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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Trustees
 Staff
 Director general's introductio...
 Maize improvement
 Wheat improvement
 Economics program
 Supporting services
 Financial statement
 Back Matter
 Back Cover














Title: CIMMYT review
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 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT review
Series Title: CIMMYT review.
Alternate Title: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo review
Physical Description: v. ill. 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo.
Place of Publication: Mexico,
Publication Date: 1980
 Notes
General Note: Vols. for <1974-> issued by the center under its Spanish name: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo.
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lccn - 75645900
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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Trustees
        Page 4
    Staff
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Director general's introduction
        Page 9
    Maize improvement
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
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        Page 19
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        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Wheat improvement
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
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        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Economics program
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Supporting services
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Financial statement
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Back Matter
        Page 112
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text







COPYRIGHT NOTICE

CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

The CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center holds all rights to the source text and shall be
considered the copyright holder for the text and images of
these publications.

The CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center has made this publication available to the University of
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The CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center reserves all rights to this publication. All uses,
excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
Code, Title 17, Section 107 are restricted.

Contact the CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center for additional information and
permissions.












CIMMYT REVIEW

1980












CENTRO INTERNATIONAL DE MEJORAMIENTO DE MAIZ Y TRIGO 1980
Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, M6xico 6. D.F. Mexico







contents

4 Trustees
5 Staff
9 Director General's Introduction

MAIZE
11 Introduction to Maize Program
12 Maize Summary
14 Back-Up Unit
19 Advanced Unit
27 Quality Protein Improvement
30 Collaborative Research for Disease Resistance
32 Special Research Projects
35 Wide Crosses
37 Maize Training
39 Maize Cooperative Projects

WHEAT
44 Introduction to Wheat Program
45 Wheat Summary
47 Bread Wheat
54 Durum Wheat
59 Triticale
62 Barley
66 Special Germ Plasm Development
69 Agronomy
71 Pathology
73 International Testing
76 Milling and Baking
77 Wheat Training
80 Wheat Cooperative Projects

ECONOMICS
86 Introduction to Economics Program
88 Procedures
88 Training
91 Economics Cooperative Projects

SUPPORTING SERVICES
96 Experiment Stations
98 Laboratory Services
99 Information Services
102 Data Processing Unit

103 FINANCIAL STATEMENT







trustees (as of January 1, 1'80)


FRANCISCO MERINO RABAGO
President, CIMMYT Asamblea
Secretary of Agriculture and Water Resources
Mexico

VIRGILIO BARCO
Chairman, Board of Trustees
The Ambassador of Colombia to USA
Colombia

EDUARDO ALVAREZ-LUNA
Vice-Chairman, Board of Trustees
Director General
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas
Mexico

ENRIQUE AMPUERO P.
Visiting Professor
Cornell University
Ecuador

GUY CAMUS
Director
Organization de Recherche Scientifique et
Technique Outre-Mer
France

J. D. DRILON, JR.
Director, Southeast Asian Center for Graduate
Study and Research in Agriculture
The Philippines

LOWELL S. HARDIN
Agricultural Program Officer
The Ford Foundation
USA


ROBERT D. HAVENER
Director General
CIMMYT
USA

HUSSEIN IDRIS
Technical Cooperation among
Developing Countries, UNDP
Sudan

W. A. C. MATHIESON
Consultant, UNDP
United Kingdom

KAN-ICHI MURAKAMI
Professor of Agriculture
University of Tsukuba
Japan

W. GERHARD POLLMER
Professor of Plant Breeding
University of Hohenheim
Germany

O. M. SOLANDT
Consultant
Canada

M. S. SWAMINATHAN
Deputy Chairman
Planning Commission
India

STERLING WORTMAN
Vice President
The Rockefeller Foundatic
USA







staff (as of January 1, 1980)


OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL
Robert D. Havener, USA, Director General
Keith W. Finlay, Australia, Deputy Director General
Robert D. Osler, USA, Deputy Director General and Treasurer
Gregorio Martinez V., Mexico, Public Affairs Officer
Juan Manuel Muioz G., Mexico, Executive Officer

MAIZE
Ernest W. Sprague, USA, Director-Maize Program
R.L. Paliwal, India, Associate Director-Maize Program
Magni Bjarnason, Iceland, Quality Improvement
Carlos De Le6n, Mexico, Collaborative Research
Dietmar Dehne, Fed.Rep.of Germany, Back-Up Unit
N.L. Dhawan, India, International Testing
Kenneth S.Fischer, Australia, Special Projects
Junzo Fujigaki, Japan, Cytologist
Bantayehu Gelaw, Ethiopia, Quality Improvement
Peter Goertz, Fed.Rep.of Germany, Advanced Unit
Jacqueline James, UK, Wide Crosses
Elmer C.Johnson, USA, Special Projects
Federico Kocher, Switzerland, Training
John Mihm, USA, Advanced Unit
Alejandro Ortega C., Mexico, Advanced Unit
A.F.E. Palmer, UK, Training
Shivaji Pandey, India, Back-Up Unit
Surinder K. Vasal, India, Quality Improvement
Alejandro Violic, Chile, Training

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Hiep Ngoc Pham
Margaret Smith, USA
Hugo Zorrilla, Colombia

Andean Region
James B. Barnett, USA (Based in Colombia)
Gonzalo Granados, Mexico (Based in Colombia).

Asian Region
Takumi Izuno, USA (Based in India)

Central America and Caribbean Region
Roberto Soza, Chile (Based in Mexico)
Willy Villena, Bolivia (Based in Mexico)


Mideast Region
Wayne L. Haag, USA (Based in Turkey)






Maize staff (con't)
Ecuador
Suketoshi Taba, Japan
Ghana
Gregory Edmeades, New Zealand
Guatemala
Hugo S. C6rdova, El Salvador
Pakistan
Richard N. Wedderbur i, Barbados
Tanzania
James Deutsch, USA
David W. Sperling, USA
Zaire
Thomas G. Hart, USA


WHEAT
R. Glenn Anderson, Canada, Director-Wheat Program
Arthur R. Klatt, USA, Associate Director-Wheat
Program
Norman E. Borlaug, USA, Consultant
Maximino Alcala, Mexico, International Nurseries
Girma Bekele, Ethiopia, Pathology
Santiago Fuentes F., M ,xico, Pathology
Paul N. Marko, USA, T-aining
A. Mujeeb Kazi, USA, Cytology
H.G. Nasr, Lebanon, Tiaining
Walter Nelson, USA, A!lronomy
Sanjaya Rajaram, India. Bread Wheat, Breeding
Enrique Rodriguez C., Vlexico, Barley, Breeding
Ricardo Rodriguez R., Mexico, Germ Plasm/Breeding
David A. Saunders, Australia, Study Leave
Bent Skovmand, Denmairk, Triticale, Breeding
Enrique Torres, Colombia, Pathology
George Varughese, Indii, Durum, Breeding
Gregorio Vazquez, Mexico, Durum, Breeding
Hugo Vivar, Ecuador, Training
Patrick Wall, Ireland, A Ironomy
Francis J. Zillinsky, Canada, Triticale, Breeding

Postdoctoral Fellows
Ahmed EI-Ahmed, Syric
Larry Butler, USA
Joseph Kikafunda-Twine, Uganda
Christopher E. Mann, Fed.Rep.of Germany
Miloudi M. Nachit, Morocco
Jozef Pilch, Poland
David Worrall, USA







Wheat staff (con't)


Andean Region
H. Jesse Dubin, USA (Based in Ecuador)

East Africa Region
Gerbrand Kingma, Netherlands (Based in Kenya)
Henk Bonthuis, Netherlands (Dutch Associate, Based in Kenya)

Latin America Southern Cone Region
Matthew A. McMahon, Ireland (Based in Chile)
Man Mohan Kohli, India (Based in Chile)

Mediterranean and Mideast Region
J.Michael Prescott, USA (Based in Turkey)
Eugene E. Saari, USA (Based in Egypt)
Maarten Van Ginkel (Dutch Associate, Based in Turkey)

Pakistan
Homer Hepworth, USA


ECONOMICS
Donald L. Winkelmann, USA, Director-Economics
Program
Derek Byerlee, Australia
Larry Harrington, USA

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Steven Franzel, USA (Based in Kenya)
Robert Tripp, USA (Based in Ecuador)

Andean Region
Edgardo Moscardi, Argentina (Based in Ecuador)

Asian Region
Roger Montgomery, USA (Based in India)

Central America Region
Juan Carlos Martinez, Argentina (Based in Mexico)

East Africa Region
Michael P. Collinson, UK (Based in Kenya)

Algeria
Philippe Masson, France







LABORATORIES
Evangelina Villegas, IVexico, Biochemist, in Charge of
General Laboratories
Arnoldo Amaya C., Mexico, Cereal Chemist, in Charge
of Wheat Industrial Quality Laboratory

DATA PROCESSING SERVICES
Peter Walker, UK, Biometrician

EXPERIMENT STAT ONS
John Stewart, UK, He.id
Compton Paul, Guyana
Roberto Varela, Mexico, Training Officer

INFORMATION SERVICES
Christopher R. Dowswell, USA, Communications Coordinator
Linda G. Ainsworth, LSA, Head, Visitor Services
James H. Bemis, USA, Science Writer/Editor, Maize
Andre Jesequel, USA, Head, Audio Visuals
Cristina Mercader, Me> ico, Librarian

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
Haldore Hanson, USA, Consultant
Richard Clifford, USA, Financial Officer
Margarita Castillo F., Mexico, Internal Auditor
Susana Eng M., Mexico, Grant Administrator
Ma.de los Angeles Ezetia, Mexico, Purchasing Officer
Ma.Alicia Mina M., Mexico, Supervisor,
Personnel Services
Ana Laura Sobrino de G6mez, Mexico, Head,
Travel Services
Jos6 Ramirez R., Mexico, Supervisor, Accounting Services
Antonio Tristan D., Mexico, Grant Administrator









DIRECTOR GENERAL's INTRODUCTION


CIMMYT Review 1980 is intended to provide highlights of CIMMYT
program activities during 1979 for the informed laymen. It is complemented
by two technical annual reports (maize and wheat), more than a dozen in-
ternational testing annual reports, and various other information bulletins
published by CIMMYT each year.
In addition, a special CIMMYT planning report has been published
describing projected research priorities and program activities during the
period 1981-86.
During 1979, the wheat program leadership changed for the first time.
Norman Borlaug, who guided and inspired the wheat staff since CIMMYT's
inception, has now become a consultant to the program. His contributions
to the agricultural sciences and to mankind are so widely known and ac-
knowledged that they need no explanation here.
Dr. R. Glenn Anderson has been in charge of directing the wheat
program staff since July 1979. To assist in providing program direction, a
scientist from within the program who understood- and had contributed
to CIMMYT's program development was chosen as the Associate Director.
Dr Arthur Klatt assumed these responsibilities in 1979. He is young, energetic
and has done outstanding work in his CIMMYT assignments beginning in
1968, first at base in Mexico, later in Turkey with the national wheat program,
and most recently in the Andean regional program. His array of experiences
will serve CIMMYT well.
1979 marked the end of Phase III of the CIMMYT/UNDP maize protein
quality improvement project. Remarkable progress has been achieved in this
research effort and UNDP has agreed to support the program for another five
years
The process of developing regional programs continued during 1979.
The mideast regional maize program was established with a CIMMYT scientist
based in Turkey. Regional wheat programs in the Mediterranean and Mideast
and East Africa were strengthened through the arrival of two Dutch associates,
on loan from the Government of the Netherlands. Two postdoctoral fellows
also joined regional economics programs in the Andean region and East
Africa. During the 1980s, a growing responsibility of these regional staff will
be to help strengthen the production research activities of collaborating
institutes throughout the developing world.

R. D. Havener




maize
improvement


V


















INTRODUCTION TO MAIZE PROGRAM


World 1980 crop production estimates made by the
United States Department of Agriculture place maize in
first place in terms of total world crop production. About 50
per cent of this maize is grown in the USA, and on a global
basis, 65 to 70 per cent goes for livestock and poultry feed.
This total production level, however, does reflect the pro-
duction potential of maize as a global food source in the
years ahead.
To date, vast differences exist between the yields of
maize planted on the well-watered plains of North America
and Europe and yields obtained in most developing countries.
Tropical maize is unlike the grain-efficient types found in the
temperate areas. While an efficient producer of dry matter,
the partitioning to grain and stover in tropical maize is
inefficient from the point of view of grain production.
Research at CIMMYT, however, shows that the parti-
tioning of tropical maize can be altered more toward the 1:1
grain-to-stover ratio of the more productive temperate types.
For the future, improvements in tropical maize materials for
greater grain efficiency, disease and insect resistance and
better agronomic characteristics hold tremendous promise for
substantial increases in cereal yields in the developing world.
In the pages which follow, the highlights of CIMMYT's
maize program activities in 1979 are presented. In brief, we
can report continued progress toward making maize a more
productive and dependable crop for developing country
growing conditions.

E.W. Sprague







MAIZE SUMMARY

Back-up unit
Systematic evaluations of some of the 13,000 collections in the
maize germ plasm hank continued in 1979. Superior materials were
added to the appropriate gene pools. Fifty-five samples of seed from
the bank were also snt to collaborating maize scientists who requested
specific types of germ plasm.
Gene pools for ned to serve different ecological zones, grain type
preferences and maturity characteristics continued to be improved for
yield, maturity and d sease and insect resistance.
Preliminary evaluation trials of materials not already in the
international testing program were conducted in 1979 at a range of
worldwide testing sites to identify potential areas of adaptation. Pools
to serve highland areas were reorganized to better meet the germ plasm
needs in this area. Work on new temperate x tropical pools continued.


Advanced unit
The progeny from half of the advanced unit populations (in 1979
that meant 13 populations out of 26) were distributed for international
testing. The best entries from this testing program will be used to form
future experimental v irieties. Trials were conducted in Mexico in 1978
and 1979 to determine the progress achieved in improving CIMMYT's
advanced materials. Progress is evident in developing greater disease and
insect resistance in these high-yielding materials. The results of these
trials confirm the effectiveness of the CIMMYT breeding system put
into effect in 1974.
Eighty-four cou tries requested experimental trials in 1979. A
sampling of data returning from these trials shows the breadth of
superior materials that are emmanating from the collaborative interna-
tional maize testing program. An increasing number of countries are
making requests to CIMMYT for additional seed with the intention of
local seed multiplication and demonstrations on farmers' fields.

Quality protein improvement
Data from 1978 79 on the best quality protein materials show
that the yield performance of these types are at a par with their normal
counterparts in the CIMMYT improvement program, and yet have
added protein quality as a plus.


Collaborative research on disease resistance
Collaborative research on three major diseases-downy mildew,
streak virus and corn 'tunt-continues. In 1979, the superior families
with resistance to downy mildew and corn stunt were internationally







tested for the first time. The results indicate that good progress has
been made toward increasing the genetic resistance of maize to these
diseases.


Special research activities in Mexico
Progress continues to be made on improving the grain efficiency
of tropical maize. A special project on techniques to develop greater
drought tolerance is showing promise. Research also continues on
developing earlier maturity characters in high-yielding tropical maize
types and in broadening the adaptation of maize germ plasm.


Wide crosses
Work continues on wide crosses between maize and sorghum, and
maize and Tripsacum: the aim is to transfer to maize potentially useful
genes from alien genera to make maize more environmentally stable. A
few intergeneric hybrids were produced in 1979.


Maize training
Seventy-two trainees from 26 countries received in-service train-
ing in Mexico in 1979. Many other categories of personnel were also
involved in CIMMYT-assisted training opportunities including 10
master's degree candidates and 5 predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows.


Maize cooperative projects outside Mexico
Seven CIMMYT staff were assigned to national maize programs in
1979. An additional seven scientists were posted to regional programs
in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Considerable emphasis in all these
programs is being given to production agronomy research.






BACK-UP UNIT


CIMMYT's maize program is designed for a multidisci-
plinary focus on a wide range of problems that have restricted
maize production in the developing world. The population
improvement strategy followed by CIMMYT begins in the
"Back-Up Unit," which is charged with the first stages of im-
provement for different types of maize germ plasm. The
Back-Up Unit evaluates maize materials from around the
world (new introductions), maintains a working germ plasm
bank, and creates and improves gene pools constituted on the
basis of climatic adaptation, grain type, maturity characters,
and grain colors and textures. Each year, superior introduc-
tions and bank accessions are systematically evaluated and
added to the corresponding gene pools. Superior germ plasm
in these gene pools is identified and transferred to the cor-
responding advanced populations which have reached a
sufficient level of improvement for distribution to national
collaborators.

GERM PLASM BANK

At the end of 1979, the maize germ plasm bank held
over 13,000 collections of maize, which represent the vast
amount of genet c variation found within the species in
the Americas and other parts of the world. The germ plasm
bank unit conserves, regenerates, tests and catalogs the
different collections of maize (and related species) for use by
CIMMYT and other interested organizations.

Regeneration of collections
Seed is frequently removed from the bank for use by
CIMMYT and other collaborators. When the amount of seed
in storage of any collection falls below 500 g it must be
regenerated. In 1979, 224 accessions from tropical and
temperate areas were planted to regenerate the bank's seed
supply.
Shipments to collaborators
CIMMYT offers on request free samples of seed from
the bank to all research organizations. In 1979, 55 seed
requests were filled from more than 20 countries. Over 700
different samples were sent.






INTRODUCTION NURSERIES


During 1979, about 1,000 new introductions from tropi-
cal lowland, subtropical-temperate and tropical highland areas
were evaluated in Mexico. These new introductions were
evaluated for agronomic attributes including maturity, height,
yield potential and reaction to certain diseases and insects.
The superior materials were added to the appropriate gene
pools.

Improvement of pools
CIMMYT has developed 27 different gene pools for
three broad ecological zones with sub-categories for grain
types and maturity characters (see table 1). At present there
are gene pools for tropical lowland zones, for subtropical-
temperate areas, and for tropical highland regions.












S,












The evaluation of maize materials sent to CIMMYT by national collaborators
is part of a continuing strategy to broaden the genetic base of maize grown in the
tropics and subtropics. After testing in Mexico, the best entries from these intro-
duction nurseries are added each year to the corresponding back-up unit gene pools.







Table 1. Agro-climatic characteristics considered in classifying maize
gene pools.

Adaptation and
Maturity Altitude Days to
range (m) Latitude Temperature* silking

Tropical lowland
early 0-1600 0-300N-S 25-280C Up to 50
medium 0-1600 0-300N-S 25-280C 50-59
late 0-1600 0-300N-S 25-280C 60 and
more

Tropical highland
early 1600 + 0-300N-S 15-17C Up to 70
medium 1600 + 0-300N-S 15-170C 70-94
late 1600 + 0-300N-S 15-170C 95-120

Temperate-subtropical
early 0-1600 30-400N-S 20-220C Up to 60
medium 0-1600 30-400N-S 20-220C 60-75

* Mean of main growing season.


All gene pools were improved in 1979 using the half-sib
selection method ihalf-brother or half-sister) as modified by
CIMMYT. These Fools are grown twice a year in Mexico at
several locations. Fhe seed of the best ears from the best
plants of superior Iamilies in each pool are used to form the
next improvement cycle of the pool.

Improving insect arid disease resistance in pools
Each of CIMMYT's 27 maize gene pools is being im-
proved for resistance to the principal disease and insect
problems encountered in the area it is to serve (e.g. borers,
fall armyworms, ear rots and stalk rots).
Scientists inoculate different pools with disease-causing
organisms or infesi them with insect larvae according to the
principal disease and insect problems threatening each pool.
The seed of superi:)r plants in the families tested each cycle
are retained for the following cycle. In 1980 this procedure is
being applied to eight tropical lowland pools, three temperate
subtropical pools and three highland pools.
All pools which had completed three cycles of inocula-
tions or infections :)y the end of 1979 will be tested in 1980
to determine the progress achieved in developing greater
disease and/or insect resistance.






Progress in improving pools
In 1979, all tropical and subtropical pools were evaluated
to determine the progress made over recent cycles in the traits
undergoing improvement.
Considerable progress has been made in increasing yield
and reducing height and maturity in all the pools. In those
pools which have undergone nine cycles of improvement, the
latter cycles yielded 16 per cent more, were nearly 3 days
earlier and 20cm shorter than in the initial cycle.

Preliminary Evaluation Trials (PETs)
Three PETs were conducted during 1979, primarily to
evaluate the performance of materials not already part of the
international maize testing program. The PETs were separated
by the type of materials evaluated (early lowland tropical
materials, medium-to-late lowland tropical materials, and sub-
tropical temperate materials). The trials were conducted in
19 countries at 58 sites. The evaluation of these PETs in
various national programs helps to identify potential areas of
adaptation as well as problems which should receive priority
in germ plasm improvement.

Promotion of materials to the Advanced Unit
In CIMMYT's maize improvement system, the superior
portions of gene pools are either transferred to corresponding
advanced populations or are used to form new populations.
In 1979, 760 half-sib families were promoted to the various
advanced populations. In addition, 791 half-sib families were
used to form three new advanced populations.

Reorganization of highland pools
A major portion of the world's tropical highland maize
is grown in the Andean countries of South America. Here,
the predominant maize is the floury type with large, soft
kernels. These types are usually late in maturity. Earlier,
high-yielding types could increase the flexibility in cropping
patterns and reduce the yield losses due to frost and ear rots.
In the rest of the highland tropical world, the preferred maize
types have flint and dent kernels.
To better serve the maize preferences of highland
tropical areas, CIMMYT's highland pools were reorganized in
1979. Four new floury gene pools and three hard endosperm
































CIMMYT's highland gene pools were reorganized in 1979 to better serve
the maize preferences of highland tropical areas. These highland pools are being
improved in collaboration with scientists from the Andean region, particularly
Ecuador.



gene pools were fo med. As the need arises, additional high-
land gene pools ma. also be formed.
These highland gene pools are being improved in col-
laboration with the national maize program of Ecuador, where
a CIMMYT scientist: is stationed. The pools are grown once a
year in Mexico at :)ur El Batan and Toluca stations, where
they also are being improved for resistance to ear rots and ear-
worms, two import nt production problems in Andean maize.
Using a shuttle bree ding approach alternating between Mexico
and Ecuador, two cycles of improvement are being carried
out. each year in the earlier pools. The growing cycle of the
later maturity pool' is too long to permit two improvement
cycles each year; consequently they are grown only once a
year.


. W -. ;:






New temperate x tropical gene pools
Historically, temperate and tropical germ plasm have
not been intermixed. This has resulted in a narrowing of the
genetic base of both types.
In 1978, CIMMYT began to assemble three new gene
pools in cooperation with maize scientists from the USA and
Europe. These new broad-based pools have been formed
according to their adaptation to (1) the extreme northern
range of the temperate region, (2) the southern temperate
range and (3) the intermediate belt of the temperate region.
The objective of these pools is to introduce exotic germ plasm
into temperate base materials, which in turn will serve as a
mechanism to move genes from the temperate region materials
into tropical and highland germ plasm.
During 1979, the pools were grown in Mexico. Once
they are thoroughly recombined, the pools will be distributed
for widespread multilocational testing and selection with
the aim of broadening their adaptation.
CIMMYT also is collaborating with scientists at the
University of Hohenheim, Germany, in the development of
an exotic maize gene pool. This pool is evaluated each year in
the summer cycle in various countries of Europe and at
several sites in Mexico. Some of the materials in this pool are
showing greater earliness and added cold tolerance.


ADVANCED UNIT

The Advanced Unit is comprised of an interdisciplinary
team who engage in population improvement and international
testing. A variety of different populations, corresponding to
the pools mentioned previously, have been assembled on the
basis of climatic adaptation (tropical, subtropical, temper-
ate), maturity period (early, intermediate, late), grain color
(white, yellow), and kernel type (flint, dent). Variable
relative weights are given to the different traits needing
improvement according to the geographic areas each popu-
lation is meant to serve. In one population, greater disease
and insect resistance may receive first priority. In another,
greater earliness or better husk cover may be given the
highest priority. Multilocational testing, followed by re-
combination of superior materials, was specifically designed



























CIMMYT's Advanced Unit is responsible for the refinement and handling
of those maize materials w which are ready for international testing. These improved
materials are shorter in height, more uniform, mature earlier and are agronomically
superior in general.


for continuous improvement in the adaptability and yield
dependability of tniese maize populations, as well as for
identification of sLperior germ plasm for use by national
collaborators.
Within the tot l maize improvement process-from raw
germ plasm to commercial varieties-the Advanced Unit con-
centrates on population improvement and three phases of
international testing: progeny trials, experimental var-
iety trials and elite experimental variety trials.
These activities are designed to: (1) serve national pro-
grams that are characterized by different levels of capacity
and (2) to combine into one mechanism a system for contin-
uous improvement of maize germ plasm as well as a delivery
system for improved germ plasm to and from national
programs.
Each year CIMIVIYT selects the best progenies from half
its advanced maize populations (in 1979 that meant 13
populations out of 26). These trials are sent to six locations






worldwide, selected as representative sites for the particular
population in question.
For each population, a collaborator receives seed of
250 progenies from a single advanced population, which he
grows in comparison with six checks, which should be the
best locally available commercial varieties or hybrids. From
this trial the collaborator chooses the 10 best progenies on
the basis of yield, plant height, maturity, resistance to
diseases and insects, and standability.
When CIMMYT receives a collaborator's report listing
the 10 best entries at his testing location, the breeders in
Mexico create an experimental variety-using remnant seed-
intercrossing the 10 progenies in all possible combina-
tions. The seed of these crosses is then bulked to produce an
experimental variety identified by the year and site where the
progeny trial was conducted (e.g. Suwan 7539). Each exper-
imental variety will be tested the following year at 30 to 40
sites worldwide.
The reported data from all sites growing a particular
experimental variety trial are used to identify the best per-
forming varieties across all locations, which then are used
to form an elite experimental variety trial for widespread
testing the following year.

Evaluating population improvement in Mexico
Thirteen populations which had completed two or three
cycles of improvement were tested in 1978 and again in 1979
to get a measure of the breeding progress accomplished. The
results of this special trial showed an overall improvement for
all populations and a significant yield increase over two or
three cycles of improvement for six populations. In four
populations, the average maturity also was reduced signifi-
cantly. A general decrease in plant height was also observed.
The results of these trials confirm the effectiveness of
the full-sib (full brother-full sister) breeding system used by
the Advanced Unit since 1974.

DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE

CIMMYT's entomologists and pathologists work as a
part of the interdisciplinary maize team to develop materials






with resistance to diseases and insects. They evaluate and
select for resistance in raw germ plasm, in back-up gene pools
and in advanced populations in Mexico. They produce
disease-causing inoculum and rear insects in the laboratory
and apply these destructive agents, using uniform application
procedures, to thousands of maize plants each year to select
for resistant plants.
For disease resistance, the pools and populations are
inoculated with st.ilk and ear-rotting organisms. At harvest
time, each family i*; scored for disease damage, and progenies
with the least damage are retained for future recombinations.


I~ ArF

I.

1,


The development o maize materials which suffer less damage because of
pests is central to CIMMY" 's improvement strategies. Here, staff are preparing to
inoculate plants with stalk r )tting organisms to identify genetic sources of resistance
to this production problem


~BLs~tn~C C A



n,1






For insect resistance, selected pools and populations
are infested in Mexico with larvae of fall armyworms, ear-
worms, and several classes of borers. These are the most
important maize pests in the western hemisphere and are
related to species causing serious problems on other continents.
At appropriate intervals after infestation, visual ratings for
insect damage are made for each family. Progenies showing
the least damage are retained for recombination and future
selection cycles.


INTERNATIONAL TESTING

In 1979, CIMMYT shipped 615 sets of maize trials for
testing by collaborators in 84 countries. These shipments
included 76 progeny trials for testing in 28 countries; 62
quality protein maize population trials for testing in 40
countries; 244 experimental variety trials for testing in 83
countries; and 233 elite experimental variety trials for testing
in 79 countries.
By the end of 1979, results from about 32 per cent of
these trials had arrived in Mexico. Therefore, the report on
international testing which follows will be based upon 1978,
since the final reports are available for that year.

International Progeny Testing Trials (IPTTs)
The superior progenies from the populations tested in
1978 were selected to form 37 new experimental varieties.
These varieties carry the names of the sites/locations where
the IPTTs were originally tested. Forty-five per cent of the
site-specific progeny selections for experimental variety devel-
opment had mean yields superior to any of the six checks
included by national collaborators in each IPTT trial.

Experimental Variety Trials (EVTs)
In 1978, seven different EVTs were assembled, and 295
sets were requested by national collaborators. Some of the
best-performing experimental varieties in each of these EVTs
are compared in table 2 to the best checks at individual sites
where the particular trial was grown. One quality protein
maize trial, consisting of 23 varieties (EVT 15), also was
included.







Table 2. Sampling of data from international maize
experimental variety trials, 1978.


1978
EVT
number


Latin America
Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
Costa Rica
(Los Diamantes)
Dominican Republic
(San Cristobal)
Mexico (Tlaltizapan
Peru (Piura)

Africa and Mideast
Egypt (El Gemmeizu)
Ethiopia (Alemaya)
Lesotho (ThabaTseka)
Saudi Arabia (Hofufl
Senegal
Zaire (Gandajika)


Name of top
experimental
variety (EV)


14B San Andres 1632(2)

12 Across 7643


Poza Rica 7728
Cali 7642(2)
Tlaltizapan 7736


Across 7644
Batan 7660
Obregon 7748
Poza Rica 7728
Obregon 7738
Across 7643


Burma (Yezin)
Nepal (Rampur)
Pakistan (Pirsabak)
Philippines (Karan)


14A Santa Rosa 7624(3)
14B Ilonga 7530
15 Tocumen 7639
13 Chuquisaca 7728


3194 169
4030 192
4386 120
3474 176


Elite Experimental Variety Trials (ELVTs)
The best-performing experimental varieties across all
locations are selected to form subsequent elite variety trials.
In 1978, three EL\ Ts were assembled, and 206 sets were re-
quested by national collaborators. One quality protein maize
trial, consisting of five elite varieties (ELVT 19), also was
included.
In well over half of the testing locations, our collaborators
reported that the best elite varieties included in the trials
outperformed the best checks at individual testing locations.

Requests for seed increase
Thirty-nine national maize programs asked CIMMYT
for supplemental seed in 1979, with intentions to increase
the seed for demonstrations on farmers' fields. Such a step


Yield of
Yield top EVas /o
(kg/ha) of bestcheck


3482 131







often precedes release of a new variety. In 1979, the requests
came from:
Latin America and the Caribbean, 19 countries.
Mediterranean and Mideast, 3 countries.
Africa south of the Sahara, 8 countries.
South and Southeast Asia, 9 countries.

1980 international trials
The tentative distribution of international trials in
1980 includes 816 individual trials in 85 cooperating countries.
This testing network now involves virtually all developing
countries in which maize is an important crop.


Distribution of international

Region and Nation
Central American and Caribbean
Antigua
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
St. Kitts
St. Vincent
Trinidad
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
French Guiana
Guyana
Peru
Surinam
Venezuela


maize trials 1977-80
1977 1978 1979
trials trials trials
176 194 188
1 0 0
2 2 4
0 0 3
5 4 6
11 14 12
0 4 0
5 3 4
9 12 10
1 1 1
12 16 15
10 12 10
12 20 14
9 13 12
74 59 62
8 12 11
10 19 16
0 0 1
0 1 1
7 2 6
92 124 105
6 6 10
13 31 11
35 30 28
2 2 5
12 15 15
8 10 10
0 2 4
3 4 0
9 17 13
1 2 4
3 5 5


* Tentative


1980
trials*
229
0
1
2
6
17
C
11
16
1
20
17
23
9
61
10
25
1
1
8
125
12
13
35
6
8
14
4
0
24
5
4







Distribution of international maize trials 1977-80 (Con't)
1977 1978 1979
Region and Nation trials trials trials
Mediterranean/Mideast 46 61 55
Algeria 2 2 2
Egypt 13 16 7
Iraq 6 3 2
Jordan 0 2 4
Libya 0 0 3
Morocco 0 2 2
Saudi Arabia 3 7 6
Sudan 4 2 3
Syria 0 3 3
Tunisia 1 2 2
Turkey 4 4 3
Yemen A.R. 13 13 13
Yemen, South 0 5 5
Tropical and Southern Africa 92 149 162
Benin 1 1 2
Botswana 3 5 3
Cameroon 7 7 6
Central African Republic 2 2 0
Chad 0 3 2
Ethiopia 4 12 9
Ghana 4 4 3
Guinea-Bissau 3 3 3
Ivory Coast 10 15 10
Kenya 3 2 6
Lesotho 0 2 3
Malawi 4 7 6
Mali 0 0 4
Mozambique 0 17 17
Niger 0 0 1
Nigeria 12 14 26
Reunion 0 0 2
Rwanda 0 5 4
St. Helena 2 4 0
Senegal 0 9 7
Sierra Leone 0 0 9
Somalia 0 1 6
South Africa 8 9 4
Swaziland 1 1 2
Tanzania 12 9 9
Togo 1 1 1
Uganda 1 1 2
Upper Volta 2 2 3
Zaire 9 10 8
Zambia 3 3 4


* Tentative


1980
trials*
92
2
19
2
4
11
3
6
3
12
2
11
13
4
238
2
7
8
0
2
22
9
4
15
6
6
6
6
22
2
37
0
6
0
13
15
4
11
3
7
1
2
11
8
3







Distribution of international maize trials 1977-80 (Con't)
1977 1978 1979 1980
Region and Nation trials trials trials trials*
South and East Asia 70 78 89 113
Afghanistan 2 2 4 2
Bangladesh 7 7 7 5
Burma 0 4 6 7
India 13 13 16 24
Indonesia 3 2 3 3
Korea, South 0 0 2 2
Malaysia 3 2 4 4
Nepal 8 6 12 12
Pakistan 10 10 12 22
Philippines 11 19 12 15
Sri Lanka 2 2 3 5
Thailand 11 11 8 12
Other 1 15 16 19
Greece 0 2 4 4
Hungary 1 2 2 2
New Guinea 0 7 6 6
Tahiti 0 0 3 5
Puerto Rico 0 4 1 2

TOTAL TRIALS 477 621 615 816
TOTAL COUNTRIES 64 80 84 85

* Tentative



QUALITY PROTEIN IMPROVEMENT

Beginning in 1970, CIMMYT's maize improvement pro-
gram was expanded to include improvement in the nutritional
aspects of maize. Today, this work is an integral part of the
total maize improvement program. Various materials under-
going improvement in the Back-Up, Advanced, Special
Projects and Collaborative Research units have parallel
counterparts in the quality protein project.
CIMMYT scientists realized that it would be difficult to
encourage the production of high-lysine maize if it yielded
less than normal maize. Therefore, the emphasis was placed
on improving protein quality without sacrificing yield. It
also was necessary to develop high-lysine maize varieties
having a normal-looking maize endosperm similar to those
grown by farmers endospermm refers to the starchy part of






maize kernels). Early work at CIMMYT indicated that prob-
lems of low yield and unacceptable kernel appearance, as
well as other ma or problems associated with soft opaque-2
endosperm, coulc be overcome through careful and system-
atic selection for vitreous hard endosperm kernels that still
retained high-lysi e and tryptophan contents and thus im-
proved protein quality.
This strategy has shown that, genetically, it is pos-
sible to combine high yield and high nutritional quality in
maize materials end remove the defects (e.g. lower yields
and dull, chalky, .oft-kernel types) normally associated with
the opaque-2 gene.
Within the conversion process, the selection of genotypes
with hard kernels which remain stable (i.e. do not tend to
revert to soft kernels in certain environments) is a primary
breeding objective. Over time, the percentage of quality pro-
tein maize materials emanating from this conversion process
has continued to improve. These modified materials must be
analyzed by the Frotein Quality Laboratory so that families
which have lost some of their protein quality can be dis-
carded. This selection process has resulted in the maintenance


CIMMYT has developed high-yielding maize varieties that have much
better protein quality th in traditional maize types. These quality protein maize
varieties offer considerable promise in improving the diets of traditional low-
income maize consumers.






in hard endosperm types of the high protein quality levels of
characteristic soft opaque-2 materials. Most of these modified
materials have a lysine content of 3.5 to 4 per cent, or up to
twice the level of ordinary maize types.

Grain yield of quality protein maize expressed as a percentage of normal
maize check in different years across all test locations.

i 100
SNNORMAL
90-
D 80 OPAQUE-2
w 70
E 60


0
1970 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

Yield potential of quality protein maize materials
Originally the quality protein maize materials did not
yield as well as their normal counterparts. This difference was
attributable to the earlier cessation of starch accumulation in
high-lysine materials resulting in smaller, lighter kernels.
Through recurrent selection over several cycles for hard
endosperm materials with larger kernels, the yield potential
of these materials has improved substantially.
During 1978, a trial was designed to compare 10 quality
protein entries and their normal counterparts. The trial was
conducted at three experiment stations used by CIMMYT:
Poza Rica, Tlaltizapan and Ciudad Obregon. The results of
this trial clearly indicate that the yield performance of the
best modified versions of several CIMMYT lowland tropical
populations is about equal to the normal counterparts, and
some of the quality protein materials were somewhat earlier
than their normal counterparts.

Opaque-2 Maize Population Trials (OMPTs)
Twenty-one of the best quality protein maize popula-
tions were assembled in 1978 into trial OMPT 11, which was
planted in 44 locations in 31 countries. Data received from
20 locations growing the OMPT 11 trial show that at 60 per






cent of these testing sites, the best quality protein population
equaled or exceeded the yield of the best check. The data
showed that the quality protein materials did not show any
more disease reaction than the best normal checks. Further,
the hard endosp-erm grain texture of the quality protein
entries remained stable over a range of environments. These
materials also were superior in other desirable traits, such as
earlier maturity, shorter plant height and resistance to leaf
diseases.


CONTINUING UNDP SUPPORT

In 1978, the United Nations Development Program
(UNDP) reviewed the progress made by CIMMYT in the
nutritional improvement of maize and approved financial
support for another five-year period, 1979-84. In this new
phase, project objectives extend beyond protein quality to
include some other nutritional quality aspects of maize, such
as oil content.
A panel of n.Jtritionists has been set up to interact with
CIMMYT on a continuing basis to advise on the status of
nutritional research i as it applies to this project.


COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH FOR RESISTANCE TO
THREE MAJOR DISEASES

Starting in 1374, three collaborative breeding projects
were organized between CIMMYTand six national maize pro-
grams jointly to develop germ plasm resistant to three major
diseases of maize in tropical areas These diseases are: downy
mildew caused by i fungus found mainly in South and South-
east Asia, but nov spreading to Africa and Latin America;
maize streak virus, disseminated by a leaf hopper throughout
tropical Africa; and corn stunt, a disease also spread by a leaf
hopper in tropical latin America.
To begin this research, CIMMYT assembled three broad-
based maize populations (one white dent, one white flint and
one yellow flint-dent) which would have general acceptance
in the tropics provided they carried stable resistance to the
three diseases.

























Using a shuttle breeding strategy involving alternate screenings in disease
"hot spot" areas followed by an agronomic improvement cycle in Mexico, scientists
are making good progress towards developing maize populations with resistance
to downy mildew and to corn stunt. Pictured above are maize materials with
varying degrees of resistance to corn stunt.


Each year CIMMYT sends to the collaborating countries
several hundred progenies from these base populations for
screening under disease conditions. Seeds from superior
plants in families showing resistance are returned to Mexico
and improved for general agronomic characteristics. This
technique of shuttle breeding is proving to be an extremely
efficient breeding strategy to rapidly develop high-yielding
varieties with greater disease resistance.
In 1980, the project entered its fifth cycle of selection
for resistance to stunt and to downy mildew and the fourth
cycle of selection for streak resistance.
In 1979, the superior families with resistance to downy
mildew and corn stunt were internationally tested for the
first time for yield potential and disease resistance. The re-
sults indicate that good progress has been made in increasing
the resistance to downy mildew and corn stunt.
The progress on streak virus has been slower. The lack
of insect-rearing facilities (streak virus is disseminated by a
leaf hopper) located in virus-affected areas for disease screening
and uniform inoculation is hampering this research effort.






SPECIAL RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN MEXICO

Within CIMMYT's general maize improvement program,
new ideas and tec iniques for improving specific characteristics
of the maize plant are studied on a special project basis. In
these projects, the researcher confines the study to one or
a few populations. Four such special studies are now under
way dealing with yield efficiency in tropical maize, drought
tolerance, early maturity and wide adaptation. These studies
may require manv years for completion, but the conclusions
reached may ult mately be applied to other parts of the
program.

Yield efficiency ir tropical maize
The development of tropical and subtropical plant types
that produce a greater proportion of their total dry matter
in the form of gain, rather than leaves and stem, is a basic
objective in the overall maize program. Different approaches
to achieve the objective, such as the shortening of the tropical
maize plant and reducing the leaf area and tassel size, are being
investigated.

I t


Research at CIMMYT has shown that the grain efficiency of tropical maize
can be modified towa ds the more efficient partitioning (grain vs stover)
characteristics of high-yi Iding temperate maize materials.


N~r

'k ';lo






C IMMYT scientists, using the lowland tropical population
Tuxpeio, have been selecting within the population for
shorter plant height. By the end of 1979, 18 cycles of selection
had been completed, and plant height had been reduced to
approximately 50 per cent of that of the original material.
As the Tuxpeio population plants have become shorter,
they have also become earlier. In addition, yield under good
management conditions has increased substantially, particular-
ly when the plant density is increased. Yield increases are
attributed to less lodging and fewer barren plants and to an
improved partitioning (harvest index) of dry matter to grain
in the shorter plant selections. While the more efficient
short-plant type is clearly advantageous, the higher plant
density requirement also means increased seed and more
work in planting where hand labor is used. Further studies are
being designed by national collaborators to look at some of
the agronomic implications of these shorter and earlier plant
types.
Starting in cycle 12, the researchers began selecting
separately in the Tuxpeio population for two other charac-
teristics associated with yield efficiency: reduced tassel size
and reduced leaf size. Two other populations unrelated to
Tuxpeio are also being subjected to similar studies. Prelim-
inary yield tests point to the improved grain efficiency
of selections with reduced foliage and tassel size; however,
further testing is needed to verify these results.
Crosses of tropical and temperate germ plasm have been
shown to be more efficient in grain production than the tropi-
cal material but are less tolerant to tropical diseases and pests.
It may be possible, by continual and simultaneous selection
for both yield efficiency and pest tolerance, to adapt these
potentially higher-yielding tropical-temperate materials to
tropical conditions. Two such populations continue to be
improved toward these objectives.
Drought tolerance
Throughout the tropics drought causes sizable yield re-
ductions in maize. Drought stress is most often caused by the
irregular distribution of rainfall and by soils with low-water-
holding capacity.
A special project initiated in 1977 to develop techniques
capable of identifying drought tolerant genotypes indicates
that it is possible to select genotypes with improved yielding






ability under drought stress conditions without losing their
capacity to perform well under adequate moisture conditions.
A number of criteria have been identified which are
reasonable indicators of the ability of a particular genotype
to perform better than average under water stress conditions.
A selection index incorporating these criteria as well as grain
yield (under non stress and stress conditions) was used to
identify 80 superior families in 1979. These families were
then recombined nd will be tested again in 1980.

Earlier maturity in tropical maize
Many tropical maize-growing countries need good yield-
ing varieties which mature earlier to fit into a brief rainy
season or a tight cropping sequence. The sacrifice in yield
and disease susceptibility associated with very early maturing
varieties has been long recognized as the major breeding prob-
lem in developing -.hese types.
A special project is utilizing alternative approaches to
develop genotypes with earlier maturity and good yield. In
one approach, high-yielding intermediate tropical types have
been used to form a population from which selection is made
for earliness. Eight cycles of selection have been completed
to the end of 1979.
A trial to measure the change in yield and maturity in
selected families is planned for 1980. In such selections for
earliness, the breecer may be able to reduce either the time to
flowering or the duration of the grain-filling stage. A student
research project wais initiated in 1978 to evaluate the relative
importance of the!ce two development stages to grain yield.
It is anticipated -:hat such information can be useful to
breeders in their selection procedures.
Another approach consists of assembling earlier maturity
genotypes from wherever they are encountered, and then to
improve their yield and disease and insect resistance. A yield
trial conducted in 1979 indicates that superior families can be
identified for high-yielding ability within early populations.

Wider adaptation
The development of broadly adapted germ plasm is
a concept basic t: all CIMMYT improvement programs.
To see how far this idea can be extended in maize, a special
project is developing a unique germ plasm pool.






In 1980 CIMMYT makes its 13th cycle of recombination
in a maize population drawn from many temperate and
tropical climates. Initially the cold climate materials would
not set seed in the lowland tropics, and vice versa, because of
sensitivity to differing day lengths, temperatures and diseases.
Today this population sets seed in a range of maize-growing
environments.
This special project in wide adaptation serves several
ends: first, a widely adapted population can be used to
transmit wide adaptation to other populations; and second,
wide adaptation in a parent can serve as a vehicle for trans-
mitting genotypes with a broad gene base almost anywhere in
the world.

Combining ability of CIMMYT germ plasm
Relatively little information is available about the suit-
ability of CIMMYT populations for the development of hy-
brids. Such information would be useful for further improve-
ment of the populations and for those national collaborators
interested in hybrid development. To gather this information,
all CIMMYT materials are being crossed to Eto Blanco and
Tuxpeio, two varieties that are known to combine well and
produce good hybrids. Most of these crosses were accom-
plished in 1979, and the remaining combinations will be
completed in 1980. Yield trials will be conducted at CIMMYT
stations in Mexico in the summer of 1980.


WIDE CROSSES

Crosses between maize and two alien genera, sorghum
and tripsacum, continue as part of the maize improvement
program to determine if it is possible to make available to
maize the potentially useful genes from these genera. In
general, the aim is to make maize a more environmentally
stable crop; (i.e., with better insect and disease resistance
from tripsacum and more drought tolerance from sorghum).
Maize x tripsacum crosses
During 1978-79, approximately 14,000 crosses were
made between maize and tripsacum, and 15 hybrids were
obtained.
Eleven of these were classical hybrids that retained the






























CIMMYT scientist; continued their wide-cross and cytological research in
1979 to transfer useful genes from genera alien to maize in hopes of adding
greater environmental sta )ility to the tropical maize plant.

expected gametic number of chromosomes from both parents.
In appearance, the/ resembled Tripsacum more than maize
and were perennial. The other four were non-classical hybrids,
having 20 maize chromosomes and various numbers of
Tripsacum chromosomes in different root tip cells. These
hybrids were more maize-like in appearance and were annual.
Maize x sorghum crosses
During 1978-7) over 23,000 crosses were made between
maize and sorghurr, and nine hybrids appear to have been
obtained. All nine hybrids were non-classical types, as described
above for maize x tripsacum crosses. These plants were more
maize-like in appearance, and all flowered within seven
months of germinalion. All had tassels that were reduced in
size, with only one, or very few, branches. No hybrid had
viable pollen. Six se,. some seed when crossed back to maize.


tii






MAIZE TRAINING

CIMMYT offers a wide range of training opportunities
to scientists working in maize improvement and production
in the developing world. These include:
-In-service training courses
production agronomy
maize improvement
laboratory analysis
experiment station management
-Graduate student programs in cooperation with univer-
sities. Some students spend 12 to 18 months in
Mexico to do thesis research.
-Postdoctoral fellows: 2 years service at CIMMYT.
-Visiting and Associate scientists: up to 1 year fellow-
ships at CIMMYT.

In-service
The in-service training program in maize is nine years old,




The in-service training courses for production specialists are central to
CIMMYT's efforts to assist national programs in staff development. On-farm
research which integrates the perceptions of economists, biological researchers
and farmers toward the common goal of devising more appropriate production
recommendations is the focus of these training courses.







and nearly 500 pa ticipants from more than 50 countries have
passed through the six-month course. Originally, the emphasis
was more on mai.;e improvement. Today, however, about 7
out of 10 specialize in production agronomy.
The production training program emphasizes on-farm re-
search. In addition to long hours of field work associated with
on-farm surveys and experiments, the trainees are introduced
to strategies for organizing production research systems.
In the maize improvement course, trainees are exposed
to the range of breeding materials undergoing improvement
at CIMMYT. Each participant is involved in all aspects of
maize improvement at different experiment stations used by
maize program staff in Mexico. This practical training is
interspersed with participation in the production research
experiments and classwork related to the various breeding
methods used by CIMMYT in maize improvement.


Maize in-service trainees 1971-79
1971-
Region and Country 79 1979

Central America and
Caribbean 150 27
Belize 5 0
Costa Rica 10 4
Dominica 1 0
Dominican Republic 11 2
El Salvador 22 1
Grenada 1 0
Guatemala 15 1
Guyana 1 0
Haiti 11 2
Honduras 24 1
Mexico 22 7
Nicaragua 16 5
Panama 11 4
South America 76 12
Argentina 11 0
Bolivia 10 2
Brazil 3 0
Colombia 9 1
Chile 2 0
Ecuador 17 3
Peru 17 5
Venezuela 7 1
South and East Asia 107 18
Afghanistan 6 2
Bangladesh 5 3
India 9 2
Indonesia 3 0
Japan 5 0
Korea 2 0
Malaysia 1 1


1971-
Region and Country 79
South and East Asia (Con't)

Nepal 18
Pakistan 23
Philippines 18
Thailand 17
N. Africa and Mideast 31
Algeria 1
Egypt 15
Syria 1
Tunisia 3
Turkey 8
Yemen A.R. 3
Tropical Africa 118
Botswana 1
Cameroon 1
Ethiopia 3
Ghana 8
Ivory Coast 4
Kenya 3
Malawi 1
Nigeria 12
Rwanda 1
Senegal 1
Tanzania 50
Uganda 1
Zaire 28
Zambia 4

Other 2

Total training fellows 484
Total countries 53






Graduate student training and doctoral fellows
During 1979-80, CIMMYT is sponsoring the training of
ten master's degree candidates (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Colombia,
Tanzania and Zaire); three predoctoral fellows (Zaire) and
two postdoctoral fellows (Colombia, Vietnam).


Visiting scientists
During 1979, the maize programs received 53 visiting
and associate scientists and 42 short-term visitors. Visiting
scientists spend from a few weeks to one year in Mexico.
Short-term visitors are often agricultural policy makers and
administrators who usually spend a week at CIMMYT.

MAIZE COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO

In 1979, scientists from most maize-growing countries
of the world cooperated with CIMMYT scientists in germ
plasm development and exchange of research information. A
few individual countries in the network have asked for direct
staff assistance and CIMMYT has received special funds to
provide this collaboration. A number of regional programs
have emerged among various maize-growing countries, and
CIMMYT has posted staff to support these regional efforts.
At the end of 1979, 14 staff were assigned to either national
or regional programs, as described below.

National programs
CIMMYT staff were working within five national
programs at the end of 1979. These staff work on a daily
basis with national program counterparts in all aspects of
national maize research, production, staff development and
training.

Cooperative projects involving national programs, 1979

Start of CIMMYT
CIMMYT staff
Country arrangement assigned Donor
Zaire 1968 1 Zaire
Tanzania 1973 2 USAID/IITA
Guatemala 1976 2 USAID
Pakistan 1979 1 USAID
Ghana 1979 1 CIDA(Canada)


























CIMMYT has had staff assigned to the Guatemalan national maize program
of the national agricultural research institute (ICTA) since 1976. This program has
made a significant impa,:t on lowland maize production, due in large part to a
certified seed production and marketing system which harnesses the energies of
both the public and private sectors to reach the farmer.

Regional programs
A regional m.iize program helps forge stronger linkages
among national collaborators and with CIMMYT. Regional
programs generally comprise neighboring countries in which
maize is a major crop (or has the potential of being one)
grown under similar climatic conditions and exposed to
similar diseases and insects. Therefore these countries benefit
from closer collaborative research, training and information
links.

Regional maize programs in 1979
Number of Start of CIMMYT Current
Region and coope ating CIMMYT staff Donor
operations base countries arrangement assigned
Central America 13 1974 2 Switzerland
and Caribbean
(Mexico)
South and 1" 1976 1 UNDP
Southeast Asia
(India)
Andean countries E 1976 3 CIDA
(Colombia and (Canada)
Ecuador)

Mideast 9 1979 1 Core
Unrestricted






Central American and Caribbean regional program
The efforts of the maize staff assigned to this region are
aimed at strengthening national research and production pro-
grams by helping individual countries to develop and deliver
more appropriate production technologies to local farmers.
Regional staff assisted in conducting international trials
tested within the region in 1979. Particular emphasis was
placed on the identification of materials with good husk
cover and low incidence of ear rots. Considerable progress
toward these objectives is being reported from Costa Rica,
Guatemala, Honduras and Panama. These countries have
released new improved varieties, and farmer demand for these
materials is strong.
On-farm research is receiving increasing support among
regional scientists. Several countries have made a strong com-
mitment to this type of research. Various cropping sequences
and associations are being studied. The need for earlier-
maturing high-yielding maize materials is emerging as an
important germ plasm requirement for the region. Weed
control is another major area of research activity. Minimum
tillage methods are being tested, in the context of mono-
cropping, relay or association patterns of productions.
A number of training assistance activities were carried
out in 1979 by the regional staff, who participated in
breeding methodology and on-farm research short courses
in Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic and Honduras. In
addition, 20 young scientists from the region completed
in-service training courses at CIMMYT in 1979.

South and Southeast Asia regional program
Since 1976, CIMMYT has maintained one breeder/
agronomist based in India to assist in the improvement of
germ plasm for the region, to encourage national on-farm
research activities and to improve the exchange of research
data and ideas among area scientists.
Considerable need exists to develop earlier and more
disease-resistant materials for this region. In addition, the
market demand for maize must be strengthened in many
countries before increased production will occur. Toward this
end CIMMYT cosponsored with the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR) an international workshop in
New Delhi on maize utilization, processing and marketing
in mid 1979.






Eighteen scientists from eight countries in the region
completed in-service training courses at CIMMYT during
1979.

Andean regional program
CIMMYT hcs three staff assigned to this region. One
breeder is assigned to Ecuador where he collaborates with
national breeders from the region on improving maize varieties
for highland areas. A Mexican cultivar, Cacahuacintle, is
showing considerable advantage in the highland areas. This
variety is high-yielding, has better disease resistance and is
about two months earlier than traditional materials. It can
permit a second !;hort season crop in some areas. National
scientists expect this material to have a substantial impact
on floury maize production in the Andean highlands in the
years ahead.
Some CIMM rT populations have shown superior per-
formance in the lovland tropical areas of the Andean regions.
These materials are receiving good acceptance and varieties
are being released by national programs.
In 1979, 12 scientists from the region completed in-
service training courses at CIMMYT.

Mideast regional program
In late 1979, the maize breeder/agronomist assigned to
Egypt was shifted to a regional assignment, with his center
of operations located in Turkey. Special breeding priorities
will include the development of maize materials with greater
resistance to late wilt, and also to stem borers. In 1979, three
scientists from the region completed in-service training
courses at CIMMYT.






wheat
improvement


9.


r~r/


, .
9ui ,j

















INTRODUCTION TO WHEAT PROGRAM


For many collaborating countries, 1979 brought record
(or near-record) harvests. Among these were India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Turkey and Argentina. New varieties carrying
CIMMYT germ plasm were released by a considerable number
national institutes.
The start up of the Southern Cone regional program was
an important new addition to the regional linkage system
with national collaborators. Considerable emphasis is being
placed on ways to improve wheat production in tropical soils
characterized by problems of acidity, high aluminum concen-
trations and high phosphorus fixation tendencies.
The 4th Re!ional Wheat Workshop, hosted by the
Algerian government and cosponsored by CIMMYT and
ICARDA, was held in Algiers in 1979. Conference participants
focused on the production constraints facing wheat farmers
in the Mediterranean and Mideast regions. Many of the
issues raised in th s conference will serve as orientation to
CIMMYT's work in production agronomy research.
The progress being made by the network of collaborating
scientists and the production records being set by developing
country farmers provide CIMMYT staff with strong reasons
for optimism about the potential for continued increases in
wheat production as we enter the 1980s.
In the pages which follow, the highlights of the 1979
wheat program activities are presented. Despite heavy frost
damage to the summer CIMMYT nurseries that prevented
harvesting of much of the material, 1979 was a successful
year for the wheat improvement program.

R. Glenn Anderson







WHEAT SUMMARY


Bread wheat
CIMMYT continued to work in 1979 on developing broadly
adapted, high-yielding cultivars. Breeding emphasis was given to spring
x winter crosses, multiline component development based on cross
8156, greater disease resistance, enhanced aluminum toxicity resistance
in certain lines, development of earlier high-yielding materials and
wheat for the humid tropics. National collaborators in 19 countries
reported the release in 1979 of more than 50 varieties to local farmers
which carried CIMMYT-distributed germ plasm in their parentage.

Durum wheat
Through an intensive breeding effort, CIMMYT's advanced durum
lines now yield similarly to (or slightly exceed) the best bread wheats.
Continued breeding emphasis in 1979 was placed on developing greater
disease resistance, improved straw strength and leaf characteristics,
added cold and drought tolerance, greater earliness in high-yielding
types and improved industrial quality. Collaborators in six countries
reported the release of eight varieties which carried CIMMYT-distributed
germ plasm in their parentage.
Triticale
High-yielding triticale lines continue to be improved in 1979 for
seed type and test weight. Breeding objectives also include a widening
of the triticale germ plasm base and exploratory research on the potential
of octoploid (bread wheat x rye) triticale types. In 1979, national
collaborators in seven countries reported 13 new commercial releases of
varieties which carried CIMMYT-distributed germ plasm in their parent-
age.

Barley
CIMMYT's advanced barley lines showed continued improvement
in 1979 in their yielding ability and breadth of adaptation. The breeding
emphasis continues to be on barleys for human consumption. Added
emphasis is being given to developing greater disease resistance and
earlier types capable of high yields. Improved nutritional quality
remains an important breeding goal. In 1979, national collaborators
in three countries reported that they had four varieties carrying CIMMYT-
distributed germ plasm in their pedigrees which were in the final
certification stages before being released as commercial varieties.

Special germ plasm development
Special breeding research continued in 1979 to determine if the
average protein content in bread wheat could be increased, to develop
added disease resistance in selected high-yielding lines, to increase
the yield potential in high-yielding materials through larger, more
grain-filled heads and to support other research to develop greater







aluminum toxicity tolerance in selected lines. This unit is placing greater
emphasis on wide cross research directed at transferring useful genes
into and among CIIV MYT's four small grain crop species.

Agronomy
CIMMYT is placing increasing research emphasis in the field of
agronomy. Much cf this research will be coordinated by regional
program scientists. Agronomy research at headquarters focuses on ways
to improve CIMM'T's nursery management and supports agronomy
training activities, both for CIMMYT scientists and in-service trainees.

Pathology
CIMMYT wheat pathologists continued to provide supporting
information to the wheat, triticale and barley improvement programs.
Pathologists are responsible for inoculating and evaluating lines in
nurseries grown in Mexico. Headquarters-based pathologists help
support CIMMYT regional pathologists and national collaborators
in the screening of r.sistant materials. The pathology group also partic-
ipates in the in-service pathology training courses.

International testing
In 1979, collaborating scientists in 115 nations requested nearly
2,300 trials of wheat, triticale and barley from 38 different CIMMYT-
distributed nurseries. Central to this international testing program are
the screening and yi ld nurseries which serve to distribute new germ
plasm to collaborato s and to accelerate worldwide progress in wheat,
triticale and barley improvement.

Milling and baking laboratory
In 1979, this laboratory tested more than 20,000 grain samples of
bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale lines. These lines are evaluated
for their suitability in making bread, pasta and other products.

Wheat training
In 1979, a new in-service training course on irrigated agronomy
was added to the wheit training program. In total, CIMMYT now offers
seven in-service training courses each year of use to agricultural scientists
engaged in wheat-rel cited research and production activities. Other
types of training progi ams were offered to visiting scientists and doctoral
fellows.

Wheat cooperative prc jects outside Mexico
In 1979, one CIMMYT wheat scientist was assigned to the national
wheat program in Pak stan and seven scientists were working in regional
programs in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Regional nurseries are
distributed in most regional programs. Considerable emphasis in all
these programs is beini given to production agronomy research.






BREAD WHEAT


Introduction
The total area in the developing world seeded to high-
yielding varieties (HYVs) which carry CIMMYT germ plasm
in their pedigrees has increased steadily during the past
decade. In 1979 the total cropland area seeded to HYVs
equaled 30 million hectares.

Germ plasm development
In order to continue the flow of broadly adapted,
disease-resistant HYVs to national programs, CIMMYT has
an extensive network of Mexico-based, regional and col-
laborative research programs for germ plasm screening and
development.


Spring x winter wheats
CIMMYT, working in cooperation with Oregon State
University (OSU), is involved in transferring useful genes
between spring and winter wheats, with the aim of improving
both of these major bread wheat types. Through this crossing
program, such improvements as greater disease resistance,
and drought tolerance in high-yielding types are becoming
increasingly evident.
In this cooperative effort, CIMMYT experiment stations
in Mexico and OSU experiment stations in Oregon are used
for the crossing programs. The climatic conditions at Toluca,
Mexico, are cold enough during the winter to facilitate
natural vernalization in winter wheats from a direct November
seeding. In January, spring types are planted, bringing both
the winter and spring wheats to flowering in May when about
1,500 spring x winter crosses are made. The seed from the
crosses is divided equally with OSU. Advanced lines selected
from spring x winter crosses grown in Mexico and Oregon are
distributed through international nurseries.
Several spring x winter crosses are showing high yield
potential. Notable among these advanced lines are "Veery"
and "Bobwhite." Many of the Veery selections were the
highest yielding lines in the 1978-79 yield trials in Ciudad
Obregon, Sonora.







In 1979, advanced spring x winter lines made up more
than 25 per cent :f the high-yielding lines in the 13th Interna-
tional Bread Wheat Screening Nursery (IBWSN 78-79).
Many of these spring x winter lines also have the highest re-
sistance ratings to stripe rust and Septoria. Current resistance
levels in these materials are such that they can provide the
crop with good protection except under exceedingly heavy
Septoria infection.
The evidence continues to mount that spring x winter
wheats carry greater drought tolerance than the normal
spring x spring crosses. To test this apparent tolerance, a
special yield triEl was distributed in 1980 for testing in
several drought-susceptible areas.


Spring x winter b ead wheat crosses are now among the highest yielding lines
in the CIMMYT program. Some lines, such as Veery, have been the top entry in
recent yield trials in northwest Mexico, and also appear to have greater tolerance
to drought.






Facultative wheats
Some wheat-producing areas of the world-such as
Argentina, North Africa and the higher elevations of the
Mideast-require spring wheats with greater cold tolerance
to withstand late spring frosts. These are called "facultative
wheats," and their improvement is receiving some research
attention at CIMMYT. The progeny of those spring x winter
crosses with a relatively longer vegetative cycle are selected
for further crossing. These types appear to have added cold
tolerance and adaptation for areas where true spring types
often are damaged at heading time by late frosts.

8156 multiline varieties
Multiline cultivars are mechanical mixtures of agronom-
ically similar plant types (resembling each other in plant
height, maturity period and grain appearance) but differing
genetically in rust resistance.
Since 1971, CIMMYT has been working with some
national collaborators to develop high-yielding components
for a multiline composite variety based on cross 8156 made
in 1955. Varieties derived from cross 8156 have been grown
on millions of hectares in the subcontinent for more than
10 years. They have become susceptible to prevailing biotypes
of leaf and stripe rust. However, many farmers would again
like to grow these types.
With vast areas planted to a single variety, the potential
damage to the wheat crop can reach disastrous proportions if
the prevailing race of a rust pathogen mutates. With the
multiline variety, chances are that only one or two of the
10 to 12 component lines would become susceptible, thus
eliminating the potential of a serious and widespread disease
outbreak.
CIMMYT's involvement in multiline breeding includes
the development of possible components for multiline
varieties and distribution of these lines to interested nations
for local screening and selection. In 1979-80, the Interna-
tional Multiline (8156) Nursery was distributed to 60 testing
locations in areas of 8156 adaptation.

India multilines
Two collaborating Indian institutes, Punjab Agricultural
University at Ludhiana and C.S.A. University of Agriculture





and Technology at Kanpur, have released two multiline
varieties, "KSML-3" and "Bithor," respectively. A third,
KSML-11, has been distributed from the coordination unit
of the wheat program. Two varieties make use of CIMMYT
components in their composite make-up.

Aluminum toxicity resistance
There are areas of actual or potential wheat production,
for example, Bra;il and East Africa, which have acid soils
and aluminum toxicity problems. A cooperative research
program was initiated in 1973 with three Brazilian institutes
(EMBRAPA, FECOTRIGO and OCEPAR) to transfer re-
sistance to aluminum toxicity into high-yielding, disease-
resistant semidwarf wheat types.
A shuttle breeding strategy has been followed in which
CIMMYT crosses a e sent to Brazil for evaluation of aluminum
toxicity resistance. The resistant lines (segregates) are returned
to Mexico, where selection for high yield and rust resistance
is made at Ciudad Obregon. This shuttling between Mexico
and Brazil allows two seasons per year with alternate selection
under high-yield conditions and aluminum toxicity situations.
The objectives of this program to transfer aluminum
toxicity resistance into superior agronomic types have been
largely accomplished. Over 100 different lines (crosses) have
been developed which combine aluminum toxicity resistance
with good yielding ability. The focus is now on enhancing
disease resistance needed in these lines to maintain high and
stable yields.

Disease resistance
Breeding for disease resistance, especially to stem,
leaf and stripe rusts, is an integral part of CIMMYT's re-
search program. Various locations in Mexico, known for the
presence of some camaging wheat diseases, are used as sites
for the selection of ines exhibiting resistance.
The IBWSN continuess to be a major mechanism to
identify and distribute lines with broad resistance to wheat
diseases. In addition, a number of more specialized inter-
national nurseries (e.g. for Septoria, Helminthosporium) and
regional nurseries Regional Disease and Insect Screening
Nursery, (RDISN), and Latin American Wheat Disease and
Observation Nurserv, VEOLA) have been developed. These






nurseries broaden the base for identifying germ plasm resis-
tant to wheat diseases. Particular attention is being placed on
improving the resistance of all CIMMYT materials to Septoria
and Helminthosporium. CIMMYT is cooperating with nation-
al programs in Ethiopia, Israel and countries in North Africa
where excellent screening and evaluation of Septoria are
possible. Collaborative research on Helminthosporium sativum
is also under way with Bangladesh, India and Zambia. In both
of these collaborative research projects, screening is done in
disease-susceptible areas, followed by specific crossing pro-
grams in Mexico to pyramid genes conferring disease resistance
into materials with good agronomic characters.

Wheat for the humid tropics
A number of wheat-importing countries situated in the
tropics-notably those in Central America, coastal South
America, West Africa and Southeast Asia-are interested in
growing wheat in their winter season, the period of coolest
temperature and lowest humidity, as a means of reducing
foreign exchange outlays for imported wheat.
A serious disease under these humid tropical production
conditions is Helminthosporium sativum. Over the last several
years, CIMMYT has evaluated thousands of advanced lines
and breeding populations at our Poza Rica experiment sta-
tion, located in the coastal plain of the State of Veracruz.
During the last two years, many advanced lines have been
identified which have some level of tolerance to this disease.
Crosses have been made with these lines, and the F2
(first generation after cross) will be sent to Zambia (where
Helminthosporium is endemic) and other locations for
screening. Resistant selections will be shuttled between these
centers and Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico, for selection
under both high-disease and high-yield environments. The
most promising materials were distributed in 1979 through
the Tropical Helminthosporium Screening Nursery (THSN) to
collaborators for testing at 29 locations around the world.

Wheats with early maturity
Early-maturing wheat varieties are needed in certain
areas (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, South Korea, Chi-
na) to fit rotation patterns with other crops. Past selection






criteria for high yield and broad adaptation have often result-
ed in full-season ::rops with relatively late maturity charac-
teristics. Some of the earliest germ plasm is found in Korean
and Chinese wheats, and these have been crossed with the
earliest CIMMYT lines. Segregating populations of these
crosses, which hate suitable agronomic characters, high-yield
potential and disease resistance, are shuttled between South
Korea and Mexicc: to select for early maturing lines at both
locations.
In 1978-79 i:t Ciudad Obregon, 58 advanced lines with
early maturity were compared in yield trials to INIA 66
(a relatively early variety) with 11 lines equal in yields and
maturity characters to INIA 66.

International testing
In 1979, th; following international nurseries were
prepared for distribution to bread wheat collaborators:


Nurseries
THSN Tropical Hel ninthosporium
Screening Nursery
F2 Irrigated
F2 Dryland
F2 8156-types
F2 Aluminum
F2 Spring x Winter
CB Crossing Block
IBWSN International Bread Wheat Screening
Nursery
ISWYN -- International Spring Wheat Yield
Nursery
ESWYT Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial
ISEPTON International Septoria Observation
Nursery


Lines Sets


177 50


Varietal releases
Materials emanating from this testing system were named
and released by 19 collaborating countries for use by local
farmers in 1979. Some of the countries reporting and the
number of CIMMYT-related varieties released were:








Argentina (5)
Australia (3)
Bangladesh (2)
Bolivia (1)
Brazil (5)
Canada (1)
Chile (1)
Cyprus (2)
Ethiopia (1)
Egypt (3)


India (12)
Kenya (3)
Korea (1)
Madagascar (2)
Mexico (3)
Mozambique (1)
Nigeria (1)
Pakistan (6)
Rumania (1)


Selected spring bread wheat varieties bred by CIMMYT, INIA
or predecessors, released in Mexico, 1950-79


Year of


Yaqui 50 1945
Nainari 60 1958
Pitic 62 1956
Penjamo 62 1956
Sonora 64 1957
Lerma Rojo 64 1958
INIA 66 1962
Siete Cerros 66 1957
Yecora 70 1966
Cajeme 71 1966
Tanori 71 1968
Jupateco 73 1969
Torim 73 1967
Cocoraque 75 1969
Salamanca 75 1967
Zaragoza 75 1964
Nacozari 76 1969
Pavon 76 1970
Pima 77 1964
Hermosillo 77 1972
Jauhara 77 1969
CIANO 79 1974
Imuris 79 1974
Tesia79 1973


Yield Disease rating in Mexico 1979**
potential Plant ht Grain Stem Leaf Stripe
kg/ha* cm color rust rust rust Septoria


3500
4000
5870
5870
5580
6000
7000
7000
7500
7000
7000
7500
7000
7000
7000
8000
7500***
7500***
7500***
7500***
7500***
7500***
7500***
7500***


115 Red TMS 20MS 10MS MR
110 Red 10MS 5R 0
105 Red 100S 60S 80S MR
100 Red 50MS 0 80S MR
85 Red 20MS 70S 80S S
100 Red 30MR 80S 80S S
100 Red 5MR 100S 80S S
100 Amber TMS 60S 100S S
75 Amber TR 100S 100S S
75 Red TR 100S 100S S
90 Red 20MR 80S 60S S
95 Red TMR 80S 60S S
75 Amber TMR 20MS 40S S
90 Red TR TR 20MR S
90 Red TMR 20MS 20MS S
90 Red 0 30MS 80S S
90 Amber 0 TMR 10MR S
100 Amber 0 TMR 10MR MS
90 Amber 5MR TMR 30MS-MS S
85 Red 5MR 5MR TR S
90 Red 5MR TR TR S
90 Red TR TR TR S
90 Amber TR TR TR S
90 Red TR TR TR S


Measured at experiment station in Mexico, irrigated under high soil fertility and essentially
disease-free.
** All varieties were resistant to all three rusts under Mexican conditions at time of release.
R resistant; S- susceptible; 0- no rust; MR moderately resistant; MS moderately suscep-
tible; 20MS moderately susceptible type lesion on 20 per cent of plant surface, balance of
surface is lesion-free; TMS moderately susceptible type lesion in trace amount, balance is
lesion-free; TR resistant type lesion present in trace amount, balance is lesion-free.
*** Yield of varieties released in 1976-79 has ranged 7500-9500 kg/ha in different seasons
and trials, but the conservative minimum of 7500 kg/ha is given here for all five releases.


Year of
Mexican


release Variety name cross






DURUM WHEAT


Introduction
Durum wheat is grown extensively in the Mediterranean
region, the Midea:t, India, the Andean countries, Argentina,
Chile, USSR, Canada and USA. Semolina (from durum wheat)
is generally used for macaroni, spaghetti and other pasta
products, and for flat-unleavened bread in the Mideast coun-
tries: couscous in North Africa, chapatis in India, freke in
Syria, bulgar in Turkey and mote in the Andean countries.
Worldwide, dururn is grown on about 30 million hectares,
often under rainfed conditions and with low average yields
(less than 1,000 kc/ha).
CIMMYT's normal entry into durum improvement
began in the late 1950s with the predecessor organization and
was expanded in 1 968, when a durum breeder was appointed.
At that time, few high-yielding, disease resistant varieties
with good industrial quality were available for release to
farmers in develop ng countries.
While considerable progress has been made in durum
breeding, some varietal traits still need additional improve-
ment, such as greater resistance to certain diseases, earlier
maturity and greater resistance to lodging. CIMMYT believes
that continued improvements in these general characters can
have a considerable impact on raising the average yields of
durums grown in collaborating countries.


Yield potential
Previous problems of sterility in dwarf and semidwarf
durums have been diminished significantly, and the higher-
head fertility of newly developed lines now is maintained in
summer and winter plantings. In terms of yield potential,
CIMMYT's advanced durum lines now yield similarly to or
slightly exceed the best bread wheats.

Disease resistance
Although considerable progress has been made in
improving the general levels of resistance of durums to the
three rusts-stripe, stem and leaf-resistance levels need to
be strengthened further for certain durum-growing areas of
the world. In particular, greater stem rust resistance is needed,






and CIMMYT is planning a collaborative research project on
durums with countries where virulent forms of stem rust
exist, which allows for good selection pressure. In addition,
the Kenyan National Wheat Program has developed a stem
rust parental collection of resistant materials, which is
distributed via CIMMYT to several African, Mideast, Asian
and South American countries for use in national crossing
programs to increase still further the genetic resistance to this
disease in locally grown cultivars.
Additional resistance to Septoria, Fusarium head scab,
and Helminthosporium is also being pursued. Several special-
ized nurseries and cooperative projects are being planned.
Regional nurseries are also screened for Septoria resistance.
In addition, CIMMYT scientists are collaborating on this
problem with national program scientists in Ethiopia, Kenya
and Israel.

Research on Fusarium head scab, a problem with durum
wheat in cool climates where a maize/wheat rotation is
followed, is under way with collaborators in Argentina and
Brazil.

Cold tolerance
Although durum wheats are grown mainly in cold-free
areas, in some important production areas in the Mediter-
ranean, Mideast and South America regions, sub-freezing
temperatures may occur, usually during the early stages of
growth. During the 1978-79 season, CIMMYT planted in
Toluca 2,507 lines and cultivars obtained from the USDA-
World Durum Wheat Collection. These lines were subjected
to below-zero temperatures. Some promising materials were
identified, and a group of cold-tolerant lines was distributed
to interested collaborators for planting at 50 locations during
1979-80. Crosses are being made between the facultative
"winter" type triticales (primarily of Turkish origin) and
spring-habit durum wheats.


Early and drought-tolerant materials
The durum program is receiving some early-maturing
and drought-tolerant germ plasm from several cooperating
programs. These two groups are being used in the crossing
programs at CIMMYT. In 1979, CIMMYT distributed 50 sets







of F2 progeny of these materials for screening in selected dry
areas.

Improving straw strength
Durum materials with greater straw (stem) strength are
being requested by' collaborators. Areas where heavy compe-
tition with weeds and low-input cropping exist also require
taller varieties, which in turn necessitate the presence of good
straw strength. Advanced lines of various heights with
stronger straw have been developed and distributed in 1979
to interested cooperators.


A


CIMMYT's advanced durum lines now have high yield potential, good
industrial quality and bro.id adaptation. Varieties carrying CIMMYT germ plasm
in their pedigrees are now grown widely in Mediterranean basin countries and in
South America.






Improving leaf area and position
The restructuring of the leaf area and position in tradi-
tional durum plant types toward one with shorter, narrower
upright leaves can offer improvements in the efficiency of
plant utilization of water. Since durums often are grown in
water-short areas (North Africa, Mideast), this physiological
improvement can add to the yield dependability of the crop.
During 1979, breeders continued to identify lines with
upright leaves and/or short narrow leaves. These lines are being
used in crosses with high-yielding, early, good-strawed,
disease-resistant durum types. It is hoped that this part of
the program will gradually alter the plant architecture of
future HYV durum lines.

Breeding for long-lax and semi-lax heads
This research effort is directed toward developing
durum heads with greater spacing between spikelets, which
offers the following advantages:

(1) better and faster drying after rainy or wet weather
(reduces susceptibility to head diseases);
(2) gives room for larger, plumper grains to develop
(which improves the industrial quality of the
grain); and
(3) better fertility and yield potential.

Industrial quality
Although about half of the world's durum wheat
production is used for home consumption, a number of
developing countries are in a position to produce durums for
export to Europe and other regions. To be readily marketable,
these durum wheats must have a high grain test weight, large
size grains and good macaroni color.
CIMMYT's cereal quality laboratory routinely screens
new high-yielding lines to help identify parents which do not
lose quality characters during macaroni processing. Today
the carotene content in many CIMMYT lines compares
favorably with the best Italian macaroni durums.

International testing
In 1979, CIMMYT distributed 382 nursery sets for
worldwide testing. The following different international







durum nurseries were prepared for distribution to national
collaborators:

Nursery Lines Sets
F2 Irrigated 295 45
F2 Dryland 461 52
F2 Cold Tolerant 67 46
CB Crossing Block 181 42
IDSN International Durum Screening Nursery 169 101
IDYN International Durum Yield Nursery 50 96

New releases
In 1979, the number of new varieties released in na-
tional programs, and carrying CIMMYT germ plasm in their
parentage, were as follows:
Egypt (1)
Kenya (3)
Libya (1)
India (1)
Mexico (1)
Rumania (1)


Durum varieties released in Mexico between 1960 and 1979.

Disease reaction**
Year of Year Yield Plant Test ***
Mexican Variety ol potential* ht.* Stem Leaf Stripe weight Pigment
release name cross kg/ha cm rust rust rust kg/hi ppm

1960 Tehuacan 60 1954 4200 150 0 10MR 20MS 81 5.5
1965 Oviachic 65 1930 7000 90 0-40MS 30S 5MR 81 7.2
1967 Chapala 67 191;1 7000 85 0 10MS 10MR 83 4.0
1969 Jori C 69 1963 7700 85 0 TR 5MS 81 3.7
1971 Cocorit 71 19135 8300 85 0 5MR 5MS 81 3.6
1975 Mexicali 75 19139 8600 90 0 TR 5MR 80 5.8
1979 Yavaros C79 1970 8600 90 0 TR TR 83 5.0
Measured at CIAI O experiment station, under good agronomic practices.
** In Mexico, 1975. R=resistant, MR=moderately resistant, MS=moderately sus-
ceptible, S=susceptible. Figures before letters indicate percentage of infection.
Carotinoids.






TRITICALE


CIMMYT continues its work on the manmade crop
triticale-a cross of wheat and rye. Despite the clear produc-
tion potential of triticale for certain developing country
environments, most of the approximately 360,000 hectares
currently in production is in the developed countries.
CIMMYT considers that it is logical for these developed
countries to be the first to enter into commercial triticale
production, since they are better able to carry out the adap-
tive research required to get triticale into use.
Nevertheless, such countries as Mexico, Argentina,
Brazil, Chile, Kenya, Tanzania and India are becoming
increasingly involved in national research and production of
triticale. CIMMYT believes that the crop will take a significant
place among the cereals grown in the developing world during
the 1980s.


4' '4 'AA '
Triticale has shown greater dry matter production than wheat, and further
partioning to grain (versus straw) may push the maximum yield potential of
triticale to higher levels than those attainable in wheat.


Irv, -.1






The CIMMYT triticale program, since its formal initiation
in 1968, has continued to improve triticales so they will be
acceptable as a commercial crop. The main program objectives
remain the improvement of yield and adaptation, develop-
ment of the grain endosperm (plumpness and test weight),
further development of disease resistance, and broadening of
the germ plasm base.
An expanded research effort to produce octoploid
(bread wheat x rye) triticales will occur during the 1980s,
although the existing work on hexaploids (durum x rye)
will also continLe. The octoploid form of triticale may
lead to improve seed type and baking qualities, a more
semidwarf plant h ibit, and greater earliness.

Yield and adaptation
In 1979, inte national testing data continued to confirm
the high-yield potential of triticale, with an up to a 100 per
cent production advantage over wheat in areas of acidic soils
and cool highland production environments. In addition to
its direct food valje, triticale is also an excellent feed grain
and forage crop.
Seed type and test weight
The normal tendency among triticales is to produce
fairly good grain test weights (function of grain plumpness)
under the best growing conditions, but under some conditions
the grain test wei jhts drop sharply. Progress in improving
triticale test weight; has been slow. The first real improvement
came in 1971 with the line Camel, which began the trend
toward higher test weights. Further crosses involving Camel
produced the line Panda in 1976, with an even higher test
weight, more comparable to the test weights of good bread
wheat varieties. Both the Camel and Panda lines have been
used extensively in subsequent crosses in an attempt to
combine higher test weight with high yield potential and
good agronomic characteristics. An increasing number of
lines are now emerging from this effort, combining the
desired selection criteria.
Disease resistance
Triticales to d;ite have shown a high resistance to rusts
and to powdery mildew. International data also show that
triticales have excellent resistance to smuts in general. Good






resistance to Septoria tritici is available in triticale germ
plasm, while the resistance to Septoria nodorum appears
to be poorer. Ergot problems have been essentially eliminated
in the new triticale lines. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV),
to date, has been the major virus disease of triticale. Here
again, sources of tolerance (Beagle line and its derivatives)
appear to exist to this virus disease and will be used to
broaden the resistance of triticales to BYDV.

Widening of triticale germ plasm
To introduce fertility, all strains of triticale developed
in Mexico were crossed with the line Armadillo. This resulted
in a temporary narrowing of the germ plasm base with
accompanying disadvantages. CIMMYT breeders continue
to broaden the genetic base of new triticale lines using three
primary methods:
(1) inter-crossing triticale with bread wheat, durum,
and rye species;
(2) creation of new primary triticales (durum x rye;
bread wheat x rye); and
(3) crosses of the Mexican spring triticales with winter
germ plasm from Europe and North America.




















Triticale is showing a clear productive advantage over other small cereal
grains in cool highland production environments, such as here in the Himalayas.






International testing
In 1979, the requests for triticale nursery sets continued
to grow, increasing 40 per cent over the previous year. In
total, 559 individual nursery sets were distributed for world-
wide testing. Eight different international nurseries were
prepared in 1979 for distribution to national collaborators:

Nursery Lines Sets
F2 Irrigated 309 56
F2 Dryland 311 56
F2 Spring x Winter 103 75
CB Crossing Block 430 45
ITSN International Triticale Screening Nursery 328 179
ITYN International Triticale Yield Nursery 25 101
TDRN Triticale Di,;ease Resistance Nursery 86 26
Forage lines 101 21

New varietal releases in 1979
During 1979, 13 cultivars were released for commercial
production by national collaborators. All these new varieties
were derived from CIMMYT lines. Countries and the number
of varieties were:
Australia (4) Mexico (2)
Canada (2) Spain (1)
Hungary (1) USA (2)
Italy (1)



BARLEY

Barley is one of the most dependable cereal crops where
drought, short growing seasons and alkaline or saline soils are
encountered. It is used as a human food, a livestock feed, and
for barley malt. A substantial number of people depend on
this cereal crop in the Mediterranean region, the Mideast,
India, China, Korea and the Andean region.
Although improved varieties have been developed for
livestock feed and barley malt, most barley eaten by humans
has been low yielding and susceptible to diseases. Moreover,
the tough hulls around the barley grain, while useful in live-
stock varieties, must be removed before the grain is eaten by






humans. The removal of this hull is laborious and reduces
protein levels.
In 1972, CIMMYT began to improve barley for use as
a human food. Since that time, many thousands of improved
lines have been developed and distributed to collaborators
around the world. CIMMYT breeding is focused on develop-
ing high-yielding, widely adapted varieties that are resistant
to diseases and lodging and have good nutritional quality.
The program also seeks to develop good hull-less types as well
as earlier maturing lines. This program is conducted in col-
laboration with ICARDA.

Yield potential and adaptation
CIMMYT advanced lines have continued to improve in
their yielding ability and their breadth of adaptation. Eleven
advanced lines included in the Fifth International Barley
Observation Trial (IBON), 1978, had average yields across all
locations ranging from 4.7 to 5.7 t/ha. In the 1978-79 yield
trials at Ciudad Obregon, 30 advanced lines had yields in the
5.5 to 6.6 t/ha range.

Disease resistance
In CIMMYT's early barley improvement work, the
breeding emphasis was on improving the general barley plant
type. Current materials now have greatly improved straw
strength, earliness, semidwarf habit and are high yielding
across environments. Now that these improvements are well
under way, a shift is being made in the program to concen-
trate more on barley disease problems, which can be particu-
larly serious in Latin America and East and West Africa. The
three most devastating barley diseases are rhyncosporium,
stripe rust and barley yellow dwarf virus. In recent years,
CIMMYT's germ plasm has been enhanced by the incorpora-
tion of new lines from Ethiopia with resistance to these dis-
eases. In the breeding scheme followed by CIMMYT, special
crosses are being made in Mexico for subsequent screening in
disease "hot spot" areas. National program personnel in the
Andean region and East Africa are cooperating with these
special screenings.

Nutritional quality
After an extensive search during the last several years,







CIMMYT scientists have assembled 50 improved lines carrying
genes for considerably higher total protein and better protein
quality (high lysine). These lines are grouped into a special
crossing block. In general, they are acceptable agronomic
types, although they still need further improvement and bet-
ter disease resistance. These high-protein quality lines are
distributed to cooperators worldwide through the IBON
nursery.
Earliness
The efforts :o reduce the growing cycle of the barley
crop without a substantial reduction in yield are showing
good results. CIMIVMYT scientists have developed barley lines


* '*

A* I,


1
Va


i"ACb


Current CIMMYT )arley materials have improved plant type, improved
straw strength and earlines. coupled with high-yielding ability.


I t '






that yield in the 3.5 to 4.5 t/ha range and which reach har-
vest time 30 to 40 days earlier than most traditional varieties.
These early barleys may prove valuable for farmers located in
low-moisture or short-season environments by giving them a
more dependable crop. More extensive multilocational testing
with national collaborators is now under way.

Hull-less grain
Approximately 30 per cent of the CIMMYT lines under-
going improvement carry the hull-less character. Some lines
have been developed which can compete in yields with some
of the better standard commercial hulled varieties. However,
these hull-less lines often suffer considerable seed damage
during threshing, which results in reduced germination; the
more exposed embryos suffer the greatest seed damage.
Indirect measures of selection have been followed to overcome
this problem, in that all lines with a low germination percentage
are automatically discarded. A search is also being made to
find germ plasm with less exposed embryos. About 50 sources
have been identified with resistance to this damage.

Spring x winter crosses
The need for winter hardiness in barleys for certain
developing countries led CIMMYT to begin a spring x winter
crossing program in 1976-77. In 1978-79, 56 sets of spring
x winter crosses were distributed to cooperators for evalua-
tion in Turkey, Korea and China.

International nurseries
The number of requests in 1979-80 for international
barley nurseries increased 36 per cent over the previous year.
Five different nurseries were prepared for distribution in
1979 to national collaborators:

Nursery Lines Sets
F2 Spring x Spring 426 58
F2 Spring x Winter 244 56
CB Crossing Block 430 35
IBON International Barley Observation Nursery 291 117
IBYT International Barley Yield Nursery 25 58
Miscellaneous 625 15






New releases
No commercial releases of barley varieties derived from
the CIMMYT program were reported by collaborators in
1979. However, reports from three countries indicated that
plans are in the 'inal pre-release stage. These countries and
the number of varieties are as follows:
Korea 1) Iraq (1)
Bangladesh (2)


SPECIAL GERM PLASM DEVELOPMENT

In the conventional breeding programs, experimental
lines are evaluated simultaneously for many desirable traits.
Lines which carry :a particular character useful to the breeder,
but intermixed with large numbers of undersirable ones, are
usually rejected in the conventional program. In order to
capitalize on potentially valuable germ plasm, a special unit
at CIMMYT attempts to transfer useful genes into a line with
good agronomic background. The resulting lines are then
reintroduced as parents within the conventional breeding
program.
Efforts to develop new germ plasm for use as parents
in crosses are described below.

Protein improvement
The percentage of protein in wheat flour ordinarily falls
in the range of 10 to 12, reasonably good among cereals.
Nevertheless, efforts continued in 1979 to develop bread
wheat lines with higher levels of total protein and higher
protein quality. The wheats with higher protein content used
in this crossing program are tall, low yielding, late maturing
and susceptible to many diseases. CIMMYT breeders have
been able to transfer genes for higher protein into a few high-
yielding semidwarf lines with moderate resistance to rusts. At
the same time, sc entists are looking for additional genes
which confer higher protein content; the purpose is to inter-
cross these high p otein lines in hopes of pyramiding the
genes which control this feature.
Lines emanating from this work were included in yield
trials at Ciudad Obregon in 1978-79. A number of lines with
superior protein levels yielded 4 to 5 t/ha.






Rust resistance
Work continued in 1979 to identify, transfer and
pyramid genes capable of conferring greater and more stable
rust resistance to bread wheat. This widening of the genetic
base for rust resistance often brings accompanying adverse
effects in the yielding ability of these progenies. The second
phase of this crossing program, thus, is to cross lines with
high rust resistance with high-yielding varieties in hopes of
combining these different traits into the progenies.
In another project, dominant genes for leaf rust resis-
tance normally present in tall, late-maturing varieties are
being transferred into semidwarf, early-maturing varieties.

More spikelets per head, more grains per spikelet
The number of grains per spikelet and spikelets per
head are not the only factors determining grain yields.
However, the genetic yield potential of wheat might be
pushed even higher if a longer, more grain-filled head could
be developed atop ordinarily high-yielding, widely adapted
varieties.
CIMMYT scientists have been able to develop experi-
mental lines with 8 grains per spikelet (3 to 5 are the normal
number in most bread wheats). Grain filling (plumpness)


In addition to the efforts to increase the yielding ability of bread wheat
through spring x winter crosses, CIMMYT is continuing its efforts to increase
the head size and spiklet fertility without a reduction in tillering ability in bread
wheats.





is the principal problem in these crosses, and added emphasis
is being given to improve this character. Earlier-maturing lines
with these larger number of grains per spikelet have also been
developed. Several lines were selected in 1979 which combine
good kernel type and high-yield potential. These will be used
in future crosses.
Another cross, containing the winter wheat Tetrastich6n
in its pedigree, has a head twice as long as most spring wheats.
These larger heads have been accompanied by a lower tillering
ability (normally, as the number of grains per head increases,
the number of tillers per plant decreases). Significant progress
has been achieved in improving the tradeoff between large
heads and tillering ability, although some problems still exist
with grain plumpness in these experimental lines. CIMMYT
sees the potential lo push maximum yield potential of wheats
higher in the newer lines coming out of this project.

Aluminum tolerance
This unit continued work in 1979 on the improvement
of aluminum-tolerant Brazilian wheats. As reported under the
bread wheat section, a number of higher-yielding, short-
strawed, aluminum-resistant lines have been developed in
cooperation with 3razilian collaborators. Recent screening
nurseries grown in Mexico have also contained some lines
with good resistance to Septoria.
Additional emphasis is being placed on increasing the
head size and fertility of Brazilian wheats. The best Brazilian
aluminum-tolerant, short-strawed lines are being crossed with
parents with large, fertile heads. Progeny combining these
two characters have been obtained.
Triticale x wheat crosses
Crosses between triticale and wheat have been under
way at CIMMYT for several years. The objective is to stabilize
dwarfism in triticales and improve their seed type through
the transfer of genes for these traits from bread wheat germ
plasm.
In addition, genes carried in triticale for head length
and disease resistan,-e may be transferred to bread wheat to
improve this germ plasm further.

Wide crosses
In 1979, this unit continued its work on wide crosses,


























CIMMYT is placing greater emphasis on wide cross research. Pictured
above is a hybrid (center) produced at CIMMYT by crossing wheat (left) and
Elymus (right), a wild grass species. CIMMYT's aim is to transfer genes into or
among its four small grain crops for greater disease resistance, tolerance to
environmental extremes and higher protein quality.

working mainly on wheat x barley crosses and to a lesser
extent on wheat x Elymus and wheat x Agropyson crosses.
The purpose of this research is to transfer genes from other
species into wheat for greater protein quality, disease resis-
tance and tolerance to agroclimatic stresses. Several inter-
generic hybrids were obtained in 1979 from these crosses.
These hybrids are now being studied by a cytologist, who
recently joined the CIMMYT staff, to determine the fate of
chromosomes conferred from the different parental species.
CIMMYT anticipates that increased research in this area will
lead to valuable advances in all four small grain cereals.



AGRONOMY

CIMMYT has long advocated the importance of agron-
omy research, to improve the productivity of small grain
farming. CIMMYT's regional staff are the most heavily
involved in production-oriented agronomy research, which is






carried out by national collaborators under local conditions.
CIMMYT in 1980s will place its major program growth em-
phasis in the field of agronomy. The staff will work with
collaborating national programs to strengthen their agro-
nomic research a::tivities through mounting interdisciplinary
research program; capable of reducing the gap between ex-
periment station and farm-level yields. CIMMYT will assist
national programs mainly in the design of research proce-
dures capable of !enerating more appropriate and effect pro-
duction recommendations for farmers. These activities will be
covered under th:i sections on cooperative programs outside
Mexico.
The basic aims of the Mexico-based agronomy program
are to provide training for CIMMYT scientists who will later
go to regional programs and for the young scientists who
come to CIMMYT to participate in the in-service production
training courses-3is well as to look after the agronomy on
CIMMYT's experiment stations. Trials are designed to demon-
strate important agronomic principles, giving emphasis to
those problems which are encountered in many parts of the
wheat-producing world. Treatments are also included in
many trials to answer specific questions associated with the
management of breeding nurseries on stations where CIMMYT
scientists conduct their work.

Weed control
A variety of chemical control agents was tested for
effectiveness (and possible side effects) in controlling the
major weeds affe:-ting nursery plantings at the different
locations used by CIMMYT for small grains breeding and
improvement activities.


Nutrient studies
During 1979, this section conducted routine NPK studies,
variety-nitrogen interaction experiments, nitrogen fertilizer
timing trials and soil amelioration and micronutrient trials.
A particularly interesting finding in the variety x
fertilizer interaction trial was that high-yielding semidwarf
varieties nearly always outperform traditional tall varieties
under low fertility conditions while giving much greater yield
response under high fertility conditions.






Variety and advanced line trials
These trials were laid out in farmers' fields, in cooper-
ation with Mexican collaborators, to compare potential new
candidates for varietal release in Mexico, using large plot
conditions and prevailing farmer management practices.



PATHOLOGY

There are about 40 species of fungi, bacteria and viruses
that are parasitic to wheat, barley and triticale. These path-
ogens are responsible for the diseases which cause the major



>-" *-,


c.a~c^



^ *'1 ^ ^ y


The work of CIMMYT pathologists is central to the Center's research
efforts to develop disease-resistant varieties which offer greater yield dependability
to the farmer.





reductions in yields among the small grains. CIMMYT germ
plasm, through the system of international nurseries, is
exposed to a large number of pathogens responsible for small
grains diseases. B / repeatedly testing the materials contained
in these nurseries for disease reaction in a wide number of lo-
cations around th world, CIMMYT breeders and pathologists
are able to ident fy and develop wheat, barley and triticale
genotypes possessing a wide spectrum of resistance.
Among the most serious diseases of wheat and other
small grains are the rusts-stem, leaf and stripe. The constant
mutation of rust causing pathogens provides a continuous
threat to wheat varieties, including varieties previously con-
sidered resistant.
CIMMYTwheat pathologists provide support information
to the wheat, barley and triticale breeders. The pathology
group is responsible for artificially inoculating nurseries grown
in Mexico to impart heavy disease pressure for selection of
resistant lines. In turn, these resistant lines are crossed to
agronomically desirable types with good yield potential, and
the resulting progeny is distributed to breeding programs
around the world through the international screening nurseries.
Pathologists Eilso evaluate CIMMYT materials, and those
submitted by national collaborators, at six sites in Mexico in
uniform nursery I:rials. In general, the leaf rust levels in
Mexico are adequate for good selection pressure, and the
risks of "escape" (susceptible materials being selected) are
minimal. For stem rust, the infection level in Mexico was
not sufficiently severe in 1979 for good selection pressure.
Screening for diseases that either are not present or not
sufficiently severe in Mexico must take place in "hot spot"
areas where they naturally occur. CIMMYT regional programs
provide this important function. For example, East Africa
is a good area to select for stem rust (also for stripe and leaf
rust); the Andean region has good locations to select for
stripe rust; North Africa for leaf rust and Septoria, and
South America for barley yellow dwarf virus. For these and
other important diseases, CIMMYT seeks research collabora-
tion with scientists located in the appropriate geographic
areas to improve the resistance of CIMMYT materials distrib-
uted worldwide.
Pathologists assigned to regional programs are also
actively involved in disease surveillance and disease screening






of experimental lines through regional nurseries operated in
Asia, Africa and Latin America (described later).

Greenhouse studies
Wheat pathologists continued greenhouse work in
1979 to monitor changes in different virulent types of leaf
and stem rust. The objective of this program is to continu-
ously monitor the races of rust for possible mutations which
would lead to new disease outbreaks to which CIMMYT
lines might be susceptible.

Training activities
This group also is responsible for pathology training
for in-service training participants. In 1979, five national
program pathologists from as many countries completed a
seven-month training course in Mexico on pathology research
techniques. In addition, several regional workshops on field
pathology research techniques were conducted in several
regions.


INTERNATIONAL TESTING

In 1979, collaborating scientists in 115 nations requested
nearly 2,300 trials of wheat, triticale and barley from 38 dif-
ferent nurseries offered in the wheat program. Each nursery
consists of a set of varieties, populations or lines-sometimes
as many as 500 entries-which are constituted to serve par-
ticular production environments, breeding requirements of
collaborators and disease problems.
Collaborators are free to use any of the materials
included in a nursery. When its material is directly released as
a commercial variety, CIMMYT requests that the origin of
the germ plasm be recognized. Further, varieties originating
from the international nurseries cannot be protected by
patents or plant breeders' rights.
Consulting services to national programs
Wheat pathologists also provide consulting services to
national programs. In 1979, CIMMYT pathologists visited
a number of disease observation nurseries planted by national
program personnel, working hand-in-hand with cooperators
in evaluating the disease resistance of experimental lines.






The two largest categories for wheat, barley and triticale
are the screening and yield nurseries.

Screening nurseries
These nurseries involve many advanced lines which are
grown in double rows for observation and evaluation.
The objectives of screening nurseries are:
(1) To provide cooperating scientists with an opportunity
to assess the performance of new advanced lines origi-
nating from wheat, triticale and barley breeding pro-
grams.
(2) To supply cooperators and CIMMYT with information
on the performance of new materials under a wide range
of climatic and disease conditions.
(3) To release sources of genetic variability which cooper-
ators may Lse directly or in crosses with their own
materials.

Yield nurseries
Yield nurseries differ from screening nurseries in that
the material tested is grown in replicated yield trials. The
objectives of yield nurseries are:
(1) To provide research workers developing new varieties
with an opportunity to assess the performance of their
advanced breeding lines over a wide range of climatic,
cultural and cisease conditions.
(2) To serve as Ia source of fundamental information on
adaptation.
(3) To allow local research and extension workers to
compare the performance of new varieties from many
countries.
(4) To provide cooperators new sources of genetic variability
which may be used directly or as parents for new crosses.









Bread wheat, durum, triticale and barley nurseries distributed in
the international nurseries program 1979.

Bread Triti- Bread Triti
wheat Durum cale Barley wheat Durum cale


Latin America 231
Argentina 35
Bolivia 9
Brazil 32
Chile 26
Colombia 8
Costa Rica 5
Cuba 3
Dominican Republic 6
Ecuador 17
El Salvador 2
Guatemala 8
Guyana 2
Haiti 3
Honduras 4
Jamaica 2
Mexico 36
Nicaragua 1
Paraguay 8
Peru 12
Trinidad 3
Uruguay 4
Venezuela 5

Africa 215
Algeria 17
Angola 4
Botswana 1
Burundi 3
Cameroon 2
Center. Afr. Rep. 1
Chad 2
Egypt 17
Ethiopia 13
Ghana 1
Guinea 2
Kenya 14
Lesotho 5
Liberia 3
Libya 6
Malagasy 3
Malawi 4
Mali 3
Morocco 9
Mozambique 6
Niger 2
Nigeria 8
Rwanda 6
Senegal 4
Sierra Leone 7
Somalia 4
South Africa 13
Sudan 10
Tanzania 15
Tunisia 11
Uganda 3
Upper Volta 1
Zaire 1
Zambia 10
Zimbabwe 4

Mideast 110
Cyprus 5
Iran 10
Iraq 6
Israel 17
Jordan 9
Lebanon 4
Quatar 4
Saudi Arabia 5
Syria 23
Turkey 19
Yemen, North 7
Yemen, South 7


67 138
16 6
10 10
5 22
8 15
3
3
1
3
4 13

6
2 5
1
2
1
13 25

4
9 14
1
2
1

95 110
15 8
1

3
1 1
1

3 2
10 10
11 4
1 1

6 8
4
1
4 1
3
2
2 1
2 2
2

6 5
1 5
1 1
2 3
2 1
10 16
4 3
1 6
8 5
2
1

4 4
1 3

69 58
4 1
2 6
5 2
7 8
9 2
5 2
1
2 1
17 17
14 13
4 5


6 East Asia 166 42 80
2 Afghanistan 11 2 2
7 Bangladesh 12 2 3
3 Bhutan 3 1
8 Burma 2 1 1
3 China 2 3
1 India 31 13 20
1 Indonesia 3 1
Japan 6 5
8 Korea, North 3 1 1
Korea, South 11 2 7
Laos 1 1 1
- Mongolia 4 1 1
Nepal 14 2 8
Pakistan 36 13 16
Philippines 11 6
20 Sri Lanka 3 1
Taiwan 1 1
3 Thailand 9 1 4
15 Vietnam 3 1

2 Oceania 27 9 22
3 Australia 13 5 12
New Caledonia 5 2 5
70 New Guinea 3 1
6 New Zealand 6 2 4

Europe 138 88 114
Albania 4 3 2
1 Austria 6 1
Belgium 2 6 5
Czechoslovakia 4 -
7 Finland 3 -
3 France 11 10 10
1 Germany,F.Rep. 5 2 7
Greece 7 6 6
7 Hungary 5 1 5
2 Ireland 9 5
Italy 10 14 13
3 Malta 3 -
Netherlands 3 2 3
Norway 4 3
Poland 5 2 11
4 Portugal 6 2 6
Rumania 9 4 7
Spain 33 17 11
2 Sweden 5 1 4
1 Switzerland 3
1 United Kingdom 3 6
USSR 2 2 1
2 Yugoslavia 8 7 3
7
2 North America 72 21 49
3 Canada 17 5 15
7 USA 55 16 34


113 69 98
959 391 571


TOTALS:

Countries
Locations


i-


Barley
67
2
3
4
1
2
19

2
1
6
1
3
6
11



4
1


2
1


1

53


1

2
7
7
4

2
7
4
1
1
2
1
3
7
3



2

31
14
17





67
355







MILLING AND BAKING LABORATORY


The Milling and Baking Laboratory evaluates the grain
of bread wheat, curum wheat and triticale lines for the suit-
ability in making bread, tortillas, chapatis, cookies, spaghetti
and other products.
In 1979, th i laboratory tested 17,041 samples from
early-generation bread wheat lines (F3 and F4) for gluten
strength. The lines; tested represent 42 per cent of a total of
40,556 individual plants selected in the field for good agro-
nomic characteristics; others were discarded for seed type.
By screening early generations for seed type, advanced mate-
rials have been increased in test weight (weight of grain per
unit volume), and due to this type of screening few advanced
lines are now discarded because of low grain test weights.
About 1,500 advanced lines and varieties of bread wheat
were evaluated in 1979 for milling and baking qualities. A
number of lines with good baking and cookie quality were
selected from this material. Several lines from the special
protein improvement project had protein levels up to 16.2
per cent in flour plus good baking quality.


Each year, CIMMYT cereal technologists evaluate the grain of thousands of
bread wheat, durum, and Iriticale lines for their suitability in making bread, pasta
and other products. Each line which comes to be included in screening and yield
nurseries has been assessed for grain quality.





In durum wheat the laboratory screened 5,700 individual
plants for pigment content, and 320 advanced durum lines
were evaluated for spaghetti-making quality. Several advanced
durum lines were found with good spaghetti cooking quality.
In triticale, 300 lines that had good yield and test weight and
166 lines from the crossing block were evaluated for milling
and baking and for quality in cookie-making. In the high-
yielding triticale material, almost all the lines tested had a
flour yield higher than 60 per cent, with some higher than 70
(good bread wheats have flour yields of 70 per cent). Many
triticale lines provide flour that is better for cookies than the
soft bread wheats normally used for making these products.
(Some triticales also are good for making bread.)
Two trainees from Peru and Turkey spent an average
of 3 months each in 1979 learning techniques in the Milling
and Baking Laboratory. The laboratory also received a vis-
iting scientist from Pakistan.
Experiments were conducted with various blends of
flours-bread wheat flour with maize, with triticale, with
durum wheat and with barley. In general, blends of 15 to 20
per cent of the alternate with wheat flour produced satisfac-
tory products. It is believed that this method of extending
imported bread wheat flour could be used in countries where
alternate crops are grown.

WHEAT TRAINING

The 1979 wheat in-service training program added a
new irrigated agronomy course in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora,
Mexico.
The course parallels the winter breeding cycle in Ciudad
Obregon, beginning in November and ending in May of the
following year. In total CIMMYT now offers seven in-service
training programs of use to agricultural scientists engaged in
wheat-related research and production activities. These are:
(1) Rainfed Wheat Agronomy
(2) Irrigated Wheat Agronomy
(3) Trainers Course in Production Agronomy
(4) Wheat Breeding
(5) Wheat Pathology
(6) Cereal Technology
(7) Experiment Station Management







Most trainees spend one crop season in Mexico. The
largest number take part in the production agronomy courses,
which stress on-farm research. In addition to planning and
managing sets of on-farm experiments during their stay in
Mexico, these trainees help evolve strategies for the organiza-
tion of production research systems. Components of such
systems include ways to develop short-term strategies for
raising national production and reducing the gap between
the yields obtained from on-station research and those


Origin of Wheat in-service trainees, 1966-79.

'1966-
1979 1979*


1966-
1979 1979*


Latin America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Mexico
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Uruguay

North Africa
and Mideast
Algeria
Cyprus
Egypt
Iran
Iraq
Jordan
Lebanon
Lesotho
Libya
Morocco
Saudi Arabia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
Yemen


Africa, South of
the Sahara
Cameroon
Chad
Ethiopia
Kenya
Malagasy
Malawi
Mali
Nigeria
Rwanda
Somalia
Tanzania
Zaire
Zambia

South, Southeast
and East Asia
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
India
Korea
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines
South Korea

Other Countries
France
Hungary
Poland
Portugal
Rumania
Spain
USA
USSR

TOTAL: Countries
Individuals


* Does not include trainees from irrigated production training and other in-service
courses which began in November 1979 and end in May 1980.






experienced on farmers' fields. Working with the wheat and
economics program staff, trainees are developing procedures
to identify, survey and process information affecting farm-
ing situations, and, through this, to improve the focus of
agricultural research.
CIMMYT's wheat breeding and pathology training
programs have been modified in recognition that experiment
station conditions in national programs are often substantial-
ly different than the facilities encountered at CIMMYT.
Trainees, therefore, work "off" as well as "on" the stations
used by CIMMYT in Mexico. These trainees plant screening
trials on farmers' fields in order to test germ plasm developed
under "ideal" irrigated experiment station conditions. With
this focus, trainees get a more realistic exposure of the
management factors involved in conducting breeding and
pathology research. Consequently, they come away from
their stay in Mexico with greater self-reliance in conducting
crop improvement programs.

Visiting scientists
In 1979, CIMMYT brought 24 visiting scientists to its El
Batan headquarters and some 20 other collaborating national
scientists to the winter station in Ciudad Obregon.


















Each year, CIMMYT receives senior visiting scientists from around the
world. These scientists come to CIMMYT to exchange information,assess CIMMYT
germ plasm and to become familiar with the research procedures used by
CIMMYT scientists in their work.






Some visiting scientists are former CIMMYT in-service
trainees who return to familiarize themselves with new germ
plasm and research developments. Others have long been col-
laborators in the international nurseries network and come to
help select materials of special interest. Other are government
policy makers interested in understanding more about the
steps involved in crop improvement and production.

Graduate student training and doctoral fellows
During 197&-79, with outside financial sponsorship,
CIMMYT is cooperating in the training of nine master's
degree candidates (Algeria, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru); and
seven postdoctoral fellows (Morocco, Poland, Sierra Leone,
Syria, Uganda and USA).

COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO

In 1980, CIMMYT will increase the number of wheat
scientists posted o Jtside Mexico, shifting more toward region-
al assignments. Staff posted to national programs in 1979
was reduced with the transfer of two wheat scientists previ-
ously posted in Algeria. By year's end, CIMMYT had one
scientist (in Pakistan) working directly within a national
program. In 1980, a new regional program will begin in North
and West Africa, with headquarters in Portugal. In addition,
existing regional programs will be strengthened with the
assignment of new staff.

Regional programs
At the beginning of 1980 CIMMYT wheat scientists
were assigned to the following regions:
Number of
cooperating Assigned
Wheat region countries staff 1979

Disease Surveillance 22 2*
East Africa 17 2*
Andean Region 5 1
Southern Cone 6 2

Two scientists on loan from the Dutch Government serve
as associate CIMMYT staff in the regions noted.





Disease Surveillance regional program
This program is funded by the government of the Neth-
erlands and is operated in cooperation with our sister insti-
tute, ICARDA. The problems of wheat diseases continue to
be the major activity for the two scientists assigned to the
region since 1973. These CIMMYT staff, one posted in
Turkey and the other in Egypt, cover a wheat-growing area
which stretches from Morocco in the west, through East Africa
and to the Indian subcontinent in the east. This area accounts
for a considerable amount of the wheat production in the
developing world. The major wheat-producing sub-areas (Asia
Minor, the greater Punjab of the Indian subcontinent, and
Mediterranean North Africa) of this region are vast contiguous
expanses of wheat cropland.
In addition to the normal regional program activities,
the CIMMYT regional scientists are working on two unique
projects: a disease surveillance-early warning system for the
region and a series of in-service pathology workshops con-
centrating on practical field and laboratory methods for
screening and identification of resistant lines.
The surveillance program is gathering regional disease
information through two widely distributed nurseries: the
Regional Disease and Insect Screening Nursery (RDISN) and
the Regional Disease Trap Nursery (RDTN).
The RDISN is made up of approximately 2,400 advanced
lines of bread wheat, durum wheat, barley and triticale origi-
nating from CIMMYT, national breeding programs within the
region and ICARDA. The nursery is distributed in coopera-
tion with ICARDAto about 50 locations in over 30 countries.
The RDTN consists primarily of commercial varieties,
susceptible check varieties, promising advanced lines with
new sources of resistance, and differentials for the three rusts.
In addition to providing cooperators with the opportunity of
testing their materials in a variety of disease environments,
the RDTN acts as a surveillance system for changes in pathogen
races throughout the region. The RDTN is sent annually to
150 locations in 50 countries of North Africa, the Mideast
and the Indian subcontinent. The Dutch government has pro-
vided a grant and technical assistance to develop a computer-
ized analytical package to process the data reported by col-
laborators growing these regional nurseries.
A cereal disease methodology workshop was held for





national pathologi::;ts in the region at Aleppo, Syria, in April
1979, in cooperation with the Institute for Plant Protection
(IPO) of Wageningen and ICARDA. In this workshop, lectures
on theory were followed by practical field and laboratory
applications. At the end of the workshop, each participant
received a complete e set of pathology research and rust spore
storage equipmen-. for his institute (courtesy of the Dutch
government). A similar workshop was conducted in Chile in
December for scientists from all of South America.
In addition tc a variety of within-region training activi-
ties, 12 national program staff members from the region
completed in-service wheat training courses in 1979 at
CIMMYT.
Eastern and Southern Africa regional program
This region includes 17 African countries from Ethiopia
in the north to Lesotho in the south. Together, these nations
produce about 1.5 million tons of wheat, not sufficient to
supply the domestic demand for wheat flour. Most of the
small grains are grown in this region in highland areas above
1,700 meters altitude, with heavy presence of serious wheat
disease problems. Starting in 1976, CIMMYT assigned one
wheat breeder to 1:his region with headquarters at the Kenyan
National Plant Breeding Station, Njoro, at 2,300 meters ele-
vation. The area around Njoro is characterized by virulent
races of the stem rust pathogen; recently, heavy levels of
stripe rust have been present. This makes it an excellent area
to screen wheats f:)r resistance.
For many years, the Kenya government has assisted
other national breeding programs by providing land at the
Njoro station for the planting of "off-season" nurseries.
CIMMYT assists in this off-season nursery program. Close
cooperation is maintained in this work with ICARDA, which
serves many of the national programs using the off-season
nursery facilities in Kenya.
In 1979, the Dutch government assigned a pathologist
to Kenya to collaborate with the CIMMYT regional program
as a staff associate. In addition, CIMMYT pathologists
assigned to the Mediterranean and Asian regional program
spend about a ronth each year in eastern and southern
Africa countries, helping to backstop the pathology work of
national collaborators.
Two nurseries are distributed in this regional program:





the African Cooperative Wheat Yield Trial (ACWYT) and the
East African Screening Nursery (SNACWYT).
The ACWYT distributed in 1979 included 13 advanced
lines and commercial varieties of bread wheat, durum wheat
and triticale. The nursery was distributed to 13 locations in
the region. Early results from Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia
again showed that triticales were significantly higher in yield
than the bread wheats. The ACWYT was also sent to 15
countries outside Africa, including Mexico and Ecuador
(Andean program), to help introduce sources of resistance to
the virulent forms of the rusts found in East Africa and to
test this germ plasm in a wider range of conditions and
diseases.
The SNACWYT is a screening nursery comprised of
advanced lines from East African national programs assembled
by the CIMMYT regional staff and colleagues from the Kenya
national program. In 1979, the SNACWYT included 111
bread wheats, most with good stem and stripe resistance;
34 durum wheats; 52 triticales; and 11 oats selections. This
nursery is distributed to the same collaborators as the ACWYT
described above.
Four agricultural officers from national programs within
the region completed in-service training programs in Mexico
during 1979.

Andean regional program
Beginning in 1976, CIMMYT assigned one wheat scientist
to work with the national programs of five countries in the
Andean region (Brlivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and
Venezuela). These countries imported nearly 2.5 million tons
in 1979, producing less than 700,000 tons of wheat and
barley, far below the productive potential of the region.
From a strictly breeding standpoint, the virulent forms
of stripe rust and barley yellow dwarf virus make the area
valuable in global screening efforts for lines with greater
resistance to these disease problems. Two regional nurseries
are presently distributed by the Andean regional program
from its base in highland Ecuador. These are the Latin
American Wheat Disease and Observation Nursery (VEOLA)
and the Latin American Rust Nursery (ELAR).
The VEOLA consists of approximatley 500 varieties and
advanced lines of bread wheat, barley and triticale which






originate from national programs in Latin America and
CIMMYT. The VEIOLA is the western hemisphere equivalent
of the RDISN described previously. The nursery is a co-
operative activity of CIMMYTand INIAP, Ecuador's national
agricultural research institute. In addition to supplying re-
gional disease information, the VEOLA facilitates the ex-
change of disease-resistant materials. The outstanding lines
and varieties grown in the RDISN, SNACWYT and VEOLA
are included in the following year in the other regional
nurseries, thus adding to the information on regionally
superior disease-resistant germ plasm.
The ELAR contains commercial varieties, disease resis-
tant and suscepti:)le advanced lines, germ plasm with new
sources of disease resistance, and the differentials for the
three rusts. These materials originate from breeding programs
throughout the western hemisphere. The objective of ELAR,
which is similar tc the RDTN, is to survey virulence patterns
of wheat pathogens, identify disease "hot spots," identify
race origins of pathogens and serve as an early-warning system
for new mutations of pathogens.
Eight Andean region wheat scientists completed
CIMMYT's in-service training programs in 1979: four in
wheat production; two in plant breeding and pathology; one
in experiment station management; and one in cereal
technology.

Southern Cone regional program
This regional program began in late 1978 and covers
areas of five Sou-:hern Cone countries of South America
(Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). In 1979, a
two-man regional staff-one agronomist and one breeder-were
in place, working out of Chile's national agricultural research
institute (INIA) in Santiago, and in cooperation with IICA,
the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Much of
1979 was devoted to discussions of regional research problems
with national collaborators.
The proposed program in this region has many of the
same elements found in other regional programs. The special
emphasis in the Southern Cone is being placed on soil-fertilizer
problems related tc, wheat, barley and triticale production.
In particular, the problems of aluminum toxicity and phos-
phorus fixation tendencies are a major focus of the program.





economics
program


11


:I


_ I I I_


Z- \NI







INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS PROGRAM


From its beg nning, the economics program has been di-
rected towards new ways in which research on the farmer and
his markets could facilitate the development and diffusion of
improved agricultural technology. While its objective remains
unchanged, the program's activities have evolved during the
1970s, concentrate ng more on developing analytical tools to
help guide the design of agricultural research programs and
accenting more collaboration with biological scientists. The
activities described below are interrelated but will be singled
out for separate comment.
Beginning in 1972, a series of adoption studies examined
the characteristics of farms and farmers in less developed
countries, analyzing why some farmers adopt new technology
and some do not. S'iven studies were made, examining farmers
who grew maize in Colombia, El Salvador, Kenya and Mexico;
and others who g-ew wheat in India, Tunisia and Turkey.
These studies were based on a perception of the farmer as
one seeking to increase incomes while tending to avert risks.
The primary conclu ;ion was that,while the farmer is influenced
by a host of factors in selecting technologies, his primary
decision-making determinants are his physical circumstances
(rainfall, soil depti, temperatures), his biological circum-
stances (diseases, insects, other plants and their interactions
with crops), and hisi economic circumstances (the alternative
uses of his resources and the markets through which he buys
and sells).
The adoption studies demonstrated that economists
could play a close collaborative role with biological scientists
early in the process: of developing new technology. Under-
lying this collaboration was the idea that as farmers assess
alternative technologies, they are heavily influenced by their
own natural and economic circumstances; therefore, research
aimed at formulating useful technologies must also integrate
these phenomena. In 1975, we set out to develop effective
procedures for systematically identifying the circumstances
of representative farmers and for incorporating this infor-
mation into action-oriented research programs geared to
develop new technologies for adoption in the short and
intermediate run. These experiences are being synthesized






inco a manual which describes these procedures developed
in close collaboration with national programs.
In training, cooperating with the maize and wheat pro-
grams, economists work to develop in-service trainees' skills
in analyzing the factors affecting farmers' decision making.
As part of our contribution to training, we produced a
manual to illustrate the formulation of recommendations for
farmers. This manual, written for agronomists, illustrates all
steps in deriving "economic" recommendations, starting with
agronomic data, blending in the relevant economic data, and
then developing practical recommendations. First published
in 1976, it is now available in English, Spanish, Turkish and
Arabic, with the French version to follow in 1980. A second
manual, addressing the identification of farmer circumstances
and their relevance to planning on-farm experiments, will be
released in English and Spanish in 1980.
As interest mounted in the procedures that we were
developing, we were encouraged to offer a training program
for other economists. In 1979, six economists from developing
countries joined us as visiting scientists to acquaint them-
selves with the ideas that guide collaborative research with
biological scientists. Their program contains roughly equal
parts of work on crops and on procedures. Starting in 1980,
two sessions will be held per year.
Posting regional economists outside Mexico began in
1976, when our small headquarters staff (then two) was
unable to cope with the calls for consulting on economic
studies within national maize and wheat programs. In 1979,
regional economists were serving four regions. Highlights of
their activities are included in this report.
Most recently we have turned our attention to policies
which influence the development and diffusion of improved
technologies and asked: What do policy makers need to know
about farms and farmers in order to facilitate the development
and use of improved technologies? Responses to this question
were drawn from talks with farmers, with scientists, with
national agricultural administrators, and with educators. Our
findings led to the establishment of management seminars for
decision makers. The first seminar was held in The Philippines
and three or four are planned for 1980.

D. L. Winkelmann






PROCEDURES


CIMMYT economists concentrated considerable effort
in 1979 on the development of inexpensive but effective pro-
cedures to obtain information on farmers' circumstances of
use to biological scientists in the design of on-farm experi-
ments. A manual addressing these issues will be released in
1980.
The procedures developed by CIMMYT and national
collaborators were discussed in an April 1980 Workshop
attended by scientists from other international institutes and
national programs who are engaged in on-farm research. The
CIMMYT-advocated procedures were endorsed as cost-effec-
tive for target crops such as maize and wheat.
Work on refinements in these on-farm research proce-
dures will continue in 1980. Of current interest is the devel-
opment of cost-eflective procedures to obtain farmer assess-
ments of new technology, before that technology is widely
extended. This farmer assessment provides a final check on
the appropriateness of recommended technology within the
farming systems of target farmers.
Research procedures also are being developed to analyze
relations between farmer circumstances, yield constraints and
agricultural policy. This is a relatively new area of research
that appears to be very promising.


TRAINING

The economics staff contributes to total center efforts
in training in four ways: by participating in the instruction
of maize and whea: in-service trainees in Mexico; by helping
with training on crcp management in the region; by a program
of visiting economists and doctoral fellows; and by preparing
materials of special interest to agricultural officers.
Maize and wheat in-service production trainees spend
roughly one-quarter of their stay in Mexico focusing on the
economic aspects of crop production, with particular emphasis
given to on-farm research procedures for assessing farmer
circumstances. Ecor omists share in planning farmer interviews
and on-farm experiments which are carried out by in-service
maize trainees in the lowland tropics of the state of Veracruz,






Mexico, and by wheat trainees in the rainfed upper plateau of
central Mexico. This training stresses the importance which
must be given to farmer circumstances and decision making
in research to develop improved technologies.
CIMMYT economists are becoming increasingly involved
in training activities within the regions where they are assigned.
The emphasis of these activities, done in collaboration with
biological scientists, is aimed at refining research systems
which develop technologies for transfer to local farmers. The
in-country training activities in 1979, in which CIMMYT
economists participated, are covered under regional program
reports.
Beginning in 1979, the economics staff initiated a
training program for national program agricultural economists

|JIA'I.rli W\


The economics program added a training course for national economists
engaged in on-farm research. The emphasis of this course, held twice each year,
is on teaching procedures used in research to generate more appropriate farmer
recommendations.






who work as parl: of maize and wheat production research
teams. Two cycles are conducted each year. The first, for
agricultural economists concerned with maize production, is
held in the first part of each year with field work carried out
in the state of Veracruz, alongside maize in-service production
trainees. The second course, for agricultural economists work-
ing in wheat production research, begins in late April with
fieldwork done with wheat in-service production trainees in
the upper plateau of Mexico.
The visiting scientists who participated in this program
were all from developing countries, they will engage in na-
tional production research programs on returning home.
While in Mexico, :hey take part in on-farm experimentation,
conduct interviews; and surveys with farmers, observe on-farm
trials, and attend ivide ranging seminars on topics relating to
biological and economic aspects which need consideration
in the development of improved technologies.
Three doctoral fellows were also working with the
economics program in 1979. One, an anthropologist, began
work in Ecuador 1978 to assess the need to incorporate
information on diets into the design of research on agricultural
technologies. Another, a predoctoral fellow working in
Mexico, is involve 1 in assessing alternative methodologies for
undertaking colla orative research and in the training of
maize production specialists. Another predoctoral fellow is
working within the East African regional program to train
agricultural researchers in the on-farm research methodologies
advocated by CIM'VYT.

Management seminar for agricultural decision makers
The CIMMYT trustees authorized a three-year project
to organize a series of management seminars for agricultural
decision-makers from developing countries. These seminars,
enlisting the skills :f outside specialists, are held on a regional
basis and utilize the "case study" teaching method. By
presenting several case studies which relate to public policies
affecting agriculture, the seminar leaders emphasize the
importance of considering farmer circumstances along with
biological, economic and political factors when formulating
agricultural policee.
The first of t'iese seminars was held in mid-1979 in The
Philippines, in association with the Southeast Asian Research






Center for Agriculture (SEARCA). Eighteen participants-
from five countries with diverse professional backgrounds
and job responsibilities in agricultural development activities-
attended the seminar. Each case study presented a specific
decision-making situation and included background material
and technical notes describing the dimensions in detail.
Combining these materials with their own experiences, the
participants were asked to formulate operational solutions to
the problem posed by the case.
Before transferring this project to another institution,
CIMMYT will conduct several more seminars in 1980 in Asia,
Latin America and Africa. Because of the experimental nature
of the project, several options will be tested in upcoming
seminars related to case material, mixture of participants,
supplementary lectures, length of seminar and discussion
leaders.


COOPERATIVE PROJECTS OUTSIDE MEXICO

CIMMYT's regional economists worked in four regions
in 1979. These staff members collaborated with maize and
wheat scientists and economists in national programs where
they encouraged interdisciplinary research-involving biolog-
ical scientists and economists-aimed at the development of
technologies useful to representative farmers. This involved
bringing local economists together with biological scientists;
consulting on the organization of micro-level research;
providing financial support for such work where necessary;
and cooperating in drawing out the agricultural policy
implications which emerge from the work.
In addition to the regionally assigned staff, one econo-
mist began working in 1979 with scientists in the Algerian na-
tional research program on a special project aimed at relating
the limitations on yields, evidenced in on-farm trials, to farmer
perceptions of natural and economic circumstances, and then
to the policy dimensions which shape farmer decision making.

East African regional program
The regional economist, supported by funds from
UNDP, is working mainly with the national research programs
in Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia. Beginning in 1979,







he has had the assistance of a predoctoral fellow who is
working with a Kenya training program for farm economists
engaged with crop scientists in on-farm research.
In two national programs-Kenya and Zambia-a strong
commitment has been made to the on-farm research method-
ology advocated by CIMMYT; Zambia is developing a nation-
wide adaptive research team, and both countries are devel-
oping the operational procedures and the capacity to conduct
such programs.
In Kenya, 15 farm economics trainees have been assigned
to various stations throughout the country to work within
production research teams, focusing their work on surveys to
orient on-farm research experiments. Four training workshops
were held in Kenya in 1979, covering on-farm survey tech-
niques and their use in design of farm-level experiments.
CIMMYT assisted in teaching these workshops, which were
also attended by firm economics trainees from Zambia.
In 1980, a training workshop in on-farm research
procedures is planned in Zambia. In addition, a Management
Seminar for Policy Makers will be held in Kenya in May 1980,
with participants drawn from various East African countries.
Finally, a concepts and strategies evaluation workshop, related
to developing national on-farm research programs, will be
held in early 1980 for scientists from the region.

South Asian regional program
A regional economist, supported by UNDP funding, has
been posted to this program since 1978 with the responsibility
of working with scientists from national programs (Bangladesh,
India and Nepal) in on-farm research. The emphasis of the
work related to small grains production is on developing and
introducing tritica e for the Himalayan hills. These hills,
stretching from Afghanistan to Nepal, are populated by small
farmers and dominated by production environments where
triticale seems to offer marked advantages over wheat. This
work was the subject of a regional triticale workshop held in
April 1979.
The CIMMYT regional economist and maize breeder/
agronomist also we.;re involved in on-farm projects in two
Indian states (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) aimed at improving
maize technology. Both are being conducted by local
researchers.






Several agricultural economists from this region also
participated in the visiting scientist training program in
Mexico in 1979.

Andean regional program
An economist was posted to the Andean region in late
1977 for cooperative research work in Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru and Bolivia. This work has concentrated on floury maize,
a dominant crop in the highlands; on wheat and barley,
secondary crops in highland farming systems; and on tropical
maize in the costal regions.
Within the region, two countries-Ecuador and Peru-
have made a strong national commitment to on-farm research.
CIMMYT economists support these efforts through co-
operative work to develop and refine research procedures and
through training assistance.
In 1979, two training courses were offered in Ecuador
in on-farm research procedures for maize workers. These
training programs involve three or four "calls" each year in
which trainees are convened at key stages in the crop cycle.
For example, trainees were called together at planting,
flowering and harvest time for specific training segments,
each lasting from one to two weeks. CIMMYT economists
and maize staff members assisted in these workshops. Similar
training programs are planned in 1980 for wheat scientists in
Bolivia and maize workers in Peru.

Central American regional program
The regional economist, assigned in 1978 to this region
and supported by Swiss funding, has concentrated his efforts
in Panama and El Salvador, where he is working with national
collaborators in on-farm research activities. Both these
Central American countries have made a strong commitment
to nationwide on-farm research programs. In Panama, the
national agricultural research institute (INDIAP), began its
on-farm research in one area (CAISAN) in 1978, concentrating
on the maize crop and associated rotations. CIMMYT col-
laborated with this project, particularly in the farmer interview
and survey phases. Next, on-farm experiments were planned
and initiated. The information gleaned from this area-specific
project led INDIAP to expand its on-farm research activities
to other areas of the country. By early 1980, farm surveys-






informal and formal-will have been completed for 16
production areas CIMMYT continues to work with national
scientists in this program.
In El SalvEdor, on-farm research activities also have
expanded nationwide. A full-time team formed by 14
extensionists ani eight researchers, representing different
disciplines, was assigned responsibility for this program.
The first step-farmer surveys-has been largely carried out,
and CIMMYT has assisted in the development of analytical
procedures to process the ensuing data.
The regional economist has also assisted the regional
maize program ;taff in Honduras and Costa Rica, where
on-farm research projects are under way. Honduras and Haiti
will receive more emphasis in the future. Various training-
related activities also were carried out in 1979 in several
countries of the region.





supporting
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EXPERIMENT STATIONS

CIMMYT conducted research at seven stations in
Mexico during 1979. Three belong to Mexico's national
agricultural research institute, INIA, and four belong to
CIMMYT.

Altitude Latitude Hectares Used Crop
Station (m) (ON) by CIMMYT Season
CIANO-INIA 39 27 176 (wheat*) Nov-May
17 (maize) Jun-Dec

Los Mochis-INIA** 40 26 2 (wheat) Dec-May
Rio Bravo-INIA** 30 26 1 (wheat*) Dec-May
El Batan-CIMMYT 2.240 19 26 (maize) Apr-Dec
Headquarters 26 (wheat*) May-Nov
4 (sorghum***) Apr-Oct

Toluca-CIMMYT 2,640 19 43 (wheat*) May-Nov
5 (wheat*) Dec-May
15 (maize) Apr-Dec
3 (potatoes***) Mar-Nov
Poza Rica-CIMMYT 60 20 41 (maize Dec-May
First cycle
4 sorghum***) Jun-Nov
Second cycle
1 (wheat) Nov-May
Tlaltizapan-CIMMYT 940 18 31 (maize) Dec-May
First cycle
1 (sorghum***) Jun-Dec
Second cycle
Includes barley .nd triticale
** CIMMYT nurseries planted for observation on diseases
*** Potatoes in cooperation with CIP; sorghum in cooperation with ICRISAT

El Batan
Final regulation of the drainage outlet for the El Batan
station was com )leted prior to the start of the 1980 crop
season. Problems of root rots have necessitated application of
1 t/ha of sulfur to: all wheat fields during the winter fallow.
All fields have been cover-cropped with vetch (Vicia spp.)
during the winter fallow. Garden pea (Pisum spp.) has been
used in two fields to permit observation of its effect on the
reduction of tak,-all root rot (Ophiobolus graminis). Vetch
has continued to show good tolerance of atrazine residue in
maize blocks.
Heavy frost damage that occurred in September led to
some losses in the. breeding nurseries.






Toluca
The new drainage outlet scheme has been completed
and has resulted in better use of fields at the lower end of
the station. The average water table level is dropping due to
increased industrial and domestic use in the watershed area
around the station. This has led to a closer look at the effi-
ciency of use of irrigation water.
Vetch and garden pea are being used to cover all fields
during the winter fallow. Frost damage in September was
especially severe in maize and triticale.

Poza Rica
Soil variability brought about by annual flooding from
the San Marcos River continued to influence the results of
trials in some fields. A by-pass channel for the river was
completed in July and proved helpful during the September
flood.
Herbicide and fertilizer trials were initiated with the
objectives of obtaining better weed control, leaving less
herbicide residues in the soil, and permitting more effective
use of water and fertilizers. In trials completed in 1979, the
"alternate furrow" irrigation method proved superior to the
"every furrow" method in terms of weed control and maize
yields.
The search continued for legumes tolerant to atrazine res-
idues-for cover-cropping fallowed fields. Canavalia brasiliens
in summer and Vicia spp. in winter showed some promise.

Tlaltizapan
Soil incorporation of bagasse continued to alleviate the
micronutrient deficiency brought about by high calcium levels
in the soil, which is derived from limestone. Chlorosis in maize
plants is now considerably reduced and can be seen in only a
few genetic materials when they are grown in areas where the
soil parent material is shallow.
Training
Two full training courses in experiment station manage-
ment were given during 1979. The first was held from March
to July 1979, and the second, from September to January
1979.
Nine persons from as many developing countries partici-
pated in these courses. In October 1979, the training base





was changed from El Batan to CIANO, Ciudad Obregon,
Sonora. Several scientists and other visitors interested in
station management were also accommodated.

Visits and Consulting
The Head of Experiment Stations and the Training
Officer spent 11 weeks consulting on problems of experiment
station development and management in seven countries.


LABORATORY SERVICES

The Protein Quality Laboratory and the Plant Nutrition
and Soils Laboralory continued to provide analyses to all the
CIMMYT crop programs in 1979. The activities of these
laboratories are described below. (The Milling and Baking
Laboratory is described under the wheat program, page 71.)

Protein Quality Laboratory
During 1979, the protein laboratory analyzed approxi-
mately 19,500 rraize samples, of which 14,000 were maize
endosperm samples, for protein and tryptophan. (Measuring
tryptophan gives an indirect but rather precise indication of
the level of lysine, the determination of which is more labo-
rious and expensive.)
Approximately 5,600 maize whole-kernel samples of
more advanced materials were evaluated in 1979 for their
protein quality in:ex.
The variability in oil content was studied in one maize
population to determine how much the oil content of maize
can be increased.
Analyses for protein content and for protein quality
also were performed on approximately 900 barley, 1,000 tri-
ticale and 1,000 wheat samples. Complete amino acid analy-
ses were performed on approximately 75 selected samples
from the various programs, and 8 samples were tested in
animal-feeding tri:.ls.

Laboratory training
CIMMYT staff have provided assistance to several coun-
tries in establishing their own quality laboratories to give
service to national breeding programs. In addition, the labora-
tory staff also assist in training personnel from national pro-




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