2 6 8 5
South America 124 105 122 99
Argentina 6 10 8 8
Bolivia 31 11 14 9
Brazil 30 28 23 18
Chile 2 5 2 4
Colombia 15 15 10 12
Ecuador 10 10 14 9
French Guiana 2 4 2 3
Guyana 4 0 0 0
Paraguay 0 0 0 3
Peru 17 13 30 19
Surinam 2 4 5 3
Venezuela 5 5 14 11
Mediterranean/Mideast 61 55 48 53
Algeria 2 2 2 2
Egypt 16 7 11 12
Iraq 3 2 2 2
Jordan 2 4 2 2
Libya 0 3 0 2
Morocco 2 2 3 2
Saudi Arabia 7 6 6 6
Sudan 2 3 2 2
Syria 3 3 0 2
Tunisia 2 2 0 2
Turkey 4 3 12 5
Yemen AR. 13 13 4 9
Yemen, South 5 5 4 3
Tropical and Southerfi Africa 149 162 258 184
Angola 0 0 0 2
Benin 1 2 6 3
Botswana 5 3 4 2
Burundi 0 0 0 7
Cameroon 7 6 8 3
Tentative
22




Distribution of international maize trials 1978-81 (Con't)
1978 1979 1980 1981*
Region and Nation trials trials trials trials
Central African Republic 2 0 0 0
Chad 3 2 0 2
Congo 0 0 0 6
Ethiopia 12 9 21 12
Ghana 4 3 8 8
Guinea-Bissau 3 3 4 4
Ivory Coast 15 10 14 9
Kenya 2 6 16 10
Lesotho 2 3 6 4
Malawi 7 6 19 12
Mali 0 4 6 4
Mauritania 0 0 0 2
Mozambique 17 17 22 5
Niger 0 1 0 2
Nigeria 14 26 28 17
Rep. South Africa 9 4 11 10
Reunion 0 2 1 1
Rwanda 5 4 6 5
St. Helena 4 0 0 0
Senegal 9 7 13 6
Sierra Leone 0 9 16 8
Somalia 1 6 4 3
Swaziland 1 2 5 5
Tanzania 9 9 7 5
Togo 1 1 4 2
Transkei 0 0 4 3
Uganda 1 2 6 5
Upper Volta 2 3 8 10
Zaire 10 8 7 5
Zambia 3 4 4 4
South and East Asia 78 89 95 81
Afghanistan 2 4 0 2
Bangladesh 7 7 5 4
Burma 4 6 7 6
India 13 16 24 16
Indonesia 2 3 0 3
Korea, South 0 2 2 2
Malaysia 2 4 6 4
Nepal 6 12 6 10
Pakistan 10 12 18 12
Philippines 19 12 10 7
SriLanka 2 3 5 6
Thailand 11 8 12 9
Other 15 16 12 20
Greece 2 4 4 2
Hungary 2 2 0 0
New Guinea 7 6 0 6
Puerto Rico 4 1 2 2
Spain 0 0 2 2
Tahiti 0 3 1 2
Vietnam 0 0 0 4
Yugoslavia 0 0 3 2
TOTAL TRIALS 621 615 734 546
TOTAL COUNTRIES 80 84 78 92
Tentative
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A 41
National collaborators play a full partnership role in the international maize testing program. CIMMYT's in-service maize breeding trainees, as part of their program, receive a complete orientation to the research methodologies in population improvement and varietal development followed by CIMMYT.
International Progeny Testing Trials (IPTTs)
Thirteen Advanced Unit populations entered into International Progeny Testing Trials in 1979. These international progeny trials serve two purposes. First, About ten of the best progenies are identified at each testing site by a national collaborator. These outstanding progenies are used to form an experimental variety. Second, 30 to 40 percent of the best performing progenies across all sites are selected to regenerate the next cycle of the population. The 1979 IPTT results (and special requests by national collaborators) provided the basis to develop 61 location-specif ic and 11 across-location experimental varieties. Some were tested during 1980 and others will be tested in 1982. Included in these trials were three quality protein maize populations. In general, the progenies selected for future experimental variety (EV) development had earlier maturity and shorter plant height than the topyielding national check varieties included in each IPTT trial.
24




Experimental Variety Trials (EVTs)
In 1979, four different EVTs were assembled, and 244 sets were distributed to national collaborators upon request. One quality protein maize trial, consisting of seven quality protein maize (QPM) experimental varieties (EVT15A), also was included. Some of the best-performing EVs are compared in table 2 to the best checks at individual sites where the particular trial was grown.
Table 2. Sampling of best-performing EVs from International
Maize Variety Trials, 1979
Yield of
1979 Name of top top EV as
EVT experimental Yield 0/o of
Number variety (EV) (kg/ha) best check
Latin America
Guatemala (Cuyuta) 12 Poza Rica 7843 5607 116
Mexico (Cotaxtla) 12 Poza Rica 7822 6664 108
(Nayarit) 12 Across 7622 3287 121
Bolivia (G. Saavedra) 12 Poza Rica 7843 5809 149
Honduras (Chirinos &
Las Acacias) 12 Across 7622 7454 123
Dominican Republic
(S. Cristobal) 12 Poza Rica 7832 4417 117
Colombia (Turipana) 12 Across 7729 3305 188
Argentina (Leales) 13 Across 7728 7250 121
Ecuador (Pichilingue) 13 Across 7728 6732 108
Panama (Across 4 sites) 13 Across 7728 4855 114
Peru (Satipo) 13 Across 7728 7130 139
Haiti (Levy) 13 La Maquina 7827 4986 142
Chile (La Platina) 16 Across 7734 12,657 113
Mexico (Tlaltizapan) 16 Across 7734 6888 131
Honduras (Guaymas) 18 Poza Rica 7729(E) 3846 131
Colombia (Turipana) 18 Poza Rica 7729(E) 3975 179
Belize (C. Farm) 18 La Maquina 7721 5873 119
Africa/Middle East
Ghana (Nyankpala) 12 Poza Rica 7843 5129 157
Nigeria (Ibadan) 13 Across 7728 2260 119
Ghana (Nyankpala) 13 Sta. Cruz Porillo(1)
7835 4044 156
Ivory Coast (Ferke) 13 Across 7728 7368 116
Mali (Sotuba) 13 Tocumen (1) 7835 4997 115
Sudan (Halima) 13 Suwan 7726 4061 191
Malawi (Bembeke) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 3099 123
Nigeria (Ibadan) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 2589 116
Saudi Arabia (Holuf) 16 Tlaltizapan 7842 7424 141
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Table 2. (Con't)
Yield of
1979 Number of top top EV as
EVT experimental Yield o/o of Number variety (EV) (kg/ha) best check
Iraq (Abu Ghraib) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 7772 120
Yemen A.R. (Taiz) 16 Tialtizapan 7842 6086 190
Egypt (Sids) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 7642 102
Ivory Coast (Ferke) 18 Ferke (1) 7622 7213 110
Somalia (Afgoi) 20 Gemiza (2) 7644 5935 133
Asia
Sri Lanka (Across 2 s tes) 13 Across 7728 4760 140
Nepal (Rampur) 13 La Maquina 7827 7675 121
Pakistan (Yousafwalal 13 Sete Lagoas 7726 6160 140
Afghanistan (Lashker;jah) 16 Across 7748 4404 157
Burma (Yezin) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 3348 125
Pakistan (Pirsabak) 16 Sids 7734 7449 115
Elite Experimental Variety Trials (ELVTs)
The best-performing experimental varieties across all internationa! testing locations during 1977 and 1978 were selected to form subsequent elite variety trials in 1979. Three ELVTs were assembled and 233 sets were requested by national collaborators. One quality protein maize trial (ELVT19) was included, consisting of six QPM elite experimental varieties and one QPM population. These QPM materials were evaluated against national normal and QPM check varieties.
The QPM variety Tuxpeio H.E.o2 was a top yielder at seven locations with yields at a par or higher than the best national
checks.
Requests for Seed Multiplication
CIMMYT continues to receive mounting seed requests for its advanced materials from national collaborators. Fortytwo national mai:e programs asked CIMMYT in 1980 for supplemental seed shipments of specific materials with
intentions to increase the seed for varietal demonstrations on farmers' fields. SLch a step often precedes the naming and commercial release of a new variety. In 1980, the requests
came from:
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Latin America and the Caribbean, 18 countries
Mediterranean and the Mideast, 4 countries
Africa, south of the Sahara, 14 countries
South and Southeast Asia, 3 countries
Other areas, 3 countries
1981 International Trials
The tentative distribution of international trials in 1981 includes 546 individual trials requested by collaborators in 92 countries. This testing network now involves virtually all developing countries which produce maize.
A modification was made in 1981 with experimental variety trials. CIMMYT has decided to send second generation
(F2) experimental varieties instead of first generation materials (Fl). This means that only IPTTs and ELVTs will be distributed in 1981. From 1982 onward EVTs will continue to be distributed as in the past on a request basis.
NUTRITIONAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
Beginning in 1970, CIMMYT's maize improvement program was expanded to include work on the nutritional quality aspects of maize. Today, this work is an integral part of the total maize improvement program. Various materials undergoing improvement in the Back-Up and Advanced Units have parallel quality protein maize (QPM) counterparts.
Following the discovery of the effects of the opaque-2 gene in improving the nutritional qualities of maize (enhanced levels of the amino acids lysine and tryptophan), considerable enthusiasm developed among scientists that opaque-2 maize could make a major nutritional impact in food-deficit, low-income countries. Farmers and consumers in the developing world did not react to opaque-2 maize with the same enthusiasm due to several adverse effects associated with the opaque-2 gene. The major defects of opaque-2 maize were kernels with a soft chalky appearance, lower-yielding ability (compared to normal maize), greater vulnerability to ear rots and stored-grain pests, and a higher moisture content in the grain at harvest.
27




China is the largest maize producer in the developing world. This Chinese visiting scientist spent 4 months at CIMMYT in 1980. Here he reviews quality protein maize materials which offer potentially exciting prospects for the Chinese people.
CIMMYT's Improvement Strategy
CIMMYT scientists discovered that they could accumulate modifier genes to develop QPM materials with a hard shiny kernel which looked and tasted like normal maize, but still retained superior protein quality. The identified QPM sources with superior modifiers were then used to improve other populations. By 1980, 21 Advanced Unit populations, 12 Back-Up Unit gene pools, and 3 of the Collaborative Disease Research populations had undergone the conversion and selection process to develop hard endosperm quality
protein counterparts..
Quality Protein Maize Population Trials (QMPTs)
In addition to the QPM materials included in the international testing program in progeny, experimental variety, and elite experimental variety trials (reported elsewhere), new QPM materials are also distributed as QMPTs to interested collaborators upon request. These trials serve to provide specific information on the performance and adaptation of quality protein materials in representative parts of the devel28




oping world. Once proven, QPM materials are then promoted to the international testing program, starting first as IPTTs.
Table 3 reports selected data on the performance of the best QPVI materials in comparison to the performance of the best checks in some of the 45 countries where the QMPT-11A and 11B were tested in 1979.
Table 3. Sampling of Data from QMPT-11A and QMPT-11B
1979
Yield of QPM yield
Country Best QPM best(normal) as O/o of
(location) Material check variety best check
(kg/ha)
Guatemala Late White Dent H.E-o2 7638 113
(San Jeronimo)
Pakistan Mezcla Amarilla H.E.o2 3961 146
(Yousafvana)
Nigeria White o2 Back-Up Pool 3403 112
(Ibadan)
Nepal White 02 Back-Up Pool 6171 113
(Rampur)
Panama La Pc-ta H.E.o2 5163 100
(Rio Hato)
Mexico Late White Dent H.E.o2 6072 97
(Poza Rica)
Brazil Chuquisaca 7741 5080 104
(Londrina)
Argentina Temperate White H.E.o2 5729 108
(Leales)
Research Progress
The efforts of CIMMYT scientists to accumulate genetic modifiers in quality protein maize materials have proven conclusively that the problems associated with quality protein maize can be overcome through careful and systematic selections for desired characters. CIMMYT now has a range of quality protein maize materials to fit many agroclimatic conditions and food preferences. Our best quality protein
29




materials are high yielding, have less vulnerability to ear rots and stored-grain pests, and have a relatively uniform hard kernel appearance. CIMMYT believes that these quality protein maize materials have reached a level of improvement
that they can be commercially exploited during the 1980s.
Future Research Considerations
Selection fo increased oil content has been initiated in
some QPM materials. The objective of this research is to further improve t )e nutritional value of quality protein maize through increasing the energy concentration in the grain without affecting other grain traits. We also are looking at genetic ways to protect QPM materials from pollen contamination from norr-ral materials.
SPECIAL RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN MEXICO
Within CIMMYT's general maize improvement program,
new ideas and techniques as well as some special research activities are carried out on a special project basis. In these projects, researchers usually confine their study to one or a few populations. These studies may require many years for completion, but the conclusions reached may ultimately be applied to other parts of the program in the form of modifications in the irrprovement priorities and/or methodologies used within central program activities. In 1980, special studies were under way dealing with yield efficiency in tropical maize, bought tolerance, early maturity, and wider adaptation. In rrost of these research projects, evaluations covering a numbr of years of work were carried out during 1980 to determine, whether the projects need to be continued
further, given the results already obtained.
Yield Efficiency in Tropical Maize
The development of more grain-efficient tropical and
subtropical plant types that produce a greater proportion of their total dry natter in the form of grain, rather than leaves and stem, is a basic objective in CIMMYT's maize improvement res. arch. The Special Projects research staff has been studying different approaches to achieve this
30




objective, such as shortening the plant and reducing leaf area and tassel size. This work has proven to be extremely successful and appears to offer opportunities to make major impacts upon the yield efficiency of tropical maize.
CIMMYT scientists, using the lowland tropical maize population Tuxpehio, have been recurrently selecting for shorter plant height within successive cycles of this population. In 1980, 20 cycles of selection had been completed, and plant height had been reduced to approximately 50 percent of that of the original material. The ratio between grain and stover in the total plant dry matter of the later selection cycles is now 50:50 compared to 35:65 in the original population. That is, half the plant's total dry matter is now partitioned to grain, a ratio similar to the high-yielding maize types grown in the U.S. Corn Belt. As the plant has become shorter, it has also become earl ier-to-maturity when compared to the original material. While the more efficient short-plant --ype is clearly advantageous, the realization of maximum yield potential implies a higher plant density requirement with increased seed and more work in planting where hand labor is used. Therefore, such plant types will need a different agronomy. Yield increases are attributed to less lodging in the shorter plants, fewer barren plants, and to improved partitioning towards more grain without reducing the total dry matter produced per unit of area.
With the advantages of increasing yield efficiency through reducing plant height now demonstrated, the project is coming to a conclusion. Final evaluation studies were under way in 1980-8 1 on CIMMYT experiment stations. A graduate student from the University of Minnesota was also evaluating different cycles of selection in on-farm trials carried out in conjunction with CIMMYT's production training program in the lowlands of Veracruz State, Mexico.
Starting in cycle 12 of the Tuxpei'o population, researchers also began to study the effect of two other characters on yield efficiency. One is to select for reduced tassel size, and the other is to reduce the leaf size. After five cycles of selection against these non-grain portions of the plant, a similar trend toward greater yield efficiency is evident. Two other populations (Antigua- Republica Dominicana and Eto Blanco), unrelated to the Tuxpehio population, are also being subjected to similar studies and again are showing that im31




provements can be made in yield efficiency using these
selection criteria.
Drought Tolerance
Throughout the tropics, drought causes sizable yield
reductions in m.iaze, particularly when drought occurs at critical growth periods for the plant, such as during the
flowering and grain-filling periods.
A special project was initiated in 1977 to determine
whether there mijht be sufficient variability within maize for drought tolerance to merit more specific breeding attention, and whether a practical methodology could be developed to make selections for this trait. The population Tuxpeho was chosen for this study. By 1980, CIMMYT scientists had completed their tnird cycle of selection in this material. The various cycles were included in an evaluation trial in 1980 to assess progres,,. In addition, the more recent cycles of short-plant select ions previously mentioned were also included. Different entries in the trial were planted at different dates so that all materials would reach the flowering and grain-filling stages at approximately the same time. Preliminary observations indicate that selection within a population for greater drought tolerance is possible and that shorter plants tend to have more drought tolerance than
taller types.
Earlier Maturity ir Tropical Maize
CIMMYT ha; experienced a growing demand from national programs or earlier-maturing materials to fit into a brief rainy seaso) or more intensive cropping sequences.
The sacrifice in yield associated with earlier maturity as well as greater disease and insect problems have long been identified as the riajor breeding obstacles associated with the
development of these materials.
A special research project was initiated to examine
different approaches to develop materials with earlier maturity and good yield. In one approach, high-yielding tropical genotypes with intermediate maturity have been used to form a population (Compuesto Seleccion Precoz) from which selection is made for earliness. Nine cycles of selection have now been completed. In 1980, a trial was designed to
32




evaluate the first eight cycles of selection. A preliminary observation is that as you select for earliness you tend to get shorter, more manageable plant types. A number of earlymaturing families from this special project have been used to help form two Advanced Unit populations (30 and 31) for areas requiring early maturity varieties.
A previous PhD thesis research project is being continued by CIMMYT scientists to look at the effects of altering the length of pre- and post-flowering growth phases upon subsequent maturity characteristics.
Wider Adaptation
In 1980 CIMMYT scientists in the Special Projects Unit made their 13th cycle of recombination in a maize population drawn from many temperate and tropical climates. Initially, the cold climate materials would not set seed in the lowland tropics, and vice versa, because of sensitivity to differing daylengths, temperatures, and diseases. These problems were overcome and the population can now set seed in a range of maize-growing environments. CIMMYT's interest in crossing temperate and tropical germplasm has expanded, and this work has now been shifted to the Back-Up Unit.
Combining Ability of CIMMYT Germplasm In 1979 and 1980, CIMMYT carried out yield trials on its experiment stations in Mexico on the combining ability of its germplasm to provide information to collaborators interested in using CIMMYT materials to develop hybrids. All CIMMYT pools and populations were crossed to Eto Blanco and Tuxpeho P.B., two varieties that are known to combine well. A number of good combiners were identified.
WIDE CROSSES
Crosses between maize and two alien genera, sorghum and Tripsacum, are being pursued to determine the feasibility of using potentially useful genes from these genera for maize improvement. In general, the aim is to make maize a more
33




Inter-generic hybrids have been produced in CIMMYT's maize wide cross program. Researchers are now working to unravel the genetic make-up of these
hybrids and to understand more fully the mechanism for their production.
environmentally stable crop with better insect and disease resistance (from Tripsacum) and more drought and waterlogging tolerance (from sorghum).
Our work in previous years has shown that maize x Tripsacum crosses give two types of hybrids: classical and non-classical. One new classical maize x Tripsacum hybrid was identified in 1980. Classical hybrids retain the expected gametic number of chromosomes from both parents. In appearance they resemble Tripsacum more than maize, and like Tripsacum, are perennial. Non-classical hybrids possess 20 maize chromosomes and various numbers of Tripsacum chromosomes in different root tip cells. These hybrids are
more maize-like in appearance and are annual.
In maize x sorghum crosses only non-classical hybrids have been retrieved.
Very little is understood about the mechanism for the production of such hybrids. In 1980, harvest and examination techniques were modified to try to determine the possible mechanisms involved. A cytologist joined the staff in
early 1981 to help unravel the identity of these hybrids.
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MAIZE TRAINING
CIMMYT offers a wide range of training opportunities to scientists working in maize improvement and production in the developing world. These include:
-In-service training courses
production agronomy
maize improvement laboratory analysis
experiment station management
-Graduate student programs in cooperation with universities. Some students spend 12 to 18 months in
Mexico to do thesis research.
-Postdoctoral fellows: 2 years service at CIMMYT.
-Visiting and Associate scientists: up to 1 -year fellowships at CIMMYT.
In-Service
The in-service training program is now ten years old. Over 550 trainees from 58 countries have passed through the six-months course. About 7 out of 10 trainees specialize in production agronomy.
In 1980, 70 trainees from 33 countries participated ir one of the four in-service training programs. Of these, 48 participated in the production agronomy course, 12 in the maize improvement course, 5 in experiment station management, and 3 in the protein quality laboratory training.
The production training program emphasizes on-farm research. In addition to long hours of field work associated with on-farm surveys and experiments, the trainees are introduced to the integrated research strategies needed in a dynamic national maize production program.
In the maize improvement course, trainees are introduced to the range of breeding materials handled by CIMMYT in Mexico at our different experiment stations. Emphasis is given to the field research skills needed to design and manage a maize improvement program. This practical training is interspersed with participation in the agronomy experiments conducted by the production trainees on farmers' fields, and with classwork related to the breeding methodologies used by CIMMYT scientists.
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Maize in-service trainees 1971-80
1971- 1971Region and Country 80 1980 Region and Country 80 1980
Central America and South and East Asia (Con't)
Caribbean 163 13 Nepal 20 2
Belize 6 1 Pakistan 28 5
Costa Rica 10 0 Philippines 20 2
Dominica 1 0 Thailand 24 7
Dominican Republic 12 1 N. Africa and Mideast 36 5
El Salvador 22 0 Algeria 1 0
Grenada 1 0 Egypt 17 2
Guatemala 16 1 Syria 1 0
Guyana 1 0 Tunisia 3 0
Haiti 13 2 Turkey 11 3
Honduras 25 1 Yemen A.R. 3 0
Mexico 28 6 Tropical Africa 136 18
Nicaragua 17 1 Botsvana 2 1
Panama 11 0 Cameroon 1 0
South America 83 7 Ethiopia 4 1
Argentina 11 0 Ghana 14 6
Bolivia 10 0 Ivory Coast 4 0
Brazil 3 0 Kenya 5 2
Colombia 11 2 Malawi 2 1
Chile 2 0 Nigeria 12 0
Ecuador 18 1 Rwanda 1 0
Peru 20 3 Senegal 1 0
Venezuela 8 1 Swaziland 1 1
South and East Asia 130 26 Tanzania 52 2
Afghanistan 6 0 Transkei 1 1
Bangladesh 7 2 Uganda 1 0
India 10 1 Zaire 30 2
Indonesia 3 3 Zambia 5 1
Japan 7 2
Korea 2 0 Other 3 1
Malaysia 3 2 Total training fellows 551 70
Total countries 58 33
Graduate Student Training and Doctoral Fellows
During 1980-81, with outside financial sponsorship, CIMMYT is cooperating in the training of six master's degree candidates (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and Zaire); and two Ph.D candidates (Zaire). In addition, three predoctoral fellows3 (Tanzania and USA) are engaged in thesis research in Mexico and two postdoctoral fellows (Australia
and USA) are serving on the Maize Program staff.
36




Visiting Scientists
During 1980, the Maize Program received 22 visiting and associate scientists, who spent up to one year in Mexico. In 1980, CIMMYT also received many short-term visitors, often agricultural policy-makers and research administrators, who generally spent less than one week at CIMMYT.
MAIZE COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO
In 1980, scientists from most maize-growing countries of the world cooperated with CIMMYT scientists in germplasm development and exchange of research information. In a few collaborating countries CIMMYT has received special funds to assign staff members to work within a national program, usually during its more formative stages. A number of regional programs have also emerged among various maizegrowing countries and CIMMYT has posted staff to support these regional efforts.
National Programs
CIMMYT staff were working within four national programs at the end of 1980. These staff work on a daily basis with national program scientists in all aspects of maize improvement and production research and in training and staff development activities. One staff member assigned to the national maize program in Guatemala shifted in 1980 to a regional assignment for Central America and the Caribbean, although he still is based in Guatemala and works closely with the national program. A special report on the national maize research and production system followed in Guatemala is being prepared by CIMMYT for publication in mid 1981.
Cooperative Projects Involving National Programs, 1981
Start of CIMMYT
CIMMYT staff
Country arrangement assigned Donor
Zaire 1968 1 Zaire
Tanzania 1973 1 USAID/IITA
Ghana 1979 1 CIDA(Canada)
Pakistan 1979 1 USAID
37




Over 50 percent of Guatemala's lowland maize-growing area is now planted to improved varieties and hybrids developed by scientists in the national agricultural research institute IICTA). In 1980, the assignment of CIMMYT scientists to the natio nal maize program concluded, although CIMMYT's regional staff continue
close collaboration with Guatemalan maize researchers.
Regional Programs
A regional program helps to forge stronger links among national collaborators and with CIMMYT. Regional programs generally comprise neighboring countries in which maize is a major crop (or has the potential of being one), grown under similar conditions, and exposed to similar diseases and insects. Therefore, these countries benefit from closer collaborative research, training, and information activities.
Another research dimension in regional program activities involves the shifting of portions of CIMMYT's international breeding program to regional bases, with full cooperation of national scientists in each area. These collaborative research efforts are described under the individual regional program
reports which follow.
Central America and Caribbean Regional Program
The efforts of the maize staff assigned to this region are aimed at strengthening national maize improvement and production research programs.
38




Regional Maize Programs in 1981
Number of Start of CIMMYT
Region and cooperating CIMMYT staff Current
operations base countries arrangement assigned Donor
Central America 13 1974 2 Switzerland
and Caribbean (Mexico
and Guatemala)
South and 11 1976 1 UNDP
Southeast Asia
(Thailand)
Andean countries 5 1976 3 Core
(Colombia and Unrestricted
Ecuador)
Mideast 9 1979 1 Core
(Turkey) Unrestricted
West Africa 13 1980 1 Core
(Nigeria) Unrestricted
In 1980, regional staff assisted in the conducting of the international maize trials distributed to area countries. They also assisted in the assembly, distribution, and data evaluation of the PCCMCA (Programa Cooperativo Centroamericano para el Mejoramiento de Cultivos Alimenticios) trials distributed throughout the region.
In maize improvement, particular emphasis was placed on greater corn stunt resistance, adaptation to conditions of drought stress, improved husk cover and reduced ear rots, and on the development of earlier varieties. National programs in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama released varieties and/or hybrids in 1980 which carried CIMMYT-distributed germplasm in their parentage.
On-farm research continued to receive a major program focus, with weed control and minimum tillage methods given major emphasis.
The staff also assisted INCAP (Instituto de Nutrici6n de Centroam~rica y Panama) by providing sufficient quantities of quality protein maize materials to conduct an extensive research project on the human nutritional qualities of these materials.
39




A number of national production-oriented training
activities with assistance from the regional staff and CIMMYT headquarters training officers were carried out in 1980 in Honduras, Nicanrgua, and Jamaica. Consulting visits were
made to most of 1 he 13 countries in the region.
South and SouthEast Asian Regional Program
The operations base for this program was shifted in 1980
from India to Thailand. A maize pathologist, deputed from the Rockefeller Foundation, assumed CIMMYT's regional
responsibilities foi this area.
CIMMYT's downy mildew international breeding program will now be managed by this staff member. Activities will include disease screening and selection of resistant materials for intErnational testing. Added emphasis is also being given to the; development of earlier-maturity varieties.
CIMMYT's regional staff participated in national maize
workshops within the region. Continuing consulting assistance was also provided on ways to strengthen the commercial
market demand fcr maize within the region.
Andean Regional Program
CIMMYT has three maize scientists assigned to this
regional program: one is headquartered in Ecuador with responsibilities for highland floury maize breeding, and two are stationed in Colombia from where they support tropical maize breeding anl production research activities throughout
the region.
In the highland floury maize breeding program, seven
gene pools have now been assembled. The aim of this program is to develop high-yielding, widely adapted, earlier maturity floury m ize varieties with added insect and disease resistance. Some of the pools have now gone through two cycles of selection using a shuttle breeding system in which alternate improvement cycles are carried out in the same year by CIMMYT's Back-Up Unit staff in Mexico and also in Ecuador. In this scheme, selection pressure for ear rot and earworm is applied in Mexico, and for agronomic improvement in Ecuador. It is hoped that other Andean countries will soon participate more directly in the breeding scheme; Peruvian scientists have indicated that they will start
after the 1981-82 harvest.
40




Many collaborators have adopted CIMMYT's methodology for maize improvement. Shown above are Ecuadorian researchers who have completed 5 cycles of selection and recombination with the material, Tuxpeho P.B., using CIMMYT's modified half-sib breeding system.
A number of improved tropical maize varieties have now been developed by national program scientists using germplasm extracted from CIMMYT's international testing program. In total, nine high-yielding varieties were released in the region in 1979-80, and several more are slated for release in 1981.
On-farm research collaboration is receiving considerable attention by the CIMMYT regional agronomist. In particular, he has been active in assisting the national programs of Peru and Colombia in planning and implementing on-farm production research programs.
In addition to helping to identify candidates from national programs to attend in-service training courses in breeding and production at CIMMYT's headquarters, the regional staff has provided assistance in several maize training courses held in Colombia. CIMMYT's regional staff also assisted in the organization of the IX Andean Region Maize Workshop, held in 1980 in Maracay, Venezuela. Forty-five research paper were presented at the workshop, attended by most of the maize scientists working in the Andean region.
41




Mideast Regional Program
A CIMMYT maize scientist, formerly assigned to Egypt, was shifted to a regional post in 1979, with his operations
base in Turkey.
His efforts in Turkey focused on strengthening the population improvement research and on introducing and testing exotic germplasm for utilization in the program. Special improvement priorities included the development of varieties
with resistance to stalk-rot, leaf blight and stem borers.
In Egypt, after on-farm evaluations, a high-yielding, late-wilt resistant variety named Composite-2 (EV-2) was released. Nucleus and foundation seed were increased and a production pa:-kage was introduced through a pilot research/extension (ffort.
West African Regional Program
In 1980, CIMMYT posted a maize scientist to Nigeria as part of a cooperative regional effort with I ITA and West African national :)rograms. With this posting, CIMMYT has shifted its international breeding program for streak virus resistance to this rE'gional base, with full involvement of I ITA and West Africar maize scientists. Considerable priority is given to this research since streak virus is one of the most serious disease prcblems in Sub-Saharan tropical maize areas.
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wheat improvement
R. Glenn Anderson
1924-1981
A3




INTRODUCTION TO WHEAT PROGRAM
In February 1981, the agricultural scientific community lost one of its most dedicated and able members, Dr.R.Glenn Anderson, CIMPvYT's Wheat Program Director. His work has made a decisive difference in the welfare of millions of rural and urban poor in the developing world. His passing will be sorely missed jt CIMMYT and within the international network of wheat scientists he was so instrumental in forming.
His legacy to his fellow scientists lies in his conviction that agricultural scienists who strive for professional excellence and honesty, and who dedicate their talents to increasing food production, can make real contributions toward the mitigation of human suffering and the reduction of social
injustices.
The continu ng progress in wheat research made by the
CIMMYT staff, the international network of collaborating scientists, and the production records being set by developing country farmers provide us with optimism that wheat will continue to mak,; significant and growing contributions to
world food production during the 1980s.
The growth i i wheat production in the developing world
has been one of tie most significant achievements in agricultural development, of this century. The average production increase in the developing world of 4.6 percent per year over the last two decaJes could not have been possible without the research efforts made by thousands of dedicated wheat
scientists.
In the pages that follow, highlights of the 1980 activities of the CIMMYT Wheat Program staff are reported. More detailed descripticns of these activities can be found in our technical annual reports and various technical bulletins published each year.
Norman E. Borlaug
(Acting Director)
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WHEAT SUMMARY
Bread Wheat
The central objective of the bread wheat program is to develop widely adapted, management-responsive varieties with stable disease resistance. Breeding work continues on spring x winter crosses,enhanced aluminum toxicity resistance in certain lines, development of earlier high-yielding materials, and wheats for the coolest production season of the sub-tropics. Our breeding emphasis also continued to broaden toward the problems of rainfed agriculture.
Durum Wheat
CIMMYT has advanced durum lines with yield potential similar to the best bread wheats. Some research efforts are continuing to push yield potential higher, although the primary emphasis is on increasing the disease resistance and yield dependability of CIMMYT's durum materials.
Triticale
Triticale program objectives are to improve yield potential and agronomic type, to broaden adaptation, to improve grain test weights and bread-making quality, and to improve and/or maintain disease resistance. In 1980, the global area under commercial triticale production surpassed 1 million hectares for the first time.
Barley
CIMMYT works to improve barley as a human food. Our initial breeding work concentrated on the development of germplasm with high yield potential, wide adaptation, high nutritional quality, lodging resistance, and hull-less grain. Substantial progress has been made in all these research areas. Major emphasis is now being given to the development of greater disease resistance in the CIMMYT material.
Special Germplasm Development
Some potentially valuable germplasm carries negative attributes intermixed with desirable characters and is not readily usable in the conventional breeding programs. Special breeding efforts are undertaken to eliminate undersirable traits so that these materials can be reintroduced into the conventional breeding programs.
Wide Crosses
In 1980, this unit continued its wide cross research, working mainly on crosses between wheat and species of Agropyron and Elymus, and to a lesser extent on wheat x barley crosses. The purpose is to transfer useful genes from these genera into wheat to improve its
45




drought and salt tolerance, and resistance to important diseases. Barley is also being cross,,d to wheat to transfer genes for higher protein
quality and for specific disease resistance.
Milling and Baking Laboratory
In 1980, CIMMYT's cereal technologists evaluated the grain of thousands of bread wheat, durum, and triticale lines for their suitability in making bread, :)asta, and other products. Each line included in CIMMYT screening and yield nurseries has been assessed for grain
quality.
Pathology
The patholog'y group in Mexico is primarily responsible for artificially inoculating the CIMMYT nurseries to impart heavy disease pressure, assistance in selecting resistant lines, and for in-service pathology training. Special studies are also conducted to monitor changes in
the prevailing races :f rust for possible mutations.
Agronomy
The agronom' program in Mexico is responsible for research on some non site-spec:ific agronomic problems; development of weed control,fertilizer,an:J irrigation recommendations for CIMMYT nurseries;
and certain consultation and training support functions.
International Testin':
In 1980, collaborating scientists in 101 countries requested 1884 wheat, tritica e, and barley trials from 38 different wheat program nurseries. Moie early generation materials are being shared with scientists in national programs. More problem-specific nursery categories for early-maturity materials, dryland conditions, and special disease and
soil stress problems iave also been added.
Wheat Training
Fifty-three in- service trainees from 23 countries completed their 7 month, training programs at CIMMYT in 1980. Another 43 collaborating scientists visited CIMMYT during the year. Six postdoctoral fellows also served (n the staff, and CIMMYT cooperated in the wheat
training of 10 maste 's degree candidates.
Wheat Cooperative Frojects Outside Mexico
In 1980, one heatt scientist was assigned to the Pakistan wheat program and 8 CIMMYT wheat staff were working in regional programs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In regional programs considerable emphasis is being p aced on more specific production agronomy and
crop protection reserch activities.
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BREAD WHEAT
The total area in the developing world seeded to hundreds of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) that carry CIMMYT germplasm in their pedigrees now exceeds 35 million hectares. Spectacular rates in HYV adoption continue to be registered. Perhaps the most impressive recent production impact has been in Bangladesh, which has raised national production from 114,000 tons in 1975 to over 1.2 million tons in 1981.
The central objective of the CIMMYT bread wheat program continues to be the development of widely adapted, management-responsive, disease-resistant germplasm for worldwide distribution. Breeding emphasis has broadened over the years from an original emphasis on the development of semidwarf plant types with good rust resistance, towards the problems of rainfed wheat production, as well as a host of other disease and stress problems.
Due to CIMMYT's global involvement, the bread wheat program must confront the numerous problems associated with environmental variability. Consequently, a wide genetic base is maintained for characters such as yield, wide adaptation, industrial quality, and disease resistance. Sucessful development of germplasm to fit these diverse environments is a product of a well-planned crossing program, adequate selection, and a large worldwide network of collaborating scientists who participate in the international testing program.
We again acknowledge the continuing cooperation we receive from Mexico's Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas del Noroeste (CIANO), Ciudad Obregon, and from the scientists and other regional dependencies of Mexico's National Intitute for Agricultural Research (INIA). Their facilities and interested support play an important role in CIMMYT's breeding efforts.
Germplasm Development
Over 8,000 crosses were planned and made in the 1980 CIANO and Toluca breeding cycles. High-yielding cultivars from the Southern Cone and Andean regions of South America,the Indian subcontinent, and Africa were used as recurrent parents in the crossing program. These donor parents from different areas of the world provided germplasm carrying
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444
For the last two years, the spring x winter advanced line, Veery, has had the highest yield across all locations. Many national collaborators report that Veery selections
will soon be released as commercial varieties.
genes for specific characteristics, such as disease resistance,
good agronomic type, and superior industrial quality.
Added emphasis is being given to the development of
more management-responsive cultivars for those areas of the developing world with less favorable production environments, but where wheat cultivation is in the national interest. Added attention is being placed on the development of varieties to fit into more intensive cropping systems. Our efforts in the last decade to stabilize resistance in bread wheat to all three rusts-stem, leaf, and stripe-as well as to increase the resistance in CIMMYT germplasm to septoria have shown good progress, although work remains to be done. Our efforts to address more directly the problems of rainfed areas are showing production payoffs, particularly in Mediterranean Basin countries and Argentina. During the 1980s, the program will continue to help assure that new germplasm is continuously available with new sources of resistance when situations
require varietal replacements.
We are increasing our efforts to develop high-yielding
germplasm with higher levels of Helminthosporium sp., Septoria tritici, scab, and aluminum toxicity resistance. The potential payoff from these research efforts can have major
48




.production impacts in South America, Africa, and parts of Asia. With more broad-based disease resistance and greater tolerance to agroclimatic stresses, these countries can achieve major new expansions in national production through the introduction of improved (and appropriate) germplasm and proper agronomic practices.
Spring x Winter Wheats
CIMMYT is working in cooperation with Oregon State University (OSU) to transfer useful genes between spring and winter wheats. Through this crossing program, spring x winter lines are emerging which possess higher yield potential and greater environmental stability than straight spring x spring varieties. For the last two years in the international nurseries, spring x winter selections have posted the top yield performance accross all testing locations (see tables 4 and 5). These selections also appear to possess better resistance to Septoria tritici and stripe rust, as well as better drought tolerance.
Table 4. Average yield (kg/ha) of top two wheat varieties across all locations reporting data from the 15th ISWYN (1978-79) and 16th
ISWYN (1979-80)
1978-79 1979-80 X 0/0
Veery "S" 4477 4372 4424 119
Nacozari 76 4251 4265 4258 114
Nursery Mean 3778 3699 3724 100
Table 5. Yield (kg/ha) comparison of spring x winter line Veery "S" and the high-yielding variety Nacozari 76 for the years 1979 and
1980 in Cd. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico.
1979 1980
Veery "S" 8130 8349 8239
Nacozari 76 7900 8113 8006
Early-Maturing Wheats
Several major wheat-producing areas grow wheat in rotation patterns (e.g. rice-wheat) in which earlier-maturing wheat
49




varieties with high yield could better fit into these production systems. In cooperation with national programs, CIMMYT identified varieties such as Sonalika and Inia 66 during the 1960s. These varieties are both high yielding and very early maturing. Sonalika, a major variety in the Indian subcontinent,
is losing its resistance to leaf rust and must be replaced.
Disease-resisl:ant, early-maturing cultivars with yield potential similar to Sonalika have been identified in the CIMMYT germplasm. These have been made available to cooperators, particularly in Asia. In addition, CIMMYT is also encouraging other researchers, particularly rice breeders, to develop earlier
varieties in their rspective crops.
Cultivars for Highland Areas
Wheat production in the highlands of the Andes and East Africa has lagged behind the yield breakthroughs achieved in more favorable areas such as the irrigated plains of India and Mexico. Although the total area planted to wheat in these highland areas appears small when compared to other production environments, wheat is still an important food
source.
Highland environments are characterized by conditions conducive to high-intensity disease development. Stem and stripe rust are the most common yield constraints, followed
by septoria, fusarium and other foliar pathogens.
The CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program has limited
its involvement in highland germplasm development to observation and classification of existing germplasm for further testing by national programs. Currently 250 such advanced lines have been identified. CIMMYT also has regional programs operating irn both the highlands of South America and East Africa to confront these disease problems directly. With these staff members in place, regional disease priorities are
being given additional attention.
Aluminum Toxicity Tolerance
In 1974,CIMMYT signed formal agreements relating to
three breeding pr:)grams in Brazil for cooperative work on aluminum toxicity in wheat. This cooperative program involves the EMBRAPA, FECOTRIGO, and OCEPAR programs in Brazil. Crosses nade both in Mexico and Brazil are designed to incorporate hi!ih yield, rust and septoria resistance, and
50




semidwarf plant type into materials with tolerance to aluminum toxicity. Promising breeding materials are shuttled in each successive generation between Brazil and Mexico as part of the improvement program. In 1980, a new laboratory facility was added at El Batan to permit rapid preliminary screening for aluminum toxicity tolerance in relatively large amounts of breeding material. By the end of the 1980 season, 46 crosses with a variable number of sister selections per cross had been identified which had the sought-after combinations of good plant type, rust and septoria resistance, and aluminum toxicity tolerance.
Septoria Resistance
A criticism frequently voiced in the early 1970s was that CIMMYT germplasm lacked sufficient resistance to Septoria tritici, which regularly reaches epiphytotic proportions in the rainfed regions of North Africa and Argentina. Soon after its inception, CIMMYT became involved in testing for septoria resistance in cooperation with scientists from affected areas. This collaboration has served to identify a large number of lines with excellent septoria resistance. Breeding for septoria ressistance is being turther strengthened through the distribution of larger amounts of promising materials to areas where septoria is frequently a serious disease problem.
Helminthosporium Resistance
A number of wheat-importing countries situated in the sub-tropics--notably those in Central America, Brazil, West Africa, and Southeast Asia-are interested in growing wheat in their winter season, the period of coolest temperatures and lowest humidity. A serious disease constraint under these sub-tropical production conditions is leaf blotch, caused by several forms of helminthosporium. CIMMYT's work in previous years has identified some advanced lines that have some tolerance to this disease. Breeding work on this disease problem will now be stepped up through a special project grant from UNDP. We will use a "shuttle breeding" strategy in which resistant selections will be shuttled between experiment stations of national collaborators located in the warmer areas of Asia and South America, and the CIANO station in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. This system will allow for selection at an accelerated pace (two cycles per year) under
51




both high-disease and high-yield environments. Promising early generation materials were distributed in 1980 through the F2 Helmintiosporium Nursery to collaborators in 15
countries.
Slow Rusting
Stem rust resistance in CIMMYT bread wheats was stabilized in the late 1950s and has been retained. The opposite phenomenon ha, occurred with resistance to leaf rust. Resistant varieties at the time of release usually become susceptible after 2 to 3 years of commercial production. We have, however, observed an interesting characteristic in the varieties Torim 73 and Pzvon 76. Although each has become susceptible to leaf rust within 2 to 3 years after release, the intensity of infection has continued at relatively low levels. This type of host-parasite interaction is known as "slow rusting".
It represents a ty :)e of co-existence between the plant and the rust parasite, in which yields are not significantly depressed and the race of pathogen does not have to mutate in order to survive. Special attempts are being made to incorporate the slow-rusting characteristic of these varieties into future bread
wheat crosses.
International Testing
In 1980, eleven different types of bread wheat nurseries were distributed et the request of collaborators in more than
100 countries.
1980 Bread Wheat: Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation MIaterials
F2 Irrigated 513 59
F2 Dryland 643 59
F2 Septoria 85 20
F2 Aluminum 114 20
F2 Early 40 19
F2 Helminthosporium 43 15
IBWSN-International Bread Wheat Screening
Nursery 431 226
ISWYN-International Spring Wheat Yield
Nursery 50 97
ESWYT-Elite Springi Wheat Yield Trial 30 30
ISEPTON-Internaticnal Septoria Observation
Nursery 143 50
ALSN-Aluminum Screening Nursery 420 21
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Varietal Releases in 1980
In 1980, collaborators in five countries reported the release of seven new bread wheat varieties which carried CIMMYT-distributed germplasm in their pedigrees.
Bangladesh (1) Guatemala (1)
Bolivia (2) Tunisia (2)
Ethiopia (1)
DURUM WHEAT
Worldwide, durum wheat is grown on about 30 million hectares, usually under rainfed conditions and with low average yield. The most important production areas are found in the Mediterranean region, the Mideast, India, Argentina, Chile, USSR, Canada, and the USA. Durum is used in making pasta products and in making certain types of unleavened bread products.
Yield Potential
CIMMYT has advanced durum lines that now frequently yield above 8 t/ha in northwest Mexico. Results of recent international trials, 10th IDYN (1978-79) and 11th IDYN (1979-80), showed stable average yields across all locations of 4,137 kg/ha, 4,019 kg/ha, 4,634 kg/ha, and 4,545 kg/ha, respectively, for Yavaros "S", Cormorant "S", Bittern "S", and Mallard "S". Some research efforts are continuing to push yield potential higher, although most of our scientists' work is on increasing the disease resistance and yield dependability of CIMMYT's durum materials.
Resistance to Diseases
Progress in developing durums with good stripe rust resistance has been quite successful. More resistance is needed, however, for leaf rust, and much more for stem rust. Recent data from international testing indicate that progress is being made for resistance to leaf rust and stem rust.
As the world durum area expands, other diseases are becoming serious threats. Nearly all semidwarf durums show high levels of susceptibility to Septoria tritici, head scab, and
53




Njyu.
Worldwide, durum wheat is grown on about 30 million hectares. Experimental yields of CIMMYT's advanced lines are now at a par with our best bread wheats.
Major research objectives now are to increase the disease resistance and yield
dependability of CIMMYT's durum lines.
the barley yellow dwarf virus. Much greater emphasis is being placed on screening for resistant germplasm in disease hot
spot areas.
Improvement of Other Agronomic Characters
Work continues to incorporate added cold tolerance into durums, mainly using cold-resistant durum materials from Turkey. Materials from various sources and origins are also searched every growing season for earliness and fast maturity.
Crosses are being made to combine these traits with other desirable characters. Plants with stronger straw in semidwarf medium-to-tall types are selected every season to improve
straw strength in all materials.
Leaf area, leaf position, and canopy continue to receive research attention to permit better utilization of light and water, and possibly reduced incidence of certain diseases.
Efforts continue in the modification of the head architecture in durums to increase yield potential and to permit faster drying in durums after rain and mist, thus reducing conditions for incidence of head-rotting diseases. Progress has
54




been made in developing long-lax and semi-lax heads with greater spacing between spikelets, traits which reduce the incidence of these disease problems.
Industrial Quality
Although about half of the world's durum wheat production is used for home consumption, a number of developing countries are in a position to produce durums for export to Europe and other regions. To be readily marketable, these durum wheats must have a high grain test weight, large size grains, and good macaroni color.
CIMMYT's cereal quality laboratory staff routinely screens new high-yielding lines to help identify parents which do not lose quality characters during macaroni processing. Today, the carotene content in many CIMMYT lines compares favorably with the best American macaroni durums.
International Testing
In 1980, CIMMYT distributed seven OiigieI,1L aurum nurseries to collaborators in 94 countries.
1980 Durum Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation Materials
F2 Irrigated 199 36
F2 Dryland 259 50
F2 Cold Tolerance 61 47
CB-Crossing Block 295 36
IDSN-International Durum Screening Nursery 233 94 IDYN-International Durum Yield Nursery 30 82
EDYT-Elite Durum Yield Trial 30 69
New Varieties Released in 1980
During 1980, collaborators in eight countries reported the release of 13 new varieties which carried CIMMYTdistributed germplasm in their parentage.
Argentina (1) India (3)
Cyprus (1) Kenya (3)
Egypt (1) Mexico (1)
Ethiopia (1) Tunisia (2)
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TRITICALE
CIMMYT continues its research on the man-made crop triticale-a cross of wheat and rye. Interest in triticale as a crop continues to grow. The area under commercial production is now abou: one million hectares. Most triticale production is in the developed world, with the USSR being the largest single pro:Jucer. CIMMYT considers that it is logical for developed ccuntries to be the first to enter into commercial production, since they are better able to carry out the adaptive research needed to get triticale into use. Nevertheless, such countries as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, India, Kenya, and Tanz.ania are becoming increasingly involved in triticale research End in promoting more national production.
The main objectives of CIMMYT's triticale breeding program are to improve yield potential and agronomic type, to broaden the ar.ea of adaptation, to improve the grain test weight and bread naking quality of the grain, and to improve
and/or maintain d sease resistance.
Yield and Adaptalion
The yielding ability of the best triticales is on a par with
the best-yielding bread wheat varieties in the Yaqui Valley of northwest Mex co. In international testing, triticale checks in bread wheat and durum yield nurseries frequently yield more the wheat entries. In the 11th ITYN (1979-80), Beaguelita "S" and Ram "S" had average yields across all locations of 4,624 kg/ha and 4,534 kg/ha, respectively, compared to 4,2053 kg/ha for the bread wheat check variety
Pavon 76.
Since triticale has shown greater dry matter production
than wheat, a repartitioning to grain may push maximum yield potential to higher levels than those attainable in wheat.
Most triticales are still too tall and too late-maturing to suit farmers. Although semidwarf types have been developed, they have tended to have lower yield potential and lower grain test weights compared to the taller types. Our scientists now are experiencing success in efforts to combine high yield
potential and high :est weight in the dwarf plant stature.
Triticale strains generally flower as early as wheat, but
they mature more ,lowly, making them too long in season for
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4
Triticale is now planted on over 1 million hectares, mostly in developed countries. A number of developing countries are increasing their research attention to this new man-made crop, which can considerably outyield wheat in certain production environments (e.g. those with acid soils and/or cool highland climates).
many potential production areas (e.g. hills area of the Himalayas). We are following two approaches to develop earliermaturing varieties. One involves crossing different triticales and selecting for earliness. The other involves finding early, light-insensitive ryes, since the rye parent may be the cause of the relative "lateness",of triticales.
Preharvest sprouting is another problem delaying acceptance of triticale in areas where the conditions at harvest time are moist. Improvements in tolerance to preharvest sprouting have recently been made in cooperation with INIA scientists working in the Patzcuaro region of Michoacan, Mexico. Our most promising sources of resistance to sprouting appear to be winter-type triticales, some spring types from Brazil, and some ryes recently developed in northern Europe.
Seed Type and Test Weight
Improved test weight (kg weight of grains per hectoliter) in triticale grain is a central objective of the research program. It has been relatively easy to find triticales that produce high
57




test weights unde the best conditions, but when grown under adverse conditions, the test weights drop sharply. Recent data on test weight, based on Mexican and international testing, show some triticales with good and stable test weight
within 90 percent of the bread wheat variety Pavon 76.
Only two countries (USA and Canada) have set milling
industry standards for the test weight of triticale-70 kg/hl.
Numerous CIMMYT lines meet this standard. While CIMMYT supports the setting of standards, we do not think that triticale must produce a grain identical to wheat to meet
standards of acceptance.
Disease Resistance
Triticales continue to demonstrate their high level of resistance to the th ee rusts, to several smuts, and to powdery mildew. Good sources of resistance to septoria have been
identified; selection for resistance should not be a problem.
Some of the minor wheat diseases have been more of a
problem for triticales. Bacterial blights often cause problems. Heavy attacks of head scab have occurred in certain areas of Africa and South America. Resistance to scab is rare in small grains. Brazil has some lines with some tolerance to
scab, and CIMMYT is initiating crosses with those lines.
In general, triticale has few problems with disease, at
least to date. In Kenya, many wheat varieties require fungicides for commercial production, while triticale needs no
fungicide application for successful production.
Widening the Germplasm Base
We continue to introduce more genetic variation into
materials in the triticale program by producing new primary triticales and through introductions from other triticale programs around t:he world. Most materials in the CIMMYT triticale program are durum wheat x rye crosses. In 1978, we started to look at bread wheat x rye crosses as a means to improve the seed quality in triticale. The work with bread wheat x rye triticales is too new to have many results, although reports from China indicate that these triticales may have
considerable prom se.
We are particularly interested in using improved rye
germplasm in our crossing program, particularly early and
dwarf ryes.
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We are also using winter-type triticales from programs in Europe and North America in crosses with spring types. These spring x winter crosses have been especially useful in selections for forage-type triticales.
Industrial Quality
Our milling and baking laboratory continues to work closely with the triticale breeding program to improve grain quality in triticale. Significant progress has been made. We now have triticales that approach the quality of wheat on two major characteristics: flour yield and loaf volume. Selection for grain hardness has resulted in a number of triticale strains that approach the hardness of wheat. With these recent improvements we are now making crosses specifically aimed at further improving the industrial quality of triticale.
International Testing
In 1980, seven different triticale nurseries were distributed to collaborators in nearly 100 countries.
1980 Triticale Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation Materials
F2 Irrigated 327 35
F2 Dryland 389 44
F2 Spring x Winter 73 69
ITSN-International Triticale Screening Nursery 285 145 ITYN-International Triticale Yield Nursery 25 112
TDRN-Triticale Disease Resistance Nursery 92 17
Forage Lines 105 14
Varietal Releases in 1980
Two developed countries, Australia and Canada, each released new triticale varieties in 1980 which carried CIMMYTdistributed germplasm in their pedigrees. Four developing countries have also released new varieties in the last two years.
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BARLEY
In 1972, CIVIMYT began to improve barley for use as a
human food. Thi, program is conducted in collaboration with ICARDA. After almost eight years of breeding, the barley program at CIM'IYT has entered a new research phase. In its initial stages, program scientists were largely involved in the generation of gErmplasm with high yield potential, wide adaptation, high nutritional quality, lodging resistance, and hull-less grain. Substantial progress has been made in all these research areas. VVhile these previous research areas are not being left aside, A major emphasis is being given to the development of greater disease resistance in CIMMYT's germplasm.
Disease Resistance
In the 1980 summer cycle at El Batan, artificial epidemics were created for leaf rust and scald. Several resistant selections were identified. Some progress was also made toward identifying germplasm with resistance to the barley yellow dwarf virus and to loose smut. All these materials will be further tested io assess resistance in disease hot spot areas, in collaboration with regional program staff and national
collaborators.
Hull-less Grain
Breeding foi hull-less types has been an important
objective in the barley program. At present, the hull-less character is spread across 35 percent of our breeding material.
A number of advanced hull-less lines now have a yield potential
above 5 t/ha.
Spring x Winter Crosses
Our barley spring x winter crossing programs offers new
germplasm prospEcts for areas where neither the straight spring nor the straight winter types are well adapted. Such is the case in countries bordering the Mediterranean where CIMMYT barley germplasm to date has not been well-suited because of early maturing characteristics. For the first time in 1980, spring x winter crosses were sent to more than 50 locations having Ic ng growing cycles. Subsequent observation
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wIfV ..
High-yielding barley materials for human consumption have been developed by ClMMYT scientists. Our major breeding emphasis is now to increase the disease resistance of these materials.
of this material showed that these crosses were far superior in adaptation and yielding ability than straight spring x spring crosses.
Early Maturity
Early maturity barley lines that are 30 to 40 days earlier to harvest and can yield in the 3.5 to 4.5 t/ha range were again identified in 1980. More extensive multilocational testing of these materials by national collaborators is now under way. These early barleys may prove to be particularly valuable for farmers located in low-moisture or short-season environments.
Nutritional Quality
Improvement of the nutritional value of the barley crop is one of the objectives of the program. With the addition of the high-lysine gene from the variety Hiproly, several advanced lines have been developed which have considerably higher total protein and protein quality levels than are normally found in barley. Forty-nine of these protein quality lines
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were included in a special crossing block which was distributed in 1980 to scientists in 15 countries.
International Testing
The number of requests from national collaborators for
barley nurseries continues to increase. In 1980, eight different nurseries were distributed to collaborators in barley-growing
regions.
1980 Barley Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation Mate ials
F2 Spring x Spring 415 50
F2 Spring x Winter 280 43
F2 Andean Zone 209 15
CB-Crossing Block (Normal) 412 50
CB-Crossing Block (NLtritional Quality) 49 15
IBON-International Bzrley Observation Nursery 375 96 IBYT-International Ba'ley Yield Trial 50 88
Miscellaneous 552 40
Varietal Releases in 1980
In 1980, collaborators in two countries reported the release of new varieties which carried CIMMYT-distributed
germplasm in their parentage.
Bolivia (2) Cyprus (1)
SPECIAL GERMPLASM DEVELOPMENT
In CIMMYT's conventional breeding programs, experimental lines are evaluated simultaneously for many desirable traits. Lines that cirry a particular character useful to the breeder, but one that is intermixed with large numbers of undesirable traits, are usually rejected. In order to capitalize on potentially valuaole germplasm, staff in this unit attempt to transfer useful genes into lines with good agronomic characters. The recruiting lines are then reintroduced as
parents within the conventional breeding programs.
These efforts in special germplasm development are described below.
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Protein Improvement
The protein content in wheat flour ordinarily falls in the range of 10 to 12 percent, reasonably good among cereals. Nevertheless, efforts continued in 1980 to develop bread wheat lines with higher levels of total protein and protein quality. Lines have been identified with high protein levels in their grain (18 to 20 percent) and good agronomic characters. These lines, however, are generally low-yielding and susceptible to many diseases. Crosses were made during 1980 between high protein and high-yielding lines. Some success was achieved in combining both traits into some of the resulting progenies.
Tolerance to Aluminum Toxicity
The staff continued their work to develop high-yielding semidwarf wheat germplasm with tolerance to aluminum toxicity and improved disease resistance. Progress has been achieved in this research area in developing resistant materials in good agronomic backgrounds. The major emphasis now is on increasing the disease resistance and yielding ability of the selections.
Rust Resistance
Work continued in 1980 to improve the rust resistance of bread wheat lines. Various lines from the Agatha x Yecora 70 cross have been identified that are high-yielding and have excellent leaf rust resistance. Our scientists believe that this high level of resistance is due to the pyramiding of two important genes, Lr.9 and Lr.19, which confer to wheat greater resistance to leaf rust.
Sawfly Resistance
Work is under way to develop solid stem high-yielding durum and bread wheat varieties for areas in North Africa where sawflies are causing yield losses ip normal semidwarf varieties. A tall, late-maturing variety, Fortuna, with a slender solid stem is being used in crosses with high-yielding, earliermaturing semidwarf varieties. Progenies are now available which combine the solid stem character into high-yielding materials.
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Yield Components
The number of grains per spikelet and spikelets per head
are not the only factors determining grain yields. However, CIMMYT scientists have been pursuing research activities to determine if maximum yield potential might be pushed even higher with longer, more grain-filled heads. Grain-filling (plumpness) continues to be the major drawback in wheat materials which 'iave a large head size. The tillering ability also diminishes a:; head size becomes larger. Some lines with large heads and more profuse tillering ability have now been
identified.
Triticale x Wheat Crosses
Crosses betNeen triticale and wheat are directed at
stabilizing dwarfism in CIMMYT's triticale lines and improving the plumpness of triticale seed have been under way in this unil for several years. Some progenies from a triticale x bread wheat cross have shown good stability for
dwarfism, greater earliness, and improved seed type.
New Primary Trilicales
New crosses of bread wheat x rye and durum wheat x rye
are being made to improve the agronomic and grain characteristics of triti(ale. Some of the wheat lines selected as parents have a Iarger seed size and more acceptable semidwarf stature than materials previously used. New ryes derived from the variety Snoopy are being used that are semidwarf, have greater earliness, and possess larger seed size.
Through the crossing of parents that both have improved plant and grain characteristics, our scientists hope to improve
the deficient traits still affecting triticale.
WIDE CROSSES
In 1980, this unit continued its wide cross research,
working mainly on wheat (Triticum aestivum) x Elymus giganteus, wheat :< Agropyron species, and to a lesser extent on wheat x barle' (Hordeum vulgare), and barley x Elymus
species.
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In the Wheat Program, our wide cross researchers are placing greater emphasis on wheat x Elymus crosses. The objective is to incorporate into wheat the soil, disease, and environmental stress tolerance characteristics of Elym us. Shown above is a partially fertile wheat x Elymus hybrid (left) from this crossing program. Backcrossing to wheat will help to improve the hybrid further, as shown on the right.
The purpose of this research is to transfer useful genes from other genera into wheat. At present, our scientists are more interested in attaining subtle alien gene transfers to wheat. E. giganteus is being used to transfer to wheat greater drought and salt tolerance, and resistance to leaf-spotting diseases. Barley has genes for higher protein, greater lysine
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levels, and resistance to barley yellow dwarf. Agropyron species have geres for rust resistance, salt tolerance, and barley yellow dwarf resistance which could improve the environmental stability of wheat. Agropyron and E/ymus species are also being screened for genes for fusarium and helminthosporium resistance, simultaneously with the development of hybrid combinations.
Wheat x Elymus Giganteus
E. giganteus (2n=28) is a Asian grass that is resistant to
soil and environmental stresses, and is virtually free of all leaf-spotting diseases. It has been hybridized with wheat, and the hybrid, when pollinated by wheat, has produced the BCI progeny. The second backcross (wheat-E. giganteuswheat x wheat) produced BCII progenies that were partially self-fertile and set: from 35 to 80 percent BCIII seed when backcrossed to wheat. The E/ymus chromosomes can be identified by the C-banding technique. BCIV progenies are to be produced in 1981 and our cytological emphasis shall be devoted to identifying the individual E/ymus chromosomes added to wheat. Tolerance tests for stress and diseases are
also scheduled.
High Protein and lysine Improvement
Several barley, varieties crossed with wheat have produced
hybrids. Backcro:;sing the male-sterile hybrids to wheat formed backcross I (BCI) progeny. The BCI plants carry the complete wheat genetic information (42 chromosomes) and some barley information (up to 7 chromosomes or half of the barley chromosomes). The material has been
advanced up to BC11 with promising results.
Wheat x Agropyroi Hybrids
Agropyron 6/ongatum (2n=70) and A. distichum
(2n=28) are salt tolerant sources based upon their habitat, although the genel:ic mechanism for tolerance has not been identified. Hybrid!; of A. elongatum with durum and bread wheat varieties have been made and will be analyzed for tolerance response after single alien chromosomes have been added to wheat. .1. distichum has been hybridized by Dr.
Pienaar (South Africa) with durum and bread wheat.
CIMMYT received amphiploid and BCI seeds of these hybrids
66




as part of a germplasm exchange agreement. We will continue our efforts to introduce other commercial wheat germplasm into the advanced BC progenies, to develop 'addition' lines, and to test for salt tolerance.
MILLING AND BAKING LABORATORY
The Milling and Baking Laboratory evaluates the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat, triticale, and barley lines for the suitability in making bread, tortillas, chapatis, cookies, spaghetti, and other products.
In 1980, the gluten strength was evaluated in thousands of early-generation bread wheat lines previously selected on the basis of good grain type. The early screening for grain type results in few advanced lines with low test weight. As a standard procedure, advanced materials were evaluated for test weight, milling qualities, protein percentage, gluten strength, and baking qualities.
The grain of several thousand durum lines was evaluated for pigment (carotenoids) content. Today, most of CIMMYT's advanced lines compare favorably in carotene content with the best American macaroni durums.
In the advanced triticale lines, average flour yield is now about 68 percent, with some lines reaching 73 percent (good bread wheats have flour yields of 70 percent). Some triticale lines are showing good bread- and chappati-making qualities; many triticales provide flour that is actually superior for making cookies.
Some hull-less barley lines have been identified that make suitable flour which can be used in 20 percent mixtures with wheat flour to make acceptable bread.
PATHOLOGY
There are about 40 species of fungi, bacteria, and viruses that are parasitic to wheat, barley, and triticale. These pathogens are responsible for diseases which can cause major reductions in yield among the small grains.
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Our wheat pathologists provide data on disease reactions in CIMMYT gernplasm undergoing improvement. The pathology group is res:)onsible for artificially inoculating nurseries grown in Mexic:) to impart heavy disease pressure so that breeders can se ect disease resistant lines. In turn, these resistant lines ar. crossed to agronomically desirable plants with good yield potential, and promising progenies are then distributed to breeding programs around the world
through the international screening nurseries.
Studies in Mexico
Special stucies are conducted in Mexico on wheat leaf rust and stem ruit using two independent approaches. First, lines which carry a single resistant gene to leaf rust or to stem rust are planted where CIMMYT nurseries are grown. Natural rust infections ire allowed to gauge the environmental ceiling for infection. In the second approach, rust derived from field samp es is inoculated onto appropriate sets of lines in the seedling stage to monitor changes in different virulent types of leaf and stem rust. The objective of these studies is to continuously monitor changes in prevailing races of rust for possible mutations which would lead to new disease outbreaks to which CIMMYT lines might be susceptible.
Training Activities
This group also cooperates closely in the in-service
pathology training programs. In 1980, six national program pathologists completed the seven-month training course in Mexico on pathology research techniques. CIMMYT's regional pathology workshops held during 1980 also received resource
support from the headquarters-based staff.
AGRONOMY
CIMMYT's aljronomy program in Mexico serves three
interwoven purpo:;es. One responsibility is in training: for new staff and po,;tdoctoral fellows in agronomic principles and practices to prepare them for regional assignments; and for young scientists in the in-service production agronomy
68




;lit
r I**
Increased collaboration and consultation in production agronomy research are expanding program activities at ClMMYT. Given the area-specific nature of most agronomic problems, the majority of CIMMYT's production research activities are carried out under regional program auspices.
courses. A second function is in the development of weed control, fertilizer, and irrigation recommendations for the CIMMYT nurseries grown at the major stations used in Mexico. Third, research is carried out on some agronomic problems that are not entirely site-specific allowing results of work done in Mexico to be applied elsewhere.
Training
A successful in-service training program was continued in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, for agronomists from irrigated areas. The course included agronomic trials on the CIANO experiment station as well as on farmers' fields. CIMMYT wheat agronomists also assisted in the rainfed wheat production agronomy course which is carried out mainly on farmers' fields in the high plateau areas around El Batan in the summer season (May to November).
Nursery Management
Weed control problems at the Toluca, CIANO and El Batan stations continued to be addressed by the staff agrono69




mists. A variety :)f herbicides were tested and some showed promise in providing greater weed control within the nurseries. Routine fertilizer trials at El Batan, Toluca and CIANO stations sought to monitor the fertilizer requirements for the
breeders' nurserie:;.
Other Research A::tivities
Over the las: eight years, a series of nitrogen x variety
trials have been conducted to determine the interaction of this nutrient wil h different varieties. With no nitrogen applied, and at low levels of application, the tall, medium tall, and semidwarf varieties had very similar yields. In some cases, the newer semidwarf varieties were slightly superior to the tall varieties. As nitrogen was increased, the yield advantage of the newer semidwarfs became much more apparent.
Among the semidwarf varieties released from CIMMYT germplasm there was no significant nitrogen-by-variety interaction, demonstrating that lines with high inherent yield potential will express their superiority under whatever
fertility condition. are prevalent.
An integrated weed control experiment began in late
1979 to compare the effects of various methods-cultural and chemical-to control two problem weeds, (Phalaris and wild
oats). The trial is scheduled to run for four years.
INTERNATIONAL. TESTING
In 1980, collaborating scientists in 101 countries requested
1884 trials of what, triticale, and barley from 38 different CIMMYT wheat pr:)gram nurseries. Each nursery consists of a set of varieties, lies or populations-sometimes as many as 600 entries-which are constituted to serve the breeding requirements of collaborators for particular production environments and disease problems. In recent years, CIMMYT has shared more and more early generation (F2) materials with scientists in national programs. In addition, a number of regional nurseries- mainly used for disease screening and surveillance-have been operating in North Africa, the Middle East and parts of /sia (in collaboration with ICAR DA), and in South America. (These are discussed under the regional
programs section.)
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Bread wheat, durum, triticale and barley nurseries distributed by the international nurseries program in 1980.
Bread Triti- Bread Tritiwheat Durum cale Barley wheat Durum cale Barley
Latin America 159 76 111 88 East Asia 102 45 57 68
Argentina 19 19 10 7 Afghanistan 1 1
Bolivia 8 9 5 6 Bangladesh 11 5 4 5
Brazil 36 2 18 3 Bhutan 2 4 1 2
Chile 19 10 11 7 Burma 1 1 1
Colombia 3 3 5 China 9 2 7 2
Costa Rica 3 2 1 India 23 19 8 15
Dominican Republic 2 2 1 Japan 2 -- -Ecuador 11 8 10 10 Korea, North 1 1 1
Guatemala 2 1.. -- Korea, South 6 2 3 9
Guyana 4 2 -- Mongolia 1 1 1
Mexico 30 16 33 25 Nepal 8 2 3
Paraguay 7 2 1 Pakistan 21 12 16 14
Peru 11 12 10 20 Philippines 6 1 6 1
Uruguay 2 1 1 Sri Lanka 1 4
Venezuela 2 1 1 Taiwan 2 1 1
Thailand 6 4 8
Vietnam 1 1 1
Africa 150 92 77 82 Oceania 10 7 9 2
Algeria 10 18 6 11 Australia 7 4 7
Angola 2 1 2 1 New Zealand 3 3 2 2
Botswana 2 3
Burundi 1 2 Europe 90 94 92 61
Cameroon 6 2 1 Albania 3 4 3 3
Centr. Afr. Rep. 1 1 -- Austria -- 3 2 1
Egypt 10 12 7 10 Belgium 1 -Ethiopia 15 8 6 9 Bulgaria 1 1 3
Kenya 10 7 7 7 Czechoslovakia 2
Libya 1 3 2 England 2 1 1
Madagascar 3 2 4 Finland 1
Malawi 8 3 2 France 2 5 8 7
Mali 1 1 1 Germany,F.Rep. 4 4 3 4
Morocco 7 12 6 10 Greece 7 7 6 7
Mozambique 4 2 1 Hungary 4 4 4 -Niger 1 1 Ireland 2 ..-. .
Nigeria 3 5 1 2 Italy 5 19 8 2
Rwanda 2 3 -. Malta 6 -- 5
Senegal 3 3 1 1 Netherlands 1 1
Somalia 2 2 Norway 3 2 3
South Africa 16 6 7 7 Poland 8 1 12 4
Sudan 8 1 3 1 Portugal 7 5 5 4
Tanzania 11 2 3 1 Rumania 6 3 9 3
Tunisia 6 8 2 7 Spain 20 23 16 8
Uganda 2 1 1 Sweden 3 1 3
Upper Volta 2 1 Switzerland 1 3
Zaire 2 2 USSR 2 2 1 1
Zambia 7 3 Yugoslavia 6 6 3 6
Zimbabwe 4 2 2 2
North America 51 28 51 32
Mideast 58 81 48 63 Canada 13 6 16 13
Cyprus 3 4 3 4 USA 38 22 35 19
Iran 1 2 1
Iraq 2 3 2
Israel 9 6 2 4 TOTALS:
Jordan 6 10 3 9
Lebanon 2 6 2 5 Countries 97 61 84 79
Quatar 1 1 1 1 Locations 620 423 445 396
Saudi Arabia 3 4 3 3
Syria 17 27 24 19
Turkey 12 18 10 15
Yemen 2
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National program collaborators are free to use any of
the materials inc uded in a nursery. When material from the international nurseries is released as a commercial variety in a particular country, CIMMYT requests that the origin of the germplasm be recognized. Further, varieties originating from CIMMYT germpl sm are not protected by patents or plant
breeder's rights.
The most widely distributed international nurseries of
CIMMYT are the international screening and yield nurseries.
International ScrEening Nurseries
These nurseiies involve the most advanced lines which
are grown in double rows for observation and evaluation.
The objectives of screening nurseries are:
(1) To provide cooperating scientists with an opportunity
to assess the performance of new advanced lines being developed in CIMMYT's wheat, triticale and barley
breeding pro rams.
(2) To supply cooperators and CIMMYT scientists with
information on the performance of new materials under
a wide range of climatic and disease conditions.
(3) To release sources of genetic variability which cooperators may Use directly or in crosses with their own
materials.
International Yield Nurseries
Yield nurser es differ from screening nurseries in that
the materials tested are grown in replicated yield trials. The
objectives of yield nurseries are:
(1) To provide research workers developing new varieties
with an opportunity to assess the performance of their advanced breeding lines over a wide range of climatic,
cultural and Cisease conditions.
(2) To serve as a source of fundamental information on
adaptation.
(3) To allow local research and extension workers to
compare the performance of new varieties from many
countries.
(4) To provide cooperators with new sources of genetic
variability wfich may be used directly or as parents for
new crosses.
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WHEAT TRAINING
A trend observed in recent years-growing enrollment in
the production agronomy training courses-continued in
1980. Numbers participating in the six in-service training
courses were:
Course Number of Trainees
Wheat Breeding 16
Wheat Pathology 6
Cereal Technology 2
Rainfed Wheat Agronomy 10
Irrigated Wheat 15
Experiment Station Management 4
Origin of Wheat In-Service Trainees, 1966-80.
1966- 19661980 1980* 1980 1980*
Latin America 159 8 Ethiopia 12 1
Argentina 14 0 Kenya 7 0
Bolivia 14 1 Lesotho 1 0
Brazil 18 0 Madagascar 1 1
Chile 11 3 Malagasy 1 0
Colombia 5 0 Malawi 2 0
Dominican Republic 1 0 Mali 2 1
Ecuador 18 2 Nigeria 15 1
Guatemala 8 0 Rmanda 2 0
Guyana 1 0 Senegal 1 1
Honduras 1 0 Somalia 1 0
Mexico 44 0 Tanzania 5 1
Panama 1 0 Zaire 2 G
Paraguay 6 1 Zambia 6 1
Peru 16 1
Uruguay 1 0 South, Southeast
and East Asia 135 22
North Africa Afghanistan 13 0
and Mideast 196 15 Bangladesh 3D 6
Algeria 52 3 Burma 1 1
Cyprus 1 0 India 18 4
Egypt 14 2 Korea 10 1
Iran 8 G Nepal 15 3
Iraq 5 0 Pakistan 46 7
Jordan 6 1 Philippines 2 D
Lebanon 4 G
Libya 4 0 Other Countries 20 1
Morocco 20 2 France 1 0
Saudi Arabia 2 1 Hungary 2 0
Sudan 3 0 Poland 3 0
Syria 7 1 Portugal 2 0
Tunisia 26 2 Rumania 2 0
Turkey 40 3 Spain 3 1
Yemen 3 0 USA 4 0
USSR 3 0
Africa, South of
the Sahara 59 TOTAL: Countries 62 27
Cameroon 1 0 Individuals 569 53
Chad 1 0
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In-services trainees in the rainfed production agronomy course conduct all of their research trials on farmers' fields. Here, a group of trainees are inter-planting a barley trial between a farmer's Maguey plants, in keeping with the prevailing
practices in the high plateau area where the trainees are working.
Close to 600 agricultural scientists from 62 countries have now completed one of CIMMYT's in-service training
cou rses.
Visiting scientists
CIMMYT received 43 scientists in 1980 who came to visit the wheat program during the winter season in Sonora, Mexico; 10 other visiting scientists visited the El Batan headquarters and Toluca during the summer season. Their main purposes were to collect germplasm, to discuss various improvement problems, and to discuss strategies for accelerating wheat production around the world. The People's Republic of China also sent four participants as part of an ongoing program of scientific exchange.
Graduate Student Training and Doctoral Fellows
During 1980-81, with outside financial sponsorship, CIMMYT is cooperating in the training of ten master's degree candidates (Algeria and Peru). In addition, six postdoctoral fellows (France, Fed. Republic of Germany, Mexico, and
USA) are serving on the Wheat Program staff.
A4




COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO
Most of CIMMYT's wheat staff posted outside Mexico were assigned to regional programs. Only one staff member was working in a national program assignment-in Pakistan. His work focused mainly on production agronomy research. In 1980, three staff members assumed new regional responsibilities in North and West Africa, in South and Southeast Asia, and in cooperation with ICARDA. In total, the wheat program had staff assigned to seven regional programs in 1980.
Regional Wheat Programs in 1980
Wheat region Number of Start of CIMMYT
and cooperating CIMMYT staff Current
operations base countries arrangement assigned Donor
Disease Surveillance 22 1973 1 Nether(Turkey) lands
Eastern and Southern Africa 17 1976 1" Core Un(Kenya) restricted
Andean Countries 5 1976 1 Core Un(Ecuador) restricted
Southern Cone 6 1978 2 Japan/
(Chile) CIMMYT
North and West Africa 19 1980 1 Core Un(Portugal) restricted
ICARDA 11 1980 1 Core Un(Syria) restricted
South and Southeast Asia 12 1980 1 Core Un(Thailand) restricted
A Dutch associate scientist is assigned to these regions.
Disease Surveillance Regional Program
This program is funded by the Government of the Netherlands and is operated in cooperation with our sister institute, ICAR DA. The problems of wheat diseases in an area stretching from Morocco to East Africa to the Indian subcontinent con tinue to be the major activity for the CIMMYT staff assigned to this program. In addition to normal regional program activities related to consultation and training assistance, these
75




CIMMYT regional staff are working on two unique projects: a disease surveillknce-early warning system for the region and a series of in-ser\ ice pathology workshops focused on practical field and laboratory methods for inoculation, screening,
and identification of disease resistant lines.
The regiona disease surveillance program staff pioneered
the use of two w dely distributed nurseries to gather information and monitcr disease situations throughout the region.
These nurseries are the Regional Disease and Insect Screening Nursery (RDISN) and the Regional Disease Trap Nursery (RDTN). The RDISN, which is distributed in cooperation with ICARDA tc about 50 locations in more than 30 countries, consists of advancedd lines of bread wheat, durum, triticale, and barley. Its purpose is to facilitate the distribution
(and identification) of promising disease-resistant lines.
The RDTN consists primarily of commercial varieties,
susceptible check varieties, promising advanced lines with new sources of rust resistance, and differentials for the three rusts. The RDTN serves as a surveillance mechanism for changes in pathogen races throughout the region. It is sent annually to 150 locations in about 50 countries. The Dutch government has provided a grant and technical assistance to develop a compu erized analytic package to process the data reported by colla )orators growing these regional nurseries. In 1980, a Dutch pathologist continued his assignment in
Turkey as an associate staff member in the program.
Eastern and Southern African Regional Program
This region iiicludes 17 African countries from Ethiopia
in the north to Lesotho in the south. The small grains currently grown in 1his region are mostly in the highland areas above 1,700 meters altitude, an agroclimatic zone characterized by the heav\ presence of serious disease problems. The CIMMYT regional staff assigned to this region helps to operate an off-seaison nursery program at Kenya's National Plant Breeding Station at Njoro, 2,140 meters above sea level.
This off-season nursery is used by many African and Asian countries, mainly for disease screening and to be able to complete two br ending cycles in a single year. The area around Njoro is characterized by virulent races of stem rust and stripe rust, aid is an excellent area to screen lines for
good disease resistance.
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In 1980 a pathologist assigned by the Dutch government to Kenya continued to collaborate with the CIMMYT regional program as a staff associate. In addition, the pathologists assigned to the regional disease surveillance program spent some time in this region to help backstop the pathology work of national collaborators.
Two nurseries are prepared and distributed by the staff assigned to this regional program: the African Cooperative Wheat Yield Trial (ACWYT); and the Screening Nursery for the African Cooperative Wheat Yield Trial (SNACWYT). Due to shortage of seed resulting from a drought in 1979, only 14 sets of the 4th ACWYT were sent during 1980 to cooperators in 10 countries. Included in this ACWYT were 11 wheat varieties, 2 triticales, 2 durums, plus one check. The highest yielding entries were the two triticale lines, Triticale 65 and Beaver-Armadillo. This confirms the results of earlier regional trials, where triticales have dominated the yield rankings.
The 3rd SNACWYT, consisting of 111 bread wheat, 54 triticale, 33 durum, and 10 oat lines, was distributed in 1980 to collaborators in 19 countries for testing in 22 locations. Lines from spring x winter crosses showed superior disease resistance and very high yield performance in the highland areas where this nursery was grown.
Andean Regional Program
CIMMYT has had a wheat scientist assigned to this region since 1976 to work with the national program scientists in the five Andean countries. The staff member is based in Quito, Ecuador, under an agreement with INIAP, Ecuador's National Agricultural Research Institute.
Virulent forms of stripe rust and barley yellow dwarf virus make this area of considerable value in global screening efforts to develop lines with greater resistance to these disease problems.
Two regional nurseries were prepared and distributed by the Andean regional program from its operations base in Ecuador in 1980. These are the Latin American Wheat Disease and Observation Nursery (VEOLA) and the Latin American Rust Nursery (ELAR).
The VEOLA is the Western Hemisphere equivalent of the RDISN described previously. The nursery is a cooperative effort of CIMMYT and IN IAP. In addition to supplying regional
77




disease information, the VEOLA facilitates the exchange of disease-resistant materials identified in other regional nurseries (e.g. RDISN and SNACWYT). In turn, resistant lines identified in the VEOLA are included in the following year in
the RDISN and 8NACWYT regional nurseries.
The objective of the ELAR, which is similar to the
RDTN, is to survey virulence patterns of wheat pathogens, thus serving as an early-warning system for new mutations.
The ELAR contains commercial varieties and lines originating from breeding programs throughout the Western Hemisphere
and is distributec' to about 30 sites in Latin America.
Technical assistance is provided to collaborators in national programs, especially at plant selection time. In 1980, a regional small grains workshop to exchange information and ideas was also held at Bogota, Colombia, under the auspices of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) and CIMMYT. Close cooperation also exists in encouraging
on-farm research activities within the region.
Southern Cone Regional Program
This regional program began in late 1978 and covers
areas of five Sou:hern Cone countries of South America. Two CIMMYT scienti.ts-a breeder and an agronomist-are assigned to the area, with their operations base at Chile's national agricultural research institute (INIA) and with cooperative ties to IICA, the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural
Cooperation.
In crop improvement, disease resistance research is focused on the thr,e rusts, various types of septoria, the barley yellow dwarf vimus, fusarium, helminthosporium, and root
rots. These research activities are receiving a major priority.
During 19810, at a meeting of wheat breeders of the
region organized by IICA-BID Cono Sur Project, CIMMYT was asked to coordinate a screening nursery of advanced lines (LACOS) to be distributed within the region and seeded at key locations in the Andean region and Mexico.
The nursery will be prepared through a joint effort between CIMMYT and INIA, Chile. It shall provide various breeding programs of the region a chance to observe unreleased promising wheal material from other programs in terms of their adaptati:)n, agronomic, and disease characters. Subsequently, some of these lines may be used as progenitors
78




in national wheat improvement programs or released as commercial varieties. Several Southern Cone rust virulence nurseries were merged with ELAR to coordinate the effort between the two regions.
A special emphasis is also being placed on soil-fertilizer problems related to wheat, barley, and triticale production. In particular, the problems associated with aluminum toxicity and phosphorus fixation tendencies are receiving major research attention. The regional agronomist is working with national scientists to establish trials in farmers' fields for the purpose of identifying yield constraints and increasing production.
In Chile, collaboration is focused on production trials conducted mainly on farmers' fields to identify the limiting technical factors in wheat production. Work on management techniques to reduce the incidence of root diseases is also receiving attention. Scientists are also looking at the effect on foot rot problems when various soil amendments are applied.
In Argentina, work focuses on soil fertility management strategies brought on by new double-cropping patterns which have emerged with the release of short-season varieties which allow greater cropping intensification. Trials are being carried out in the Pergamino area to investigate nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies. The trials show that phosphorus deficiency is becoming a widespread problem in the Pampa Humeda. Nitrogen response studies are showing a significant response to nitrogen in the Marcos Juarez area, where most farmers still do not apply nitrogen to wheat.
North and West Africa Regional Program
This program began operation in 1980 and covers North and West African countries west of Egypt and Sudan. The operations base is in Portugal at the Elvas Station of the Ministry of Agriculture. At present, one wheat breeder is assigned to the program. Close collaboration exists with ICARDA, and joint staffing may occur in future years.
Special breeding priorities include disease resistance research on septoria, fusarium, helminthosporium, and the three rusts. In addition, breeding work will be carried out to develop wheat and barley cultivars with greater drought and heat tolerance.
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CIMMYT's regional scientist devoted much of 1980
to establishing a base of cooperation by travelling extensively in the countries of this region to discuss research priorities and areas for greater collaboration among CIMMYT and the
national prograrr scientists
ICARDA
In 1980, CIMMYT assigned a wheat breeder at Aleppo,
Syria, at ICARDA's request. This scientist is working mainly to develop germp:'lasm with greater cold and drought tolerance and resistance to rusts for use by national program scientists
in the Middle Eat and in parts of North Africa.
South and Southeast Asia Regional Program
In mid-198), CIMMYT placed a wheat pathologist in
Thailand to help establish and serve the South and Southeast region. Much of his work involved cooperating with national programs in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Southeast Asia. Considerable emphasis is being given to developing wheats for warmer, non-traditional wheat-growing areas. A number of countries in this region, and on other continents as well, are interested in growing wheat during their winter seasons, when te nperatures and humidity are at their lowest levels. Serious disease constraints under these conditions are H. sativum aid H. tritici repentis. Work on resistance to these diseases will be emphasized by the regional staff, as will efforts to cevelop early-maturing lines appropriate to the relatively shcrt growing season typical of humid tropical
production conditions.
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economics program
INA,
81




INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS PROGRAM
Still concer ed with facilitating the development and
diffusion of imp oved technologies, the Economics Program again concentrated its resources in cooperative efforts with national programs. This work offers great opportunities for encouraging the dIevelopment of appropriate technologies. It is guided by our earlier work on adoption studies, reinforced by extensive experience with national programs in collaborative research involving biological scientists and economists, and based on the natural and economic circumstances of
representative far ners.
Earlier annr al reports refer to the development of a
manual which would synthesize our experiences with national programs and describe cost-effective procedures for assessing farmer circumstances and deriving implications for the orientation of on-farm experimentation. That manual was published in English in 1980. A Spanish version will be
available in mid 1 )81 and a French version somewhat later.
Work in support of the maize and wheat training program was continued. Training in economics was expanded to two sessions in 1980, one in Spanish and a second in English. Demands for this training are mounting rapidly and
we see the possibi ity for more innovations in 1981.
Significant developments have evolved in our efforts to
foster exchange and understanding among the planners, biological scientists, and economists of national programs.
One management seminar was held in Kenya and three additional seminars were postponed by co-sponsors until early 1981. After careful study and discussion it was decided to transfer this program to another CGIAR entity. By mid 1982, an expanded seminar activity will be presenting several seminars per year ,inder the auspices of a new team. CIMMYT can be pleased wi: h its role in offering an effective new tool to the CGIAR system. Meanwhile, we are opening new areas
of related work.
More details about our program activities are presented
in the following pages.
D.L. Winkelmann
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PROCEDURES
C IMMYT's economics staff has worked with scientists in many national programs to develop a set of procedures which offer cost-effective ways to assess the circumstances of farmers, and then to use this information to orient research aimed at developing improved technologies. A manual based on that experience, and published in 1980, focuses on research that is area-specific, collaborative (involving biological scientists and economists), and on-farm.
The procedures are now being used in many national programs, in CIMMYT and other training programs, and as a central theme in workshops related to on-farm research. One such workshop was sponsored by CIMMYT and involved Latin American participants concerned with on-farm research. Another workshop brought together economists and biological scientists from international centers and national programs to exchange experiences in on-farm research. Efforts to improve and expand the procedures will be multiplied as more and more national programs use them to guide research. We see the procedures as an important element in bridging the gap separating researchers from farmers and from extension workers.
Work continued in 1980 to develop methods for facilitating exchange among biological scientists and policy makers. Experience with the management seminars reinforced the conviction that such communication is often weak and fragmented, limiting the efforts of those concerned with developing and diffusing improved technologies. All too often, biological scientists are insensitive to the issues which influence policy makers while those who frame and implement policy are unware of the opportunities through biology.
CIMMYT economists are seeking procedures which will foster improved policy-related communication. The effort now under way, which builds on our earlier work in on-farm research, has three dimensions: one assesses farmers' production circumstances through informal and formal survey techniques, a second features on-farm experiments under those circumstances and is aimed at identifying suitable new production strategies, and the third relates policy and its implementation to the essential elements of the new production strategies. Our aim is to establish cost-effective proce83




dures for gather ng, analyzing, and presenting such information. With more certain access to wider ranging information, biological scient sts and policy makers can better reinforce the efforts of ea( h to develop and diffuse improved technologies.
This work, supported by the Ford Foundation, was
initiated in 197c! through special project funding. In 1980, the team of biological scientists and economists conducted on-farm trials an] surveys. We expect to expand the activity in the near future through special project funding. In time, with accumulating experience, we will develop a manual for
national program researchers.
TRAINING
The economics staff participates in the instruction of
maize and wheai. in-service trainees in Mexico, helps with training on crop management in the regions, offers its own training program :or national program agricultural economists and others who work with national production research
teams, and prepares materials of special interest.
Virtually all of this training is done in collaboration
with biological ,cientists. Its main intent is to bring the farmer and his circumstances s to the center of efforts in
research and production.
Maize and wheat in-service production trainees spend
roughly one fifth of their stay in Mexico focusing on the economic aspects of crop production, with particular emphasis given to on-farm research procedures for assessing farmer circumstances. Ec:)nomists share in planning farmer interviews and in on-farm experiments which are then carried out by in-service maize trainees in the lowland tropics of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, and by wheat trainees in the rainfed upper plateau of central Mexico and in the irrigated
Yaqui Valley of northwest Mexico.
Regional training program activities continued in
1980. As an example, special programs were undertaken in
Bolivia and in Zambia by CIMMYT's regional economists.
The training program in economics is based on the
two manuals already developed. Each of the 1980 sessions
84




The Economics Program training course for agricultural economists and others who work with nati onal maize and wheat production teams has proven to be a very popular addition to CIMMYT's total training program. Course participants concentrate on the concepts and procedures involved in on-farm surveys, working closely with biological scientists as they gain experience in ascertaining and analyzing farmer circumstances.
was oversubscribed. If the demand remains strong in 1981, then consideration must be given to expanding the resources devoted to this activity. Two forms of expansion are being contemplated. One involves enlarging the number of entrants for each session. The second involves developing a condensed
85




version of the course which can be given as a national inservice training ac.'tivity.
Three doctoral fellows worked within the Economics
Program in 1980. An anthropologist working in Ecuador since 1978 has concentrated his efforts on ways in which our on-farm informal ion-gathering techniques can be improved.
He is also assessing the need to incorporate information on diets into the design of research on agricultural techniques.
Another, a predoctoral fellow, is working with the Eastern African regional program, helping to train agricultural researchers in on-f~irm research methodologies. A third, also an anthropologist, will move to Haiti in 1981 to help refine our current methodologies and to collaborate with Haitian researchers in on-farm research.
REGIONAL PROGRAMS
CIMMYT's regional economists worked in four regions
in 1980. These staff members cooperated with maize and wheat scientists And economists in national programs where they encouraged collaborative research aimed at the development of technologies useful to representative farmers. This involved bringinnl local economists together with biological scientists; consulting on the organization of micro-level research; providing financial support for such research where necessary; and cooperating in drawing out the implications for research on technologies which emerged from
their work.
Eastern African F egional Program
The regional economist, supported by funds from
UNDP, worked regularly with the national research programs in Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe during 1980. He provided assistance in planning on-farm research programs in Malawi, Botswana, Sudan, and Ethiopia.
Throughout 1980, he has had the assistance of a predoctoral fellow who is working with a Kenyan training program for farm economists engaged with crop scientists in on-farm
research.
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Interest in the research procedures described earlier continued to grow in the region, extending to central and southern African countries. Surveys were undertaken, workshops held, and training given. A Management Seminar for Policy Maker-s was held in Kenya in May 1980, with participants drawn from six countries of the region. A concepts and strategies evaluation workshop, related to developing national on-farm research programs, was also held in May 1980 for senior scientists from the region. Two training workshops, for young professionals in farm economics and agronomy, were also held in Kenya during April and September of 1980. Started originally for Kenyan professionals, these workshops have taken on an increasingly regional flavor. Participants from ten African countries are expected for the April workshop in 1981.
South and Southeast Asian Regional Program
The current regional economist, supported by UNDP funding, has been posted to this program since late 1979 with the responsibility of working with scientists from national programs in on-farm research. In 1980, the regional office was moved from New Delhi, India to Bankok, Thailand. While earlier work concentrated on northern India, current efforts are focused on Nepal, Indonesia, and Thailand. It is likely that more emphasis will be given to Bangladesh in
1 981.
Andean Regional Program
An economist was posted to the Andean region in late 1977 for cooperative research work in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. This work has concentrated on floury maize, a dominant crop in the highlands; on wheat and barley, secondary crops in highland farming systems; and on tropical maize in the coastal regions.
Within the region, two cou ntries- Ecuador and Peruhave made a strong national commitment on-farm research. CIMMYT economists support these efforts through cooperative work to develop and refine research procedures and through training assistance. As well, Bolivia has moved strongly into such research, especially on wheat. Wheat was also added to the on-farm research focus in Peruvian irrigated areas in 1980. This effort is supported by special project funding from CIDA, Canada.
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Central Americar, Regional Program
The regional economist, assigned in 1978 to this region
and supported by Swiss funding, concentrated his early efforts in Panama and El Salvador. In Panama, the national agricultural resei.rch institute (IDIAP) began its on-farm research in one :irea (Caisan) in 1978, concentrating on the maize crop and associated rotations. CIMMYT collaborated with this projec particularly in the farmer interview and survey phases. 'Iext, on-farm experiments were planned and initiated. Th., information gleaned from this area-specific project led IDIAP to expand its on-farm research activities to other areas of the country. By early 1980, farm surveys-informal and formal-were completed for many production areas. CIMMYT continued to work with national scientists
in this program.
In 1980, ccoperation in on-farm research was initiated
with Honduran researchers. Here, again, the work started with assessing former circumstances. National researchers expect to proceed straight through to the formulation of recommendation.. It is hoped that the work can serve as a model for technology development in much of the country.
In 1981, with the arrival of a Rockefeller Foundation
postdoctoral fellow, work in Haiti will be emphasized. As with the other programs, this effort will have the active
support of the m~ize program's regional agronomist.
In late 1980, Panama's IDIAP and CIMMYT's
Andean and Central American regional programs jointly sponsored a workshop for those involved with on-farm research. Agronomists and economists from the region, over 30 professionals, attended along with representatives of several development assistance agencies and other CGIAR
entities.
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supporting
a
services
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EXPERIMENT STATIONS
CIMMYT conducted research at seven stations in
Mexico during 1980. Three belong to Mexico's National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA), and four belong to
CIMMYT.
Altitude Latitude Hectares Used Crop
Station (m) (ON) by CIMMYT Season
CIANO-INIA 39 27 176 (wheat*) Nov-May
17 (maize) Jun-Dec
Los Mochis-INIA** 40 26 2 (wheat) Dec-May
Rio Bravo-INIA** 30 26 1 (wheat*) Dec-May
El Batan-CIMMYT 2,240 19 26 (maize) Apr-Dec
Headquarters 26 (wheat*) May-Nov
4 (sorghum***) Apr-Oct
Toluca-CIMMYT 2,(40 19 43 (wheat*) May-Nov
5 (wheat*) Dec-May
15 (maize) Apr-Dec
3 (potatoes***) Mar-Nov
Poza Rica-CIMMYT 60 20 41 (maize Dec-May
First cycle
4 sorghum***) Jun-Nov
Second cycle
1 (wheat) Nov-May
Tlaltizapan-CIMMYT I40 18 31 (maize) Dec-May
First cycle
1 (sorghum***) Jun-Dec
Second cycle
* Includes barley and triticale
** CIMMYT nurseries planted for observation on diseases
*** Potatoes in cooperation with CIP; sorghum in cooperation with ICRISAT
Training and Consultation
On a trial basis, the experiment station training program was conducted at the CIANO Station at Ciudad Obregon.
Two full courses were given to trainees from six countries, as well as two short courses to CIANO support staff. A great deal of experience was gained. Due to various factors, including the reduction in effective budgets, it was decided to
move this prograrr back to El Batan.
More interest is being shown among collaborators in experiment staticn management and more visitors were
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handled than in previous years. Overseas consultation continued. A total of 93 days was spent by the experiment station staff in consulting with collaborators in five countries. A paper was also presented at the 5th International Conference on the Mechanization ofField Experiments held in Wageningen, Holland.
LABORATORY SERVICES
CIMMYT maintains laboratories to evaluate the nutritional and/or industrial quality of the breeding materials generated by the maize, wheat, triticale, and barley breeding programs. Laboratory staff also provides service to the wheat program by screening materials for resistance to aluminum toxicity. In addition, training and consultation is given to scientists from collaborating national programs. (The activities of the Milling and Baking Laboratory are described in the wheat section of this report.)
Protein Quality Research
During 1980, more than 21,000 grain samples of maize, barley, triticale, and wheat were analyzed for total protein and for th levels of certain limiting amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan. Eighty-five percent of these analyses were done on quality protein maize samples to help breeders guide their improvement research. Most quality protein materials were analyzed for endosperm tryptophan content. A much more selected number (1 in 200) was also analyzed for lysine content, and an even more select group, for all 18 amino acids contained in the whole maize kernel. Protein quality indexes, good indicators of lysine content, were also obtained for about 2,000 of the maize quality protein samples.
Work continued on oil content in two maize populations, Temperate x Tropical H.E.o2 (dent) and White H.E.o2 (dent). The objective of this research is to achieve an increase in oil content (energy) in quality protein materials without adversely affecting other yield and protein quality characters.
Preliminary protein quality evaluations (using the Ninhydrin test) were also carried out on 175 floury-type
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maize materials -,o select kernels having the 02 gene. This
work helps to guide ongoing improvement work.
A limited research study was conducted to gain more
insight into the biochemical changes which have occurred in the different protein fractions of the hard endosperm quality
protein materials developed at CIMMYT.
About 15 percent of the analyses conducted in the
laboratory were performed on barley, triticale, and wheat samples for total protein content and for the quality of the protein. These samples were analyzed on a whole kernel basis to obtain th:ir protein quality index. This index is highly correlated witi lysine content and permits breeders to make preliminary selections for protein quality among their materials. Complete amino acid analyses were conducted on
the most outstancing materials.
Biological Evaluation
Biological evaluations with laboratory rats were carried
out by the National Institute of Animal Sciences in Denmark on CIMMYT's most promising quality protein materials (3 in maize, 2 in triticile, and 2 in barley). These animal-feeding trials confirm the nutritional superiority of the materials identified at the CI MMYT laboratory using chemical analyses.
Tolerance to Aluminum Toxicity
In many of the acid soils throughout the world, problems of aluminum and manganese toxicity and phosphorus fixation cause severe limitations to the yielding ability of cereals. In the case of wheat, sufficient genetic variability has been identified to justify a breeding program to develop cultivars with greater tolerance to aluminum toxicity and/or
ability to take up :hosphorus in acid soils.
A new laboratory screening procedure, recently developed by scientistV at Washington State University, permits rapid preliminary evaluations of large numbers of materials for aluminum toxicity tolerance. This procedure has been adopted by CIMNVYT and was put into operation in 1980. In this method, see:Jlings raised on a nutrient medium are submitted to rela-ively high concentrations of aluminum in their root zone. Roots of susceptible plants show toxic reactions and sto[ cell division. Tolerant plants continue cell division and normal growth. In 1980, over 2,000 wheat lines
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A new laboratory procedure to screen wheat seedlings for their tolerance to aluminum toxicity is helping to speed up the work of breeders to develop high-yielding, aluminum tolerant varieties. Tolerant materials identified in the laboratory showed a good correlation with selections made under field conditions.
were evaluated with this method. Tolerant materials identified in the laboratory showed a good correlation with selections made in the field.
Laboratory Training
In 1980, three scientists, from the national quality protein laboratories in Ecuador, Guatemala, and Turkey, received training at CIMMYT in chemical protein evaluations. Consultation services in several collaborating countries in protein quality laboratory procedures, staffing, and equipment requirements were also continued.
DATA PROCESSING SERVICES
The unit continued in 1980 to provide computing services to the Maize and Wheat Programs and to the Economics Program. These included: support for both maize and wheat international testing programs, production of wheat fieldbooks, plot tags and packet labels, maize germplasm bank inventory maintenance and control; economic
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survey analyses; and analyses of a wide variety of small
experiments conducted by CIMMYT scientists.
Several phy,;ical and organizational changes were accomplished in 1980. The equipment and staff were moved from tight quarters inside the main office building to a larger space in a renovated building nearby. In July, the responsibility for data processing changed hands. The new head of the unit comes to CIMMYT with considerable computing experience, including consulting work with
CIMMYT since 1977.
In 1980, work began on a computerized mailing list
system to aid the communication services unit. In addition, some of the responsibility for current data processing activities has been shifted to less experienced staff to provide our programmers with more time for new projects in the coming
year.
INFORMATION I;ERVICES
Thirty-three publication titles were issued (or reissued)
during 1980. A special CIMMYT long range planning report for the 1980s was prepared as the result of a program review and planning exercise conducted during the year. A number of national collaborators (with our encouragement) translated CIMMYT publications into local languages, printing and
issuing them under national imprimaturs.
The Comrronwealth Agricultural Bureau (United
Kingdom) issued on behalf of CIMMYT Volume 6 of the Maize Quality Protein Abstracts (MQPA) and Volume 6 of the Triticale Ab!;tracts (TA). About 650 maize scientists receive the MQPA, and about 400 scientists receive the TA.
About 5,001) names were included on CIMMYT's
mailing lists in 1980. A new computerized mailing list with additonal subject matter and audience identification codes was designed during 1980, based on a survey conducted among individual,; who normally receive CIMMYT publications. The necessary software has been developed to manage this new information system which will begin full operation
in mid 1981.
In addition, a consultant was hired in 1980 to review
CIMMYT's communications strategies. His report will be
presented to CIMMYT management in early 1981.
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PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY CIMMYT IN 1980
Title Language Pages Press Run
Administration
Inforrne Anual del CIMMYT 1979 Spanish 148 3,500
CIMIMYT Hoy 11. Acelerando el Mejoramiento Spanish 16 2,750
CIMMYT Looks Ahead-A Planning Report for
thle 1980s English 78 2,000
CIMMYT Review 1980 English 110 4,500
Informe Anual del CIMMYT 1980 Spanish 122 3,000
CIMMYT Today 12. Probing the Gene English 12 4,960
Pools-Spring x W nter Crosses in Wheat Spanish 12 3,660
CIMMYT Auiourd',ui 8. Transformation du
Systeme de Produ2tion de Mais au Zaire French 16 1,500
Maize
CIMMYT Report on Maize Improvement 1976-77 English 100 1,000
Addendum to Supplementary Report-Maize English/
International Testing 1978 Spanish 126 500
Preliminary Report-Maize International Testing English/ 1979 Spanish 142 750
Supplementary Report-Maize International English/
Testing 1979 Spanish 152 750
Addendum to Supplementary Report -Maize English/
International Testing 1979 SpaniLh 126 750
Wheat
CIMMYT Report on Wheat Improvement 1978 English 310 1,700
CIMMYT Bread Wheat Breeding Program-Germplasm Movem ent and Planting Guide English 20 500
Algerian Proceedings. The Gap Between Present Farm Yield and the Potential, Fifth Cereals Workshop, Vol. 1 English 150 1,000
Results of the Eleventh International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery (IBWSN) 1977-78 (IB54) English 54 1,950
Results of the Fifteenth International Spring Wheat Yield Nursery (ISWYN) 1978-79 (1B56) English 104 1,250
Results of the Eighth & Ninth International Durum Screening Nursery (IDSN) 1976-78 (1B55) English 105 1,250
Results of the Ninth Elite Durum Yield Trial (EDYT)
1978-79 (1857) English 22 1,250
Results of the Fifth and Sixth International Barley Observation Nursery (IBON) 1977-78 & 1978-79 (1858) English 110 1,250
Results of the Tenth International Durum Wheat
Screening Nursery (IDSN) 1978-79 (IB59) English 36 1,250
Economics
Comment Etablir des Conceils aux Agriculteurs a
Partir des Donees Experimentales French 52 750
Planning Technologies Appropriate to FarmersConcepts and Procedures English 72 2,000
Maize in the Mampong-Sekodumasi Area of Ghana; Results of an Exploratory Survey English 28 500
On-Farm Research to Develop Technologies Appropriate to Farmers; the Potential Role of Economists English 8 450
Miscellaneous
Suelos Derivados de Cenizas Volcanicas en Jap6n Spanish 106 1,000
Gufa para Visitantes a CIMMYT Spanish 1 1,000
The Human Population Monster English 4 500
Reprints
This is CIMMYT English 32 2,000
Este es el CIMMYT Spanish 32 2,000
Formulaci6n de Recomendaciones a Partir de Datos Agron6micos, un Manual Metodol6gico de
Evaluaci6n Econ6mica Spanish 54 1,000
The Green Revolution Peace and Humanity English 30 750
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Visitor Services
The visitor's services unit provides important programming and logistical support for the many visitors who come to CIMMYT each year. In 1980, about 8,000 visitors from 60 countries visited our headquarters. Many others visited experiment stations in Mexico where CIMMYT staff conduct research. Over 401) guided tours and slide presentations were given during the ',(ear. A number of major conference events, each lasting 1 tci 5 days, were also handled by the visitor
services staff.
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financial statement
Price
Waterhouse 7
M,6oco, D. F., February 25, 1981
To the Board of Trustees of
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento
de Maiz y Trigo, A. C.
In our opinion, the accompanying statement of condition and the
related statements of revenue and expenses and of changes in
firancial position, expressed in United States dollars, present
fairly the financial position of Centro Internacional de
Meoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, A. C., (CIMIMMYT) at December 31,
19E0 and 1979 and the results of its operations and the changes
in its financial position for the years then ended, in conformity
with generally accepted accounting principles consistently
ap plied. Our examinations of these statements were made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and such
other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the
ci cumstances.
Our examinations were made primarily for the purpose of forming our opinion on the financial statements taken as a whole. We also examined the additional information presented on Exhibits
I to 8, expressed in United States dollars, by similar auditing
procedures. In our opinion, this additional information is
stated fairly in all material respects in relation to the
financial statements taken as a whole. Although not necessary for a fair presentation of financial position, results of operations and changes in financial position, this information is
presented as additional data.
C.P. Oscar C6rdova S.
(A complete Financial Statement is available on request from CIMMYT.)
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