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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Trustees
 Staff
 Director general's overview
 Maize improvement
 Wheat improvement
 Economics program
 Supporting services
 Financial statement
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Copyright


PETE CIMMYT



CIMMYT review
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080051/00002
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT review
Alternate title: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo review
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo.
Place of Publication: Mexico
Creation Date: 1981
 Subjects
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1974-> issued by the center under its Spanish name: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02171783
lccn - 75645900
issn - 0304-5463
System ID: UF00080051:00002

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Trustees
        Page 4
    Staff
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Director general's overview
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Maize improvement
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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        Page 20
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        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Wheat improvement
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
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        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Economics program
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Supporting services
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Financial statement
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Back Matter
        Page 106
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text
















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CIMMYT REVIEW
1981












CENTRO INTERNATIONAL DE MEJORAMIENTO DE MAIZ Y TRIGO 1981
Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico 6, D.F. Mexico








contents


4 Trustees
5 Staff
9 Director General's Overview

MAIZE
12 Introduction to Maize Program
13 Maize Summary
15 Germplasm Development
19 Population Improvement
27 Nutritional Quality Improvement
30 Special Research Activities in Mexico
33 Wide Crosses
35 Maize Training
37 Maize Cooperative Projects Outside Mexico

WHEAT
44 Introduction to Wheat Program
45 Wheat Summary
47 Bread Wheat
53 Durum Wheat
56 Triticale
60 Barley
62 Special Germplasm Development
64 Wide Crosses
67 Milling and Baking Laboratory
67 Pathology
68 Agronomy
70 International Testing
73 Wheat Training
75 Wheat Cooperative Projects Outside Mexico

ECONOMICS
82 Introduction to Economics Program
83 Procedures
84 Training
86 Regional Programs

SUPPORTING SERVICES
90 Experiment Stations
91 Laboratory Services
93 Data Processing Services
94 Information Services

97 FINANCIAL STATEMENT








trustees (as of March 15, 1981)



FRANCISCO MERINO RABAGO
President, CIMMYT Asamblea
Secretary of Agriculture and Water Hesources
Mexico

VIRGILIO BARCO
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Colombia


EDUARDO ALVAREZ-LUNA
Vice-Chairman, Board of Trustees
Director General
National Institute of Agricultural Research
Mexico

ENRIQUEAMPUERO P.
Inter-American Development Bank
Ecuador


GUY CAMUS
Director
Organization de Recherche Scientificue et
Technique Outre-Mer
France

J. D. DRILON, JR.
Director, Southeast Asian Center for Graduate
Study and Research in Agriculture
The Philippines

WALTER P. FALCON
Director
Food Research Institute
Stanford University
USA


ROBERT D. HAVENER
Director General
CIMMYT
USA

HUSSEIN IDRIS
Technical Cooperation among
Developing Countries, UNDP
Sudan

W. A. C. MATHIESON
Consultant
United Kingdom

KAN-ICHI MURAKAMI
Professor of Agriculture
University of Tsukuba
Japan

W. GERHARD POLLMER
Professor of Plant Breeding
University of Hohenheim
Germany

O. M. SOLANDT
Consultant
Canada

H.K.JAIN
Director
Indian Agricultural Research
Institute
India

STERLING WORTMAN
Consultant
USA









staff (as of March 15, 1981)


OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL
Robert D. Havener, USA, Director General
Robert 1D. Osler, USA, Deputy Director General and Treasurer
W. Clive James, Canada, Deputy Director General
Gregorio Martinez V., Mexico, Public Affairs Officer


MAIZE
Ernest W. Sprague, USA, Director
R.L. Pal wal, India, Associate Director
Carios De Leon, Mexico, Collaborative Research
Dietmar Dehne, Fed.Rep.of Germany, Back-Up Unit
N.L. Dhawan, India, International Testing
Kenneth S.Fischer, Australia, Special Projects
Bantayeiu Gelaw, Ethiopia, Quality Improvement
Peter Goertz, Fed.Rep.of Germany, Advanced Unit
Takumi Izuno, USA, Back-Up Unit
Elmer C.Johnson, USA, Special Projects
Federico Kocher, Switzerland, Training
John Miim, USA, Advanced Unit
Alejandro Ortega C., Mexico, Advanced Unit
A.F.E. Palmer, UK, Training
Shivaji Fandey, India, Back-Up Unit
David Sperling, USA, Quality Improvement
Surinder K. Vasal, India, Quality Improvement
Alejandro Violic, Chile, Training

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Daniel Hinderliter, USA
David Jewell, Australia
Alfred Moshi, Tanzania
Hiep Ngoc Pham, USA
Margaret Smith, USA

Andean Region
James B. Barnett, USA (Based in Colombia)
Gonzalo Granados R., Mexico (Based in Colombia)
Suketoshi Taba, Japan (Based in Ecuador)

Asian Region
Bobby L. Renfro, USA (Basee in Thailand)

Central America and Caribbean Region
Hugo S. Cordova, El Salvador (Based in Guatemala)
Willy Viiena D., Bolivia (Based in Mexico)






Maize staff con't)


Mideast Region
Wayne L. Haa j, USA (Based in Turkey)

West African Riegion
Magni Bjarnason, Iceland (Based in Nigeria)

Ghana
Gregory Edmi.ades, New Zealand

Pakistan
Richard N. W.dderburn, Barbados

Tanzania
James Deutscli, USA

Zaire
Thomas G. Hart, USA

WHEAT
Norman E. Borlaug, USA, Acting Director
Arthur R. Klatt, USA, Associate Director
Maximino Alcila S., Mexico, International Nurseries
Girma Bekele, Ethiopia, Pathology
Santiago Fuentes F., Mexico, Pathology
Peter R. Hobbs, UK, Agronomy
A. Mujeeb Ka;i, USA, Cytology
Sanjaya Rajaram, India, Bread Wheat, Breeding
Enrique Rodriguez C., Mexico, Barley, Breeding
Ricardo Rodriguez R., Mexico, Germplasm/Breeding
David A. Saunders, Australia, Study Leave
Bent Skovmard, Denmark, Triticale, Breeding
Enrique Torre:;, Colombia, Pathology
Gregorio Vazcuez G., Mexico, Durum, Breeding
Hugo Vivar F., Ecuador, Training
Patrick Wall, I eland, Agronomy
Francis J. Zillinsky, Canada, Triticale, Breeding

Postdoctoral Fellows
Pedro Brajcich G., Mexico
Larry Butler, JSA
Edwin Knapp USA
Pierre Malvoisin, France
Guillermo Ortiz F., Mexico
Christopher E. Mann, Fed.Rep.of Germany

Andean Region
H. Jesse Dubin, USA (Based in Ecuador)






Wheat staff (con't)


East Africa Region
Gerbrand Kingma, Netherlands (Based in Kenya)
Henk Bonthuis, Netherlands (Dutch Associate, Based in Kenya)

ICARDA Region
Walter -. Nelson, USA

Latin America Southern Cone Region
Matthew A. McMahon, Ireland (Based in Chile)
Man Mohan Kohli, India (Based in Chile)

Mediterranean and Mideast Region
J.Michael Prescott, USA (Based in Turkey)
Maarten Van Ginkel (Dutch Associate, Based in Turkey)

North and West African Region
George Varuguese, India (Based in Portugal)

South and Southeast Asia Region
Eugene E. Saari, USA (Based in Thailand)

Pakistan
Homer Hepworth, USA

ECONOMICS
Donald L.Winkelmann, USA, Director
Derek Byerlee, Australia
Larry Harrington, USA

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Steven Franzel, USA (Based in Kenya)
Robert Tripp, USA (Based in Ecuador)
Michael Yates, USA (Based in Haiti)

Andean Region
R. Edgardo Moscardi, Argentina (Based in Ecuador)

Asian Region
Roger Montgomery, USA (Based in Thailand)

Central America Region
Juan Carlos Martinez, Argentina (Based in Mexico)

East Africa Region
Michae P. Collinson, UK (Based in Kenya)

Algeria
Philippe Masson, France







LABORATORIES
Evangelina Villegas M., Mexico, Biochemist, in Charge of
General Laboratories
Enrique Ortega M., Mexico, Postdoctoral fellow,
Protein Qual ty
Arnoldo Amaya C., Mexico, Cereal Chemist, in Charge
of Wheat Industrial Quality Laboratory

DATA PROCESSING SERVICES
Margaret Snyder, USA, Head

EXPERIMENT STATIONS
John Stewart, UK, Head
Compton Paul, Guyana, Assistant Head
Roberto Varela, Mexico, Training Officer

INFORMATION SERVICES
Christopher Dow swell, USA, Communications Coordinator
Linda G. Ainswo th, USA, Head, Visitor Services
Andre Jesequel, USA, Head, Audio Visuals
K. Robert Kern, JSA, Science Writer/Editor, Consultant
Anita Povich, USA, Science Writer/Editor

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
Richard Clifford, USA, Financial Officer
Alberto Bourlon C., Mexico, Head Buildings and Grounds Services
Susana Eng M., IVexico, Supervisor, Accounting Services
Ma.de los Angele' Ezeta, Mexico, Purchasing Manager
Jose Ramirez R., Mexico, Personnel Officer
Ana Laura Sobriro de G6mez, Mexico, Head,
Travel Servic ;s










DIRECTOR GENERAL'S OVERVIEW


Significant changes have recently occurred in the
CIMMYT leadership. We have lost the services of Dr. Keith W.
Finlay, Deputy Director General-Research, and Dr. R. Glenn
Anderson, Director of the Wheat Program, who each suc-
cumbed to cancer. Their contributions to CIMMYT will live
on, although their leadership, experience, and dedication will
be sorely missed.
To help fill this void, we have recently appointed
Dr. Clive James as Deputy Director General for Research.
He comes to CIMMYT with strong credentials as a scientist
and in research administration.
CIMMYT's collaboration with agricultural scientists in
over 120 developing countries continued to strengthen in
1980. New regional programs were established for North and
West Africa (wheat), West Africa (maize, in collaboration
with IITA), and South and Southeast Asia (wheat). We
continue to broaden our crop improvement objectives to
include greater attention to those rainfed production areas
characterized by greater agroclimatic stresses. Our increased
emphasis on crop management research is being strengthened
through the collaboration of our regional agronomists and
economists in national on-farm research programs.
During 1980, additional facilities were completed to
accommodate visiting scientists made possible by a grant
from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany,
and a new wheat germplasm facility, financed through a grant
from the Government of Japan, will be operational in 1981.
To help guide program priorities and activities in the
1980s, we recently completed a program review and planning
exercise. Our program priorities were exposed to critical
review and debate at a planning conference held at CIMMYT
in April 1980. The changing comparative advantages and
the tasks which must be performed during the 1980s by the
many organizations concerned with agricultural development
in the developing world were highlighted by many participants
at the conference.






Outside obse rvers and representatives of donor agencies
identified key research and training activities in which
CIMMYT must play a vital role in the years ahead. In par-
ticular, germplasm development (including more collaboration
in basic research activities), training (shifting ever more to the
support of in-country training activities and train-the-trainer
programs), and the development and diffusion of improved
research procedures were singled out as key activities for
CIMMYT involvement.
Given the changing and increasing demands being made
on CIMMYT by developing country research organizations,
we must continue to secure modest expansions, in real terms,
of the generous support provided in the past, as well as to
maintain sufficient program flexibility if we are to respond
effectively to the new challenges and research opportunities
within our mandate.

Robert D. Havener





maize
improvement

Nt'


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INTRODUCTION TO MAIZE PROGRAM


During the last two decades, world maize production
has increased at an average rate of 3.5 percent per year,
higher than either wheat or rice. Production increases in
developing countries, however, have only registered a 2.4
percent per year growth rate, equal to the aggregate rate of
population increa:;e over the same time period, and less than
the progress achieved in wheat and rice. Most of the growth
in developing country maize production is attributable to
area expansions, with yield increases averaging only 1.1
percent per year.
Improved ge mplasm has been developed for most maize-
producing areas of the developing world. If varieties ema-
nating from this broad base of improved germplasm were
planted in farmers' fields, average national yields in most
developing county ies could easily be doubled. Faced with this
production gap between the "actual" and the "potential",
and with the existence of improved germplasm, our emphasis
is shifting towarcs strategies to help get improved varieties
and production technologies into use.
We are convinced that multidisciplinary and integrated
production-orient:,d research and extension systems and
more effective inout delivery systems (seed, fertilizers, and
agricultural chemicals) can make a significant impact in
raising yields in the developing countries. Our efforts to
help increase national average yields are reflected in the
production-orientation of our in-service training programs, in
the strengthening of our regional programs, and in the
production focus of our consultation with collaborators in
national programs
The highlights of CIMMYT's maize program activities
for 1980 are presented in the pages which follow. We are
involved in collaborative research with maize scientists in
more than 90 countries. In brief, this network of scientists
continues to make contributions in germplasm improvement
and in production research which can enhance the dependa-
bility and productivity of the maize crop in the developing
world.

E.W.Sprague








MAIZE SUMMARY

Germplasm Development
CIMMYT's germplasm improvement strategy begins with the
creation of gene pools classified on the basis of climatic adaptation,
maturity characters, and grain type. A range of gene pools have been
formed to serve tropical and subtropical zones.
Most of these gene pools have reached the stage of having agrono-
mically acceptable plant types. In recent years, therefore, we have
initiated work to improve the insect and disease resistance of these
materials. Added emphasis has been given to the development of
early-maturity, disease-resistant germplasm with high yield potential.
Several special research efforts continued to develop improved
germplasm for highland tropical areas (particularly floury maize types).
Our emphasis is on the development of broadly adapted, early-maturity
types with greater resistance to specific diseases and insects.
Research efforts to develop broad-based temperate x tropical
gene pools have generated considerable enthusiasm among maize
scientists in temperate areas. The three special pools we have formed to
date are permitting the introduction of exotic germplasm into temperate
base materials, which in turn will serve as a mechanism to move desirable
genes from temperate materials into tropical germplasm.

Population Improvement
Superior germplasm from CIMMYT's different gene pools con-
tinues to be identified and transferred into corresponding advanced
maize populations. CIMMYT begins to distribute the advanced popula-
tions through the international maize testing network as soon as they
are considered to be of utility to scientists in national programs. These
collaborators play a key role in the improvement of the populations
and in the development of experimental varieties.
In 1980, CIMMYT shipped 734 individual trials to collaborators
in 78 countries. The data from these trials confirm the progress made in
raising the yield potential, improving the insect and disease resistance,
and increasing the environmental stability of CIMMYT materials.
Work is being intensified on three major diseases of maize: downy
mildew, streak virus, and corn stunt. Good progress has been achieved
in developing high-yielding materials with resistance to downy mildew
and corn stunt.
CIMMYT continues to receive mounting seed requests from
national collaborators for our advanced materials. In 1980, forty-two
national maize programs asked CIMMYT for supplemental seed ship-
ments with intentions to increase this seed for varietal demonstrations
on farmers' fields.






Nutritional Quality Improvement
CIMMYT scientists have been able to accumulate genes to produce
nutritionally superior maize materials with a hard shiny kernel which
look and taste like normal maize. We now have a range of high-yielding,
nutritionally superior maize materials to fit many agroclimatic condi-
tions and food preferences. Our best high-yielding quality protein
materials have less vulnerabilityy to ear rots and stored-grain pests, and
have a relatively uniform hard kernel appearance. Such materials, in
CIMMYT's view, ar: approaching suitability for commercial use during
the 1980s.

Special Research Activities
In 1980, special research studies were under way which dealt
with yield efficiency in tropical maize, drought tolerance, early maturity,
and wide adaptation. In these projects, our researchers assess and/or
develop new ideas and techniques, usually confining their study to one
or a few populations. Some of the conclusions reached in these special
research activities have led to modifications in the improvement priorities
and/or methodologis used within central program activities.

Wide Crosses
Crosses between maize and two alien genera, sorghum and
Tripsacum, are beiig pursued to determine the feasibility of using
potentially valuable genes from these genera for maize improvement.
The aim of this wo k is to make maize a more environmentally stable
crop. Several hybric s have emerged from this work. A cytologist joined
the staff in 1981 to help unravel the identity of these hybrids and to
help increase our u iderstanding about the mechanism for the produc-
tion of such hybrids.

Maize Training
Seventy trainees from 33 countries received in-service training
in Mexico in 1980. Another 22 visiting and associate scientists came to
Mexico on special assignments and/or for orientation to CIMMYT's
maize research program. In addition, CIMMYT cooperated in the
training of 6 maste 's degree candidates and 5 predoctoral and post-
doctoral fellows.

Maize Cooperative Projects Outside Mexico
Four CIMMYT staff were assigned to national maize programs in
1980. An addition eight scientists were posted to regional programs
in Africa, Asia, and Iatin America. Considerable emphasis is being given
in regional programs to production agronomy research and to maize
improvement research on specific disease and insect problems.






GERMPLASM DEVELOPMENT


CIMMYT's maize program is designed for a multi-
disciplinary focus on a wide range of problems that have
restricted maize production in the developing world. The
germplasm improvement strategy followed by CIMMYT
begins in what we call the "Back-Up Unit", whose staff is
charged with the first stages of improvement for different
types of maize. The Back-Up Unit evaluates materials from
around the world, maintains CIMMYT's maize germplasm
bank (the largest in the world for maize), and creates and
improves gene pools classified (see table 1) on the basis of
climatic adaptation, maturity characters, and grain type.
Each year, superior introductions and bank accessions are
systematically evaluated and added to one of 31 gene pools.
At present, there are 12 gene pools for tropical-lowland zones,
8 for the subtropical-temperate zones, 7 for tropical highland
zones, and 4 special pools for temperate regions. Superior
germplasm in these pools is identified and transferred to
CIMMYT's corresponding advanced maize populations, which
are regularly distributed to national collaborators through the
international maize testing program.


Table 1. Agro-climatic characteristics considered in classifying maize
gene pools.

Adaptation and
Maturity Altitude Days to
range (m) Latitude Temperature* harvest
Tropical lowland
early 0-1600 0-300N-S 25-280C Up to 90
medium 0-1600 0-300N-S 25-280C 90-105
late 0-1600 0-300N-S 25-280C 105 and
more

Tropical highland
early 1600 + 0-300N-S 15-170C Up to 125
medium 1600 + 0-300N-S 15-170C 125-150
late 1600 + 0-300N-S 15-170C 150 and
more

Temperate-subtropical
early 0-1600 30-40oN-S 20-22oc Up to 95
medium 0-1600 30-40ON-S 20-22C 95-120

Mean of main growing season.






Germplasm Bank
CIMMYT maintains a maize germplasm bank for its own
breeding requirements and as a service to national collabo-
rators. Each year, our staff evaluates a portion of the bank
collections, and also regenerates different collections of
maize (and rela-ed species) that are held in the bank.
CIMMYT provides free samples of seed from the germplasm
bank to all research organizations who make requests. In
1980, 719 collections were supplied in response to 46 requests
from scientists in :28 countries.


Introduction Nurseries
During 1980, several hundred new introductions from
tropical lowland, subtropical-temperate, and tropical highland
areas were evaluated in Mexico. These new introductions
were evaluated for agronomic attributes including maturity,
height, yield potential, and reaction to certain diseases and
insects. Superior materials among these new introductions
were then added 1o the appropriate gene pools.


Improvement of Gene Pools
A gene pool is a mixture of diverse germplasm under-
going continuous recombination, from which materials can
be taken out and/or added as required. CIMMYT's gene pools
have been improved using the half-sib selection method (half-
brother or half-sister) as modified by CIMMYT. Two guide-
lines are followed in the recombination and improvement of
the pools: (1) a low level of selection pressure is applied
when improving the gene pools to maintain as broad a
germplasm base as possible, and (2) provision is made for the
systematic introduction of additional promising germplasm
into each pool. This improvement system has proven to be
very successful in increasing yield potential and in improving
agronomic characters in pool materials. These pools are
grown twice a year in Mexico at several locations. The seed of
the ears from the best plants in superior families is used to
constitute the next improvement cycle of each pool.
Pools are alsc grown on bulk basis by some of CIMMYT's
outreach staff. Tie selections they make are added to the
pools in Mexico to broaden their adaptation.


























-A
Improving the pest resistance of the CIMMYT gene pools is an important research
objective. Here, a maize pathologist is reviewing pool materials to select resistant
plants to upgrade the overall disease resistance in the CIMMYT pools.

Improving Insect and Disease Resistance in Pools
Most of CIMMYT's maize gene pools have reached the
stage of having agronomically acceptable plant types. In re-
cent years, therefore, we have initiated work to improve
the insect and disease resistance of these materials. Different
pools are artificially inoculated with disease-causing organisms
or are artificially infested with insect larvae according to the
principal disease and insect problems (e.g., earworm, fall
armyworm, borers, ear rot, stalk rot, leaf blight, rust, etc.)
in areas where each pool is meant to serve. In 1980, several
pools were tested to determine the progress achieved in
developing greater disease and/or insect resistance. Greater
resistance to certain insect and disease problems was evident
in the latest cycles of selection in some pools compared to
the original pool materials.

Early-Maturity Germplasm
CIMMYT has had a considerable amount of high-yielding
germplasm in the intermediate and late maturity ranges.







The Back-Up U iit staff, in recent years, has made a special
effort to deve op more germplasm with early-maturity
characters. Early maturity materials are now flowing into the
Advanced Unit populations and to collaborators through the
international tesi ing program.

Reorganization cif Highland Pools
To better s wrve the germplasm requirements of highland
tropical areas, CIMMYT's highland pools were reorganized
in 1979. Particu ar emphasis was placed on the improvement
of floury-type materials, the dominant maize types in the
highland areas cf the Andean countries of South America.
CIMMYT's research efforts in Mexico in highland maize im-
provement are closely coordinated with the work of a
CIMMYT staff member stationed in Ecuador. We are empha-
sizing the development of early-maturity types with greater
resistance to ear rots and earworms. An important objective
has involved strategies to broaden the germplasm base of
floury maize.

Temperate x Tro lical Gene Pools
In 1978, CIMMYT began to assemble broad-based
temperate x tropical gene pools with the objective of broad-
ening the genetic base of both types of materials. Three
pools were formed according to their adaptation to (1) the
northern temperate climatic ranges, (2) intermediate belts of
temperate regiors, and (3) the southern temperate belts.
(Similar ranges i the southern hemisphere correspond to
the northern hemisphere, but in reverse order.) These pools
are permitting CIMMYT scientists to introduce exotic germ-
plasm into temperate base materials, which in turn would
serve as a mechanism to move genes from the temperate
region materials irto tropical lowland and highland germplasm.
These pools, distributed in North America and Europe,
have generated considerable enthusiasm among collaborating
scientists. We ar' receiving strong confirmation that this
research project is making significant headway toward
broadening the genetic base of both germplasm groups.

Sharing of Pools vith National Collaborators
CIMMYT distributes pool materials upon request to
national collaborators for use in their breeding programs.







Many of these early-generation materials are proving to be
extremely useful to national scientists as they seek to develop
higher-yielding varieties with good agronomic characters. This
policy of germplasm sharing can accelerate the improvement
efforts in national maize programs with higher levels of
scientific manpower and adequate financial resources for
research.



POPULATION IMPROVEMENT

Within the total maize improvement process, CIMMYT
has assigned responsibility to its "Advanced Unit" to refine
more advanced maize materials to a point where they are
ready for systematic international testing and use by most
national programs.
In 1980, the Advancedt Unit team worked on 26 dif-
ferent populations. These populations have been assembled
on the basis of climatic adaptation (tropical, subtropical,
temperate), maturity period (early, intermediate, late), grain
color (white, yellow), and kernel type (flint, dent). Variable
relative weights are given to different traits for improvement
in each population according to the geographic areas the
population is meant to serve. In one population, greater
disease and/or insect resistance may receive the highest im-
provement priority. In another, the objective may be to im-
prove the manageability (shorter height, better standability).
In another, added earliness may be the major objective.
Each population undergoes continuous selection using
within- and among-family variation. Advanced Unit popula-
tions are grown and improved for three generations in Mexico;
in the fourth generation (or once every two years) they
are tested in international trials at 3 to 6 sites, worldwide.
Whereas the gene pools in the Back-Up Unit are selected
mainly on the basis of visual observations at growing sites in
Mexico, the Advanced Unit populations are improved on the
basis of their performance in replicated yield trials in the
agroclimatic conditions where the population will be used.
This system of maize improvement, using a full-sib
breeding scheme (full brother or full sister), followed by
multilocational international testing (described in more detail






later), has demonstrated its effectiveness to improve the
adaptability and yield dependability of maize germplasm for
the tropics and subtropics.


DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE


CIMMYT continues to improve certain populations for
disease and insect resistance in the manner described earlier.
For disease resistance, populations grown in Mexico are
artificially inoculated with stalk- and ear-rotting organisms.
At appropriate intervals after inoculation, each family is
scored for disease damage, and progenies with the least
damage are retained for future recombinations.
For insect resistance, populations are infested in Mexico
with larvae of fall armyworms, earworms, southwestern
corn borer, or su arcane borer. These are the most important
maize pests in 1he western hemisphere and are related to
species causing serious damage on other continents. At
different growth stages after infestation, visual ratings for
insect damage are made for each family. Progenies showing
the least damage are retained for recombination and use in
future improvement cycles.

Special Disease Research Activities
Starting in 1974, three collaborative breeding projects
were organized betweenn CIMMYT and six national maize
programs to develop germplasm resistant to three major
diseases of maize in tropical areas. These diseases are: downy
mildew, caused by a fungusfound mainly in South and South-
east Asia, but now spreading to Africa and Latin America;
maize streak viru;:, disseminated by a leaf hopper throughout
tropical Africa; aid corn stunt, a disease also spread by a leaf
hopper in tropical Latin America. In this research CIMMYT
and its collabora-ors followed a "shuttle breeding" strategy.
Alternate cycles cf selection were carried out in disease-prone
areas in collaborating countries to identify sources of re-
sistance, and in Mexico to improve the agronomic characters
of the resistant selections.
By 1980, good progress had been made in developing
material with resistance to downy mildew and to corn stunt.






The progress on streak virus had not been as successful, due
to the lack of an insect-rearing facility (streak virus is dis-
seminated by a leaf hopper) located in virus-affected areas of
Africa for uniform inoculation and disease screening.
CIMMYT has now shifted its center of activities in these
disease research projects to regional programs located in af-
fected areas. The work on downy mildew resistance, including
the preparation and distribution of international nurseries, is
now centered in Thailand with full involvement of Thai and
Asian region scientists. We have shifted our international
breeding program for streak virus resistance to Nigeria, with
full involvement of IITA and West African scientists. The
international breeding work for corn stunt remains as a
collaborative research effort between CIMMYT, Mexico, and
two Central American countries, Nicaragua and El Salvador.


INTERNATIONAL TESTING


International testing plays a major role in identifying
and developing improved materials for the areas where they
are meant to serve. CIMMYT begins to distribute populations
through the international testing program as soon as they are
considered to be sufficiently advanced to be of utility to
scientists in national programs. This international testing
program is designed to: (1) serve national programs that are
at different levels of development, and (2) to combine into
one mechanism a system for continuous improvement of
maize germplasm as well as a delivery system to and from
national programs. A key feature in this system is the partner-
ship role that national program scientists play in the im-
provement of populations and the development of experi-
mental varieties.
In 1980, CIMMYT shipped 734 individual trials to col-
laborators in 78 countries. These trials included 67 progeny
trials, 394 experimental variety trials, and 273 elite experi-
mental variety trials.
Most of the data from the results of 1980 international
trials are still to arrive. Therefore, the report which follows is
based upon the 1979 international testing program, since the
final reports are available on these trials.







Distribution of international maize trials 1978-81


Region and Nation
Central America and Caribbean
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
St. Kitts
St. Vincent
Trinidad
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
French Guiana
Guyana
Paraguay
Peru
Surinam
Venezuela
Mediterranean/Mideast
Algeria
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Libya
Morocco
Saudi Arabia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
Yemen A.R.
Yemen, South
Tropical and Southerfi Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burundi
Cameroon


* Tentative


1978 1979
trials trials
194 188
2 4
0 3
4 6
14 12
4 0
3 4
12 10
1 1
16 15
12 10
20 14
13 12
59 62
12 11
19 16
0 1
1 1
2 6
124 105
6 10
31 11
30 28
2 5
15 15
10 10
2 4
4 0
0 0
17 13
2 4
5 5
61 55
2 2
16 7
3 2
2 4
0 3
2 2
7 6
2 3
3 3
2 2
4 3
13 13
5 5
149 162
0 0
1 2
5 3
0 0
7 6


1980
trials
199
1
2
5
8
0
11
8
1
20
10
19
3
69
9
24
1
0
8
122
8
14
23
2
10
14
2
0
0
30
5
14
48
2
11
2
2
0
3
6
2
0
0
12
4
4
258
0
6
4
0
8


1981*
trials
109
2
2
3
6
0
6
8
1
13
0
8
3
29
7
14
1
1
5
99
8
9
18
4
12
9
3
0
3
19
3
11
53
2
12
2
2
2
2
6
2
2
2
5
9
3
184
2
3
2
7
3







Distribution of international maize trials 1978-81 (Con't)
1978 1979 1980 1981*
Region and Nation trials trials trials trials
Central African Republic 2 0 0 0
Chad 3 2 0 2
Congo 0 0 0 6
Ethiopia 12 9 21 12
Ghana 4 3 8 8
Guinea-Bissau 3 3 4 4
Ivory Coast 15 10 14 9
Kenya 2 6 16 10
Lesotho 2 3 6 4
Malawi 7 6 19 12
Mali 0 4 6 4
Mauritania 0 0 0 2
Mozambique 17 17 22 5
Niger 0 1 0 2
Nigeria 14 26 28 17
Rep. South Africa 9 4 11 10
Reunion 0 2 1 1
Rwanda 5 4 6 5
St. Helena 4 0 0 0
Senegal 9 7 13 6
Sierra Leone 0 9 16 8
Somalia 1 6 4 3
Swaziland 1 2 5 5
Tanzania 9 9 7 5
Togo 1 1 4 2
Transkei 0 0 4 3
Uganda 1 2 6 5
Upper Volta 2 3 8 10
Zaire 10 8 7 5
Zambia 3 4 4 4
South and East Asia 78 89 95 81
Afghanistan 2 4 0 2
Bangladesh 7 7 5 4
Burma 4 6 7 6
India 13 16 24 16
Indonesia 2 3 0 3
Korea, South 0 2 2 2
Malaysia 2 4 6 4
Nepal 6 12 6 10
Pakistan 10 12 18 12
Philippines 19 12 10 7
Sri Lanka 2 3 5 6
Thailand 11 8 12 9
Other 15 16 12 20
Greece 2 4 4 2
Hungary 2 2 0 0
New Guinea 7 6 0 6
Puerto Rico 4 1 2 2
Spain 0 0 2 2
Tahiti 0 3 1 2
Vietnam 0 0 0 4
Yugoslavia 0 0 3 2

TOTAL TRIALS 621 615 734 546
TOTAL COUNTRIES 80 84 78 92
STentative





























National collaborators play a full partnership role in the international maize testing
program. CIMMYT's in-service maize breeding trainees, as part of their program,
receive a complete orientation to the research methodologies in population im-
provement and varietal development followed by CIMMYT.

International Progeny Testing Trials (IPTTs)
Thirteen Advanced Unit populations entered into Inter-
national Progeny Testing Trials in 1979. These international
progeny trials serve two purposes. First, About ten of the
best progenies are identified at each testing site by a national
collaborator. These outstanding progenies are used to form
an experimental variety. Second, 30 to 40 percent of the best
performing progenies across all sites are selected to regenerate
the next cycle of the population. The 1979 IPTT results (and
special requests by national collaborators) provided the basis
to develop 61 location-specific and 11 across-location experi-
mental varieties. Some were tested during 1980 and others
will be tested in 1982. Included in these trials were three
quality protein maize populations. In general, the progenies
selected for future experimental variety (EV) development
had earlier maturity and shorter plant height than the top-
yielding national check varieties included in each IPTT trial.







Experimental Variety Trials (EVTs)
In 1979, four different EVTs were assembled, and 244
sets were distributed to national collaborators upon request.
One quality protein maize trial, consisting of seven quality
protein maize (QPM) experimental varieties (EVT15A), also
was included. Some of the best-performing EVs are compared
in table 2 to the best checks at individual sites where the
particular trial was grown.



Table 2. Sampling of best-performing EVs from International
Maize Variety Trials, 1979

Yield of
1979 Name of top top EV as
EVT experimental Yield o/o of
Number variety (EV) (kg/ha) best check


Latin America
Guatemala (Cuyuta)
Mexico (Cotaxtla)
(Nayarit)
Bolivia (G. Saavedra)
Honduras (Chirinos &
Las Acacias)
Dominican Republic
(S. Cristobal)
Colombia (Turipana)
Argentina (Leales)
Ecuador (Pichilingue)
Panama (Across 4 sites)
Peru (Satipo)
Haiti (Levy)

Chile (La Platina)
Mexico (Tlaltizapan)
Honduras (Guaymas)
Colombia (Turipana)
Belize (C. Farm)

Africa/Middle East
Ghana (Nyankpala)
Nigeria (Ibadan)
Ghana (Nyankpala)

Ivory Coast (Ferke)
Mali (Sotuba)
Sudan (Halima)
Malawi (Bembeke)
Nigeria (Ibadan)
Saudi Arabia (Holuf)


Poza Rica 7843
Poza Rica 7822
Across 7622
Poza Rica 7843

Across 7622

Poza Rica 7832
Across 7729
Across 7728
Across 7728
Across 7728
Across 7728
La Maquina 7827


5607
6664
3287
5809

7454

4417
3305
7250
6732
4855
7130
4986


Across 7734 12,657
Across 7734 6888
Poza Rica 7729(E) 3846
Poza Rica 7729(E) 3975
La Maquina 7721 5873


Poza Rica 7843 5129
Across 7728 2260
Sta. Cruz Porillo(l)
7835 4044
Across 7728 7368
Tocumen (1) 7835 4997
Suwan 7726 4061
Tlaltizapan 7844 3099
Tlaltizapan 7844 2589
Tlaltizapan 7842 7424







Table 2. (Con't)

Yield of
1979 Number of top top EV as
EVT experimental Yield o/o of
Number variety (EV) (kg/ha) best check

Iraq (Abu Ghraib) 16 Tialtizapan 7844 7772 120
Yemen A.R. (Taiz) 16 Tialtizapan 7842 6086 190
Egypt (Sids) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 7642 102
Ivory Coast (Ferke) 18 Ferke (1) 7622 7213 110
Somalia (Afgoi) 20 Gemiza (2) 7644 5935 133

Asia
Sri Lanka (Across 2 s tes) 13 Across 7728 4760 140
Nepal (Rampur) 13 La Maquina 7827 7675 121
Pakistan (Yousafwala] 13 Sete Lagoas 7726 6160 140
Afghanistan (Lashkerlah) 16 Across 7748 4404 157
Burma (Yezin) 16 Tlaltizapan 7844 3348 125
Pakistan (Pirsabak) 16 Sids 7734 7449 115


Elite Experimental Variety Trials (ELVTs)
The best-performing experimental varieties across all
international testing locations during 1977 and 1978 were
selected to form subsequent elite variety trials in 1979. Three
ELVTs were assembled and 233 sets were requested by na-
tional collaborators. One quality protein maize trial (ELVT19)
was included, consisting of six QPM elite experimental
varieties and one QPM population. These QPM materials were
evaluated against national normal and QPM check varieties.
The QPM variety Tuxpeio H.E.o2 was a top yielder at seven
locations with yields at a par or higher than the best national
checks.


Requests for Seed Multiplication
CIMMYT continues to receive mounting seed requests
for its advanced materials from national collaborators. Forty-
two national maire programs asked CIMMYT in 1980 for
supplemental seed shipments of specific materials with
intentions to increase the seed for varietal demonstrations on
farmers' fields. SLch a step often precedes the naming and
commercial release' of a new variety. In 1980, the requests
came from:






Latin America and the Caribbean, 18 countries
Mediterranean and the Mideast, 4 countries
Africa, south of the Sahara, 14 countries
South and Southeast Asia, 3 countries
Other areas, 3 countries


1981 International Trials
The tentative distribution of international trials in 1981
includes 546 individual trials requested by collaborators in
92 countries. This testing network now involves virtually all
developing countries which produce maize.
A modification was made in 1981 with experimental
variety trials. CIMMYT has decided to send second generation
(F2) experimental varieties instead of first generation mate-
rials (F1). This means that only IPTTs and ELVTs will be
distributed in 1981. From 1982 onward EVTs will continue
to be distributed as in the past on a request basis.



NUTRITIONAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Beginning in 1970, CIMMYT's maize improvement pro-
gram was expanded to include work on the nutritional
quality aspects of maize. Today, this work is an integral part
of the total maize improvement program. Various materials
undergoing improvement in the Back-Up and Advanced Units
have parallel quality protein maize (QPM) counterparts.
Following the discovery of the effects of the opaque-2
gene in improving the nutritional qualities of maize (en-
hanced levels of the amino acids lysine and tryptophan),
considerable enthusiasm developed among scientists that
opaque-2 maize could make a major nutritional impact in
food-deficit, low-income countries. Farmers and consumers
in the developing world did not react to opaque-2 maize with
the same enthusiasm due to several adverse effects associated
with the opaque-2 gene. The major defects of opaque-2 maize
were kernels with a soft chalky appearance, lower-yielding
ability (compared to normal maize), greater vulnerability to
ear rots and stored-grain pests, and a higher moisture content
in the grain at harvest.


























China is the largest maize producer in the developing world. This Chinese visiting
scientist spent 4 months at CIMMYT in 1980. Here he reviews quality protein
maize materials which offer potentially exciting prospects for the Chinese people.

CIMMYT's Improvement Strategy
CIMMYT scientists discovered that they could accumu-
late modifier genes to develop QPM materials with a hard
shiny kernel which looked and tasted like normal maize, but
still retained superior protein quality. The identified QPM
sources with superior modifiers were then used to improve
other populations. By 1980, 21 Advanced Unit populations,
12 Back-Up Unit gene pools, and 3 of the Collaborative
Disease Research populations had undergone the conversion
and selection process to develop hard endosperm quality
protein counterparts..

Quality Protein Maize Population Trials (QMPTs)
In addition to the QPM materials included in the inter-
national testing program in progeny, experimental variety,
and elite experimental variety trials (reported elsewhere),
new QPM materials are also distributed as QMPTs to inter-
ested collaborators upon request. These trials serve to provide
specific information on the performance and adaptation of
quality protein materials in representative parts of the devel-






oping world. Once proven, QPM materials are then promoted
to the international testing program, starting first as IPTTs.
Table 3 reports selected data on the performance of
the best QPVI materials in comparison to the performance
of the best checks in some of the 45 countries where the
QMPT-11A and 11B were tested in 1979.




Table 3. Sampling of Data from QMPT-11A and QMPT-11B
1979
"-"IBest QPM-


Country
(location)

Guatemala
(San Jeronimo)

Pakistan
(Yousafwana)

Nigeria
(Ibadan)

Nepal
(Rampur)

Panama
(Rio Hato)


Mexico
(Poza Rica)

Brazil
(Londrina)

Argentina
(Leales)


Best QPM
Material

Late White Dent H.E.o2

Mezcla Amarilla H.E.o2


White 02 Back-Up Pool


White 02 Back-Up Pool

La Pccta H.E.o2

Late White Dent H.E.o2

Chuquisaca 7741

Temperate White H.E.o2


Yield of
best(normal)
check variety
(kg/ha)
7638


QPM yield
as o/o of
best check

113


3961

3403

6171

5163

6072

5080

5729


Research Progress
The efforts of CIMMYT scientists to accumulate genetic
modifiers in quality protein maize materials have proven
conclusively that the problems associated with quality pro-
tein maize can be overcome through careful and systematic
selections for desired characters. CIMMYT now has a range of
quality protein maize materials to fit many agroclimatic
conditions and food preferences. Our best quality protein






materials are high yielding, have less vulnerability to ear rots
and stored-grain pests, and have a relatively uniform hard
kernel appearance. CIMMYT believes that these quality
protein maize materials have reached a level of improvement
that they can be commercially exploited during the 1980s.

Future Research Considerations
Selection fo increased oil content has been initiated in
some QPM materials. The objective of this research is to
further improve t ie nutritional value of quality protein maize
through increasing the energy concentration in the grain
without affecting other grain traits. We also are looking at
genetic ways to protect QPM materials from pollen contami
nation from norrral materials.



SPECIAL RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN MEXICO

Within CIMMYT's general maize improvement program,
new ideas and techniques as well as some special research
activities are carried out on a special project basis. In these
projects, researchers usually confine their study to one or a
few populations. These studies may require many years for
completion, but the conclusions reached may ultimately be
applied to other parts of the program in the form of modifi-
cations in the irrprovement priorities and/or methodologies
used within central program activities. In 1980, special
studies were under way dealing with yield efficiency in
tropical maize, d ought tolerance, early maturity, and wider
adaptation. In rrost of these research projects, evaluations
covering a number of years of work were carried out during
1980 to determine whether the projects need to be continued
further, given the results already obtained.

Yield Efficiency in Tropical Maize
The development of more grain-efficient tropical and
subtropical plant types that produce a greater proportion of
their total dry matter in the form of grain, rather than
leaves and stem, is a basic objective in CIMMYT's maize
improvement research. The Special Projects research staff
has been studying different approaches to achieve this





objective, such as shortening the plant and reducing leaf area
and tassel size. This work has proven to be extremely suc-
cessful and appears to offer opportunities to make major
impacts upon the yield efficiency of tropical maize.
CIMMYT scientists, using the lowland tropical maize
population Tuxpeho, have been recurrently selecting for
shorter plant height within successive cycles of this popula-
tion. In 1980, 20 cycles of selection had been completed, and
plant height had been reduced to approximately 50 percent
of that of the original material. The ratio between grain and
stover in the total plant dry matter of the later selection
cycles is now 50:50 compared to 35:65 in the original
population. That is, half the plant's total dry matter is now
partitioned to grain, a ratio similar to the high-yielding
maize types grown in the U.S. Corn Belt. As the plant has
become shorter, it has also become earlier-to-maturity when
compared to the original material. While the more efficient
short-plant :ype is clearly advantageous, the realization of
maximum yield potential implies a higher plant density re-
quirement with increased seed and more work in planting
where hand labor is used. Therefore, such plant types will
need a different agronomy. Yield increases are attributed to
less lodging in the shorter plants, fewer barren plants, and to
improved partitioning towards more grain without reducing
the total dry matter produced per unit of area.
With the advantages of increasing yield efficiency
through reducing plant height now demonstrated, the project
is coming to a conclusion. Final evaluation studies were
under way in 1980-81 on CIMMYT experiment stations. A
graduate student from the University of Minnesota was also
evaluating different cycles of selection in on-farm trials carried
out in conjunction with CIMMYT's production training
program in the lowlands of Veracruz State, Mexico.
Starting in cycle 12 of the Tuxpeio population, re-
searchers also began to study the effect of two other charac-
ters on yield efficiency. One is to select for reduced tassel
size, and the other is to reduce the leaf size. After five cycles
of selection against these non-grain portions of the plant, a
similar trend toward greater yield efficiency is evident. Two
other populations (Antigua-Republica Dominicana and Eto
Blanco), unrelated to the Tuxpeio population, are also being
subjected to similar studies and again are showing that im-





provements can be made in yield efficiency using these
selection criteria.

Drought Tolerance
Throughout the tropics, drought causes sizable yield
reductions in m;iize, particularly when drought occurs at
critical growth periods for the plant, such as during the
flowering and grain-filling periods.
A special project was initiated in 1977 to determine
whether there mijht be sufficient variability within maize for
drought tolerance to merit more specific breeding attention,
and whether a practical methodology could be developed to
make selections for this trait. The population Tuxpeho was
chosen for this study. By 1980, CIMMYT scientists had
completed their third cycle of selection in this material. The
various cycles were included in an evaluation trial in 1980
to assess progress; In addition, the more recent cycles of
short-plant selections previously mentioned were also in-
cluded. Different entries in the trial were planted at different
dates so that all materials would reach the flowering and
grain-filling stages at approximately the same time. Pre-
liminary observations indicate that selection within a pop-
ulation for greater drought tolerance is possible and that
shorter plants tend to have more drought tolerance than
taller types.

Earlier Maturity in Tropical Maize
CIMMYT ha: experienced a growing demand from na-
tional programs for earlier-maturing materials to fit into a
brief rainy season) or more intensive cropping sequences.
The sacrifice in yield associated with earlier maturity as
well as greater disease and insect problems have long been
identified as the riajor breeding obstacles associated with the
development of these materials.
A special research project was initiated to examine
different approaches to develop materials with earlier maturity
and good yield. In one approach, high-yielding tropical
genotypes with intermediate maturity have been used to form
a population (Compuesto Seleccion Precoz) from which
selection is madi: for earliness. Nine cycles of selection
have now been completed. In 1980, a trial was designed to







evaluate the first eight cycles of selection. A preliminary
observation is that as you select for earliness you tend to get
shorter, more manageable plant types. A number of early-
maturing families from this special project have been used to
help form two Advanced Unit populations (30 and 31) for
areas requiring early maturity varieties.
A previous PhD thesis research project is being continued
by CIMMYT scientists to look at the effects of altering the
length of pre- and post-flowering growth phases upon subse-
quent maturity characteristics.


Wider Adaptation
In 1980 CIMMYT scientists in the Special Projects Unit
made their 13th cycle of recombination in a maize population
drawn from many temperate and tropical climates. Initially,
the cold climate materials would not set seed in the lowland
tropics, and vice versa, because of sensitivity to differing
daylengths, temperatures, and diseases. These problems were
overcome and the population can now set seed in a range of
maize-growing environments. CIMMYT's interest in crossing
temperate and tropical germplasm has expanded, and this
work has now been shifted to the Back-Up Unit.


Combining Ability of CIMMYT Germplasm
In 1979 and 1980, CIMMYT carried out yield trials on
its experiment stations in Mexico on the combining ability
of its germplasm to provide information to collaborators
interested in using CIMMYT materials to develop hybrids.
All CIMMYT pools and populations were crossed to Eto
Blanco and Tuxpeio P.B., two varieties that are known to
combine well. A number of good combiners were identified.



WIDE CROSSES

Crosses between maize and two alien genera, sorghum
and Tripsacum, are being pursued to determine the feasibility
of using potentially useful genes from these genera for maize
improvement. In general, the aim is to make maize a more



























Inter-generic hybrids have been produced in CIMMYT's maize wide cross pro-
gram. Researchers are now working to unravel the genetic make-up of these
hybrids and to understand more fully the mechanism for their production.

environmentally stable crop with better insect and disease
resistance (from Tripsacum) and more drought and water-
logging tolerance (from sorghum).
Our work in previous years has shown that maize x
Tripsacum crosses give two types of hybrids: classical and
non-classical. One new classical maize x Tripsacum hybrid
was identified in 1980. Classical hybrids retain the expected
gametic number of chromosomes from both parents. In
appearance they resemble Tripsacum more than maize, and
like Tripsacum, are perennial. Non-classical hybrids possess
20 maize chromosomes and various numbers of Tripsacum
chromosomes in different root tip cells. These hybrids are
more maize-like in appearance and are annual.
In maize x sorghum crosses only non-classical hybrids
have been retrieved.
Very little is understood about the mechanism for the
production of such hybrids. In 1980, harvest and examina-
tion techniques were modified to try to determine the pos-
sible mechanisms involved. A cytologist joined the staff in
early 1981 to help unravel the identity of these hybrids.







MAIZE TRAINING


CIMMYT offers a wide range of training opportunities
to scientists working in maize improvement and production
in the developing world. These include:
-In-service training courses
production agronomy
maize improvement
laboratory analysis
experiment station management
-Graduate student programs in cooperation with univer-
sities. Some students spend 12 to 18 months in
Mexico to do thesis research.
-Postdoctoral fellows: 2 years service at CIMMYT.
-Visiting and Associate scientists: up to 1-year fellow-
ships at CIMMYT.


In-Service
The in-service training program is now ten years old.
Over 550 trainees from 58 countries have passed through the
six-months course. About 7 out of 10 trainees specialize in
production agronomy.
In 1980, 70 trainees from 33 countries participated ir
one of the four in-service training programs. Of these, 48
participated in the production agronomy course, 12 in the
maize improvement course, 5 in experiment station manage-
ment, and 3 in the protein quality laboratory training.
The production training program emphasizes on-farm
research. In addition to long hours of field work associated
with on-farm surveys and experiments, the trainees are
introduced to the integrated research strategies needed in a
dynamic national maize production program.
In the maize improvement course, trainees are intro-
duced to the range of breeding materials handled by
CIMMYT in Mexico at our different experiment stations.
Emphasis is given to the field research skills needed to design
and manage a maize improvement program. This practical
training is interspersed with participation in the agronomy
experiments conducted by the production trainees on farmers'
fields, and with classwork related to the breeding methodolo-
gies used by CIMMYT scientists.









Maize in-service trainees 1971-80


Region and Country

Central America and
Caribbean
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Chile
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
South and East Asia
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
India
Indonesia
Japan
Korea
Malaysia


1971-
80


1980 Region and Country


South and East Asia (Con't)
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines
Thailand
N. Africa and Mideast
Algeria
Egypt
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
Yemen A.R.
Tropical Africa 1
Botswana
Cameroon
Ethiopia
Ghana
Ivory Coast
Kenya
Malawi
Nigeria
Rwanda
Senegal
Swaziland
Tanzania
Transkei
Uganda
Zaire
Zambia


Other
Total training fellows
Total countries


1971-
80


Graduate Student Training and Doctoral Fellows
During 1980-81, with outside financial sponsorship,
CIMMYT is cooperating in the training of six master's degree
candidates (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and
Zaire); and two Ph.D candidates (Zaire). In addition, three
predoctoral fellows (Tanzania and USA) are engaged in thesis
research in Mexico and two postdoctoral fellows (Australia
and USA) are serving on the Maize Program staff.


3 1
551 70
58 33







Visiting Scientists
During 1980, the Maize Program received 22 visiting
and associate scientists, who spent up to one year in Mexico.
In 1980, CIMMYT also received many short-term visitors,
often agricultural policy-makers and research administrators,
who generally spent less than one week at CIMMYT.



MAIZE COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO

In 1980, scientists from most maize-growing countries
of the world cooperated with CIMMYT scientists in germplasm
development and exchange of research information. In a few
collaborating countries CIMMYT has received special funds
to assign staff members to work within a national program,
usually during its more formative stages. A number of re-
gional programs have also emerged among various maize-
growing countries and CIMMYT has posted staff to support
these regional efforts.

National Programs
CIMMYT staff were working within four national
programs at the end of 1980. These staff work on a daily
basis with national program scientists in all aspects of maize
improvement and production research and in training and staff
development activities. One staff member assigned to the
national maize program in Guatemala shifted in 1980 to a
regional assignment for Central America and the Caribbean,
although he still is based in Guatemala and works closely
with the national program. A special report on the national
maize research and production system followed in Guatemala
is being prepared by CIMMYT for publication in mid 1981.

Cooperative Projects Involving National Programs, 1981
Start of CIMMYT
CIMMYT staff
Country arrangement assigned Donor
Zaire 1968 1 Zaire
Tanzania 1973 1 USAID/IITA
Ghana 1979 1 CIDA(Canada)
Pakistan 1979 1 USAID


























Over 50 percent of Guatemala's lowland maize-growing area is now planted to
improved varieties and hybrids developed by scientists in the national agricultural
research institute (ICTA). In 1980, the assignment of CIMMYT scientists to the
national maize program concluded, although CIMMYT's regional staff continue
close collaboration with Guatemalan maize researchers.

Regional Programs
A regional program helps to forge stronger links among
national collaborators and with CIMMYT. Regional programs
generally comprise neighboring countries in which maize is a
major crop (or has the potential of being one), grown under
similar conditions, and exposed to similar diseases and
insects. Therefore, these countries benefit from closer col-
laborative research, training, and information activities.
Another research dimension in regional program activities
involves the shifting of portions of CIMMYT's international
breeding program to regional bases, with full cooperation of
national scientists in each area. These collaborative research
efforts are described under the individual regional program
reports which follow.

Central America and Caribbean Regional Program
The efforts of the maize staff assigned to this region are
aimed at strengthening national maize improvement and pro-
duction research programs.






Regional Maize Programs in 1981

Number of Start of CIMMYT
Region and cooperating CIMMYT staff Current
operations base countries arrangement assigned Donor

Central America 13 1974 2 Switzerland
and Caribbean (Mexico
and Guatemala)

South and 11 1976 1 UNDP
Southeast Asia
(Thailand)
Andean countries 5 1976 3 Core
(Colombia and Unrestricted
Ecuador)

Mideast 9 1979 1 Core
(Turkey) Unrestricted

West Africa 13 1980 1 Core
(Nigeria) Unrestricted




In 1980, regional staff assisted in the conducting of the
international maize trials distributed to area countries. They
also assisted in the assembly, distribution, and data evaluation
of the PCCMCA (Programa Cooperativo Centroamericano
para el Mejoramiento de Cultivos Alimenticios) trials distrib-
uted throughout the region.
In maize improvement, particular emphasis was placed
on greater corn stunt resistance, adaptation to conditions
of drought stress, improved husk cover and reduced ear rots,
and on the development of earlier varieties. National programs
in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
released varieties and/or hybrids in 1980 which carried
CIMMYT-distributed germplasm in their parentage.
On-farm research continued to receive a major program
focus, with weed control and minimum tillage methods
given major emphasis.
The staff also assisted INCAP (Instituto de Nutrici6n
de Centroambrica y Panama) by providing sufficient quantities
of quality protein maize materials to conduct an extensive
research project on the human nutritional qualities of these
materials.





A number of national production-oriented training
activities with assistance from the regional staff and CIMMYT
headquarters training officers were carried out in 1980 in
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Jamaica. Consulting visits were
made to most of 1he 13 countries in the region.

South and Southeast Asian Regional Program
The operations base for this program was shifted in 1980
from India to Thailand. A maize pathologist, deputed from
the Rockefeller Foundation, assumed CIMMYT's regional
responsibilities foi this area.
CIMMYT's downy mildew international breeding pro-
gram will now be managed by this staff member. Activities
will include disease screening and selection of resistant
materials for international testing. Added emphasis is also
being given to thie development of earlier-maturity varieties.
CIMMYT's regional staff participated in national maize
workshops within the region. Continuing consulting assistance
was also provided on ways to strengthen the commercial
market demand fcr maize within the region.

Andean Regional Program
CIMMYT has three maize scientists assigned to this
regional program: one is headquartered in Ecuador with
responsibilities for highland floury maize breeding, and two
are stationed in Colombia from where they support tropical
maize breeding an: production research activities throughout
the region.
In the highland floury maize breeding program, seven
gene pools have now been assembled. The aim of this pro-
gram is to develop high-yielding, widely adapted, earlier
maturity floury maize varieties with added insect and disease
resistance. Some of the pools have now gone through two
cycles of selection using a shuttle breeding system in which
alternate improvement cycles are carried out in the same
year by CIMMYT's Back-Up Unit staff in Mexico and also
in Ecuador. In this scheme, selection pressure for ear rot
and earworm is applied in Mexico, and for agronomic im-
provement in Ecuador. It is hoped that other Andean coun-
tries will soon participate more directly in the breeding
scheme; Peruvian scientists have indicated that they will start
after the 1981-82 harvest.


























Many collaborators have adopted CIMMYT's methodology for maize improvement.
Shown above are Ecuadorian researchers who have completed 5 cycles of selection
and recombination with the material, TuxpeRo P.B., using CIMMYT's modified
half-sib breeding system.

A number of improved tropical maize varieties have now
been developed by national program scientists using germ-
plasm extracted from CIMMYT's international testing program.
In total, nine high-yielding varieties were released in the
region in 1979-80, and several more are slated for release in
1981.
On-farm research collaboration is receiving considerable
attention by the CIMMYT regional agronomist. In particular,
he has been active in assisting the national programs of Peru
and Colombia in planning and implementing on-farm pro-
duction research programs.
In addition to helping to identify candidates from
national programs to attend in-service training courses in
breeding and production at CIMMYT's headquarters, the
regional staff has provided assistance in several maize training
courses held in Colombia. CIMMYT's regional staff also
assisted in the organization of the IX Andean Region Maize
Workshop, held in 1980 in Maracay, Venezuela. Forty-five
research paper were presented at the workshop, attended by
most of the maize scientists working in the Andean region.






Mideast Regional Program
A CIMMYT maize scientist, formerly assigned to Egypt,
was shifted to a regional post in 1979, with his operations
base in Turkey.
His efforts in Turkey focused on strengthening the pop-
ulation improvement research and on introducing and testing
exotic germplasm for utilization in the program. Special im-
provement priorities included the development of varieties
with resistance to stalk-rot, leaf blight and stem borers.
In Egypt, after on-farm evaluations, a high-yielding,
late-wilt resistant variety named Composite-2 (EV-2) was
released. Nucleus and foundation seed were increased and
a production pa::kage was introduced through a pilot re-
search/extension effort.

West African Regional Program
In 1980, CIMMYT posted a maize scientist to Nigeria as
part of a cooperative regional effort with I ITA and West
African national programs With this posting, CIMMYT has
shifted its international breeding program for streak virus re-
sistance to this regional base, with full involvement of I ITA
and West Africar maize scientists. Considerable priority is
given to this research since streak virus is one of the most
serious disease problems in Sub-Saharan tropical maize areas.





wheat
improvement


^ I44





INTRODUCTION TO WHEAT PROGRAM


In February 1981, the agricultural scientific community
lost one of its most dedicated and able members, Dr.R.Glenn
Anderson, CIMIVYT's Wheat Program Director. His work
has made a decisive difference in the welfare of millions of
rural and urban poor in the developing world. His passing will
be sorely missed ajt CIMMYTand within the international net-
work of wheat scientists he was so instrumental in forming.
His legacy to his fellow scientists lies in his conviction that
agricultural scientists who strive for professional excellence
and honesty, and who dedicate their talents to increasing
food production, can make real contributions toward the
mitigation of human suffering and the reduction of social
injustices.
The continue ng progress in wheat research made by the
CIMMYT staff, the international network of collaborating
scientists, and the production records being set by developing
country farmers provide us with optimism that wheat will
continue to mak, significant and growing contributions to
world food production during the 1980s.
The growth ii wheat production in the developing world
has been one of tie most significant achievements in agricul-
tural development of this century. The average production
increase in the developing world of 4.6 percent per year over
the last two decaJes could not have been possible without
the research efforts made by thousands of dedicated wheat
scientists.
In the pages that follow, highlights of the 1980 activi-
ties of the CIMMYT Wheat Program staff are reported. More
detailed descriptions of these activities can be found in our
technical annual reports and various technical bulletins pub-
lished each year.


Norman E. Borlaug
(Acting Director)







WHEAT SUMMARY


Bread Wheat
The central objective of the bread wheat program is to develop
widely adapted, management-responsive varieties with stable disease
resistance. Breeding work continues on spring x winter crosses,enhanced
aluminum toxicity resistance in certain lines, development of earlier
high-yielding materials, and wheats for the coolest production season of
the sub-tropics. Our breeding emphasis also continued to broaden
toward the problems of rainfed agriculture.

Durum Wheat
CIMMYT has advanced durum lines with yield potential similar
to the best bread wheats. Some research efforts are continuing to push
yield potential higher, although the primary emphasis is on increasing
the disease resistance and yield dependability of CIMMYT's durum
materials.

Triticale
Triticale program objectives are to improve yield potential
and agronomic type, to broaden adaptation, to improve grain test
weights and bread-making quality, and to improve and/or maintain
disease resistance. In 1980, the global area under commercial triticale
production surpassed 1 million hectares for the first time.

Barley
CIMMYT works to improve barley as a human food. Our initial
breeding work concentrated on the development of germplasm with
high yield potential, wide adaptation, high nutritional quality, lodging
resistance, and hull-less grain. Substantial progress has been made in
all these research areas. Major emphasis is now being given to the
development of greater disease resistance in the CIMMYT material.

Special Germplasm Development
Some potentially valuable germplasm carries negative attributes
intermixed with desirable characters and is not readily usable in the
conventional breeding programs. Special breeding efforts are undertaken
to eliminate undersirable traits so that these materials can be reintro-
duced into the conventional breeding programs.

Wide Crosses
In 1980, this unit continued its wide cross research, working
mainly on crosses between wheat and species of Agropyron and E/ymus,
and to a lesser extent on wheat x barley crosses. The purpose is to
transfer useful genes from these genera into wheat to improve its






drought and salt tolerance, and resistance to important diseases. Barley
is also being crossed to wheat to transfer genes for higher protein
quality and for specific disease resistance.

Milling and Baking Laboratory
In 1980, CIMMYT's cereal technologists evaluated the grain of
thousands of bread wheat, durum, and triticale lines for their suitability
in making bread, :asta, and other products. Each line included in
CIMMYT screening and yield nurseries has been assessed for grain
quality.

Pathology
The pathology group in Mexico is primarily responsible for artifi-
cially inoculating the CIMMYT nurseries to impart heavy disease pres-
sure, assistance in selecting resistant lines, and for in-service pathol-
ogy training. SpeciIl studies are also conducted to monitor changes in
the prevailing races )f rust for possible mutations.

Agronomy
The agronomy program in Mexico is responsible for research on
some non site-spei:ific agronomic problems; development of weed
control,fertilizer,an : irrigation recommendations for CIMMYT nurseries;
and certain consultation and training support functions.

International Testin ]
In 1980, collaborating scientists in 101 countries requested
1884 wheat, tritica e, and barley trials from 38 different wheat pro-
gram nurseries. Mole early generation materials are being shared with
scientists in national programs. More problem-specific nursery categories
for early-maturity materials, dryland conditions, and special disease and
soil stress problems lave also been added.

Wheat Training
Fifty-three in-service trainees from 23 countries completed their
7 month, training programs at CIMMYT in 1980. Another 43 collabo-
rating scientists visited CIMMYT during the year. Six postdoctoral
fellows also served (in the staff, and CIMMYT cooperated in the wheat
training of 10 maste 's degree candidates.

Wheat Cooperative Frojects Outside Mexico
In 1980, one .heat scientist was assigned to the Pakistan wheat
program and 8 CIMMYT wheat staff were working in regional programs
in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In regional programs considerable
emphasis is being paced on more specific production agronomy and
crop protection rese;irch activities.





BREAD WHEAT


The total area in the developing world seeded to hundreds
of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) that carry CIMMYT germ-
plasm in their pedigrees now exceeds 35 million hectares.
Spectacular rates in HYV adoption continue to be registered.
Perhaps the most impressive recent production impact has
been in Bangladesh, which has raised national production
from 114,000 tons in 1975 to over 1.2 million tons in 1981.

The central objective of the CIMMYT bread wheat pro-
gram continues to be the development of widely adapted,
management-responsive, disease-resistant germplasm for
worldwide distribution. Breeding emphasis has broadened
over the years from an original emphasis on the develop-
ment of semidwarf plant types with good rust resistance,
towards the problems of rainfed wheat production, as well as
a host of other disease and stress problems.
Due to CIMMYT's global involvement, the bread wheat
program must confront the numerous problems associated
with environmental variability. Consequently, a wide genetic
base is maintained for characters such as yield, wide adapta-
tion, industrial quality, and disease resistance. Sucessful de-
velopment of germplasm to fit these diverse environments is
a product of a well-planned crossing program, adequate selec-
tion, and a large worldwide network of collaborating scien-
tists who participate in the international testing program.
We again acknowledge the continuing cooperation we
receive from Mexico's Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas del
Noroeste (CIANO), Ciudad Obregon, and from the scientists
and other regional dependencies of Mexico's National Intitute
for Agricultural Research (INIA). Their facilities and inter-
ested support play an important role in CIMMYT's breeding
efforts.

Germplasm Development
Over 8,000 crosses were planned and made in the 1980
CIANO and Toluca breeding cycles. High-yielding cultivars
from the Southern Cone and Andean regions of South Amer-
ica,the Indian subcontinent, and Africa were used as recurrent
parents in the crossing program. These donor parents from
different areas of the world provided germplasm carrying












*.. ~~ I -


For the last two years, the spring x winter advanced line, Veery, has had the highest
yield across all locations. Many national collaborators report that Veery selections
will soon be released as commercial varieties.

genes for specific characteristics, such as disease resistance,
good agronomic type, and superior industrial quality.
Added emphasis is being given to the development of
more management-responsive cultivars for those areas of the
developing world with less favorable production environments,
but where wheat cultivation is in the national interest. Added
attention is being placed on the development of varieties to
fit into more intensive cropping systems. Our efforts in the
last decade to stabilize resistance in bread wheat to all three
rusts-stem, leaf, and stripe-as well as to increase the resis-
tance in CIMMYT germplasm to septoria have shown good
progress, although work remains to be done. Our efforts to
address more directly the problems of rainfed areas are
showing production payoffs, particularly in Mediterranean
Basin countries and Argentina. During the 1980s, the program
will continue to help assure that new germplasm is continu-
ously available with new sources of resistance when situations
require varietal replacements.
We are increasing our efforts to develop high-yielding
germplasm with higher levels of Helminthosporium sp.,
Septoria tritici, scab, and aluminum toxicity resistance. The
potential payoff from these research efforts can have major






'production impacts in South America, Africa, and parts of
Asia. With more broad-based disease resistance and greater
tolerance to agroclimatic stresses, these countries can achieve
major new expansions in national production through the
introduction of improved (and appropriate) germplasm and
proper agronomic practices.

Spring x Winter Wheats
CIMMYT is working in cooperation with Oregon State
University (OSU) to transfer useful genes between spring
and winter wheats. Through this crossing program, spring
x winter lines are emerging which possess higher yield potential
and greater environmental stability than straight spring x
spring varieties. For the last two years in the international
nurseries, spring x winter selections have posted the top yield
performance across all testing locations (see tables 4 and 5).
These selections also appear to possess better resistance to
Septoria tritici and stripe rust, as well as better drought
tolerance.


Table 4. Average yield (kg/ha) of top two wheat varieties across all loca-
tions reporting data from the 15th ISWYN (1978-79) and 16th
ISWYN (1979-80)

1978-79 1979-80 x o/o

Veery "S" 4477 4372 4424 119
Nacozari 76 4251 4265 4258 114
Nursery Mean 3778 3699 3724 100


Table 5. Yield (kg/ha) comparison of spring x winter line Veery "S" and
the high-yielding variety Nacozari 76 for the years 1979 and
1980 in Cd. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico.
1979 1980 x

Veery "S" 8130 8349 8239
Nacozari 76 7900 8113 8006


Early-Maturing Wheats
Several major wheat-producing areas grow wheat in rota-
tion patterns (e.g. rice-wheat) in which earlier-maturing wheat






varieties with hi ih yield could better fit into these produc-
tion systems. In cooperation with national programs, CIMMYT
identified varieties such as Sonalika and Inia 66 during the
1960s. These varieties are both high yielding and very early
maturing. Sonalika, a major variety in the Indian subcontinent,
is losing its resist nce to leaf rust and must be replaced.
Disease-resislant, early-maturing cultivars with yield po-
tential similar to Sonalika have been identified in the CIMMYT
germplasm. These have been made available to cooperators,
particularly in Asia. In addition, CIMMYT is also encouraging
other researchers, particularly rice breeders, to develop earlier
varieties in their respective crops.

Cultivars for Highland Areas
Wheat production in the highlands of the Andes and East
Africa has lagged behind the yield breakthroughs achieved
in more favorable' areas such as the irrigated plains of India
and Mexico. Although the total area planted to wheat in
these highland ar:as appears small when compared to other
production environments, wheat is still an important food
source.
Highland environments are characterized by conditions
conducive to high-intensity disease development. Stem and
stripe rust are the most common yield constraints, followed
by septoria, fusarium and other foliar pathogens.
The CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program has limited
its involvement in highland germplasm development to obser-
vation and classification of existing germplasm for further
testing by national programs. Currently 250 such advanced
lines have been identified. CIMMYT also has regional pro-
grams operating in both the highlands of South America and
East Africa to confront these disease problems directly. With
these staff members in place, regional disease priorities are
being given additional attention.

Aluminum Toxicity Tolerance
In 1974,CIMMYT signed formal agreements relating to
three breeding pr:)grams in Brazil for cooperative work on
aluminum toxicity in wheat. This cooperative program in-
volves the EMBRAPA, FECOTRIGO, and OCEPAR programs
in Brazil. Crosses nade both in Mexico and Brazil are designed
to incorporate hi!ih yield, rust and septoria resistance, and






semidwarf plant type into materials with tolerance to alumi-
num toxicity. Promising breeding materials are shuttled in
each successive generation between Brazil and Mexico as part
of the improvement program. In 1980, a new laboratory
facility was added at El Batan to permit rapid preliminary
screening for aluminum toxicity tolerance in relatively large
amounts of breeding material. By the end of the 1980 season,
46 crosses with a variable number of sister selections per
cross had been identified which had the sought-after combi-
nations of good plant type, rust and septoria resistance, and
aluminum toxicity tolerance.

Septoria Resistance
A criticism frequently voiced in the early 1970s was
that CIMMYT germplasm lacked sufficient resistance to Sep-
toria tritici, which regularly reaches epiphytotic proportions
in the rainfed regions of North Africa and Argentina. Soon
after its inception, CIMMYT became involved in testing for
septoria resistance in cooperation with scientists from affected
areas. This collaboration has served to identify a large number
of lines with excellent septoria resistance. Breeding for sep-
toria resistance is being further strengthened through the
distribution of larger amounts of promising materials to areas
where septoria is frequently a serious disease problem.

Helminthosporium Resistance
A number of wheat-importing countries situated in the
sub-tropics--notably those in Central America, Brazil, West
Africa, and Southeast Asia-are interested in growing wheat
in their winter season, the period of coolest temperatures and
lowest humidity. A serious disease constraint under these
sub-tropical production conditions is leaf blotch, caused by
several forms of helminthosporium. CIMMYT's work in
previous years has identified some advanced lines that have
some tolerance to this disease. Breeding work on this disease
problem will now be stepped up through a special project
grant from UNDP. We will use a "shuttle breeding" strategy
in which resistant selections will be shuttled between experi-
ment stations of national collaborators located in the warmer
areas of Asia and South America, and the CIANO station in
Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. This system will allow for
selection at an accelerated pace (two cycles per year) under






both high-disease and high-yield environments. Promising
early generation materials were distributed in 1980 through
the F2 Helmintiosporium Nursery to collaborators in 15
countries.

Slow Rusting
Stem rust resistance in CIMMYT bread wheats was stabi-
lized in the late 1950s and has been retained. The opposite
phenomenon ha, occurred with resistance to leaf rust. Re-
sistant varieties at the time of release usually become suscep-
tible after 2 to 3 years of commercial production. We have,
however, observed an interesting characteristic in the varieties
Torim 73 and Pzvon 76. Although each has become suscep-
tible to leaf rust within 2 to 3 years after release, the inten-
sity of infection has continued at relatively low levels. This
type of host-parasite interaction is known as "slow rusting".
It represents a ty )e of co-existence between the plant and the
rust parasite, in which yields are not significantly depressed
and the race of pathogen does not have to mutate in order to
survive. Special attempts are being made to incorporate the
slow-rusting characteristic of these varieties into future bread
wheat crosses.

International Testing
In 1980, eleven different types of bread wheat nurseries
were distributed et the request of collaborators in more than
100 countries.

1980 Bread Whea: Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation Mlaterials
F2 Irrigated 513 59
F2 Dryland 643 59
F2 Septoria 85 20
F2 Aluminum 114 20
F2 Early 40 19
F2 Helminthosporium 43 15
IBWSN-International Bread Wheat Screening
Nursery 431 226
ISWYN-Internationil Spring Wheat Yield
Nursery 50 97
ESWYT-Elite Sprinc( Wheat Yield Trial 30 30
ISEPTON-Internaticnal Septoria Observation
Nursery 143 50
ALSN-Aluminum Screening Nursery 420 21






Varietal Releases in 1980
In 1980, collaborators in five countries reported the re-
lease of seven new bread wheat varieties which carried
CIMMYT-distributed germplasm in their pedigrees.
Bangladesh (1) Guatemala (1)
Bolivia (2) Tunisia (2)
Ethiopia (1)



DURUM WHEAT

Worldwide, durum wheat is grown on about 30 million
hectares, usually under rainfed conditions and with low aver-
age yield. The most important production areas are found in
the Mediterranean region, the Mideast, India, Argentina,
Chile, USSR, Canada, and the USA. Durum is used in making
pasta products and in making certain types of unleavened
bread products.

Yield Potential
CIMMYT has advanced durum lines that now frequently
yield above 8 t/ha in northwest Mexico. Results of recent
international trials, 10th IDYN (1978-79) and 11th IDYN
(1979-80), showed stable average yields across all locations
of 4,137 kg/ha, 4,019 kg/ha, 4,634 kg/ha, and 4,545 kg/ha,
respectively, for Yavaros "S", Cormorant "S", Bittern "S",
and Mallard "S". Some research efforts are continuing to
push yield potential higher, although most of our scientists'
work is on increasing the disease resistance and yield de-
pendability of CIMMYT's durum materials.

Resistance to Diseases
Progress in developing durums with good stripe rust re-
sistance has been quite successful. More resistance is needed,
however, for leaf rust, and much more for stem rust. Recent
data from international testing indicate that progress is being
made for resistance to leaf rust and stem rust.
As the world durum area expands, other diseases are be-
coming serious threats. Nearly all semidwarf durums show
high levels of susceptibility to Septoria tritici, head scab, and

























Worldwide, durum wheat is grown on about 30 million hectares. Experimental
yields of CIMMYT's advanced lines are now at a par with our best bread wheats.
Major research objectives now are to increase the disease resistance and yield
dependability of CIMMYT's durum lines.

the barley yellow dwarf virus. Much greater emphasis is being
placed on screening for resistant germplasm in disease hot
spot areas.


Improvement of Other Agronomic Characters
Work continues to incorporate added cold tolerance in-
to durums, mainly using cold-resistant durum materials from
Turkey. Materials from various sources and origins are also
searched every growing season for earliness and fast maturity.
Crosses are being made to combine these traits with other
desirable characters. Plants with stronger straw in semidwarf
medium-to-tall types are selected every season to improve
straw strength in all materials.
Leaf area, leaf position, and canopy continue to receive
research attention to permit better utilization of light and
water, and possibly reduced incidence of certain diseases.
Efforts continue in the modification of the head archi-
tecture in durums to increase yield potential and to permit
faster drying in durums after rain and mist, thus reducing
conditions for incidence of head-rotting diseases. Progress has






been made in developing long-lax and semi-lax heads with
greater spacing between spikelets, traits which reduce the
incidence of these disease problems.


Industrial Quality
Although about half of the world's durum wheat
production is used for home consumption, a number of
developing countries are in a position to produce durums for
export to Europe and other regions. To be readily marketable,
these durum wheats must have a high grain test weight, large
size grains, and good macaroni color.
CIMMYT's cereal quality laboratory staff routinely
screens new high-yielding lines to help identify parents which
do not lose quality characters during macaroni processing. To-
day, the carotene content in many CIMMYT lines compares
favorably with the best American macaroni durums.


International Testing
In 1980, CIMMYT distributed seven diie,i, aurum
nurseries to collaborators in 94 countries.


1980 Durum Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation Materials
F2 Irrigated 199 36
F2 Dryland 259 50
F2 Cold Tolerance 61 47
CB-Crossing Block 295 36
IDSN-International Durum Screening Nursery 233 94
IDYN-International Durum Yield Nursery 30 82
EDYT-Elite Durum Yield Trial 30 69


New Varieties Released in 1980
During 1980, collaborators in eight countries reported
the release of 13 new varieties which carried CIMMYT-
distributed germplasm in their parentage.
Argentina (1) India (3)
Cyprus (1) Kenya (3)
Egypt (1) Mexico (1)
Ethiopia (1) Tunisia (2)





TRITICALE


CIMMYT continues its research on the man-made crop
triticale-a cross of wheat and rye. Interest in triticale as a
crop continues to grow. The area under commercial produc-
tion is now abou. one million hectares. Most triticale produc-
tion is in the developed world, with the USSR being the
largest single producer. CIMMYT considers that it is logical
for developed countries to be the first to enter into com-
mercial production, since they are better able to carry out
the adaptive research needed to get triticale into use. Never-
theless, such countries as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, India,
Kenya, and Tanz:ania are becoming increasingly involved in
triticale research End in promoting more national production.
The main objectives of CIMMYT's triticale breeding
program are to irrprove yield potential and agronomic type,
to broaden the ar.a of adaptation, to improve the grain test
weight and bread making quality of the grain, and to improve
and/or maintain d sease resistance.


Yield and Adaptalion
The yielding ability of the best triticales is on a par with
the best-yielding bread wheat varieties in the Yaqui Valley
of northwest Mex co. In international testing, triticale checks
in bread wheat and durum yield nurseries frequently yield
more the wheat entries. In the 11th ITYN (1979-80),
Beaguelita "S" and Ram "S" had average yields across all
locations of 4,624 kg/ha and 4,534 kg/ha, respectively,
compared to 4,205 kg/ha for the bread wheat check variety
Pavon 76.
Since triticale has shown greater dry matter production
than wheat, a repartitioning to grain may push maximum
yield potential to higher levels than those attainable in wheat.
Most triticales are still too tall and too late-maturing to suit
farmers. Although semidwarf types have been developed,
they have tended to have lower yield potential and lower
grain test weights compared to the taller types. Our scientists
now are experiencing success in efforts to combine high yield
potential and high :est weight in the dwarf plant stature.
Triticale strai is generally flower as early as wheat, but
they mature more lowly, making them too long in season for


























Triticale is now planted on over 1 million hectares, mostly in developed countries.
A number of developing countries are increasing their research attention to this
new man-made crop, which can considerably outyield wheat in certain production
environments (e.g. those with acid soils and/or cool highland climates).

many potential production areas (e.g. hills area of the Hima-
layas). We are following two approaches to develop earlier-
maturing varieties. One involves crossing different triticales
and selecting for earliness. The other involves finding early,
light-insensitive ryes, since the rye parent may be the cause of
the relative "lateness".of triticales.
Preharvest sprouting is another problem delaying accep-
tance of triticale in areas where the conditions at harvest time
are moist. Improvements in tolerance to preharvest sprouting
have recently been made in cooperation with INIA scientists
working in the Patzcuaro region of Michoacan, Mexico. Our
most promising sources of resistance to sprouting appear to
be winter-type triticales, some spring types from Brazil, and
some ryes recently developed in northern Europe.


Seed Type and Test Weight
Improved test weight (kg weight of grains per hectoliter)
in triticale grain is a central objective of the research program.
It has been relatively easy to find triticales that produce high







test weights under the best conditions, but when grown under
adverse conditions, the test weights drop sharply. Recent
data on test weight, based on Mexican and international
testing, show some triticales with good and stable test weight
within 90 percent of the bread wheat variety Pavon 76.
Only two countries (USA and Canada) have set milling
industry standards for the test weight of triticale-70 kg/hl.
Numerous CIMMYT lines meet this standard. While CIMMYT
supports the setting of standards, we do not think that
triticale must produce a grain identical to wheat to meet
standards of acceptance.

Disease Resistance
Triticales continue to demonstrate their high level of re-
sistance to the th ee rusts, to several smuts, and to powdery
mildew. Good sources of resistance to septoria have been
identified; selection for resistance should not be a problem.
Some of the minor wheat diseases have been more of a
problem for triticales. Bacterial blights often cause prob-
lems. Heavy attacks of head scab have occurred in certain
areas of Africa and South America. Resistance to scab is rare
in small grains. Brazil has some lines with some tolerance to
scab, and CIMMYT is initiating crosses with those lines.
In general, triticale has few problems with disease, at
least to date. In Kenya, many wheat varieties require fungi-
cides for commercial production, while triticale needs no
fungicide application for successful production.

Widening the Germplasm Base
We continue to introduce more genetic variation into
materials in the triticale program by producing new primary
triticales and through introductions from other triticale
programs around the world. Most materials in the CIMMYT
triticale program are durum wheat x rye crosses. In 1978, we
started to look at bread wheat x rye crosses as a means to
improve the seed quality in triticale. The work with bread
wheat x rye triticales is too new to have many results, although
reports from China indicate that these triticales may have
considerable prom se.
We are particularly interested in using improved rye
germplasm in our crossing program, particularly early and
dwarf ryes.







We are also using winter-type triticales from programs in
Europe and North America in crosses with spring types.
These spring x winter crosses have been especially useful in
selections for forage-type triticales.


Industrial Quality
Our milling and baking laboratory continues to work
closely with the triticale breeding program to improve grain
quality in triticale. Significant progress has been made. We
now have triticales that approach the quality of wheat on
two major characteristics: flour yield and loaf volume.
Selection for grain hardness has resulted in a number of
triticale strains that approach the hardness of wheat. With
these recent improvements we are now making crosses
specifically aimed at further improving the industrial quality
of triticale.


International Testing
In 1980, seven different triticale nurseries were distrib-
uted to collaborators in nearly 100 countries.


1980 Triticale Nurseries Lines Sets

Early Generation Materials
F2 Irrigated 327 35
F2 Dryland 389 44
F2 Spring x Winter 73 69
ITSN-International Triticale Screening Nursery 285 145
ITYN-International Triticale Yield Nursery 25 112
TDRN-Triticale Disease Resistance Nursery 92 17
Forage Lines 105 14



Varietal Releases in 1980
Two developed countries, Australia and Canada, each
released new triticale varieties in 1980 which carried CIMMYT-
distributed germplasm in their pedigrees. Four developing
countries have also released new varieties in the last two
years.






BARLEY


In 1972, C VIMYT began to improve barley for use as a
human food. This program is conducted in collaboration with
ICARDA. After almost eight years of breeding, the barley
program at CIMM'YT has entered a new research phase. In its
initial stages, program scientists were largely involved in the
generation of germplasm with high yield potential, wide
adaptation, high nutritional quality, lodging resistance, and
hull-less grain. Substantial progress has been made in all these
research areas. VVhile these previous research areas are not
being left aside, : major emphasis is being given to the de-
velopment of greater disease resistance in CIMMYT's germ-
plasm.

Disease Resistance
In the 1980 summer cycle at El Batan, artificial epidem-
ics were created for leaf rust and scald. Several resistant
selections were identified. Some progress was also made
toward identifying germplasm with resistance to the barley
yellow dwarf virus and to loose smut. All these materials will
be further tested to assess resistance in disease hot spot areas,
in collaboration with regional program staff and national
collaborators.

Hull-less Grain
Breeding foi hull-less types has been an important
objective in the barley program. At present, the hull-less
character is spread across 35 percent of our breeding material.
A number of advanced hull-less lines now have a yield potential
above 5 t/ha.

Spring x Winter Crosses
Our barley spring x winter crossing programs offers new
germplasm prospects for areas where neither the straight
spring nor the straight winter types are well adapted. Such is
the case in countries bordering the Mediterranean where
CIMMYT barley germplasm to date has not been well-suited
because of early maturing characteristics. For the first time in
1980, spring x winter crosses were sent to more than 50
locations having Ic ng growing cycles. Subsequent observation

























l1 V l4F\1V_ I
High-yielding barley materials for human consumption have been developed by
CIMMYT scientists. Our major breeding emphasis is now to increase the disease
resistance of these materials.

of this material showed that these crosses were far superior in
adaptation and yielding ability than straight spring x spring
crosses.

Early Maturity
Early maturity barley lines that are 30 to 40 days earlier
to harvest and can yield in the 3.5 to 4.5 t/ha range were again
identified in 1980. More extensive multilocational testing
of these materials by national collaborators is now under
way. These early barleys may prove to be particularly valuable
for farmers located in low-moisture or short-season environ-
ments.

Nutritional Quality
Improvement of the nutritional value of the barley crop
is one of the objectives of the program. With the addition of
the high-lysine gene from the variety Hiproly, several advanced
lines have been developed which have considerably higher
total protein and protein quality levels than are normally
found in barley. Forty-nine of these protein quality lines






were included in a special crossing block which was distrib-
uted in 1980 to scientists in 15 countries.

International Testing
The number of requests from national collaborators for
barley nurseries continues to increase. In 1980, eight different
nurseries were distributed to collaborators in barley-growing
regions.

1980 Barley Nurseries Lines Sets
Early Generation Mate ials
F2 Spring x Spring 415 50
F2 Spring x Winter 280 43
F2 Andean Zone 209 15
CB-Crossing Block (Normal) 412 50
CB-Crossing Block (NLtritional Quality) 49 15
IBON-International B rley Observation Nursery 375 96
IBYT-lnternational Ba ley Yield Trial 50 88
Miscellaneous 552 40


Varietal Releases in 1980
In 1980, collaborators in two countries reported the re-
lease of new varieties which carried CIMMYT-distributed
germplasm in their parentage.
Bolivia (2) Cyprus (1)



SPECIAL GERMPLASM DEVELOPMENT

In CIMMYT's conventional breeding programs, experi-
mental lines are evaluated simultaneously for many desirable
traits. Lines that c.irry a particular character useful to the
breeder, but one that is intermixed with large numbers of
undesirable traits, are usually rejected. In order to capitalize
on potentially valuable germplasm, staff in this unit attempt
to transfer useful genes into lines with good agronomic
characters. The resulting lines are then reintroduced as
parents within the conventional breeding programs.
These efforts in special germplasm development are de-
scribed below.






Protein Improvement
The protein content in wheat flour ordinarily falls in the
range of 10 to 12 percent, reasonably good among cereals.
Nevertheless, efforts continued in 1980 to develop bread
wheat lines with higher levels of total protein and protein
quality. Lines have been identified with high protein levels
in their grain (18 to 20 percent) and good agronomic charac-
ters. These lines, however, are generally low-yielding and
susceptible to many diseases. Crosses were made during 1980
between high protein and high-yielding lines. Some success
was achieved in combining both traits into some of the re-
sulting progenies.


Tolerance to Aluminum Toxicity
The staff continued their work to develop high-yielding
semidwarf wheat germplasm with tolerance to aluminum
toxicity and improved disease resistance. Progress has been
achieved in this research area in developing resistant materials
in good agronomic backgrounds. The major emphasis now
is on increasing the disease resistance and yielding ability of
the selections.


Rust Resistance
Work continued in 1980 to improve the rust resistance
of bread wheat lines. Various lines from the Agatha x Yecora
70 cross have been identified that are high-yielding and have
excellent leaf rust resistance. Our scientists believe that this
high level of resistance is due to the pyramiding of two
important genes, Lr.9 and Lr.19, which confer to wheat
greater resistance to leaf rust.


Sawfly Resistance
Work is under way to develop solid stem high-yielding
durum and bread wheat varieties for areas in North Africa
where sawflies are causing yield losses ji normal semidwarf
varieties. A tall, late-maturing variety, Fortuna, with a slender
solid stem is being used in crosses with high-yielding, earlier-
maturing semidwarf varieties. Progenies are now available
which combine the solid stem character into high-yielding
materials.






Yield Components
The number of grains per spikelet and spikelets per head
are not the only factors determining grain yields. However,
CIMMYT scienti ts have been pursuing research activities to
determine if maximum yield potential might be pushed even
higher with longer, more grain-filled heads. Grain-filling
(plumpness) continues to be the major drawback in wheat
materials which 'ave a large head size. The tillering ability
also diminishes a; head size becomes larger. Some lines with
large heads and more profuse tillering ability have now been
identified.

Triticale x Wheat Crosses
Crosses bet/veen triticale and wheat are directed at
stabilizing dwarfism in CIMMYT's triticale lines and
improving the plumpness of triticale seed have been under
way in this unil for several years. Some progenies from a
triticale x bread wheat cross have shown good stability for
dwarfism, greater earliness, and improved seed type.

New Primary Trilicales
New crosses of bread wheat x rye and durum wheat x rye
are being made io improve the agronomic and grain charac-
teristics of triticale. Some of the wheat lines selected as
parents have a I. rger seed size and more acceptable semi-
dwarf stature than materials previously used. New ryes
derived from th(: variety Snoopy are being used that are
semidwarf, have greater earliness, and possess larger seed size.
Through the crossing of parents that both have improved
plant and grain characteristics, our scientists hope to improve
the deficient traits still affecting triticale.




WIDE CROSSES

In 1980, this unit continued its wide cross research,
working mainly on wheat (Triticum aestivum) x Elymus
giganteus, wheat :< Agropyron species, and to a lesser extent
on wheat x barle, (Hordeum vulgare), and barley x Elymus
species.













































In the Wheat Program, our wide cross researchers are placing greater emphasis on
wheat x Elymus crosses. The objective is to incorporate into wheat the soil, dis-
ease, and environmental stress tolerance characteristics of Elymus. Shown above is
a partially fertile wheat x Elymus hybrid (left) from this crossing program. Back-
crossing to wheat will help to improve the hybrid further, as shown on the right.
The purpose of this research is to transfer useful genes
from other genera into wheat. At present, our scientists are
more interested in attaining subtle alien gene transfers to
wheat. E. giganteus is being used to transfer to wheat greater
drought and salt tolerance, and resistance to leaf-spotting
diseases. Barley has genes for higher protein, greater lysine


65






levels, and resistance to barley yellow dwarf. Agropyron
species have geres for rust resistance, salt tolerance, and
barley yellow dwarf resistance which could improve the
environmental stability of wheat. Agropyron and Elymus
species are also being screened for genes for fusarium and
helminthosporium resistance, simultaneously with the devel-
opment of hybrid combinations.

Wheat x Elymus Giganteus
E. giganteus (2n=28) is a Asian grass that is resistant to
soil and environmental stresses, and is virtually free of all
leaf-spotting diseases. It has been hybridized with wheat,
and the hybrid, when pollinated by wheat, has produced the
BCI progeny. The second backcross (wheat-E. giganteus-
wheat x wheat) produced BCII progenies that were partially
self-fertile and set from 35 to 80 percent BCIII seed when
backcrossed to wheat. The Elymus chromosomes can be
identified by the C-banding technique. BCIV progenies are
to be produced in 1981 and our cytological emphasis shall
be devoted to identifying the individual E/ymus chromosomes
added to wheat. Tolerance tests for stress and diseases are
also scheduled.

High Protein and lysine Improvement
Several barley varieties crossed with wheat have produced
hybrids. Backcro;sing the male-sterile hybrids to wheat
formed backcross I (BCI) progeny. The BCI plants carry
the complete wheat genetic information (42 chromosomes)
and some barley information (up to 7 chromosomes or
half of the barley chromosomes). The material has been
advanced up to BC I| with promising results.

Wheat x Agropyro i Hybrids
Agropyron 6/ongatum (2n=70) and A. distichum
(2n=28) are salt tolerant sources based upon their habitat,
although the genetic mechanism for tolerance has not been
identified. Hybrid!; of A. elongatum with durum and bread
wheat varieties have been made and will be analyzed for
tolerance response after single alien chromosomes have been
added to wheat. A,. distichum has been hybridized by Dr.
Pienaar (South Africa) with durum and bread wheat.
CIMMYT received amphiploid and BCI seeds of these hybrids






as part of a germplasm exchange agreement. We will continue
our efforts to introduce other commercial wheat germplasm
into the advanced BC progenies, to develop 'addition' lines,
and to test for salt tolerance.



MILLING AND BAKING LABORATORY

The Milling and Baking Laboratory evaluates the grain
of bread wheat, durum wheat, triticale, and barley lines for
the suitability in making bread, tortillas, chapatis, cookies,
spaghetti, and other products.
In 1980, the gluten strength was evaluated in thousands
of early-generation bread wheat lines previously selected
on the basis of good grain type. The early screening for
grain type results in few advanced lines with low test weight.
As a standard procedure, advanced materials were evaluated
for test weight, milling qualities, protein percentage, gluten
strength, and baking qualities.
The grain of several thousand durum lines was evaluated
for pigment (carotenoids) content. Today, most of CIMMYT's
advanced lines compare favorably in carotene content with
the best American macaroni durums.
In the advanced triticale lines, average flour yield is now
about 68 percent, with some lines reaching 73 percent (good
bread wheats have flour yields of 70 percent). Some triticale
lines are showing good bread- and chappati-making qualities;
many triticales provide flour that is actually superior for
making cookies.
Some hull-less barley lines have been identified that
make suitable flour which can be used in 20 percent mixtures
with wheat flour to make acceptable bread.



PATHOLOGY

There are about 40 species of fungi, bacteria, and
viruses that are parasitic to wheat, barley, and triticale.
These pathogens are responsible for diseases which can cause
major reductions in yield among the small grains.






Our wheat pathologists provide data on disease reactions
in CIMMYT germplasm undergoing improvement. The pathol-
ogy group is responsible for artificially inoculating nurseries
grown in Mexic:) to impart heavy disease pressure so that
breeders can se ect disease resistant lines. In turn, these
resistant lines ar. crossed to agronomically desirable plants
with good yield potential, and promising progenies are
then distributed to breeding programs around the world
through the international screening nurseries.

Studies in Mexico
Special stucies are conducted in Mexico on wheat leaf
rust and stem ru;t using two independent approaches. First,
lines which carry a single resistant gene to leaf rust or to stem
rust are planted where CIMMYT nurseries are grown. Natural
rust infections ire allowed to gauge the environmental
ceiling for infection. In the second approach, rust derived
from field samp es is inoculated onto appropriate sets of
lines in the seedling stage to monitor changes in different
virulent types of leaf and stem rust. The objective of these
studies is to continuously monitor changes in prevailing
races of rust for possible mutations which would lead to new
disease outbreaks to which CIMMYT lines might be suscepti-
ble.

Training Activitie.
This group also cooperates closely in the in-service
pathology trainin!l programs. In 1980, six national program
pathologists completed the seven-month training course in
Mexico on pathology research techniques. CIMMYT's regional
pathology workshops held during 1980 also received resource
support from the headquarters-based staff.



AGRONOMY

CIMMYT's agronomy program in Mexico serves three
interwoven purposes. One responsibility is in training: for
new staff and postdoctoral fellows in agronomic principles
and practices to prepare them for regional assignments; and
for young scientists in the in-service production agronomy












* i .. T.

,.











Increased collaboration and consultation in production agronomy research
are expanding program activities at CIMMYT. Given the area-specific nature of
most agronomic problems, the majority of CIMMYT's production research activi-
ties are carried out under regional program auspices.

courses. A second function is in the development of weed
control, fertilizer, and irrigation recommendations for the
CIMMYT nurseries grown at the major stations used in
Mexico. Third, research is carried out on some agronomic
problems that are not entirely site-specific allowing results
of work done in Mexico to be applied elsewhere.

Training
A successful in-service training program was continued
in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, for agronomists from
irrigated areas. The course included agronomic trials on the
CIANO experiment station as well as on farmers' fields.
CIMMYT wheat agronomists also assisted in the rainfed
wheat production agronomy course which is carried out
mainly on farmers' fields in the high plateau areas around El
Batan in the summer season (May to November).

Nursery Management
Weed control problems at the Toluca, CIANO and El
Batan stations continued to be addressed by the staff agrono-







mists. A variety .)f herbicides were tested and some showed
promise in providing greater weed control within the nurs-
eries. Routine fertilizer trials at El Batan, Toluca and CIANO
stations sought to monitor the fertilizer requirements for the
breeders' nurserie;.

Other Research Activities
Over the las eight years, a series of nitrogen x variety
trials have been conducted to determine the interaction of
this nutrient wi'h different varieties. With no nitrogen
applied, and at low levels of application, the tall, medium
tall, and semidwarf varieties had very similar yields. In some
cases, the newer semidwarf varieties were slightly superior to
the tall varieties. As nitrogen was increased, the yield advan-
tage of the newer semidwarfs became much more apparent.
Among the semidwarf varieties released from CIMMYT
germplasm there was no significant nitrogen-by-variety
interaction, demonstrating that lines with high inherent yield
potential will express their superiority under whatever
fertility conditions are prevalent.
An integrated weed control experiment began in late
1979 to compare the effects of various methods-cultural and
chemical-to control two problem weeds, (Phalaris and wild
oats). The trial is scheduled to run for four years.



INTERNATIONAL TESTING
In 1980, collaborating scientists in 101 countries requested
1884 trials of wheat, triticale, and barley from 38 different
CIMMYT wheat program nurseries. Each nursery consists of a
set of varieties, lines or populations-sometimes as many as
600 entries-which are constituted to serve the breeding re-
quirements of collaborators for particular production environ-
ments and disease problems. In recent years, CIMMYT has
shared more and more early generation (F2) materials with
scientists in national programs. In addition, a number of
regional nurseries- mainly used for disease screening and
surveillance-have been operating in North Africa, the Middle
East and parts of Asia (in collaboration with ICARDA), and
in South America. (These are discussed under the regional
programs section.)









Bread wheat, durum, triticale and barley nurseries distributed by
the international nurseries program in 1980.


Brea
whea
Latin America 159
Argentina 19
Bolivia 8
Brazil 36
Chile 19
Colombia 3
Costa Rica 3
Dominican Republic 2
Ecuador 11
Guatemala 2
Guyana 4
Mexico 30
Paraguay 7
Peru 11
Uruguay 2
Venezuela 2


Africa
Algeria
Angola
Botswana
Burundi
Cameroon
Centr. Afr. Rep.
Egypt
Ethiopia
Kenya
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Morocco
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Senegal
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Tanzania
Tunisia
Uganda
Upper Volta
Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Mideast
Cyprus
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Lebanon
Quatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
Turkey
Yemen


d Triti-
t Durum cale Barley
76 111 88
19 10 7
9 5 6
2 18 3
10 11 7
3 5
2 1
2 1
8 10 10
1
2
16 33 25
2 1
12 10 20
1 1
1 1


92 77
18 6
1 2
3
2
2
1
12 7
8 6
7 7
3 -
2
3
1
12 6
2

5 1
S 3
3 1
2 -
6 7
1 3
2 3
8 2
1 1

2
3
2 2

81 48
4 3
2
3
6 2
10 3
6 2
1 1
4 3
27 24
18 10


Bread Triti-
wheat Durum cale Barley
East Asia 102 45 57 68
Afghanistan 1 1
Bangladesh 11 5 4 5
Bhutan 2 4 1 2
Burma 1 1 1
China 9 2 7 2
India 23 19 8 15
Japan 2
Korea, North 1 1 1
Korea, South 6 2 3 9
Mongolia 1 1 1
Nepal 8 2 3
Pakistan 21 12 16 14
Philippines 6 1 6 1
Sri Lanka 1 4
Taiwan 2 1 1
Thailand 6 4 8
Vietnam 1 1 1

Oceania 10 7 9 2
Australia 7 4 7
New Zealand 3 3 2 2

Europe 90 94 92 61
Albania 3 4 3 3
Austria 3 2 1
Belgium 1
Bulgaria 1 1 3
Czechoslovakia 2 -
England 2 1 1
Finland 1
France 2 5 8 7
Germany,F.Rep. 4 4 3 4
Greece 7 7 6 7
Hungary 4 4 4
Ireland 2 -
Italy 5 19 8 2
Malta 6 5
Netherlands 1 1
Norway 3 2 3
Poland 8 1 12 4
Portugal 7 5 5 4
Rumania 6 3 9 3
Spain 20 23 16 8
Sweden 3 1 3
Switzerland 1 3
USSR 2 2 1 1
Yugoslavia 6 6 3 6

North America 51 28 51 32
Canada 13 6 16 13
USA 38 22 35 19


TOTALS:

Countries 97 61 84 79
Locations 620 423 445 396






National program collaborators are free to use any of
the materials inc uded in a nursery. When material from the
international nurseries is released as a commercial variety in
a particular country, CIMMYT requests that the origin of the
germplasm be recognized. Further, varieties originating from
CIMMYT germplasm are not protected by patents or plant
breeder's rights.
The most w widely distributed international nurseries of
CIMMYT are the international screening and yield nurseries.


International Screening Nurseries
These nurseries involve the most advanced lines which
are grown in double rows for observation and evaluation.
The objectives of screening nurseries are:
(1) To provide cooperating scientists with an opportunity
to assess the performance of new advanced lines being
developed in CIMMYT's wheat, triticale and barley
breeding pro rams.
(2) To supply cooperators and CIMMYT scientists with
information on the performance of new materials under
a wide range of climatic and disease conditions.
(3) To release sources of genetic variability which cooper-
ators may use directly or in crosses with their own
materials.


International Yield Nurseries
Yield nurser es differ from screening nurseries in that
the materials tested are grown in replicated yield trials. The
objectives of yield nurseries are:
(1) To provide research workers developing new varieties
with an opportunity to assess the performance of their
advanced breeding lines over a wide range of climatic,
cultural and disease conditions.
(2) To serve as a source of fundamental information on
adaptation.
(3) To allow local research and extension workers to
compare the performance of new varieties from many
countries.
(4) To provide cooperators with new sources of genetic
variability which may be used directly or as parents for
new crosses.








WHEAT TRAINING


A trend observed in recent years-growing enrollment in
the production agronomy training courses-continued in
1980. Numbers participating in the six in-service training
courses were:


Course
Wheat Breeding
Wheat Pathology
Cereal Technology
Rainfed Wheat Agronomy
Irrigated Wheat
Experiment Station Management


Number of Trainees
16
6
2
10
15
4


Origin of Wheat In-Service Trainees, 1966-80.

1966- 1966-
1980 1980' 1980 1980*

Latin America 159 8 Ethiopia 12 1
Argentina 14 0 Kenya 7 0
Bolivia 14 1 Lesotho 1 0
Brazil 18 0 Madagascar 1 1
Chile 11 3 Malagasy 1 0
Colombia 5 0 Malawi 2 0
Dominican Republic 1 0 Mall 2 1
Ecuador 18 2 Nigeria 15 1
Guatemala 8 0 Rwanda 2 0
Guyana 1 0 Senegal 1 1
Honduras 1 0 Somalia 1 0
Mexico 44 0 Tanzania 5 1
Panama 1 0 Zaire 2 0
Paraguay 6 1 Zambia 6 1
Peru 16 1
Uruguay 1 0 South, Southeast


and East Asia
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Burma
India
Korea
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines

Other Countries
France
Hungary
Poland
Portugal
Rumania
Spain
USA
USSR

TOTAL: Countries
Individuals


North Africa
and Mideast
Algeria
Cyprus
Egypt
Iran
Iraq
Jordan
Lebanon
Libya
Morocco
Saudi Arabia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
Yemen
Africa, South of
the Sahara
Cameroon
Chad

























In-services trainees in the rainfed production agronomy course conduct all of their
research trials on farmers' fields. Here, a group of trainees are inter-planting a
barley trial between a farmer's Maguey plants, in keeping with the prevailing
practices in the high plateau area where the trainees are working.

Close to 600 agricultural scientists from 62 countries
have now completed one of CIMMYT's in-service training
courses.

Visiting scientists
CIMMYT received 43 scientists in 1980 who came to
visit the wheat program during the winter season in Sonora,
Mexico; 10 other visiting scientists visited the El Batan head-
quarters and Toluca during the summer season. Their main
purposes were to collect germplasm, to discuss various im-
provement problems, and to discuss strategies for accelerating
wheat production around the world. The People's Republic
of China also sent four participants as part of an ongoing pro-
gram of scientific exchange.

Graduate Student Training and Doctoral Fellows
During 1980-81, with outside financial sponsorship,
CIMMYT is cooperating in the training of ten master's degree
candidates (Algeria and Peru). In addition, six postdoctoral
fellows (France, Fed. Republic of Germany, Mexico, and
USA) are serving on the Wheat Program staff.







COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO

Most of CIMMYT's wheat staff posted outside Mexico
were assigned to regional programs. Only one staff member
was working in a national program assignment-in Pakistan.
His work focused mainly on production agronomy research.
In 1980, three staff members assumed new regional responsi-
bilities in North and West Africa, in South and Southeast
Asia, and in cooperation with ICARDA. In total, the wheat
program had staff assigned to seven regional programs in
1980.


Regional Wheat Programs in 1980

Wheat region Number of Start of CIMMYT
and cooperating CIMMYT staff Current
operations base countries arrangement assigned Donor

Disease Surveillance 22 1973 1* Nether-
(Turkey) lands
Eastern and Southern Africa 17 1976 1" Core Un-
(Kenya) restricted
Andean Countries 5 1976 1 Core Un-
(Ecuador) restricted
Southern Cone 6 1978 2 Japan/
(Chile) CIMMYT
North and West Africa 19 1980 1 Core Un-
(Portugal) restricted
ICARDA 11 1980 1 Core Un-
(Syria) restricted
South and Southeast Asia 12 1980 1 Core Un-
(Thailand) restricted

A Dutch associate scientist is assigned to these regions.


Disease Surveillance Regional Program
This program is funded by the Government of the Neth-
erlands and is operated in cooperation with our sister institute,
ICAR DA. The problems of wheat diseases in an area stretching
from Morocco to East Africa to the Indian subcontinent con
tinue to be the major activity for the CIMMYT staff assigned
to this program. In addition to normal regional program
activities related to consultation and training assistance, these






CIMMYT regional staff are working on two unique projects:
a disease surveilla.nce-early warning system for the region and
a series of in-ser ice pathology workshops focused on practi-
cal field and laboratory methods for inoculation, screening,
and identification of disease resistant lines.
The region disease surveillance program staff pioneered
the use of two w dely distributed nurseries to gather informa-
tion and monitcr disease situations throughout the region.
These nurseries are the Regional Disease and Insect Screening
Nursery (RDISN) and the Regional Disease Trap Nursery
(RDTN). The RDISN, which is distributed in cooperation
with ICARDA tc about 50 locations in more than 30 coun-
tries, consists of advanced lines of bread wheat, durum, triti-
cale, and barley. Its purpose is to facilitate the distribution
(and identification) of promising disease-resistant lines.
The RDTN consists primarily of commercial varieties,
susceptible check varieties, promising advanced lines with
new sources of rust resistance, and differentials for the three
rusts. The RDTN serves as a surveillance mechanism for
changes in pathogen races throughout the region. It is sent
annually to 150 locations in about 50 countries. The Dutch
government has provided a grant and technical assistance to
develop a compu erized analytic package to process the data
reported by colla )orators growing these regional nurseries. In
1980, a Dutch pathologist continued his assignment in
Turkey as an associate staff member in the program.

Eastern and Southern African Regional Program
This region i includes 17 African countries from Ethiopia
in the north to Lesotho in the south. The small grains cur-
rently grown in 1his region are mostly in the highland areas
above 1,700 meters altitude, an agroclimatic zone character-
ized by the heavy presence of serious disease problems. The
CIMMYT regional staff assigned to this region helps to
operate an off-season nursery program at Kenya's National
Plant Breeding Station at Njoro, 2,140 meters above sea level.
This off-season nursery is used by many African and Asian
countries, mainly for disease screening and to be able to
complete two breeding cycles in a single year. The area
around Njoro is characterized by virulent races of stem rust
and stripe rust, a nd is an excellent area to screen lines for
good disease resistance.





In 1980 a pathologist assigned by the Dutch government
to Kenya continued to collaborate with the CIMMYT regional
program as a staff associate. In addition, the pathologists
assigned to the regional disease surveillance program spent
some time in this region to help backstop the pathology
work of national collaborators.
Two nurseries are prepared and distributed by the staff
assigned to this regional program: the African Cooperative
Wheat Yield Trial (ACWYT); and the Screening Nursery for
the African Cooperative Wheat Yield Trial (SNACWYT). Due
to shortage of seed resulting from a drought in 1979, only 14
sets of the 4th ACWYT were sent during 1980 to cooperators
in 10 countries. Included in this ACWYT were 11 wheat var-
ieties, 2 triticales, 2 durums, plus one check. The highest
yielding entries were the two triticale lines, Triticale 65 and
Beaver-Armadillo. This confirms the results of earlier regional
trials, where triticales have dominated the yield rankings.
The 3rd SNACWYT, consisting of 111 bread wheat, 54
triticale, 33 durum, and 10 oat lines, was distributed in 1980
to collaborators in 19 countries for testing in 22 locations.
Lines from spring x winter crosses showed superior disease
resistance and very high yield performance in the highland
areas where this nursery was grown.

Andean Regional Program
CIMMYT has had a wheat scientist assigned to this re-
gion since 1976 to work with the national program scien-
tists in the five Andean countries. The staff member is based
in Quito, Ecuador, under an agreement with INIAP, Ecuador's
National Agricultural Research Institute.
Virulent forms of stripe rust and barley yellow dwarf
virus make this area of considerable value in global screening
efforts to develop lines with greater resistance to these
disease problems.
Two regional nurseries were prepared and distributed by
the Andean regional program from its operations base in
Ecuador in 1980. These are the Latin American Wheat Dis-
ease and Observation Nursery (VEOLA) and the Latin
American Rust Nursery (ELAR).
The VEOLA is the Western Hemisphere equivalent of the
RDISN described previously. The nursery is a cooperative ef-
fort of CIMMYT and INIAP. In addition to supplying regional





disease information, the VEOLA facilitates the exchange of
disease-resistant materials identified in other regional nurs-
eries (e.g. RDISN and SNACWYT). In turn, resistant lines
identified in the VEOLA are included in the following year in
the RDISN and SNACWYT regional nurseries.
The objective of the ELAR, which is similar to the
RDTN, is to survey virulence patterns of wheat pathogens,
thus serving as an early-warning system for new mutations.
The ELAR contains commercial varieties and lines originating
from breeding programs throughout the Western Hemisphere
and is distributed to about 30 sites in Latin America.
Technical assistance is provided to collaborators in na-
tional programs, especially at plant selection time. In 1980,
a regional small grains workshop to exchange information
and ideas was ilso held at Bogota, Colombia, under the
auspices of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA)
and CIMMYT. Close cooperation also exists in encouraging
on-farm research activities within the region.

Southern Cone Regional Program
This regional program began in late 1978 and covers
areas of five Southern Cone countries of South America. Two
CIMMYT scientists-a breeder and an agronomist-are assigned
to the area, with their operations base at Chile's national
agricultural research institute (INIA) and with cooperative
ties to IICA, the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural
Cooperation.
In crop improvement, disease resistance research is fo-
cused on the thr:ne rusts, various types of septoria, the barley
yellow dwarf virus, fusarium, helminthosporium, and root
rots. These research activities are receiving a major priority.
During 1980, at a meeting of wheat breeders of the
region organized by IICA-BID Cono Sur Project, CIMMYT
was asked to coordinate a screening nursery of advanced
lines (LACOS) to be distributed within the region and
seeded at key locations in the Andean region and Mexico.
The nursery will be prepared through a joint effort between
CIMMYT and INIA, Chile. It shall provide various breeding
programs of the region a chance to observe unreleased
promising wheal material from other programs in terms
of their adaptation, agronomic, and disease characters. Sub-
sequently, some of these lines may be used as progenitors






in national wheat improvement programs or released as
commercial varieties. Several Southern Cone rust virulence
nurseries were merged with ELAR to coordinate the effort
between the two regions.
A special emphasis is also being placed on soil-fertilizer
problems related to wheat, barley, and triticale production.
In particular, the problems associated with aluminum toxi-
city and phosphorus fixation tendencies are receiving major
research attention. The regional agronomist is working with
national scientists to establish trials in farmers' fields for the
purpose of identifying yield constraints and increasing
production.
In Chile, collaboration is focused on production trials
conducted mainly on farmers' fields to identify the limiting
technical factors in wheat production. Work on management
techniques to reduce the incidence of root diseases is also
receiving attention. Scientists are also looking at the effect on
foot rot problems when various soil amendments are applied.
In Argentina, work focuses on soil fertility management
strategies brought on by new double-cropping patterns which
have emerged with the release of short-season varieties which
allow greater cropping intensification. Trials are being carried
out in the Pergamino area to investigate nitrogen and phos-
phorus deficiencies. The trials show that phosphorus defi-
ciency is becoming a widespread problem in the Pampa
Humeda. Nitrogen response studies are showing a significant
response to nitrogen in the Marcos Juarez area, where most
farmers still do not apply nitrogen to wheat.


North and West Africa Regional Program
This program began operation in 1980 and covers North
and West African countries west of Egypt and Sudan. The
operations base is in Portugal at the Elvas Station of the Min-
istry of Agriculture. At present, one wheat breeder is assigned
to the program. Close collaboration exists with ICARDA,
and joint staffing may occur in future years.
Special breeding priorities include disease resistance re-
search on septoria, fusarium, helminthosporium, and the
three rusts. In addition, breeding work will be carried out to
develop wheat and barley cultivars with greater drought and
heat tolerance.






CIMMYT's regional scientist devoted much of 1980
to establishing a base of cooperation by travelling extensively
in the countries of this region to discuss research priorities
and areas for greater collaboration among CIMMYT and the
national prograrr scientists.

ICARDA
In 1980, CIMMYT assigned a wheat breeder at Aleppo,
Syria, at ICARDA's request. This scientist is working mainly
to develop germplasm with greater cold and drought tolerance
and resistance to rusts for use by national program scientists
in the Middle East and in parts of North Africa.

South and Southeast Asia Regional Program
In mid-1980, CIMMYT placed a wheat pathologist in
Thailand to help establish and serve the South and Southeast
region. Much of his work involved cooperating with national
programs in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Southeast
Asia. Considerable emphasis is being given to developing
wheats for warmer, non-traditional wheat-growing areas. A
number of countries in this region, and on other continents
as well, are interested in growing wheat during their winter
seasons, when te nperatures and humidity are at their lowest
levels. Serious disease constraints under these conditions
are H. sativum and H. tritici repentis. Work on resistance to
these diseases will be emphasized by the regional staff, as
will efforts to cevelop early-maturing lines appropriate to
the relatively shcrt growing season typical of humid tropical
production conditions.





economics
program
^^sa?^L~ :


I-4
4i~i


a -Q


"-C~\I






INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS PROGRAM


Still concern led with facilitating the development and
diffusion of imp oved technologies, the Economics Program
again concentrated its resources in cooperative efforts with
national programs. This work offers great opportunities for
encouraging the development of appropriate technologies. It
is guided by our earlier work on adoption studies, reinforced
by extensive experience with national programs in collabo-
rative research involving biological scientists and economists,
and based on the natural and economic circumstances of
representative far ners.
Earlier ann al reports refer to the development of a
manual which would synthesize our experiences with nation-
al programs and describe cost-effective procedures for as-
sessing farmer circumstances and deriving implications for
the orientation of on-farm experimentation. That manual
was published in English in 1980. A Spanish version will be
available in mid 1 )81 and a French version somewhat later.
Work in support of the maize and wheat training pro-
gram was continued. Training in economics was expanded
to two sessions in 1980, one in Spanish and a second in
English. Demands for this training are mounting rapidly and
we see the possibi ity for more innovations in 1981.
Significant developments have evolved in our efforts to
foster exchange and understanding among the planners,
biological scientists, and economists of national programs.
One management seminar was held in Kenya and three
additional seminars were postponed by co-sponsors until
early 1981. After careful study and discussion it was decided
to transfer this p-ogram to another CGIAR entity. By mid
1982, an expanded seminar activity will be presenting several
seminars per year inder the auspices of a new team. CIMMYT
can be pleased wi:h its role in offering an effective new tool
to the CGIAR system. Meanwhile, we are opening new areas
of related work.
More details about our program activities are presented
in the following pages.

D.L. Winkelmann






PROCEDURES


CIMMYT's economics staff has worked with scientists in
many national programs to develop a set of procedures which
offer cost-effective ways to assess the circumstances of
farmers, and then to use this information to orient research
aimed at developing improved technologies. A manual based
on that experience, and published in 1980, focuses on re-
search that is area-specific, collaborative (involving biological
scientists and economists), and on-farm.
The procedures are now being used in many national
programs, in CIMMYT and other training programs, and as
a central theme in workshops related to on-farm research.
One such workshop was sponsored by CIMMYT and involved
Latin American participants concerned with on-farm research.
Another workshop brought together economists and biologi-
cal scientists from international centers and national programs
to exchange experiences in on-farm research. Efforts to
improve and expand the procedures will be multiplied as
more and more national programs use them to guide research.
We see the procedures as an important element in bridging
the gap separating researchers from farmers and from exten-
sion workers.
Work continued in 1980 to develop methods for facili-
tating exchange among biological scientists and policy
makers. Experience with the management seminars reinforced
the conviction that such communication is often weak and
fragmented, limiting the efforts of those concerned with
developing and diffusing improved technologies. All too
often, biological scientists are insensitive to the issues which
influence policy makers while those who frame and imple-
ment policy are unware of the opportunities through biology.
CIMMYT economists are seeking procedures which will
foster improved policy-related communication. The effort
now under way, which builds on our earlier work in on-farm
research, has three dimensions: one assesses farmers' produc-
tion circumstances through informal and formal survey
techniques, a second features on-farm experiments under
those circumstances and is aimed at identifying suitable new
production strategies, and the third relates policy and its
implementation to the essential elements of the new produc-
tion strategies. Our aim is to establish cost-effective proce-






dures for gather ng, analyzing, and presenting such informa-
tion. With more certain access to wider ranging information,
biological scient sts and policy makers can better reinforce
the efforts of ear( to develop and diffuse improved technolo-
gies.
This work, supported by the Ford Foundation, was
initiated in 197C' through special project funding. In 1980,
the team of biological scientists and economists conducted
on-farm trials and surveys. We expect to expand the activity
in the near future through special project funding. In time,
with accumulating experience, we will develop a manual for
national program researchers.



TRAINING

The economics staff participates in the instruction of
maize and wheal in-service trainees in Mexico, helps with
training on crop management in the regions, offers its own
training program :or national program agricultural economists
and others who work with national production research
teams, and prepares materials of special interest.
Virtually all of this training is done in collaboration
with biological scientists Its main intent is to bring the
farmer and his circumstances to the center of efforts in
research and production.
Maize and wheat in-service production trainees spend
roughly one fifth of their stay in Mexico focusing on the
economic aspects of crop production, with particular emphasis
given to on-farm research procedures for assessing farmer
circumstances. Economists share in planning farmer interviews
and in on-farm experiments which are then carried out
by in-service maize trainees in the lowland tropics of the
State of Veracruz, Mexico, and by wheat trainees in the
rainfed upper plateau of central Mexico and in the irrigated
Yaqui Valley of northwest Mexico.
Regional training program activities continued in
1980. As an example, special programs were undertaken in
Bolivia and in Zanbia by CIMMYT's regional economists.
The training program in economics is based on the
two manuals already developed. Each of the 1980 sessions












































The Economics Program training course for agricultural economists and others
who work with national maize and wheat production teams has proven to be a
very popular addition to CIMMYT's total training program. Course participants
concentrate on the concepts and procedures involved in on-farm surveys, working
closely with biological scientists as they gain experience in ascertaining and
analyzing farmer circumstances.


was oversubscribed. If the demand remains strong in 1981,
then consideration must be given to expanding the resources
devoted to this activity. Two forms of expansion are being
contemplated. One involves enlarging the number of entrants
for each session. The second involves developing a condensed


85






version of the course which can be given as a national in-
service training activity.
Three doctoral fellows worked within the Economics
Program in 1980. An anthropologist working in Ecuador
since 1978 has concentrated his efforts on ways in which our
on-farm information-gathering techniques can be improved.
He is also assessing the need to incorporate information on
diets into the design of research on agricultural techniques.
Another, a predoctoral fellow, is working with the Eastern
African regional program, helping to train agricultural re-
searchers in on-f.irm research methodologies. A third, also an
anthropologist, will move to Haiti in 1981 to help refine our
current methodologies and to collaborate with Haitian re-
searchers in on-farm research.



REGIONAL PROGRAMS

CIMMYT's regional economists worked in four regions
in 1980. These staff members cooperated with maize and
wheat scientists and economists in national programs where
they encouraged collaborative research aimed at the develop-
ment of technol gies useful to representative farmers. This
involved bringing! local economists together with biological
scientists; consulting on the organization of micro-level
research; providing financial support for such research
where necessary; and cooperating in drawing out the implica-
tions for research on technologies which emerged from
their work.

Eastern African F regional Program
The regional economist, supported by funds from
UNDP, worked regularly with the national research programs
in Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe during
1980. He provided assistance in planning on-farm research
programs in Milawi, Botswana, Sudan, and Ethiopia.
Throughout 1980, he has had the assistance of a predoctoral
fellow who is working with a Kenyan training program for
farm economists engaged with crop scientists in on-farm
research.






Interest in the research procedures described earlier
continued to grow in the region, extending to central and
southern African countries. Surveys were undertaken, work-
shops held, and training given. A Management Seminar for
Policy Makers was held in Kenya in May 1980, with partici-
pants drawn from six countries of the region. A concepts and
strategies evaluation workshop, related to developing national
on-farm research programs, was also held in May 1980 for
senior scientists from the region. Two training workshops,
for young professionals in farm economics and agronomy,
were also held in Kenya during April and September of
1980. Started originally for Kenyan professionals, these
workshops have taken on an increasingly regional flavor.
Participants from ten African countries are expected for the
April workshop in 1981.

South and Southeast Asian Regional Program
The current regional economist, supported by UNDP
funding, has been posted to this program since late 1979 with
the responsibility of working with scientists from national
programs in on-farm research. In 1980, the regional office
was moved from New Delhi, India to Bankok, Thailand.
While earlier work concentrated on northern India, current
efforts are focused on Nepal, Indonesia, and Thailand. It is
likely that more emphasis will be given to Bangladesh in
1981.
Andean Regional Program
An economist was posted to the Andean region in late
1977 for cooperative research work in Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, and Bolivia. This work has concentrated on floury
maize, a dominant crop in the highlands; on wheat and barley,
secondary crops in highland farming systems; and on tropical
maize in the coastal regions.
Within the region, two countries-Ecuador and Peru-
have made a strong national commitment on-farm research.
CIMMYT economists support these efforts through co-
operative work to develop and refine research procedures and
through training assistance. As well, Bolivia has moved strongly
into such research, especially on wheat. Wheat was also added
to the on-farm research focus in Peruvian irrigated areas in
1980. This effort is supported by special project funding
from CIDA, Canada.






Central Americar Regional Program
The regional economist, assigned in 1978 to this region
and supported by Swiss funding, concentrated his early
efforts in Panama and El Salvador. In Panama, the national
agricultural research institute (IDIAP) began its on-farm
research in one irea (Caisan) in 1978, concentrating on the
maize crop and associated rotations. CIMMYT collaborated
with this project particularly in the farmer interview and
survey phases. 'lext, on-farm experiments were planned
and initiated. Th information gleaned from this area-specific
project led IDIAP to expand its on-farm research activities
to other areas of the country. By early 1980, farm surveys-
informal and formal-were completed for many production
areas. CIMMYT continued to work with national scientists
in this program.
In 1980, cooperation in on-farm research was initiated
with Honduran researchers. Here, again, the work started
with assessing farmer circumstances. National researchers
expect to proceed straight through to the formulation of
recommendation.. It is hoped that the work can serve as a
model for technology development in much of the country.
In 1981, with the arrival of a Rockefeller Foundation
postdoctoral fellow, work in Haiti will be emphasized. As
with the other programs, this effort will have the active
support of the miize program's regional agronomist.
In late 1980, Panama's IDIAP and CIMMYT's
Andean and Central American regional programs jointly
sponsored a workshop for those involved with on-farm re-
search. Agronomists and economists from the region, over
30 professionals, attended along with representatives of
several development assistance agencies and other CGIAR
entities.





supporting
services


~1E*imi:oclpl


VaP







EXPERIMENT STATIONS


CIMMYT conducted research at seven stations in
Mexico during 1980. Three belong to Mexico's National


Agricultural Research Institute
CIMMYT.


(INIA), and four belong to


Altitude Latitude Hectares Used Crop
Station (m) (ON) by CIMMYT Season
CIANO-INIA 39 27 176 (wheat*) Nov-May
17 (maize) Jun-Dec
Los Mochis-INIA** 40 26 2 (wheat) Dec-May
Rio Bravo-INIA** 30 26 1 (wheat*) Dec-May
El Batan-CIMMYT 2,240 19 26 (maize) Apr-Dec
Headquarters 26 (wheat*) May-Nov
4 (sorghum***) Apr-Oct
Toluca-CIMMYT 2,(i40 19 43 (wheat*) May-Nov
5 (wheat*) Dec-May
15 (maize) Apr-Dec
3 (potatoes***) Mar-Nov
Poza Rica-CIMMYT 60 20 41 (maize Dec-May
First cycle
'4 sorghum***) Jun-Nov
Second cycle
1 (wheat) Nov-May
Tlaltizapan-CIMMYT First cycle
1 (sorghum***) Jun-Dec
Second cycle
*Includes barley and triticale
** CIMMYT nurseries planted for observation on diseases
*** Potatoes in cooperation with CIP; sorghum in cooperation with ICRISAT



Training and Consultation
On a trial basis, the experiment station training program
was conducted al the CIANO Station at Ciudad Obregon.
Two full courses were given to trainees from six countries,
as well as two short courses to CIANO support staff. A
great deal of experience was gained. Due to various factors,
including the reduction in effective budgets, it was decided to
move this prograrr back to El Batan.
More interest is being shown among collaborators in
experiment station management and more visitors were






handled than in previous years. Overseas consultation con-
tinued. A total of 93 days was spent by the experiment
station staff in consulting with collaborators in five countries.
A paper was also presented at the 5th International Conference
on the Mechanization of.Field Experiments held in Wageningen,
Holland.



LABORATORY SERVICES

CIMMYT maintains laboratories to evaluate the nutri-
tional and/or industrial quality of the breeding materials
generated by the maize, wheat, triticale, and barley breeding
programs. Laboratory staff also provides service to the
wheat program by screening materials for resistance to
aluminum toxicity. In addition, training and consultation is
given to scientists from collaborating national programs. (The
activities of the Milling and Baking Laboratory are described
in the wheat section of this report.)

Protein Quality Research
During 1980, more than 21,000 grain samples of maize,
barley, triticale, and wheat were analyzed for total protein
and for th levels of certain limiting amino acids such as
lysine and tryptophan. Eighty-five percent of these analyses
were done on quality protein maize samples to help breeders
guide their improvement research. Most quality protein
materials were analyzed for endosperm tryptophan content.
A much more selected number (1 in 200) was also analyzed
for lysine content, and an even more select group, for all 18
amino acids contained in the whole maize kernel. Protein
quality indexes, good indicators of lysine content, were also
obtained for about 2,000 of the maize quality protein
samples.
Work continued on oil content in two maize popula-
tions, Temperate x Tropical H.E.o2 (dent) and White H.E.o2
(dent). The objective of this research is to achieve an increase
in oil content (energy) in quality protein materials without
adversely affecting other yield and protein quality characters.
Preliminary protein quality evaluations (using the
Ninhydrin test) were also carried out on 175 floury-type






maize materials .o select kernels having the 02 gene. This
work helps to guide ongoing improvement work.
A limited research study was conducted to gain more
insight into the biochemical changes which have occurred in
the different protein fractions of the hard endosperm quality
protein materials developed at CIMMYT.
About 15 percent of the analyses conducted in the
laboratory were performed on barley, triticale, and wheat
samples for total protein content and for the quality of the
protein. These samples were analyzed on a whole kernel
basis to obtain th ir protein quality index. This index is high-
ly correlated witi lysine content and permits breeders to
make preliminary selections for protein quality among their
materials. Complete amino acid analyses were conducted on
the most outstanding materials.

Biological Evaluation
Biological evaluations with laboratory rats were carried
out by the National Institute of Animal Sciences in Denmark
on CIMMYT's most promising quality protein materials (3 in
maize, 2 in triticale, and 2 in barley). These animal-feeding
trials confirm the nutritional superiority of the materials
identified at the C IMMYT laboratory using chemical analyses.

Tolerance to Aluminum Toxicity
In many of the acid soils throughout the world, prob-
lems of aluminum and manganese toxicity and phosphorus
fixation cause severe limitations to the yielding ability of
cereals. In the case of wheat, sufficient genetic variability has
been identified to justify a breeding program to develop
cultivars with greater tolerance to aluminum toxicity and/or
ability to take up phosphorus in acid soils.
A new laboratory screening procedure, recently devel-
oped by scientists at Washington State University, permits
rapid preliminary evaluations of large numbers of materials
for aluminum toxicity tolerance. This procedure has been
adopted by CIMIVYT and was put into operation in 1980. In
this method, seedlings raised on a nutrient medium are
submitted to rela ively high concentrations of aluminum in
their root zone. Roots of susceptible plants show toxic
reactions and stop cell division. Tolerant plants continue cell
division and norrral growth. In 1980, over 2,000 wheat lines

























A new laboratory procedure to screen wheat seedlings for their tolerance to alum-
inum toxicity is helping to speed up the work of breeders to develop high-yielding,
aluminum tolerant varieties. Tolerant materials identified in the laboratory
showed a good correlation with selections made under field conditions.

were evaluated with this method. Tolerant materials identi-
fied in the laboratory showed a good correlation with selec-
tions made in the field.
Laboratory Training
In 1980, three scientists, from the national quality
protein laboratories in Ecuador, Guatemala, and Turkey,
received training at CIMMYT in chemical protein evaluations.
Consultation services in several collaborating countries in
protein quality laboratory procedures, staffing, and equip-
ment requirements were also continued.



DATA PROCESSING SERVICES

The unit continued in 1980 to provide computing
services to the Maize and Wheat Programs and to the
Economics Program. These included: support for both maize
and wheat international testing programs; production of
wheat fieldbooks, plot tags and packet labels; maize germ-
plasm bank inventory maintenance and control; economic


- '9.__ __






survey analyses; and analyses of a wide variety of small
experiments conducted by CIMMYT scientists .
Several physical and organizational changes were ac-
complished in 1980. The equipment and staff were moved
from tight quarters inside the main office building to a
larger space in a renovated building nearby. In July, the
responsibility for data processing changed hands. The new
head of the unit comes to CIMMYT with considerable
computing experience, including consulting work with
CIMMYT since 1977.
In 1980, work began on a computerized mailing list
system to aid the communication services unit. In addition,
some of the responsibility for current data processing activities
has been shifted to less experienced staff to provide our
programmers with more time for new projects in the coming
year.

INFORMATION SERVICES
Thirty-three publication titles were issued (or reissued)
during 1980. A special CIMMYT long range planning report
for the 1980s was prepared as the result of a program review
and planning exercise conducted during the year. A number
of national collaborators (with our encouragement) translated
CIMMYT publications into local languages, printing and
issuing them under national imprimaturs.
The Comrronwealth Agricultural Bureau (United
Kingdom) issued on behalf of CIMMYT Volume 6 of the
Maize Quality Protein Abstracts (MQPA) and Volume 6 of
the Triticale Ab!;tracts (TA). About 650 maize scientists
receive the MQPA, and about 400 scientists receive the TA.
About 5,000 names were included on CIMMYT's
mailing lists in 1980. A new computerized mailing list with
additional subject matter and audience identification codes
was designed during 1980, based on a survey conducted
among individual:; who normally receive CIMMYT publica-
tions. The necessary software has been developed to manage
this new informal ion system which will begin full operation
in mid 1981.
In addition, a consultant was hired in 1980 to review
CIMMYT's communications strategies. His report will be
presented to CIMMYT management in early 1981.







PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY CIMMYT IN 1980


Title
Administration
Inforrne Anual del CIMMYT 1979
CIMMYT Hoy 11. Acelerando el Mejoramiento
CIMMYT Looks Ahead-A Planning Report for
the 1980s
CIMMYT Review 1980
Inrorme Anual del CIMMYT 1980
CIMMYT Today 12 Probing the Gene
Pools-Spring x W nter Crosses in Wheat
CIMMYT Auiourd'iui 8. Transformation du
Sysleme de Production de Mais au Zaire

Maize
CIMMYT Report on Maize Improvement 1976-77
Addendum to Supplementary Report-Maize
International Testing 1978
Preliminary Report-Maize International Testing
1979
Supplementary Report-Maize International
Testing 1979
Addendum to Supplementary Report-Maize
International Testing 1979

Wheat
CIMMYT Report on Wheat Improvement 1978
CIMMYT Bread Wheat Breeding Program-Germplasm
Movement and Planting Guide
Algerian Proceedings. The Gap Between Present Farm
Yield and the Potential, Fifth Cereals Workshop, Vol. 1
Results of the Eleventh International Bread Wheat
Screening Nursery (IBWSN) 1977-78 (IB54)
Results of the Fifteenth International Spring Wheat
Yield Nursery (ISWYN) 1978-79 (IB56)
Results of the Eighth & Ninth International Durum
Screening Nursery (IDSN) 1976-78 (B155)
Results of the Ninth Elite Durum Yield Trial (EDYT)
1978-79 (IB57)
Results of the Fifth and Sixth International Barley
Observation Nursery IIBON) 1977-78 & 1978-79 (1858)
Results of the Tenth International Durum Wheat
Screening Nursery (IDSN) 1978-79 (IB59)

Economics
Comment Etablir des Conceils aux Agriculteurs a
Partir des Donees Experimentales
Planning Technologies Appropriate to Farmers-
Concepts and Procedures
Maize in the Mampong-Sekodumasi Area of Ghana;
Results of an Exploratory Survey
On-Farm Research to Develop Technologies Appropriate
to Farmers; the Potential Role of Economists

Miscellaneous
Suelos Derivados de Cenizas Volcanicas en Jap6n
Guia para Visitantes a CIMMYT
The Human Population Monster

Reprints
This is CIMMYT
Este es el CIMMYT
Formulaci6n de Recomendaciones a Partir de Datos
Agronomicos, un Manual Metodol6gico de
Evaluaci6n Econ6mica
The Green Revolution Peace and Humanity


Language Pages Press Run


Spanish
Spanish

English
English
Spanish
English
Spanish

French


English
English/
Spanish
English/
Spanish
English/
Spanish
English/
Spanish


English

English

English

English

English

English

English

English

English



French

English

English

English


Spanish
Spanish
English


English
Spanish


Spanish
English


3,500
2,750

2,000
4,500
3,000
4,960
3,660

1,500


1,000

500

750

750

750


1,700

500

1,000

1,950

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250



750

2,000

500

450


1,000
1,000
500


32 2,000
32 2,000


54 1,000
30 750






Visitor Services
The visitor's services unit provides important program-
ming and logistical support for the many visitors who come
to CIMMYT each year. In 1980, about 8,000 visitors from 60
countries visited our headquarters. Many others visited
experiment stations in Mexico where CIMMYT staff conduct
research. Over 400 guided tours and slide presentations were
given during the ',ear. A number of major conference events,
each lasting 1 to 5 days, were also handled by the visitor
services staff.










financial statement





Price
W aterhouse 7 '





Maxico, D. F., February 25, 1981


To the Board of Trustees of
Centro Internacional de Me3oramiento
de Maiz y Trigo, A. C.


In our opinion, the accompanying statement of condition and the
related statements of revenue and expenses and of changes in
financial position, expressed in United States dollars, present
fairly the financial position of Centro Internacional de
Me oramiento de Maiz y Trigo, A. C., (CIMMYT) at December 31,
190E and 1979 and the results of its operations and the changes
in its financial position for the years then ended, in conformity
with generally accepted accounting principles consistently
applied. Our examinations of these statements were made in ac-
cordance with generally accepted auditing standards and accord-
ingly included such tests of the accounting records and such
other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the
circumstances.

Our examinations were made primarily for the purpose of forming
our opinion on the financial statements taken as a whole. We
also examined the additional information presented on Exhibits
1 to 8, expressed in United States dollars, by similar auditing
procedures. In our opinion, this additional information is
stated fairly in all material respects in relation to the
financial statements taken as a whole. Although not necessary
for a fair presentation of financial position, results of oper-
ations and changes in financial position, this information is
presented as additional data.





C.P. Oscar C6rdova S.






(A complete Financial Statement is available on request from CIMMYT.)
















CENTER INTERNATIONAL DE MEJORPMIENTO DE MAIZ Y TRGQO, A. C.

ST'ATEMt OF CONDITION

Currency: Thousands of U.S. Dlls.


A S S E T S


As of December 31
1980 1979 .


Current Assets

Cash in Hand and in Banks
Short-Term Investmnts (Note 2)


Accounts Receivable
Donors (Note 2)
Others (Note 7)

Inventories

Total Current Assets

Fixed Assets (Note 2)

Vehicles
Furniture,Fixtures,and Equipment
Buildings
land
Other Fixed Assets

Total Fixed Assets

Other Assets

Guarantee Deposits
Deferred Charges

Total Other Assets

TOTAL ASSETS


880
253
1,133


152
1,020
1,172
235

2,540



1,770
1,878
5,525
464
372

10,009



1
3

4

12,553


1,000
350
1,350


366
1,261
1,627
224

3,201



668
1,868
5,067
464
372

8,439



1
72

73

11,713


LIABILITIES, CAPITAL GRANTS, UNEXPEDED FUKDS
AND RESERVES

As of Deceber 31
1980 1979


Current Liabilities

Bank loans
Vouchers Payable
Seniority Premiums (Note 2)
Accrued Taxes
Accrued Miscellaneous Expenses
Accounts Payable Donors

Total Current Liabilities

Capital Grants, Unexpended Funds and
Reserves
Capital
Fully Expended in Fixed Assets
Operating Funds (Note 4)

Unexpended Funds (Note 5)
Core Unrestricted
Core Restricted
Extra Core and Cooperative Pro3ects
Auxiliary Services

Translation Effect (Note 3)
Trustee Reserve
Contingency Reserve


Total Capital Grants, Unexpended
Funds and Reserves

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND CAPITAL


794
62
364
266
42

1,528




10,009
1,215
11,224

11
19
(48)
(21)
(39)
(252)
92




11,025

12,553


The attached notes numbered to 8 form an integral part of these Financial Statenants


441
526
96
198
251
68

1,590




8,439
1,215
9,654

538
19
(48)
(16)
493
(274)
MT)
92




10,133

11,713







CENTER INTERNATIONAL DE MEJORAMIET DE MAIZ Y TRIGO, A.C.

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENSES

Currency: Thousands of U.S. Dlls.

a-n


Year ended December 31,
1 9 8 0 1979
REVENUE (;tcl 6)

Grants 17,559 15,608
Administrative Fees 634 635
Sale of Crops 43 31
Interest on Investments in Marketable Securities (2) 116
Auxiliary Services 479 410
Other Incoem 6 2

TOTAL REVENUE 18,719 16,802

EXPENSES (Note 6)

Research Programs 11,409 10,673
Conferences and Training 2,536 2,350
Information Services 615 473
General Administration 1,377 1,361
Plant Operations 1,758 1,448
Capital Acquisitions 395 124
Auxiliary Services 484 408
Indirect Costs 652 659
Seniority Premiums 25 25
Operating Funds (125)
Contingency Reserve 168

TOTAL EXPENSES 19,251 17,564


EXCESS OF REVENUE OVER EXPENSES (532) (762)
Translation Effect of the Year 23 45


TOTAL REVENUE OVER EXPENSES (509) (717)
Unexpended Funds, Opening Balance 493 1,255
Accumulated Translation Effect, Opening Balance (275) (320)


Closing Balance Unexpended Funds and Accumulated
Translation Effect as per Statement of Condition (291) 218


The attached notes numbered 1 to 8 form an integral part of these Financial Statements.