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Guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education

HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abstract
 I. Design of the study
 II. Review of related literature...
 III. Findings for the state of...
 IV. Analysis and discussion of...
 V. Development of guidelines in...
 VI. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations...
 Appendices
 A. Cover letter and instrument
 B. Data dealing with the elder...
 C. Legislation relating to the...
 D. Courses identified as most desired...
 References
 Biographical sketch
 
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080045/00001

Material Information

Title: Guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education
Physical Description: xi, 248 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Perdue, Beverly Moore, 1948-
Publication Date: 1976

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Gerontology -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
State universities and colleges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 239-246).
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Beverly Moore Perdue.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02759919
System ID: UF00080045:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080045/00001

Material Information

Title: Guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education
Physical Description: xi, 248 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Perdue, Beverly Moore, 1948-
Publication Date: 1976

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Gerontology -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
State universities and colleges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 239-246).
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Beverly Moore Perdue.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02759919
System ID: UF00080045:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Figures
        Page ix
    Abstract
        Page x
        Page xi
    I. Design of the study
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    II. Review of related literature and development of conceptual framework
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
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        Page 42
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        Page 44
        Page 45
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
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        Page 63
        Page 64
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        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    III. Findings for the state of Florida
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
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        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    IV. Analysis and discussion of findings for the state of Florida
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    V. Development of guidelines in educational gerontology for the state of Florida
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    VI. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations for future study
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Appendices
        Page 203
    A. Cover letter and instrument
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    B. Data dealing with the elderly
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    C. Legislation relating to the elderly and selected federal programs applying to aging
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    D. Courses identified as most desired by the elderly
        Page 237
        Page 238
    References
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Biographical sketch
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
Full Text














GUIDELINES FOR EDUCATIONAL GERONTOLOGY IN
FLORIDA'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION














By

BEVERLY MOORE PERDUE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1976
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to acknowledge the support and

assistance provided by the many individuals who helped

make this study possible. Special thanks is given to

Dr. James L. Wattenbarger for his help and guidance in

the completion of the study and to Dr. Michael Y. Nunnery

for his ability to instill perseverance and confidence.

Thanks also go to Drs. Betty Siegel and Phillip Clark for

their support and assistance in the formulation and com-

pletion of this study, and to Dr. Harold Stahmer for his

introduction to the field of gerontology.

A final word of thanks goes to three special people

who made the entire educational dream a reality: Alfred

and Irene Moore and Gary Perdue.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................... ii

LIST OF TABLES ....................................... vi

LIST OF FIGURES ..................................... ix

ABSTRACT ............................................... x


CHAPTER

I DESIGN OF THE STUDY ................. ......... 1

The Problem ............................... 8
Delimitations and Limitations ............. 10
Justification for the Study ............... 10
Definition of Terms ....................... 15
Procedures ................................ 17
Organization of the Research Report ....... 20

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ................... 21

The Demography of the Elderly ....... ..... 22
Educational Needs of the Elderly .......... 28
The Learning Abilities of the Elderly ..... 31
Core Components of Educational
Programs for the Elderly ............... 38
Consideration in Programing for the Elderly. 43
Financing of Educational Programs ......... 47
Community College Involvement in
Educational Gerontology ................ 50
The Community College and Manpower
Training ............................... 53
The Community College and Educational
Services for the Elderly ............... 58
University Involvement in Educational
Gerontology ............................ 61








Page


The University and Manpower Training ...... 65
The University and Educational Services
for the Elderly .................. ........ 72
Summary of Constructs ..................... 77

III FINDINGS FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA ............ 82

Introduction .............................. 82
Institutional Support for Educational
Gerontology ................. ........... 83
Educational Services to the Elderly ....... 88
Training Opportunities for the
Professional in Gerontology ............. 113
Summary .................................... 128

IV ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS FOR
THE STATE OF FLORIDA ...................... 130

Institutional Support for Educational
Gerontology ............................. 130
Educational Services to the Elderly ....... 134
Purpose of Educational Opportunities ...... 137
The Elderly and Special Services .......... 141
Problems Identified with Educational
Services to the Elderly ................. 148
Training Opportunities for the
Professional in Gerontology ............. 150
Training Programs for the Professional
in Gerontology .............. ............. 152
Continuing Education for the Professional
in Gerontology .......................... 155
Summary ................................... 157

V DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES IN EDUCATIONAL
GERONTOLOGY FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA ...... 161

Introduction .............................. 161
Institutional Support for Educational
Gerontology ............................. 162
Educational Services for the Elderly ...... 164
Purpose of Educational Opportunities ...... 167
The Elderly Student and Special Services 169
Problems Identified with Educational
Services to the Elderly ................. 173
Academic Courses in Gerontology-Related
Subjects ................................ 175
Training Programs for the Professional
in Gerontology .......................... 177
Continuing Education for the Professional
in Gerontology .......................... 179
Summary .................................... 181









Page


VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR FUTURE STUDY ........................... 185

Introduction ............................... 185
Summary of Findings ........................ 186
Conclusions ................................ 195
Implications ............................... 197
Recommendations for Future Study ........... 200

APPENDICES ............................................ 203

A COVER LETTER AND INSTRUMENT ................... 204

B DATA DEALING WITH THE ELDERLY ............... 213

C LEGISLATION RELATING TO THE ELDERLY AND
SELECTED FEDERAL PROGRAMS APPLYING TO AGING 229

D COURSES IDENTIFIED AS MOST DESIRED BY
THE ELDERLY .................... ............. 237

REFERENCES ........................................... 239

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......... ................... ........ 247















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Population Estimates by Age for Florida
and Its Counties: July 1, 1974 4

2 Years of School Completed, March, 1972 41

3 Median School Years Completed by Age and
Sex for the United States 1940, 1950,
1960, 1972 42

4 Training Programs in the Field of Aging
Offered by Community Colleges 54

5 Academic Level at Which Courses are Taught 67

6 Time Length of Institutional Participation
in Educational Gerontology 84

7 Institutional Interest in Providing
Further Educational Services for the
Elderly 85

8 Training the Professional in Gerontology 87

9 Special Courses Designed for Elderly 89

10 Courses Open to All Age Groups 90

11 Workshops, Institutes, Conferences on
Age-Related Problems and/or General
Topics 91

12 Off-Campus Courses Within Neighborhood 91

13 Objectives of Courses for Elderly in
Community College 93

14 Objectives of Courses for the Elderly
in Universities 95

15 Elderly Involvement in Course Development 96









Table Page

16 The Elderly as Classroom Resources 97

17 Counseling 98

18 Student Volunteers and Special Assistance
for Elderly 99

19 Free or Reduced Admission Rates for
Elderly Students 100

20 Use of Facilities and/or Library 101

21 Transportation Services for Elderly
Students 102

22 Meal Services for Elderly Students 103

23 Health Services for Elderly Students 104

24 Recreation/Social Activities for
Elderly Students 105

25 Institutional Sponsorship of Senior
Club or Center 106

26 Elderly Participants 107

27 Entrance Requirements for the Elderly
Student 108

28 Tuition/Fee Practices for Elderly Students
in Florida's Public Institutions 109

29 Institution Problems Identified with
Educational Services to the Elderly 111

30 Availability of Academic Courses for
Gerontological Training in Florida's
Public Community Colleges 115

31 Availability of Academic Courses for
Gerontological Training in Florida's
Public Universities 117

32 Availability of Training Programs for
the Professional in Gerontology in
Florida's Public Community Colleges 120


vii









Table Page

33 Availability of Training Programs for
the Professional in Gerontology in
Florida's Public Universities 122

34 Availability of Continuing Education
Programs for the Professional in
Gerontology in Florida's Public
Community Colleges 124

35 Availability of Continuing Education
Programs for the Professional in
Gerontology in Florida's Public
Universities 126

36 Degrees or Specialty Areas of a Program
Offered by Public Institutions of Higher
Education in Gerontology 127

B-1 Total Population 65 Years and Over, in
Thousands, 1900 Through 1975, and Decennial
Increase, 1900 Through 1970 214

B-2 Men, Per 100 Women by Age and Race,
1900 to 1990 215

B-3 Percentage Change in Population for 1950
to 1960 and 1960 to 1970 by Race, Sex
and Age Groups 216

B-4 Percent Distribution of Adult Population
by Years of School Completed, 1970 217

B-5 Percent of Elderly Participating in Labor
Force by Age and Sex, 1940-1975 218

B-6 Trend in Median Money Income of Families
and Unrelated Individuals, 1960-1972 219

B-7 Estimated Population Aged 65+, by State,
1974 221

B-8 Location of Counties of Florida's Elderly
Population 223

C-1 Selected Federal Programs Applying to
Aging 233


viii















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Percentage of Older People in Adult
Education. 40

2 Who Pays for Special Programs for Older
People in 95 Institutions? 49










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


GUIDELINES FOR EDUCATIONAL GERONTOLOGY IN
FLORIDA'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION


By

Beverly Moore Perdue

March, 1976


Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Administration


The purpose of this study was to develop a concep-

tual framework for the field of educational gerontology,

i.e., training opportunities for professionals in geron-

tology and educational opportunities for the elderly, in

order to construct a set of guidelines which could be used

by Florida's public institutions of higher education in

educational gerontology. Six subproblems were examined in

order to construct these guidelines for educational geron-

tology in Florida. By developing a set of constructs

for educational gerontology as derived from the literature

and authoritative opinion which gave attention to the edu-

cational opportunities available for the elderly and the

professional training available for workers in the field

of aging, a base for determining what ought to be going on

in educational gerontology in public institutions of higher









education was developed. Then by examining the findings

for educational gerontology in both the areas of training

and services in Florida's public institutions of higher

education in 1975, the status of educational gerontology

in Florida's public institutions of higher education was

determined. Further, by comparing these findings for the

State of Florida to the constructs for educational geron-

tology derived, it was possible to offer guidelines for

educational gerontology in the State of Florida.

As a basis for the development of guidelines for

educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions

of higher education, every public community college (28)

and university (9) was utilized for data collection. The

guidelines developed were in the areas of educational

opportunities for the elderly, in both community colleges

and universities, short-term and long-term training oppor-

tunities for professionals in the field of aging, and con-

tinuing education for those individuals currently working

with the elderly population.















CHAPTER I

DESIGN OF THE STUDY



American education has evidenced continuing change

throughout its history. As the days of the small, primary

schoolhouse gave way to state systems of public elementary

and secondary education, there also developed in this

country a system of public higher education to serve the

needs of citizens. By the early 1970's this system of

higher education encompassed universities, state colleges,

and community colleges (Henderson & Henderson, 1974).

Concurrent with this institutional expansion,

there also occurred an expansion in the population which

education served. Institutions of higher education began

to offer degree and nondegree experiences for adults of

all ages (Center for Continuing Education, 1971). These

educational experiences for adults were sometimes called

life-long learning and embraced the educational philos-

ophy that "educational opportunity should be made real-

istically available and feasible for all who might bene-

fit from it, whatever their condition of life" (Jacob-

son, 1973, p. 13). Life-long learning embraced the

philosophy of educational services for all people of all









ages. Florida's Chancellor E. T. York stated, "education

is not an exclusive right of the young. Learning, like

breathing, is truly a life-long process. And higher edu-

cation systems must be restructured to accommodate this

fact" (1975, p. 14).

Chancellor York maintained that one of the pur-

poses of higher education and life-long learning was ser-

vice for the old as well as for the young (1975, p. 14).

Other institutions of higher education throughout the

country likewise recognized the need for service and

training for the elderly as was evidenced by the emer-

gence of a field of study termed educational gerontology

(Institute of Gerontology, 1971).

Educational gerontology may be defined as that

aspect of gerontology which is composed of all the educa-

tional activities and services related to aging with a

primary emphasis in two areas: the provision of educa-

tional services and programs for the elderly and the

training of professionals to work with the elderly

(Institute of Gerontology, 1973). The need for educa-

tional gerontology has been evidenced yearly through the

growth in the number of elderly citizens in this country.

Now numbering over 20 million, the elderly population is

expected to total one-third of all Americans by the year

2000 (Osterbind & Menke, 1972). These elderly individuals

need educational services. These elderly individuals








require trained professionals to care for them. The grow-

ing elderly population has resulted in educational geron-

tology becoming a component of the curriculum in many

institutions of higher education throughout the country

(Academy for Educational Development (AED), 1974).

Demographic data compiled by Osterbind and Menke

(1972) and Kincaid (1975) showed that based upon current

trends, the State of Florida has had and will continue

to have the largest in-migration of elderly people in the

United States as well as the largest percentage of elderly

individuals related to the total population of the state.

According to Kincaid (1975), one of every seven individuals

in Florida was over 65 years of age in 1974. Florida has

seen a population increase of 651.2% since 1940 in the

number of elderly who live in the state and continues to

show a definite trend toward increasing the number of

residents over age 45 and decreasing the number under 45

years of age (Osterbind & Menke, 1972). Kincaid (1975)

and Lewis (1975) have used these population data to support

the idea that Florida's elderly population is of such a

proportion that it cannot be ignored (see Table 1). Edu-

cational services must exist for this population. Chan-

cellor York's desire for life-long learning and services

for the elderly must become a reality in the State of

Florida in order to serve this growing elderly population.




Table 1

Population Estimates by Age for Florida and Its Counties: July 1, 1974


All Races
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and Over


FLORIDA


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia


8,248,851

125,135
11,841
90,150
15,786
248,919
828,169
8,078
39,844
33,517
45,761
58,749
28,393
1,413,102
17,660
6,514
570,412
222,414


1,852,045


27,944
3,410
23,828
4,149
66,643
164,409
2,322
4,576
5,070
14,324
12,765
8,217
309,381
4,171
1,792
147,089
56,872


1,356,820


40,625
2,007
16,610
2,675
49,116
110,889
1,304
3,127
2,989
7,580
7,857
4,893
225,334
2,737
1,164
118,923
50,627


1,841,900


30,163
2,851
21,825
4,136
68,399
178,266
1 ,632
3,908
4,333
12,913
11,858
6,994
341 ,964
4,224
1 ,436
150,538
58,375


1,755,985


18,276
2,317
18,754
3,296
49,209
189,507
1 ,789
9,467
8,786
7,208
14,971
5,601
320,775
3,801
1 ,420
107,757
40,184


1,442,099

8,128
1 ,256
9,133
1,529
15,555
185,101
1,031
18,766
12,339
3,736
11,298
2,689
215,659
2,727
703
46,107
16,358




Table 1 continued


All Races 65 and
65County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 Over
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 Over


Fl agler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy


6,259
7,752
38,780
4,910
4,747
10,697
8,195
18,074
15,098
26,537
40,659
588,792
12,283
45,038
40,125
9,255
3,228
83,473
148,495
129,903
14,868


1,427
1,897
11,770
1,415
1,550
3,034
2,440
6,163
4,616
5,264
8,302
149,508
3,179
10,427
9,536
2,755
1,029
17,303
29,475
31 ,179
4,059


932
1,199
7,000
727
700
2,044
1,401
3,151
2,544
2,672
4,812
105,212
1,911
5,938
9,100
S,876
471
10,290
19,082
39,988
2,081


923
1,579
7,322
1,118
895
2,322
1,823
3,533
3,739
4,409
6,327
154,858
2,565
9,128
8,785
1,711
645
13,715
26,599
32,764
3,106


1,189
1 ,743
7,701
1,147
1,039
2,112
1,448
3,562
2,966
6,329
9,450
115,306
2,720
10,077
7,561
1,699
622
18,816
35,586
18,778
3,363


1,789
1,335
4,987
502
563
1,185
1,083
1,665
1,233
7,863
11,768
63,910
1 ,909
9,469
5,144
1,214
461
23,350
37,755
7,196
2,260




Table 1 continued


All Races 65 and
65County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-54 Over
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-34 Over


Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole


3,822
14,220
117,642
92,522
45,097
53,582
26,693
101 ,266
16,284
423,981
36,889
459,167
123,199
649,852
268,343
42,346
37,931
67,034
46,685
157,738
134,336


1,043
3,749
19,883
22,922
8,419
10,771
8,543
28,974
4,768
104,528.
8,420
96,940
20,054
107,037
69,312
11,148
9,585
16,793
12,009
22,499
36,571


682
3,157
12,425
13,817
5,496
11,563
4,523
22,459
3,234
83,180
4,318
66,048
15,258
75,233
42,829
6,961
6,894
9,539
11,840
16,486
19,922


853
2,576
16,876
19,770
7,682
13,556
6,690
31,061
3,562
102,977
6,961
99,173
20,275
103,286
56,447
7,949
7,349
13,172
11,974
22,563
35,181


762
2,769
24,619
20,971
10,240
11,429
4,865
14,792
3,098
89,838
8,507
100,450
30,935
146,252
54,962
9,483
8,023
15,053
7,805
36,276
29,182


482
1,970
43,840
15,042
13,260
6,263
2,071
3,981
1,622
43,461
8,683
96,559
36,676
218,047
44,796
6,805
6,080
12,478
3,058
59,915
13,480




Table 1 conti lied


All Races 65 and
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 Over

Sumter 20,034 4,817 3,457 4,118 4,617 3,026
Suwannee 17,645 4,952 2,903 3,587 3,782 2,421
Taylor 14,366 3,895 2,612 3,041 3,058 1,759
Volusia 206,967 38,843 31,956 37,220 47,585 51,364
Wakulla 8,635 2,582 1,513 2,154 1,569 816
Walton 17,569 4,401 2,714 3,378 4,389 2,688
Washington 13,931 3,621 2,459 2,882 2,815 2,154









The movement by Florida's systems of public higher

education into the area of educational gerontology is

based upon the need for life-long learning opportunities

among the elderly as well as the need for professionally

trained workers in gerontology. Florida's growing elderly

population presents a new responsibility for the state's

systems of public higher education. Service and training

in educational gerontology must be developed throughout

the state, if in fact it does not already exist, to serve

this elderly population. The development of educational

gerontology in Florida must be based upon concepts and

principles heretofore developed and tested by authorities

throughout the United States in order to provide the best

possible program of life-long learning for Florida's el-

derly citizens as well as to train qualified professionals

to serve the needs of the el.derly.


The Problem


Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study was to develop a con-

ceptual framework for the field of educational gerontology,

i.e., training opportunities for professionals in geron-

tology and educational opportunities for the elderly, com-

posed of.a set of constructs which could be used as guide-

lines by the public institutions of higher education in









Florida. These constructs were derived from the develop-

ing theory of the field of educational gerontology as ex-

pressed in the literature and in the current practices

of the public institutions of higher education in Florida.

Specifically attention was given to the following

subproblems:

1. The development of a set of constructs regarding edu-

cational opportunities for the elderly which gave

attention to course content, admission procedures,

financing, physical arrangements for the classes,

supplemental services for the elderly, and appropriate

teaching methods.

2. The development of a set of constructs concerned with

training opportunities for the professional in geron-

tology.

3. The determination of the educational opportunities

available for the elderly in the Florida system of

public higher education (community colleges and uni-

versities) in 1975.

4. The determination of the training opportunities avail-

able for the professional in the Florida system of

public higher education in 1975.

5. The examination of the educational opportunities

available for Florida's elderly in light of the con-

ceptual framework developed regarding educational

services for the elderly.









6. The examination of the training opportunities avail-

able in gerontology in Florida's public system of

higher education in light of the conceptual framework

developed regarding training experiences for the pro-

fessional.

7. The development of a set of author-formulated guide-

lines for the future directions of educational geron-

tology in the State of Florida based upon the liter-

ature review, current institutional theory, and practice.


Delimitations and Limitations


The study was confined to data gathered from a

questionnaire survey received from 37 public universities

and community colleges in Florida and from the literature

on the subject of educational gerontology published since

1950.


Justification for the Study


The justification for making a study of the

current involvement of Florida's institutions of higher

education in educational gerontology in relationship to

a conceptual framework of educational gerontology is

supported by the fact that Florida's growing elderly

population should be a concern of the institutions of

higher education.









The point has been made that the field of educa-

tional gerontology is a growing one. This growth, par-

ticularly in a state with an annual increase in the

elderly population (Burns, 1975), is predicated upon a

basic conviction and upon a statement of fact.

1. Education should be seen as a lifelong process. In-

stitutions of higher education in Florida should pro-

vide some type of educational experience for adults

of all ages, including the elderly.

2. Since the elderly population of Florida is increasing

more rapidly than any other age group, institutions

of higher education should provide professionals

trained to work with the elderly.

In order for Florida's system of public higher

education to serve best the elderly population, it was

important to determine what the status of educational

gerontology was in these institutions and to compare this

with the constructs developed from the literature as being

basic to educational gerontological theory. With this

information it was then possible to develop guidelines for

educational gerontology in Florida.

Educational Opportunities and Lifetime Learning
for the Elderly


In 1961 and 1971, the White House Conference on

Aging issued reports which implored educational institu-

tions to implement plans for providing service, cultural









enrichment, leisure training, and academics for the elderly.

These suggestions for action by institutions of higher ed-

ucation reflect the philosophy of lifelong learning-that

an individual cannot learn enough in childhood and youth

to last a lifetime, and that older adults benefit from

learning experiences. They also reflect the philosophy

that the elderly should continue to receive educational

experiences.

The White House Conference recommendations were

supported by authorities in educational gerontology.

Jacobs (1970) wrote that the terminal philosophy indicated

by the American educational system was a major weakness.

because it presupposed that individuals could be taught

enough in childhood and youth to last them a lifetime and

that older adults could not learn (p. 381). Londoner

(1971) wrote that education must exist for the life cycle

in order to emphasize learning, unlearning, and relearn-

ing by people all ages. Mason (1970) offered the argu-

ment that educational services must be provided for the

elderly in order to allow aging individuals to exert

some control over how they approach old age. This educa-

tion would teach the elderly how tc accept new roles and

status positions in their lives. Hendrickson and Barnes

(1967) concluded that colleges and universities must

accept the responsibility for providing educational ser-

vices to the elderly and for training professionals in









gerontology as an important component of higher educa-

tion.


Florida's Elderly Population


Demographic data for the United States show that

there are more than 20 million Americans in this country

who are over 60 years of age. This means that one of

every 10 individuals is over 60 (Riley & Foner, 1968).

Osterbind and Menke (1972, pp. 1-2) found that the State

of Florida had the largest net in-migration of elderly in

the country in 1971; that the population of Florida since

1960 increased by 37% while the number of people aged 65

and over increased by over 78%. Furthermore, Kincaid

(1975) stated that in 1974 one out of every seven persons

in the State of Florida was elderly.

Florida's institutions of higher education must

provide educational services for this growing elderly

population in order to carry out the philosophy of life-

long learning. Such educational opportunities can help

older individuals find new vocations and/or meaningful

activities in order to augment the final stage of life

(AED, 1974).

Professionals in Educational Gerontology


Professionals must be trained to work with the

elderly in order to alleviate some of the physical, mental,









and social problems which confront many elderly individuals

(Seltzer, 1974). This training is vital in a. state such

as Florida where a growing elderly population has caused

increasing demands to be made upon the state's social ser-

vices (Kincaid, 1975).


Value of the Study


Since there were no available data on activity by

Florida's public institutions of higher education in edu-

cational gerontology, there was a need for this study.

Higher education should provide lifelong learning oppor-

tunities for citizens of all ages including the large

elderly population. Such activity in Florida was examined

in this study in order to determine the extent of educa-

tional gerontology occurring in Florida; moreover, this

activity was viewed in light, of the conceptual framework

of educational gerontology developed from the literature.

The results of such a comparison between what was happening

in Florida and the constructs which were identified

through the literature may lead to

1. the concept of lifetime learning becoming a reality

for Florida's elderly

2. the provision of needed educational services for the

older population

3. the elderly becoming active participants in higher

education










4. the development of a plan of action for Florida in

educational gerontology.

This study was also justified by the fact that a

recent publication by the Academy for Educational Develop-

ment (AED) (1974) showed that at a time when financial

problems in higher education were greatest, there was

increased federal funding in educational gerontology.

Moreover, final justification for a study on the involve-

ment by Florida's institutions of higher education in

educational gerontology was cited by the Ohio Administra-

tion on Aging (1973) which did a similar study in Ohio:

"in a democratic society, there is need to insure to

every age equal opportunity for alternatives-a choice

of life styles, including avenues to meaningful use of

time, whether through work or leisure" (p. 3). This study

goes beyond a compilation of data on the status of

Florida's educational gerontology by developing a concep-

tual framework for the discipline of educational geron-

tology. This framework can serve as a basis for the de-

velopment or expansion of educational gerontology in

Florida.


Definition of Terms


Construct. "Something constructed by mental syn-

thesis" (Webster's New World Dictionary, 1970, p. 305).









Educational gerontology. That aspect of geron-

tology which is composed of all the educational activities

and services which are related to aging with a primary

emphasis in two areas: the provision of educational ser-

vices and programs for the elderly and the training of

professionals to work with the elderly.

Educational needs of the elderly. Those special

educational needs which have been identified by the elderly

as accompanying increased age, i.e., retirement preparation,

leisure time activities, community service activities.

Educational services for the elderly. The com-

ponent of educational gerontology which focuses upon insti-

tutions of higher education providing academic and nonaca-

demic experiences for the elderly, i.e., classes, workshops,

seminars, in order to meet their educational needs.

Elderly. Persons 65 years of age and older; used

interchangeably with aged (Older Americans Act, 1971).

Lifelong learning. One aspect of the total edu-

cational program in the developmental concept wherein

individuals, irrespective of age, are seen as being in-

volved in a continuum of interrelated developmental tasks

beginning with infancy and ending with death.

Professionals in gerontology. Individuals who

have educational training and expertise in gerontology;

those trained to deliver social services to the elderly.

Professionals include individuals with degree and nondegree










expertise and training from institutions of higher edu-

cation.

Training of professionals to work with the el-

derly. Degree and nondegree training experiences and con-

tinuing education experiences for those individuals who

work directly with the elderly or who perform supportive

services such as research and training in gerontology.



Procedures


Overview of Study Design


The design for the study was composed of three

parts. The first section of the study was a review of

the literature in order to develop a conceptual framework

for the field of educational gerontology. The second

phase of the study was an empirical survey utilizing a

questionnaire instrument which provided information re-

garding the extent of educational gerontology in Florida's

public institutions of higher education. The data gathered

from the questionnaires were then compared to the concep-

tual framework developed for educational gerontology from

the literature review. The final phase of the study was

the development of a set of guidelines for future direc-

tions in educational gerontology by Florida's public insti-

tutions of higher education.









Development of the Conceptual Framework


The conceptual framework for the field of educa-

tional gerontology was developed through an extensive

review of the related literature on training and services

in gerontology available in the United States. Basic

constructs were developed for the overall discipline of

educational gerontology. These constructs were subdivided

into relevant propositions in order to expand the concep-

tual framework.


Empirical Study Utilizing a Questionnaire


The survey section of the study was conducted

during the summer of 1975 by mailing a modified version

of the Ohio Administration on Aging Questionnaire to the

president of each public community college (28) and each

state university (9) in Florida. There were a total of

37 respondents, one from each public institution. A cover

letter was sent with the questionnaire explaining the pro-

cedure (see Appendix A).

The instrument. The instrument used for the

survey was an adapted version of the Ohio Administration

on Aging questionnaire in a study of educational geron-

tology in higher education. The instrument was designed

to solicit responses to questions similar to those

posed in subproblems 3 and 4 of the Statement of the









Problem. The instrument was modified by the researcher

in order to make it more concise with a forced choice-

yes or no-answer.

Data collection and analysis. The data for this

section were obtained from survey responses of 37 public

institutions of higher education in Florida. The analysis

occurred in two parts: (1) percentage compilations for

each survey item in order to determine the answers to

subproblems 3 and 4 of the Statement of the Problem,

the extent of educational opportunities available for

the elderly and the extent of professional training

experiences available in gerontology; and (2) an examina-

tion of these empirical data collected from Florida's

institutions of higher education in light of the concep-

tual framework developed for educational gerontology.


Development of the Guidelines


The construction of the guidelines for educational

gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher

education were conceptually formulated by the author

based upon a comparison of the constructs for educational

gerontology with the comprehensive data collected from

each institution.









Organization of the Research Report


This research study is organized into six chapters.

The first chapter includes the introduction, the problem

and the procedures for the study. A review of the selected

literature, research, and authoritative opinion and the

development of a conceptual framework for educational

gerontology are presented in the second chapter. The

third chapter contains the findings for the State of

Florida, while a discussion of these findings is presented

in Chapter IV. The fifth chapter is devoted to. a compari-

son between the constructs for educational gerontology

developed in Chapter II and the findings for Florida pre-

sented in Chapter IV in order to develop guidelines for

educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions

of higher education. The sixth chapter contains a summary

of the study.















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


The review of literature related to the study on

the participation by Florida's public institutions of

higher education in providing both educational services

for the elderly and training for the professional in geron-

tology was intended to serve as an overview of involvement

in this area in order to develop a conceptual framework for

educational gerontology.

In order to develop an understanding of the impact

of the growing elderly population in this country, to gain

insight into the necessity for providing educational ser-

vices for the elderly as well as specific training for the

professional in educational gerontology, and to develop an

awareness of existing status of educational gerontology,

the literature review was divided into seven areas:

1. the demography of the elderly

2. the educational needs of the elderly

3. the learning ability of the elderly

4. core components of educational programs for the elderly

5. community college participation in educational gerontology









6. university participation in educational gerontology

7. generalizations about educational gerontology in order

to develop a conceptual framework.

Each section of this Literature Review is concluded with

the development of constructs for educational gerontology

based upon the review. These constructs are summarized'at

the end of Chapter II as a "Conceptual Framework for

Educational Gerontology."



The Demography of the' Elderly


The United States Congress adopted the standard

definition of the aged as 65 with the passage of the Social

Security Act in 1935 when the economy was best served by

a wholesale retirement of older workers (Atchley, 1972).

Atchley (1972) cited this law as the impetus for the

societal acceptance of age 65 as the age for required with-

drawal from the work world and as the "moment in life when

one enters old age" (p. 102), even though Congress has

included those people between 60 and 65 as recipients of

services provided through the Older Americans Act of 1972.

In this Review of the Literature the definition of the

elderly as heretofore stated includes those individuals

over the age of 65 in accordance with the Population

Bureau's (1975) suggestion that "most of the available

data in the United States are for persons in that category









(over 65); more people retire at age,65 than at any other.

The literature of gerontology uses 65 as the point of

elderly classification" (p. 4).


Number


The elderly population of the United States has

mounted consistently since 1900 when slightly more than

three million men and women were aged 65 and over. By

1940, the elderly population had nearly tripled to nine

million, and in 1975 it was more than 22 million (see

Appendix B). This almost sevenfold gain in 70 years was

much greater than that of the total population, which

nearly tripled from 76 million to 215 million over the

same period. Several factors have contributed to this

rapid expansion which were cited by Eklund (1968): the

high fertility rate of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the

decline in the rate of mortality, and the high level of

immigration prior to World War I.

For the future the United States can expect a

continuing increase in the numbers of older people through

the year 2020. The United States Bureau of the Census

(1975) has projected 24 million elderly by 1980, 27.7

million by 1990, 28.8 million by 2000, 30.9 million by

2010, and 40.2 million by the year 2020.

Kincaid (1975) published statistics on the elderly

population which showed that Florida has the third fastest









rate of growth for those over 65 years of age and the lar-

gest numbers of net in-migration of elderly citizens for

any state in the United States. It had the second fastest

growth rate for elderly whites and the twelfth fastest

growth rate for nonwhites. Florida's elderly population,

according to Kincaid (1975) "increased twice as rapidly as

did its total population between the census counts in 1960

and 1970" (p. 1).


Race, Sex, and Age Distributions


According to figures compiled by the Population

Reference Bureau (1975), men and women aged 65 and over

were not evenly distributed by race, sex, and age. The

Population Bureau's 1970 figures showed 10.3% of all whites

in the United States to be over 65 as compared to 7% of

all blacks.

The majority of older Americans in 1970 were

widowed women. In numbers, according to the Population

Bureau (1975), there were 72 men over age 65 for every 100

women age 65 or over. With increasing age, the imbalance

becomes more pronounced with 64 men for every 100 women

over the age of 75.

Florida's population patterns followed the nation's

patterns according to Kincaid (1975), who stated that based

on the 1970 census there were 744,507 elderly women and

603,784 elderly men. He concluded that the numbers of









elderly women were "growing faster as a group in Florida

than elderly men and the growth in white population was

much larger than the nonwhite population" (p. 2).


Economic and Social Aspects of the Elderly


Although the elderly are no more homogeneous in

health, education, work or manner of living than in demo-

graphic characteristics, certain patterns were discernible

through a review of the literature.

Education. According to the Population Reference

Bureau (1975), the elderly have completed fewer years of

formal education than younger adults. For example, in

1970 about 4% of those 65 and over had had no formal

schooling and another 53% had completed less than the

eighth grade. In contrast, only 1% of men and women from

25 to 65 years old had no schooling, and only 21% had less

than an eighth grade education (see Appendix B). The median

number of school years completed was 8.7 for the elderly

and 12.1 for those 25 to 64 years of age.

In 1972, 2.4% of the 20 million people over age 65

and 6.3% of the 19 million people aged 55 to 64 participated

in adult education. This means that of the total national

enrollment in adult education for 1972, 1.7 million or

19% of that participation was by members of the elderly

population. About 13% of that elderly group participated

in educational programs through institutions of higher

education (AED, 1974, p. 10).









Employment. In 1900, two out of three elderly men

worked for a living; now only about one in four does. The

trend for elderly women, however, has been somewhat dif-

ferent. Between 1940 and 1960, the percentage of elderly

women who were employed increased. However, since the

1960's, the trend toward employment by elderly women has

declined since more women, upon reaching retirement age,

were eligible for their own retirement benefits from pre-

viously held jobs (see Appendix B).

Income. Atchley (1972) stated that retirement

benefits were the most prevalent and important source of

income for the elderly. The United States Social Security

Administration (1973) compiled data which showed that for

elderly couples with a head of household over 65, retirement

payments were over half the income of the majority of couples,

while for individuals over 65, retirement payments pro-

vided, in 1973, nearly two-thirds of the total income.

The Social Security Administration (1973) stated that ap-

proximately 50% of all nonmarried elderly in the United

States reported incomes below the poverty threshold while

14% of married couples were in a similar condition. About

1.2 million couples had incomes between $5,000 and $10,000

while 655,000 couples had incomes of $58 per week, or an

annual earnings total of about $3,000 (HEW, 1975). About

944,000 older nonmarried elderly reported incomes of

$29 weekly or.$1,500 annually. These combined statistics









according to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

(1975), showed 16% (3.4 million) of the elderly people

below the poverty level (see Appendix B).


Distribution of the Elderly

In 1974, the Department of Health, Education and

Welfare (1974) stated that about 50% of the persons age

65 or over lived in the six most populous states-California,

Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas and Florida.

Each of these states had more than one million older per-

sons. Eight states had a population which was classified

by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1974)

as proportionately high (12% or more). These states were

Florida, Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, South

Dakota, and Oklahoma.

Saba (1973) identified the location of Florida's

elderly population for 1970-1980. This information is

presented in Appendix B.


Development of Constructs


The demographic evidence given about this increas-

ing elderly population was used to develop the first

construct for educational gerontology:

Construct. As a result of the increasing elderly
population, new or expanded programs
of educational gerontology providing
both educational services for the









elderly and manpower training in aging
will be required to meet the needs of
this population group and to make life-
long learning a reality.


Educational Needs of the Elderly


The major problems of the elderly have been docu-

mented by researchers such as Hendrickson and Barnes

(1967), Hiemstra (1972) and Sarvis (1973) as inadequate

employment and income, substandard housing, unfulfilled

needs from social service agencies, poor physical and

mental health, change in family, life, inadequate retirement

and leisure time preparation, and an insufficient knowledge

of the social and psychological aspects of aging. According

to Hiemstra (1972) and Sarvis (1973), educational programs

could help alleviate each of these problem areas for the

elderly.

McClusky (1971) saw the educational needs of the

elderly as being divided into four categories: coping,

expressive, contributive, and influencing. Coping needs

were essentially survival needs, since they helped the

elderly individual face new roles and personal adaptations

in order to exist. He identified coping needs as a mini-

mal ability to read, write, and do computation, the

knowledge and utilization of health, diet, and physical

fitness programs; the knowledge encessary for existence

in a complex socity-knowledge of retirement, finance,








insurance, health care procedures; and the ability to find

a personal use for leisure time.

McClusky (1971) indicated that partial fulfillment

of the coping needs must be achieved by an individual

before the expressive needs can be considered. He next

defined expressive needs as being based on a premise that

people are self-motivated toward some type of activity

for personal reward. These needs were fulfillable, accord-

ing to McClusky (1971), through any type of activity which

made an individual feel a personal-sense of accomplishment,

well-being, and pride in doing a task. Examples of ex-

pressive activity, according to McClusky (1971), were evi-

denced in the areas of hobby and self-awareness activity,

i.e., art, drama, gardening, dance, writing, sewing, car-

pentry, and mechanics.

The third level of educational needs of the elderly

as identified by McClusky (1971) were contributive needs.

These needs were based upon the assumption that people had

a need and a desire to contribute to others which resulted

in individuals helping others. Peterson (1974) saw the

worth of educational programs as fulfilling the contribu-

tive needs of some of the nation's 20 million elderly in

volunteer programs such as Retired Senior Volunteer Pro-

grams, teaching and medical assistants, foster grand-

parents.









McClusky (1971) noted that productivity and con-

tribution by the elderly were essentials in the fourth

area of the educational needs, the ability to influence.

Implicit in the power loss of the aged according to

McClusky (1971) was the loss of influence. Atchley

(1972) stated that the need to control and to influence

was evidenced especially in politicians and scholars who

continued to work long after the normal retirement age

and exemplified the need that many elderly individuals

feel to control their lives. This need to control included

independence, retention of home and mobility, advice and

service, and feeling a sense of influence and importance

to others instead of feeling useless and unproductive,

stated Atchley (1972).

Educational programs have been developed through-

out the United States in response to the White House Con-

ference on Aging's 1961 and 1971 reports which implored

social agencies and educational institutions at all levels

to implement plans of service, cultural enrichment, leisure

training, and academics for the elderly. Sarvis (1973)

stated that the purpose of these educational programs was

essentially the same as for any educational endeavor for

groups of any age: to help develop wise use of time; to

help create an awareness of world, national, and local

events; to help in utilization and development of the

social world for the benefit of the general welfare.









Sarvis (1973) saw in these educational programs the philo-

sophy that an individual cannot learn enough in childhood

to last a lifetime.


Development of Constructs


The literature review on the educational needs of

the elderly showed that as adults grow older, they are

confronted by problems which, in many instances, could

be lessened by educational experiences. Based on this

review, the following construct was derived:

Construct. The elderly have special needs and
problems documented as accompanying
increased age which require special
educational programs.



The Learning Abilities of the Elderly


The ancient Roman belief that senectus ipsa morbur

-old age is in itself a disease-exists today. Hoffman

(1970) noted however that society has begun to acknowledge

the fact that aging is not so much a matter of chronologi-

cal status as it is of functional status. As a result of

extensive research into the aging process, authorities on

learning such as Birren (1974), Woodruff and Walsh (1975),

and others have begun to see the older adult as retaining

an intellectual and creative potential which is needed by

society. Arenberg and Robertson (1965) wrote that the









number of published papers on the learning abilities of

the elderly has become so large that a literature review

of this area must be highly selective.


Biological and Physiological Factors as Related to
the Learning Abilities of the Elderly


Birren (1974) cited the fact that the potential

of the aged is sometimes limited by a decreased learning

ability resulting not from old age, but from noncognitive

influences such as loss of hearing; vision, and poor

educational preparation. Botwinick (1959), who supported

noncognitive influence on learning abilities, suggested

that "changes with age in the ability to learn [are]

small, under most circumstances" (p. 85).

Aging has been characterized by many experts as

a decline in physical and mental capacities. Riley and

Foner (II, 1968) cited a wide variability among all or-

ganisms with little relationship to chronological age.

According to Eklund (1968) this has become an important

factor in planning educational goals for the elderly,

since individual variation in the rate of aging prevents

a stereotyped educational program for the elderly as a

group. Woodruff and Walsh (1975) suggested the theory

of a variance in learning ability by the elderly. They

stressed that regardless of the reason, the elderly did,

in many cases, perform more poorly than young people and









that, as a result of this poorer performance, educators

must deal with the problem when providing any type of

educational program for the elderly.

Atchley (1972) has delineated major physiological

deteriorations which accompany aging: weakening eyesight,

hearing loss, impairment of psychomotor skills and manual

dexterity, sensory decrements, decreases in physical mo-

bility, and an eventual, general decline in coordination

which impairs the ability to do complicated tasks or to

perform new skills.

Wilkie and Eisdorfer (1974) stated that these physi-

ological changes were unavoidable and have given credence

to the belief accepted by many that the elderly cannot con-

tinue to learn. Even though longitudinal studies made by

Bayley .(1973) showed that, "barring brain control accidents,

mental ability is ageless" (p. 131), and that as long as

there "is continued health and available education oppor-

tunities, there may be no difference in the intellectual

performance between youth and older adults" (p. 139).

Most of the research on age, according to Woodruff

and Walsh (1975), has resulted from investigations of per-

formance changes in verbal learning. Baltes (1974) found

a decline in performance with age and concluded that the

cognitive process, i.e., learning ability, declines with

age. Cannestrari (1963) argued that verbal paired associ-

ate learning tests used by Gilbert and others was "unfair









to older persons" (p. 165) since some findings showed that

the performance deficits of older persons can be explained

in part by noncognitive processes, as well as by the fact

that older people have higher achievement rates when they

are allowed more time to study the stimulus materials,

which suggests that the old may need more time to learn

in the first place.


Psychological Change as Related to the
Learning Abilities of the Elderly


Mason (1970) identified two barriers to learning

in the later years, psychological and cultural. These, he

believed, were caused by the negative stereotype associated

with old age in the United States culture. He wrote that

there has been ample evidence to show that persons who

grow old with a positive view of life do not feel as if

they are useless and hopeless in the elderly years. Chown

(1967) wrote that similar older individuals had higher

tested morale, were more vigorous, more intellectually

able, lived longer, had less disease, and were better ad-

justed than those elderly who internalized society's

stereotype of themselves as one whose physical and mental

capacities have deteriorated and whose general interest in

life has diminished. Research has not been sufficiently

extensive or intensive to give unequivocal evidence of the

influence of age upon intellectual capacity.









Thorndike (1936) did research on the question and

his conclusions were as follows:

1. The acme of ability (to learn) is reached at some

point between 20 and 25 years of age.

2. There is a decline in capacity for learning from 20

to 25 years to about 42 years of age amounting to

13 to 15%, or approximately 1% per year.

3. The influence of intellect upon the curve of ability

to learn in relation to age is very slight. The

ablest man and the ordinary man show very nearly the

same curve.

4. Individuals, on the average, probably learn much less

from 25 to 45 than they did from five to 25. This is

attributable to various combinations of four factors:

general health and energy, ability to learn, interest

in learning, and opportunity for learning.

5. By the age of 25 most persons have, within certain,

limitations, learned a great part of what they wish

to learn.

Jones and Conrad (1933) confirmed Thorndike's conclusions

that intelligence declines with age; not necessarily old

age.

Wechsler and Shakow (1946) concluded on the basis

of various studies of intellectual and physical ability

that while intellectual ability follows the same general

pattern of decline as does physical ability, these









intellectual abilities did not necessarily decline at the

same rate. Baltes (1974) wrote that if the speed factor

were eliminated and only mental power considered, the

difference between the learning abilities of older and

younger people was reduced.

Mills (1968) wrote that as a result of the atten-

tion, retention and recall elements of learning which de-

crease with age, there existed a need to create in elderly

learners the desire to learn. He wrote that attitude,

interest, and motivation were better sustained as age ad-

vanced so that active learning usually was practiced in

areas defined in terms of personal interest.

Donahue (1949) made the following observations

with respect to intelligence and learning:

1. The same abilities decline at different rates in

different persons.

2. Age differences and age changes have frequently been

confused.

3. There is good evidence to support the view that the

greater the individual's intellectual endowment, and

the greater the amount of education, the less steep

is the decline in intellectual ability, other things

being equal.

4. Exercise of the mind seems to retard deterioration

of intellectual processes.









5. The older adult can continue to learn meaningful

things; comprehension of difficult reading shows

little or no change with age; but there is a decline

is ability to remember isolated facts.

Available research findings were summarized briefly

by Eklund (1968) when he wrote:

An individual's age and his test performance
are neither clearly nor. consistently re-
lated, while there is substantial evidence
that (a) intelligence level, education, and
socioeconomic status at early adulthood
(which also correlates with childhood ad-
vantages and educational opportunities),
constitute the most consistent cluster of
variables associated with learning abili-
ties; (b) poor health is a dominant inhibi-
tor; (c) different motivations underlie
the learning of older people as compared
with young people or with themselves at
younger ages; and (d) when other factors
are held constant, apparent declines in
learning ability and motivation may be
the consequence of disuse and lack of
opportunity to practice relevant skills.
(p. 334)


Development of Constructs

The research on the learning abilities of the

elderly was the basis for the development of the following

constructs on involvement by institutions of higher educa-

tion in providing educational services to the elderly:

Construct. After accepting the fact that the
elderly can learn, educational pro-
grams developed for the elderly will
require the recognition of differen-
tial learning abilities which result
from cognitive and noncognitive life-
time experiences as well as the aging









process. These factors will require
that educational programs for the
elderly be slower paced and more in-
dividualized.

Construct. Educational participation by the el-
derly is positively associated with
continued mental and physical perform-
ance while this participation in edu-
cation by the elderly is associated
with previous positive educational
performance.


Core Components of Educational
Programs for the Elderly

Educational needs similar to those identified by

the White House Conference on Aging were also present

in studies by Hiemstra (1972), Sarvis (1973), and others

(see Appendix C). Sarvis (1973) divided those educational

needs identified in his study into categorical areas

which were important to the elderly: useful utilization

of time through leisure time-activities, hobbies, services

to others; retirement preparation; budgeting and income

problems; legal knowledge, real estate, trusts, estates;

nutrition and health.


Elderly Participation in Education


Hendrickson (1968), Hoffman (1970), and Londoner

(1971) established the fact that the elderly benefit from

participation in education. Hiemstra (1972), McClusky

(1971), Sarvis (1973) and others have stated that the









educational needs and interests of the elderly were defin-

able. DeCrow's (1974) work for the Adult Education Associ-

ation showed that elderly participation in any type of

educational program was low. Of the 20 million people

over age 65, 2.4% participated in educational programs in

1972, according to a study by the Academy for Educational

Development (1974) which is summarized in Figure 1. Of

those 19 million people between the ages of 55 to 64,

6.3% participated for a total of 1.7 million participants

age 55 and over in educational activities (A.E.D., 1974,

p. 14). Thirteen percent of those between 55 and 64 who

participated in adult education, according to the Academy

for Educational Development (1974), did so through community

colleges or universities. The elderly percentage utilizing

institutions of higher education dropped to 5% for those

over 65.

Peterson (1974) wrote that participation by the

elderly in education was low because older adults felt

that education had nothing positive to offer, nor any

answers for the problems associated with old age. Eklund

(1968) stated that to recruit the elderly to education,

as each successive generation reached a higher educational

level,there would have to occur "a massive commitment to

a redesign and overhaul of the existing educational system

in order to accommodate the educational needs of the elderly

population" (p. 344).. Peterson (1971) suggested that the




40





33.2%












21.3%





15.1%








6.3%



2.4%

26 22 23 19 20

Population in Millions

25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

Age Group

Figure 1. Percentage of Older People in Adult Education.
Source: U. S. Office of Education, 1972.









commitment by institutions of higher education to provide

services to the elderly must begin immediately in order

to offset the negative feelings the elderly expressed

toward education (see Tables 2 and 3).




Table 2

Years of School Completed,
March, 1972



Years of School Completed (% distribution)
Elementary School High School College
Less Median School
Than 5-7 8 1-3 4 1-3 4 or Years
Age 5 yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs more Completed

25-29 years 0.8 2.7 3.1 13.6 43.8 17.1 19.0 12.7

30-34 years 1.4 3.4 4.7 16.7 43.9 13.6 16.5 12.5

35-44 years 2.5 5.4 6.9 18.5 41.5 11.5 14.7 12.4

45-54 yeras 3.4 7.3 10.8 18.6 38.6 10.6 10.7 12.3

55-64 years 5.6 11.6 17.3 18.9 29.3 8.5 8.8 11.3

65-74 years 9.9 16.0 23.6 15.3 20.1 7.2 7.8 9.1

75 years
and over 16.0 18.3 27.1 11.8 15.2 6.1 5.6 8.6


Source: U. S. Bureau of Census,


"Educational Attainment:


March, 1972." Current Population Reports, 1972.









Table 3

.Median School Years Completed by Age
and Sex for the United States
1940, 1950, 1960, 1972


Age
75 and
25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 over


Males

1972 12.7 12.5 12.3 11.1 8.9 8.4

1960 12.2 12.0 9.9 8.6 8.2 8.0

1950 11.8 10.0 8.7 8.4 8.1 8.8

1940 9.7 8.7 8.4 8.2 8.1 7.8



Females

1972 12.6 12.4 12.3 11.5 9.5 8.7

1960 12.2 12.1 10.6 8.8 8.5 8.3

1950 12.1 10.6 8.9 8.5 8.3 8.2

1940 10.3 8.8 8.5 8.4 8.2 8.1



Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Eighteenth Census,
1960; Seventeenth Census, 1950; and Sixteenth
Census, 1940; and Current Population Reports,
1972.









Development of Constructs


The literature review on the elderly participation

in educational activities was the basis of the following

related construct:

Construct. Since research showed that the elderly
see little value in life-long learning
and that elderly participation is low,
educational institutions will be re-
quired to make positive recruitment
efforts to reach this population group.


Consideration in Programing.for the Elderly


The following discussion is presented as a summary

of the literature related to the considerations which should

be given to programming courses for the elderly.


Structure and Content of Courses


According to Korim (1974), involvement by insti-

tutions of higher education in educational gerontology

showed that programs should be of six types: (1) needs-

oriented, i.e., nutrition, transportation, health, employ-

ment; (2) counseling and guidance; (3) information and

referral; (4) retirement planning and education; (5)

recreation; (6) facilitative activities. Hendrickson and

Aker in the 1972 report of Florida's Leadership Development

Institute on Improving Education for Older Adults con-

curred that these areas were prime targets .for educational

services to the elderly.









Londoner (1971) cited the fact that when the

elderly participated in educational programs they had a

preference for noncredit classes in confronting and

solving the problems associated with aging. Carlson

(1973) learned in his research that older adults showed

higher involvement and continued attendance in classes

which allowed them active participation and an opportunity

to utilize their lifetime of experiences in the classroom.

The Academy for Educational Development (1974)

identified as a characteristic of programs for older

people courses designed specifically for older persons-

residential, campus, and outreach. A roster of the prin-

cipal characteristics of the ongoing programs included:

courses-on a residential or on campus
basis; outreach courses offered in con-
venient off campus locations; peer group
instruction in localities that have large
pools of well-educated retired profes-
sionals; comprehensive educational programs
in geographic areas that have high concen-
trations of older citizens; preretirement
planning before the often traumatic transi-
tion into a new lifestyle; educational
vacations on college campuses; consortia
of institutions to maximize resources;
supplementary services, such as health,
transportation, or counseling; mass media
instruction and information tailored es-
pecially for older people; manpower train-
ing for personnel working with the aged;
new careers and retraining for older
people. (p. 19)


Development of Constructs

The following construct is applicable to the

course structure and content of programs for the elderly









as derived from the literature:

Construct. Educational programs for the elderly
will require variety in planning and
programing in order to accommodate
the documented educational needs
of the elderly. Special attention
will be required to develop programs
for the diverse educational backgrounds
of elderly students, to utilize the
elderly as classroom resources, and to
make available credit-noncredit class
options for elderly students.


Physical Arrangements


Eklund (1968) stated that traditional educational

patterns must be restructured to serve the elderly. His

contention has been supported in the literature. Hendrick-

son and Barnes (1967) wrote that although many older adults

needed educational services, they did not seek them out or

utilize them when they were available. Their research

showed that most elderly people were hesitant about going

to a community college or university for courses and that

few left home if educational services were available through

the media. Hiemstra (1972) found that the elderly mani-

fested a preference for informal educational programs in

their homes, a neighborhood center or a church.

Axford (1969) identified the lack of transportation

as one primary reason for the low participation and reluc-

tance of the elderly to attend educational courses. Atchley

(1972) identified a lack of transportation as a major prob-

lem in the mobility of the elderly. He also stated that









the physical problems of many older adults such as poor

vision, lack of energy, poor health, and failing mobility

prevented participation in programs which were not in the

local neighborhood. Atchley (1972) noted that educational

programs for the elderly should be during the day, because

of these problems as well as the fear expressed by many

older adults of being away from home at night.

Sarvis (1973) cited the need for classes which

were planned to accommodate the physical limitations of

some older adults. He suggested that poor vision, poor

hearing, and other handicaps often prevented the elderly

from participating in educational activities. Hiemstra

(1972) wrote that courses must be designed to.meet the

special needs of the elderly, i.e., accessibility, daytime,

length. E1kund (1968) stated that the best length of time

for classes for the elderly was from one to two hours,

with differentiated activities and student participation.

Sarvis (1973) and Hiemstra (1972) discovered that

elderly students were often hesitant about participating

in any type of educational experience at an institution

of higher education because of complicated application and

registration procedures. DeCrow (1974) wrote that such

procedures and regulations were a direct cause of low

elderly participation in education.










Development of Constructs


The following constructs on the physical arrange-

ments for classes for the elderly were derived from the

literature review on this subject:

Construct. Since the elderly have indicated that
complicated admission procedures pre-
vent educational participation, edu-
cational institutions may be required
to modify or eliminate these require-
ments for the elderly if they plan to
serve them.

Construct. There are many factors related to the
physical location and arrangements of
classes, which prevent elderly parti-
cipation. Alleviation of these bar-
riers to elderly participation will
require: daytime classes of from
one to two hours in the neighborhood
of the elderly; removal of architec-
tural.barriers; comfortable chairs
and good lighting.


Financing of Educational Programs


The financing of educational programs for the el-

derly in institutions of higher education was a "problem

of priorities" (p. 82) according to Kobasky (1974). Kobasky

(1974), Korim (1974), the Academy for Educational Develop-

ment (1974), and others wrote that educational programs

for the elderly were, for the most part, self-supporting,

because few states offered provisions by which elderly

students could attend classes at a no- or low-cost tuition.

Korim (1974) and DeCrow (1974) cited this factor as one









reason for low participation in educational programs by

the elderly. Korim (1974) wrote that if colleges and/or

universities had state funding for positions, the direct

costs of the programs offered were recoupable. Most money

available through the Administration on Aging and the

Higher Education Act of 1965, according to their data,

was for training manpower personnel to work with the

elderly rather than for the provision of educational

programs for the elderly (see Figure 2).

Other research by Londoner (1971) and Sarvis (1973)

suggested that when financially feasible, a minimal regis-

tration fee paid by the elderly reinforced their right

to participate in all facets of the educational process

since they were purchasers of services.

In contrast, work by Eklund (1968), Osterbind

and Menke (1972), and Peterson (1974) cited the financial

dependence of the elderly on a retirement income as reason

for total financial assistance for the elderly. In order

to combat the problem of the elderly's fixed income which

might prohibit their participation in educational activi-

ties, legislatures in Arkansas, North Carolina, and Ken-

tucky (AOA, 1975) mandated that they be admitted to com-

munity colleges and universities on a space available no-

charge basis (see Appendix D for example of state legis-

lation). Legislation in the Older Americans Act (1973,

Amendments) provided as an allowable expense funding for






























cN


E\i


SI T T r 1


Figure 2.


Who Pays for Special Programs
in 95 Institutions? Source:


for Older People
AED Survey, 1974.


*Some overlap exists between these two cate-
gories.


0 --


--


1










educational programs for the elderly in community colleges


through Area Agencies on Aging.


Sarvis (1973) cited some


instances where limited scholarships were also available

to elderly students who needed financial assistance.


Development of Constructs


Based on the authoritative opinion of the financing

of educational programs for the elderly, the following con-


struct was

Construct.


derived:

If institutions of higher education
choose to become involved in provid-
ing educational programs for the
elderly, they will be required to
be cognizant of the financial limita-
tions of most elderly individuals.
These financial limitations may pre-
vent the elderly from participating
in educational programs unless insti-
tutions support legislative action
to modify or eliminate fees for the
elderly.


Community College Involvement
in Educational Gerontology


According to a recent study by Peterson (1970),

the top six priorities for community college administra-

tors of the 1970's were to:

serve the higher education needs of youth
from the local community; respond to the
needs of the local community; help students
adapt to new occupational requirements; re-
educate and retrain those whose vocational
capabilities are obsolete; and make finan-
cial assistance available to any student
who wants to enroll in college. (p. 49)









Peterson (1970) did not find& a priority for serv-

ing all adults through a program of life-long learning,

except as it was reflected in terms of a response to the

needs of the local community. In a similar study, Bushnell

(1973) showed that the concept of adult education rated in

the lower 50% of a general priority list.

According to Korim (1974) and Scott (1974), the

community college has begun to accept the challenge of

serving the elderly. In a study of community college in-

volvement in educational gerontology, Andrew Korim (1974)

wrote:

Every community college in the nation
should find an opportunity to contribute
to an improvement of conditions of life
experienced by older persons. The con-
cept of a college is taking on a meaning
that reflects basic community character-
istics which are bypassed by much of higher
education. Broader based than traditional
colleges, a departure from the classical
limitations of education and the pure
professions is under way. Emphasis on as-
sisting the total community of individuals
with needs for life-long development and
redevelopment, on serving as vehicles to
assist communities and their institutions,
and on participation in the process of
ordering community priorities give an ex-
panded meaning to college in the community
college context. This enlarged definition
permits a community college to be open-
ended and truly community-oriented.

Korim's remarks summarized the philosophy of educa-

tional gerontology-service to the elderly and training for

the professional in gerontology.









This rationalization for service, training, and

educational programs in new areas with goals of reaching

heretofore untouched community members was advocated by

Edmund Gleazer (1974) when he suggested that community

colleges throughout the United States form coalitions

with community resources in order to develop community

priorities aimed at developing services for the growing

elderly population. These services, according to Gleazer

(1974), would involve training professionals to work with

the elderly as well as providing educational services for

the older population.

According to Korim (1974), of the 1,100 community

colleges in the United States, less than 50% have attempted

to serve the needs of the aged population through the de-

velopment of educational gerontology. Korim (1974)

stated that in those community colleges providing educa-

tional programs for the elderly and/or manpower training

in aging, grants from the Older Americans Act were avail-

able. Grabowski and Mason (1973) identified federal fund-

ing programs which existed to finance educational programs

in community colleges in order to prepare manpower to

deliver services to the elderly or provide educational

programs for the elderly. Some state legislatures have

begun to waive tuition fees for those over 65 in order to

provide educational services for the elderly (see Appendix

D).









The Community College and Manpower Training


In a report prepared for the Administration on

Aging, the need for educational programs designed to

increase the number of persons trained in providing

services to the aged was addressed (U. S. Department of

Health, Education and Welfare, 1969). The report recom-

mended that community colleges develop "curricula suitable

to prepare trainees for employment as aides in aging

programs" (p. 11) and ". courses designed to recruit

students for training in technical occupations essential

to the provision of services for the older population" (p.

63). This emphasis on the development of educational geron-

tology training programs in the community college was

incorporated into the recommendations of the White House

Conference on Aging (1973) through a priority request for

certificate and associate degree programs for personnel

who delivered services to the elderly.

A recent study by Korim (1974) of the nation's

1,100 community colleges identified 42 community colleges

in 26 states which offered training programs in the field

of aging. The two-year associate degree program was avail-

able in 23 community colleges while short-courses or cer-

tificate programs in the area of aging were found in 21

colleges. Table 4 summarizes these findings.











Table 4

Training Programs in the Field of Aging Offered
by Community Colleges


Number Number of Programs
of Associate Short Course Program
State Colleges Degree or Certificate Unspecified


Alaska 1 1
California 3 2 2 1
Colorado 1 1
Delaware 1 1
Florida 2 1 1
Georgia 2 1 1
Illinois 3 1 2
Indiana 1 1
Iowa 1 1
Kansas 3 2 1
Maryland 2 1 3
Massachusetts 2 2
Michigan 1 1
Missouri 2 2
Montana 1 1
New Jersey 1 2
New York 2 2
North Carolina 4 1 1 2
Oklahoma- 1 1
Oregon 1 1 2
Pennsylvania 1 3
South Carolina 2 2 1
South Dakota 1 1 1
Texas 1 1
Vermont 1 1
Washington 1 1

TOTALS 26 42 24 21 8


Source: Based on data compiled from a survey conducted by the
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges
in October, 1972, and updated in March, 1974.









Korim (1974) identified five categories of formal

training and educational programs in gerontology:

1. in-service and pre-service training
for administrators of residential,
extended care, and nursing home facil-
ities.

2. training and education of geriatric
aides;

3. short-term training for homemaker-home
health aides or home companions for
the elderly;

4. options related to aging in a curricu-
lum such as human services, recreational
leadership, and mental health technology;

5. training components for personnel of
area agencies on aging and state agen-
cies on aging. (p. 25)

Korim (1974) concluded that most programs were oriented

toward preparing individuals to work in the geriatric

health-related professions. Few community colleges offered

preparation for individuals to work with 90% of the elderly

who were healthy. He identified gaps in training for jobs

associated with state and community agencies to work with

the elderly-in jobs at senior center clubs-retirement

communities, and in volunteer agencies. Korim (1974)

advocated "the capability of community colleges to provide

direct services to senior citizens as a component of train-

ing programs" (p. 34), and also stated that with the in-

creasing elderly population there will be "a labor market

demand for persons capable of rendering services to older

Americans at the paraprofessional and technical levels"

(p. 34).










In a statement made before t-he Senate Committee on

Aging, Arthur Fleming endorsed manpower training in geron-

tology:

I think it is important for us to do
everything we can, within the resources
that are made available to us, to pro-
vide training opportunities for people
who are right now working in the field
of aging .. .in the nutrition projects,
with the State agencies, with the area
agencies, and those who are engaged in
the delivery of services to older per-
sons. (p. 180)

Fleming (1975) went on to recommend that community colleges

offer short-term training for professionals in aging-

defined as being multidisciplinary training aimed at putting

immediate, helpful, and problem-oriented learning interven-

tions into the working lives of individuals (p. 182).

Hendrickson (1973) stated that short-term training was not

conceptually based but rather was patterened on right-here-

and-now situations in order to prepare men and women to

work as effectively as possible with older adults. Fleming

(1975) stated that "these people may lack some academic

credentials, but that this lack is more than compensated

by an eagerness to do good for those elderly citizens who

have themselves done so much" (pp. 182-183). Moreover, he

saw short-term training leading to community awareness of

the needs of the elderly population. In summary, Fleming

(1975) defined the goals of educational gerontology's man-

power program as training and technical assistance to enable









local agencies, citizens, and professionals to do the fol-

lowing:

1. develop an administrative capacity;

2. gain skills in community organization;

3. recruit, organize, train and supervise
a staff capable of developing a program
of aging services that makes a differ-
ence in the community;

4. plan and budget a program of aging
services;

5. communicate the purposes of the aging
programs to other community agencies,
and to the public and to create a com-
munity awareness of aging;

6. rationalize the needs of the elderly in
order to work to improve community ser-
vices for the elderly;

7. develop leadership skills among the
older people who participate in the
local agency programs to set community
program objectives. (p. 183)

Curry (1975) defined the goals of short-term train-

ing for the community colleges and for continuing education

programs in universities as being the way to "maximize the

use of aging funds to get assistance to older people imme-

diately" (p. 192). He saw a need in educational gerontology

in institutions of higher education for a clear definition

of training needs; for the persons doing.the training to

have expertise in a certain subject area; for appropriate

learning experiences; for different levels of program imple-

mentation; and for the development of resource materials on

aging (p. 192).









Development of Constructs


The following constructs on the extent and direc-

tion of community college involvement in educational geron-

tology were derived from a review of the literature:

Construct. In order to be involved effectively
in gerontology manpower training,
community colleges will be required
to offer short-term certificate and
degree training programs for profes-
sionals in aging aimed at developing
immediate problem-solving skills.
These programs would meet the needs
of the local community for aging ser-
vices and would not be exclusively
health related.

Construct. Community colleges, in order to
develop campus and community awareness
of the elderly, as well as to serve
the needs of the local residents who
work or live with the elderly, will be
required to initiate a survey courses)
in aging, offer in-service and training
workshops for local professionals and
nonprofessionals in aging-related and
aging-service occupations; and insti-
gate community planning for the needs
of the elderly.



The Community College and
Educational Services for the Elderly


Community college involvement in providing educa-

tional services to the elderly has been identified by

Korim (1974) in 140 two-year colleges with retirement

programs, 339 with cultural enrichment programs, and 42

with job training programs designed especially for the

elderly. Free or reduced tuition was offered by 167 col-

leges in 40 states.









Support for community college involvement in pro-

viding educational opportunities for the elderly was prom-

inent at the 1971 White House Conference on Aging where

Howard McClusky, cochairperson of the Section on Education,

stated that

one development in education for aging
[was] the phenomenal growth of the com-
munity college which [was] designed to
make community services and adult educa-
tion a principal part of its overall
program. (p. 122)

DeCrow (1974) found in this study of the national

involvement in educational services for the elderly that

about 360 community colleges reported courses and programs

in this area. He found that about one-half of the programs

involved 100 or less students while 18% served 500 or more.

Seventy-two percent of his respondents indicated new activity

in educational gerontology within the last year (1973).

DeCrow (1973) identified the problem areas associated with

programs for the elderly as finance, lack of supportive

services (i.e., transportation, meals, medical care),

shortage of trained staff, and locating and interesting

the audience (pp. 28-29).

Community college participation in programs for

the elderly was consistent among the community colleges.

Korim (1974) and DeCrow (1974) identified divergency in

the area of providing direct social services to the elderly.

They cited 26 community colleges in 15 states as having

organized senior citizen centers, volunteer programs,










transportation services, food services, or screening ser-

vices. Korim (1974) found that three community colleges

in Iowa were designated by the state as Area Agencies on

Aging, which made them recipients of all federal funds

for the direct provision of services to the elderly within

the geographical boundaries of the community colleges.

According to Fleming (1975), this designation of the com-

munity colleges as an Area Agency on Aging was not a pre-

ferred one since organizations of local governments could

more effectively develop and coordinate programs of com-

prehensive services for the elderly. Fleming (1975),

Korim (1974), DeCrow (1974), Sarvis (1973), Peterson

(1971) and Kobasky (1974) saw the role of the. community

college as providing educational programs for the elderly

in accordance with the White House Conference on Aging's

guidelines for program development and educational services

for the elderly.


Development of Constructs

Based on the literature review of the role of the

community college in providing educational services for

the elderly as well as the earlier literature review on

the educational needs of the elderly and the curriculum

guidelines for these programs, the following constructs

were derived:









Construct. As the elderly population increases
and as their social needs become
more pronounced, community colleges
will be required to provide general
academic and vocational classes in
the area of aging for community mem-
bers and college students in order
to create an awareness of aging and
to develop more efficient services
for the elderly.

Construct. Community colleges will not be re-
quired to provide direct social ser-
vice delivery for the elderly.



University Involvement in Educational Gerontology


In addition to the community college service to

the aged, there has been some movement by universities

to establish educational gerontology programs beyond the

traditional human growth and development curriculum of the

social sciences and medicine which had an aging component

(AGHE, 1975). University involvement in educational geron-

tology has been identified in three areas: (1) programs

which offered educational services to the elderly similar

to those offered by the community colleges; (2) the estab-

lishment of national models of service to the aging, which

involved providing educational services for the elderly

and training opportunities for the professional in geron-

tology; and (3) basic research and training in gerontology

(HEW, 1969, 1972; AGHE Memorandum, 1975).

The need for trained manpower with a knowledge

of the aging process in order to provide planning and









services for the elderly was evidenced in the Recommenda-

tions on Training (Birron, 1971) issued by the White

House Conference. The specialists in aging identified

three broad categories of personnel to be trained by

universities ranging from those capable of performing

routine tasks to those with the highest degree of crea-

tivity and skill-those ranging from baccalaureate degree

to the postdoctoral degree:

1. Persons trained primarily at the doc-
toral level to extend skills in the
knowledge of aging and for training
additional personnel in all categories.

2. Personnel equipped to plan, administer,
and supervise programs and facilities
for the elderly.

3. Personnel withthe knowledge and skills
required to provide the broad range of
services needed by the older population.
(White House Conference, 1973, pp. 11-12)

Some of the diversity of direction in both train-

ing in gerontology and services to the elderly among univer-

sities in the area of educational gerontology was evidenced

by an examination of three of the major American aging cen-

ters. The Percy Andrus Gerontology Center at the University

of Southern California offered intensive academic prepar-

ation for the Doctor of Philosophy degree as well as

summer institutes for the continuing education of the

professional in aging; the Duke Aging Center at Duke Uni-

versity offered a clinical and research model of intensive

medical and social training for the professional; the third









major center, the Syracuse University Center for Aging,

represented a model for direct service to the aged

through an emphasis on the establishment and practice of

personnel relationships with the elderly as well as in-

tensive academic preparation for the professional geron-

tologist (AGHE Memorandum, 1975).

Other programs in universities offered extensive

services to the elderly in lieu of or concurrent with a

minimal academic training program in gerontology. Scott

(1974) identified some colleges which followed the model

advanced by the University of Oregon where a class of

college students received credit for working with elderly

citizens in class sessions. Kauffman (1967) wrote that

the University of Kentucky went beyond utilization of the

elderly as off-campus resource persons by including them

as non-tuition paying members of the academic community

through a program called the Donovan Scholars, where any

resident of Kentucky over 65 may pursue a degree in any

academic area or attend noncredit classes without charge.

DeCrow (1974) identified 350 universities and

colleges with involvement in educational gerontology. He

identified many institutions where faculty commitment from

many departments to develop long-range plans for the en-

gagement of university resources with the unfolding lives

of older people was sought. In some states, Korim (1974)

saw consortia of universities forming to rationalize and coordinate









efforts in aging programs while some universities provided

direct services to the elderly as a laboratory and testing

ground for improving the other major functions of univer-

sities in the field of gerontology-basic research the

preparation of workers in many disciplines for working

with the older population, and continuing education in

the professions (pp. 32-33).

Although there appeared to be diverse activity in

gerontology in DeCrow's study, Beattie (1973) challenged

the current involvement by institutions of higher education

in educational gerontology. He wrote that

the place of gerontology in higher educa-
tion, much as the place of older persons
in society, is one of low status and low
priority. Aging has had low priority in
colleges of medicine, schools of social
work, schools of architecture, colleges of
law, as well as in basic baccalaureate
education and among the scientific disci-
plines. Little content on aging is avail-
able in the majority of disciplines and
professions .with only limited sup-
port for the development of curricula,
for faculty development, and for students
has been forthcoming. At the same time,
however, much as aging is becoming more
visible within the society, so is the
demand for higher education to commit its
resources to aging becoming more prominent.
Therefore, there is an important and spe-
cial issue of institutional commitment on
the part of higher education to aging which
goes beyond commitments of individual
faculty, departments, schools, or colleges.
(p. 15)

In agreement with the challenge offered to univer-

sities to serve the elderly by Beattie, Hodgkinson (1975)

wrote that the era of egalitarianism had arrived for higher









education, bringing to universities a commitment to serve

all types of people of all ages. This, he stated, meant

"service to the elderly" (p. 127).


Development of Constructs


The following construct was developed from the

literature on the participation by universities in the

area of educational gerontology:

Construct. University involvement in educational
gerontology will require degree pro-
grams at all levels and in all areas
to prepare professionals in aging and
will require some type of direct.edu-
cational services for the elderly.
The university's program will develop
from institutional goals for an aging
program. Models advanced nationally
are of three basic types: interdisci-
plinary training for the social science
professions, academic programs of clin-
ical research, or general academic
preparation for service professions
utilizing the elderly community as
a laboratory experience.


The University and Manpower Training


The report-of the 1971 White House Conference on

Aging stated that "the great majority of training programs

and courses in aging are housed in universities. Academic,

medical and professional schools accounted for three-

fourths of the setting for training in aging" (1973, p. 46).

Two-thirds of the gerontology training identified by the

Administration on Aging (1975) was offered in graduate level









courses by universities as compared to 21% for the under-

graduate (see Table 5).

Curry (1975) stated that the university must

respond to the need for manpower training in gerontology

in the areas of:

1. Continuing education providing specific training in

aging professionals who are already trained in their

basic specialty or discipline but who lack specific

training in the field of aging.

2. Training for the professional to work with the impaired

elderly.

3. Training for new types of personnel to serve the

elderly population.

4. Training for the researchers in gerontology (pp. 5-7).

Birren (1971) stated that "the goal of graduate

training in gerontology is to prepare students for careers

in teaching and research in the field of aging" (p. 47).

The approach to this training in aging at the graduate

level varies from utilization of the traditional single

discipline approach to a comprehensive multidisciplinary

approach. The single discipline approach, according to

Birren (1971), has sent the graduate into a specific area

of aging while the multidisciplinary approach has fostered

interaction among disciplines in order to produce graduates

with a broad perspective on aging, as well as one specialty

area. A study .for the Gerontological Society (1970) on













Table 5

Academic Level at Which Courses are Taught


Number of
Level Courses Percent

Liberal arts 145 43

Medical and graduates 30 9

Nursing 4 1


Graduate 179 53

Undergraduate 71 21

Both graduate an.d undergraduate 29 9

Medical 43 13

Other 14 4


Total 336 100


Source: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
1968, final report. "A Survey of Training Needs
and Mechanisms in Gerontology by the Gerontological
Society." Public Health Service, National Insti-
tute of Child Health and Human Development. U. S.
Senate Background Studies by States, 1960, Bethes-
da, Maryland.









educational programs indicated that "innovative graduate

programs in gerontology" (p. 155) were existent in all

geographical areas of the United States.

Birren (1971) reported in a training paper for the

White House Conference that undergraduate level recruiting

and training of students in aging was minimal. He iden-

tified only one college-Mt. Angel College, Oregon-as

having an undergraduate degree in gerontology, while 21%

of the courses taught in aging were geared to the under-

graduate level (p. 47).

The Association for Gerontology in Higher Educa-

tion (1975) has begun a study to identify the'current

status of courses and degree opportunities in gerontology

at the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Earlier

studies by Anderson (1970) and Duncan (1971) showed that

training programs in aging throughout the United States

were funded primarily by the Administration on Aging,

the National Institute of Child Health and Human Develop-

ment, and the National Institute of Mental Health. A study

by the Division of Manpower for the Administration on Aging

(1972) on the federally supported university programs in

aging reinforced these studies which showed most training

in aging occurring at the graduate level. Birren (1971)

cited these findings as evidence of the need to extend the

gerontology course curricula from the graduate level to

the undergraduate level.









The need for an undergraduat-e and a graduate cur-

riculum in order to train professionals in aging is linked,

according to Werdell (1974) and Wren-Lewis (1974), with the

public services function of the university to develop

people prepared to help solve society's problems, to ar-

ticulate needs, to understand others, and thereby to create

new goals and new forms of learning. Beattie (1973) and

Birren (1971) supported the development of gerontology

centers in institutions of higher education to accomplish

the necessary training in aging through a multidisciplinary

academic preparation. Beattie (1973) stated that

the multidisciplinary nature of gerontology
makes the issue of educational design
an organizational and administrative issue,
as well as a substantive issue One
cannot escape the fact that a large component
of education and research (in gerontology)
goes beyond the confines of a particular
discipline or profession, with each some-
what dependent upon 'the domain of the other.
(p. 16)


Continuing Education


The need for continuing education in aging at the

undergraduate, graduate, and certificate levels has been

established through a review of the literature. This

training is necessary in order to provide professionals

who work in the field of aging with a continuing education

experience to expand knowledge. One method of providing

this training and retraining in aging supported by the









White House Conference (1973), the American Association

of Community and Junior Colleges (Korim, 1974), the

Adult Education Association (DeCrow, 1974), and many

individual authorities on aging is through short-term

training sessions at the university.

The Gerontologist (1970) described short-term

courses available for practitioners and researchers in-

cluding physicians, administrators of long-term care facil-

ities, executive and staff personnel in public and private

agencies associated with the elderly, educational directors,

Congressmen, senior center staffs, recreation and nutri-

tion staffs, and ministers. Others who attended short-

term training courses were college students, volunteer

workers, clinical staff, nursing home personnel, nurses,

and home economists. Birren (1971) identified training

goals of short-term continuing education courses as leader-

ship training, leadership development and insight, com-

munity involvement in aging as well as the acquisition

of a basic skill in a specific subject area, i.e., Medi-

care, Meal Service, Nursing Home Administration, Legisla-

tion on Aging.

The White House Conference (1973) cited the Uni-

versities of Southern California, Kentucky, Georgia, Michi-

gan-Wayne State, and Oregon as offering intensive residen-

tial workshops throughout the year.








Continuing education courses have been utilized

to introduce students, practitioners, and researchers to

the field of aging as well as to retrain and update know-

ledge for those who are already established in gerontology.

The Training Report of the White House Conference (Birren,

1971) stated:

the federal government spent 1.3 million
dollars to support 100 extension courses
in aging in 1970 but it was not
known how many non-federally supported
short-term courses occurred yearly.
(p. 57)


Long-Term Training


Commissioner Fleming (1975) stated to the Senate

Committee on Aging that programs in educational institutions

which provided persons with long-term training in aging

were established nationally. Fleming (1975) also stated

that the most important educational program in the univer-

sity in the area of aging was still "long-term training

programs, particularly at the graduate level, that will

provide training for persons who are going to be leaders

in the field of aging when they finish their programs"

(p. 179).

Development of Constructs

The literature review on the subject of university

involvement in providing manpower training for the pro-

fessional in aging was the basis for the development of

the following constructs:









Construct.







Construct.









Construct.


Universities which choose to become
involved in educational gerontology
will be required to provide under-
graduate and graduate multidisciplin-
ary and single disciplinary programs
to prepare gerontology professionals
in the areas of research, teaching,
and direct service.

As the elderly population increases
and as its social needs become more
pronounced, universities will be re-
quired to provide general academic
and vocational classes in the area
of aging for community members and
college students in order to create
an awareness of aging and to develop
more efficient services for the el-
derly.

The continuing education or extension
component of the university will be
required to establish workshops,
training sessions, and short-term
courses to train and retrain profes-
sionals in gerontology as well as
individuals and agency staff who work
with the elderly.


The University and Educational Services
for the Elderly


DeCrow (1974) cited a need for universities to

develop programs of training and service in educational

gerontology. Emphasis, stated DeCrow, should be placed

on a cooperative effort by all colleges and departments

within a university to provide trained professionals in

research and delivery of services for the elderly. Fleming

(1975) saw a major component of university activity occur-

ring in the continuing education of professionals in aging









and the professions which served the elderly through short-

term and workshop courses. Educational services to the

elderly were peripheral to these goals. DeCrow (1974)

identified the university's role in educational gerontology

as providing training for professionals and direct educa-

tional services for the elderly only as they related to

the mission of professional training in gerontology.

Hendrickson and Barnes (1967) conducted one of

the first studies on the involvement of colleges and uni-

versities in providing educational services for the elderly.

They concluded that colleges and universities .had a re-

sponsibility to meet the educational needs of the elderly

through both the existing academic courses and the develop-

ment of continuing education courses and stated that "uni-

versities should recognize and act on this responsibility"

(p. 121).

Kauffman and Luby (1974) conducted a study of land

grant colleges and universities in order to determine the

extent of educational services extended to the elderly.

They stated, "the replies, while not overwhelming with

opportunities, did reflect an awareness of the need for

extending education to include older people" (p. 136)

Kauffman and Luby reported that 40% of those surveyed

had no programs for the elderly and no interest in develop-

ing them; 21% reported an interest in developing programs;

and 10% of those institutions polled indicated .educational








services to the elderly should be provided by community

colleges.

The universities identified by Kauffman and Luby

(1974), DeCrow (1974), and the Association for Gerontology

in Higher Education (Weg, 1975) as providing educational

services to the elderly had programs which offered general

services similar to those in the community colleges or

programs which were part of a training model for under-

graduate and graduate students in gerontology.

Beattie (1973) reported that the Syracuse Univer-

sity Center for Aging had a model for direct service to

the aged which emphasized the establishment and practice

of student relationships with the elderly. Syracuse's

Aging Center served as a residence hall for several hundred

elderly people.

The Association for Gerontology in Higher Education

(1975) identified several universities-Utah, Rhode Island,

Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, and others-as having

tuition waivers for those over 65 years of age in credit

and noncredit courses, although no special educational

services were provided for elderly students. Several other

universities were identified by the Association (Osterbind,

1975; Weg, 1975) which utilized older students as a geron-

tology laboratory for younger students.

DeCrow (1974) 'identified 350 colleges and univer-

sities with learning programs for the elderly as a part of









the established continuing education.program of the insti-

tution. In his study, DeCrow (1974) found two primary

methods for providing educational services to the elderly-

the evening program of urban universities and the extension

service of the rural or small universities.

Kauffman (1974), Mason (1974), and DeCrow (1974)

cited two innovative educational programs for the elderly:

the Institute for Retired Scholars (or some variation

thereof) and the open university. The Institute for Re-

tired Scholars offered retired professors and/or profes-

sionals an opportunity to continue a life of learning under

the guidance of emeritus professors and instructors while

the open university allowed people of all ages an oppor-

tunity to participate in educational programs regardless

of background or age.


Vocational Upgrading

Hickey and Spinetta (1974) summarized one goal of

educational services to the elderly as:

a greying of the university as
gerontologists continue to stress the
need for education, throughout the life-
span, we see more courses, seminars, and
programs dedicated to reversing profes-
sional obsolescence, to initiating second
careers, and to the fulfillment of self-
and much of what has been called higher
education-propelled to change. (p. 433)

Hickey and Spinetta (1975) were joined by Hodgkinson (1975),

Cross and Valley (1974), DeCrow (1974), Jacobs (1970) and









other authorities on education and aging in citing the need

for educational institutions to cultivate and develop the

elderly as a suitable clientele for career retraining in

the later years. Hickey and Spinetta (1975) wrote:

The old adage remains true: too soon
old, too late wise. It is often after a
person has achieved his lifetime goals of
a comfortable home, a well-paying job, a
family, and good health that he asks:
what now? After these basics are provided
for, what values are served? Do we now
have what we want? Are we the kinds of
people we wanted to be? If not, why not?
Where have we failed? Can we learn to ex-
plore the range and quality of experience
that could have been ours? Can we radic-
ally reexamine what happiness and satis-
faction really mean in terms of the inner
life of man? It is from these basic con-
cerns that questions must be formulated to
develop educational opportunities for the
elderly.

Our universities began as institutions
devoted to aiding people in their quest for
wisdom and judgment, in training persons
to unite experience and knowledge in their
search for human fulfillment. Somewhere
along the way the universities have deviated
to the preservation and pursuit.of separate
branches of knowledge which are peripher-
ally involved in the integration of knowl-
edge with living. It is time to reshape
the goals of the university toward aiding
the individual in his need to integrate
his living and his earning.

In large part, the institutional re-
sponse is becoming a forced choice-one
which has been presented to use by the
changing structure and composition of the
student population. We should welcome this
choice, to serve older students, seiz-
ing it as an opportunity for the suc-
cessful future of both higher education
and the large society which it serves.
Similarly, a more specific call must go









out to academic gerontologists, who have
a professional and scientific knowledge
of adults and the development throughout
life, to take a leadership role in re-
shaping higher education's response to
the need for educational services for the
elderly. (p. 445)


Development of Constructs


The following construct on university involvement

in providing direct educational services to the elderly

was derived from the literature review on this subject:

Construct. Universities which choose to become
involved in educational gerontology
will be required to serve the educa-
tional needs of the elderly through
the ongoing academic and/or contin-
uing education classes. Universities
will not be required to provide spe-
cial educational programs for the
elderly outside the ongoing curricu-
lum.


Summary of Constructs


Each of the constructs developed in this chapter

on the involvement of public institutions of higher educa-

tion in educational gerontology is important to the future

development of educational gerontology in higher education

as it relates to the social needs of an increasing elderly

population. The constructs derived from the dominant themes

expressed in the literature of educational were presented

as a "what ought to be" for institutions of higher education

based upon the available data and' authoritative opinion.









The constructs presented in this chapter according


to dominant

Construct.







Construct.




Construct.










Construct.






Construct.





Construct.


literature themes are listed below.

As a result of the increasing elderly
population, new or expanded programs
of educational gerontology providing
both educational services for the
elderly and manpower training in aging
will be required to meet the needs of
this population group and to make life-
long learning a reality.

The elderly have special needs and
problems documented as accompanying
increased age which require special
educational programs.

After accepting the fact that the
elderly can learn, education pro-
grams developed for the elderly will
require the recognition of differen-
tial learning abilities which result
from cognitive and noncognitive life-
time experiences as well as the aging
process. These factors will require
that educational programs for the
elderly be slower paced and more in-
dividualized.

Educational participation by the el-
derly is positively associated with
continued mental and physical per-
formance while this participation in
education by the elderly is associ-
ated with previous positive educa-
tional performance.

Since research showed that the elderly
see little value in life-long learning
and that elderly participation is low,
educational institutions will be re-
quired to make positive recruitment
efforts to reach this population group.

Educational programs for the elderly
will require variety in planning and
programing in order to accommodate
the documented educational needs of
the elderly. Special attention will
be required to develop programs for















Construct.






Construct.








Construct.











Construct.


the diverse educational backgrounds
of elderly students, to utilize the
elderly as classroom resources, and
to make available credit-noncredit
class options for elderly students.

Since the elderly have indicated that
complicated admission procedures pre-
vent educational participation, edu-
cational institutions may be required
to modify or eliminate these require-
ments for the elderly if they plan to
serve them.

There are many factors related to the
physical location and arrangements of
classes, which prevent elderly partici-
pation. Alleviation of these barriers
to elderly participation will require:
daytime classes of from one to two hours
in the neighborhood of the elderly;
removal of architectural barriers;
comfortable chairs and good lighting.

If institutions of higher education
choose to become involved in provid-
ing educational programs for the
elderly, they will be required to
be cognizant of the financial limita-
tions of most elderly individuals.
These financial.limitations may pre-
vent the elderly from participating
in educational programs unless insti-
tutions support legislative action to
modify or eliminate fees for the el-
derly.

In order to be involved effectively
in gerontology manpower training,
community colleges will be required
to offer short-term certificate and
degree training programs for profes-
sionals in aging aimed at developing
immediate problem-solving skills.
These programs would meet the needs
of the .local community for aging ser-
vices and would not be exclusively
health related.









Construct.











Construct.









Construct.



Construct.















Construct.


Community colleges, in order to de-
velop campus and community awareness
of the elderly, as well as to serve
the needs of the local residents who
work or live with the elderly, will be
required to initiate a survey courses)
in aging, offer in-service and training
workshops for local professionals and
nonprofessionals in aging-related and
aging-service occupations; and insti-
gate community planning for the needs
of the elderly.

As the elderly population increases
and as their social needs become more
pronounced, community colleges will
be required to provide general aca-
demic and vocational classes in the
area of aging for community members
and college students in order to
create an awareness of aging and to
develop more efficient services for
the elderly.

Community colleges will not be re-
quired to provide direct social ser-
vice delivery for the elderly.

University involvement in educational
gerontology will require degree pro-
grams at all levels and in all areas
to prepare professionals in aging and
will require some type of direct edu-
cational services for the elderly.
The university's program will develop
from institutional goals for an aging
program. Models advanced nationally
are of three basic types: interdisci-
plinary training for the social science
professions, academic programs of clin-
ical research, or general academic
preparation for service professions
utilizing the elderly community as
a laboratory experience.

Universities which choose to become
involved in educational gerontology
will be required to provide under-
graduate and graduate multidisciplin-
ary and single disciplinary programs













Construct.









Construct.







Construct.


to prepare gerontology professionals
in the areas of research, teaching,
and direct service.

As the elderly population increases c aei
and as its social needs become more /
pronounced, universities will be re--fr''
quired to provide general academic
and vocational classes in the area
of aging for community members and
college students in order to create
an awareness of aging and to develop
more efficient services for the el-
derly.

The continuing education or extension
component of the university will be
required to establish workshops,
training sessions, and short-term
courses to train and retrain profes-
sionals in gerontology as well as
individuals and agency staff who
work with the elderly.

Universities which choose to become
involved in educational gerontology
will be required to serve the educa-
tional needs of the elderly through
the ongoing academic and/or contin-
uing education classes. Universities
will not be required to provide spe-
cial educational programs for the
elderly outside the ongoing curricu-
lum.














CHAPTER III

FINDINGS FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA



Introduction



This chapter presents the data collected from the

public institutions of higher education in Florida in

order to establish the extent of their involvement in

educational gerontology, i.e., the training of profes-

sionals in gerontology and the provisions of direct educa-

tional services to the elderly. In order to simplify the

data presentation on the training opportunities in geron-

tology and direct educational services available for the

elderly in Florida's public community colleges and univer-

sities, to prepare a foundation for a later analysis of

the existing activity, and to make a conceptual framework

based upon this existing activity in educational geron-

tology, the following procedure was used:

1. Questionnaire items were grouped in topo-

graphical categories within the two facets of educational

gerontology: training opportunities for the professional

and educational services for the elderly.

2. Responses were compiled for community colleges

and universities according to a percentage basis of









positive and negative answers. These percentages were

rounded in order to provide for 100 percent response.

No response answers were recorded as such. In instances

where a series of questions was given to the respondents,

answers were compiled and presented in descending order

of occurrence.


Institutional Support for
Educational Gerontology


Length of Educational Services to Elderly


Table 6 indicates the overall length of time of

institutional participation in providing direct educational

services to the elderly in the public institutions of

higher education in Florida. As defined previously direct

educational services to the elderly means institutional

provisions of classes, seminars and other educational

experiences for the elderly within the framework of the

existing academic or community service program.

Community college responses indicated that 4% had

begun to provide educational services for the elderly

during the year of the study. There was no indication

that a community college did not provide services to the

elderly; however, 8% of those polled did not respond to

the survey item. The remaining responses by community

colleges indicated that 61% had been providing educational








Table 6

Time Length of Institutional Participation
in Educational Gerontology



Community
Colleges Universities
No. % No. %

Does Not Provide

Less than One Year 1 4 1 11

One to Five 17 61 2 22

Five or More 8 29 6 67

No Answer 2 8



services for the elderly from one to five years while 29%

had been involved in education for the elderly for more

than five years. It is important to note here that one

community college was established in 1972.

A compilation of the university responses to this

item showed that 11% had been providing educational services

for the elderly less than one year. Twenty-two percent in-

dicated that their institution had provided services from

one to five years, and 67% evidenced involvement for more

than five years. Here, too, attention must be given to the

fact that two universities have joined the state system

during the 1970's. Community college and university re-

sponses to this item indicated that all public institutions

in Florida had provided some type of educational services

for the elderly population of this state.








Interest in Expanding Educational Services to the Elderly


Table 7 contains those data for expanding, educa-

tional services to the elderly of Florida through public.

institutions of higher education.


Table 7

Institutional Interest in Providing Further
Educational Services for the Elderly




Community
Colleges Universities
No. % No. %

Planning Underway 13 46 4 44

Some Interest Exists 9 32 3 33

Might Consider 5 18 2 11

Too Involved

Not Appropriate

Not At All

No

No Answer 1 4




Of the 28 public community colleges in Florida,

46% indicated that ongoing planning was occurring while

32% evidenced an expressed interest in providing educa-

tional services to the elderly. Eighteen percent









indicated that consideration might be given to providing

educational programs for the elderly. No community college

indicated a disinterest in these services nor did any

feel that this type of service was inappropriate.

The responses made by the nine public universities

in Florida showed 44% were now involved in planning for

further educational services to the elderly. Another 33%

indicated that interest existed in entering this field

while 11% indicated that their institution might consider

such services. As with the community college responses,

there were no indications made by university respondents

that the provision of educational services to the elderly

was either inappropriate or not a priority item.


Training for Professions in Gerontology


Table 8 presents the overall responses by community

colleges and universities as to the institutional interest

in developing training programs for the professional in

gerontology. As previously defined, these training pro-

grams included certificate, diploma, degree, and graduate

training in all areas of gerontology.

Responses from the community colleges indicated

that 25% were currently providing for training experiences

for professionals to serve the elderly while another 35%

evidenced an interest in planning this training area.

Eighteen percent of the respondents indicated that they




87





Table 8

Training the Professional in Gerontology'




Community
Colleges Universities
No. % No. %

Planning Underway 7 25 5 55

Some Interest Exists 10 35 2 22

Might Consider 5 18 2 22

Too Involved 1 4

Not Appropriate 2 7

Not at All 2 7

No Answer 1 4





might consider offering training experiences in geron-

tology while 4% indicated that other priorities were

such that no current interest in developing educational

gerontology existed. Seven percent of the community col-

leges answered that institutional involvement in training

individuals to serve the elderly was inappropriate for

their institution. Likewise 7% expressed that there was

absolutely no interest or plans for entering this area of

educational gerontology. Four percent did not respond to

this item.









University responses as to involvement in training

the professional in educational gerontology showed that

55% of the institutions were currently offering training

and planning for further programs in this area. Interest

in developing training experiences was indicated by 22%

of the universiites while the remaining 22% indicated that

they might consider programming in this area.


Educational Services to the Elderly


Tables 9-12 contain the data which show what types

of educational opportunities were provided for the elderly

by the public community colleges and universities of

Florida. Following this summary of the institutional ac-

tivity in educational gerontology are tables which docu-

ment the curriculum and the structure of the existing ser-

vices and programs in educational gerontology for the

elderly, at the time of the study. This section of the

analysis is concluded by an examination of the problems

identified by institutions in providing educational ser-

vices to the elderly and an analysis of the number of

elderly participants in these services.


Types of Educational Opportunities for the Elderly

Special courses for the elderly. Table 9 shows

responses as to whether special courses designed for the

elderly were provided by an institution.








Table 9

Special Courses Designed for Elderly


Yes No
No. % No. %

Community Colleges 19 68 9 32

Universities 3 32 6 68




Sixty-eight percent of the public community col-

leges in Florida indicated that they provided some type

of educational experience designed to meet the special

needs of the elderly, while 32% indicated that no such

courses) existed. University responses showed that 32%

provided some type of special courses) while 68% indi-

cated no activity in special programming for the elderly.

General courses open to all ages. The provision

of special courses for the elderly documented in Table 9

is contrasted to the responses documented in Table 10

which show institutional activity in providing the elderly

an opportunity to participate in courses of general in-

terest open to all ages.

In response to this item 89% of the community

colleges stated that the elderly were participants in

general courses open to all age groups while 11% indicated