FARM ING SYSTEMS
JANUARY MARCH 1988
CONTENTS FSNL No 32 JANUARY MARCH 1988
- On-Farm Trial Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Workshop for Agronomists ....................... 2
- Crop Livestock Interaction Workshop ....................... 2
OTHER MEETINGS AND NEWS ITEMS
- International Conference on Dryland Farming ............... 2
- Development Project Evaluation Seminar .................... 2
- Organization and Management of Agricultural Extension
Systems: A New Look at Knowledge Transfer ................. 3
- Visiting Study Fellowship ................................. 4
- The Use of Microcomputers for Survey Analysis and
Processing ......... ......... ....... ........... 7
- The Use of Microcomputer for Report Preparation and
Data Analysis ......................................... ....... 8
- New Bibliography Published .................. 10
- Program Announcement and Call for Papers, Farming
Systems Research/Extension Symposium ...................... 11
- LOOKING AT SORGHUM IN THE VALLEY AREAS OF LUSAKA PROVINCE
Cassim Masi ............. ... ...... ............ ... ....... 13
- IMPROVING SMALL SCALE FARMERS' MAIZE PRODUCTION IN ZAMBIA:
EXPERIENCES IN COLLABORATION BETWEEN COMMODITY RESEARCH,
ADAPTIVE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION WORKERS.
R. Edwards, P. Gibson, S. Kean, C. Lubasi and
J. Waterworth ............ ......... .. .............. 19
- International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI ....... 39
- North Carolina State University ........................... 39
ON-FARM TRIAL DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND REPORTING WORKSHOP FOR AGRONOMISTS.
This meeting, sponsored by CIMMYT and the University of Zimbabwe, will be held at the University of Zimbabwe, Harare, from 30 May to 10 June, 1987.
CROP LIVESTOCK INTERACTION WORKSHOP
This workshop will take place at the Mandela Training Centre, Marlborough, Harare, Zimbabwe, from 27 June to 1 July, 1988.
Notification and call for participation in the above
meetings was sent to the Director of Agricultural Research (or the equivalent officer) in national programmes of the region. Only participants who have been nominated by their national Director can be considered.
OTHER IMETINGS AND NEWS ITEMS
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DRYLAND FARMING
August 15 to 19, 1988. Amarillo/Bushland, Texas. USA
The purpose of the conference is to evaluate past progress in dryland agriculture, identify constraints, propose methods and technologies needed to alleviate those constraints, propose policies and programmes for more effective technology transfer, and identify research needs and priorities for dryland agriculture. For further details contact International Conference on Dryland Farming, USDA Conservation and Production, Research Laboratory, P.O. Drawer 10, Bushland, Texas 79012, USA.
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT EVALUATION SEMINAR
September 12 23, 1988, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
This seminar is designed to enhance the participant's abilities to design and use evaluations, conceptualize evaluation options, strengthen and focus implementation skills, design and monitor more effective projects and programs, and work with policy-makers and project staff to increase the effectiveness and accountability of projects.
The course will include attention to all the steps in a
project evaluation, from initial conceptualization through design and data collection to utilization of the findings for program improvement and policy decision-making. A variety of approaches and methods will be presented.
Senior and middle level personnel such as chief technical officers, planning and evaluation personnel, rural development officers, program directors, project managers, and others with responsibility for decision-making, policy-planning or fund allocation for new and/or ongoing processes, and determining the extent to which programs and projects are meeting goals and objectives. A statistical or research background is not required. Registration space is limited.
The cost of the seminar is US$ 1800 per individual. This includes course fees, class materials, transportation between lodging and course site, a field trip, and a one year membership in the American Evaluation Association. Costs not included are airfare, airport transfers, lodging, meals, and any personal transportation taken during the stay.
For more information contact Dr. Fred Hoe fer, Minnesota ExYtension Service, 405 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles Avenue, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Telephone: (612)625-4757. Telex/TWX: 5106013001 INT AG STP UQ.
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SYSTEMS: A
NEW LOOK AT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER
September 5 September 30, 1988, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA
This four-week course, to be presented in English, will be taught by the internationally experienced staff members of INTERPAKS, the International Program for Agricultural Knowledge Systems of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Participants should hold extension administrative positions or be teachers of extension or administration or be in training for such positions.
Participants will complete individualized special projects that are relevant to their home country situations under the guidance of the short-course instructors. The course should improve participants' abilities to understand the criteria for an effective extension service, analize existing systems to determine weaknesses and to organize remedial actions, manage an extension system so that positive relationships and ties with research and other groups are maintained.
The course will be offered September 5 September 30, 1988.
Participants should arrive on September 4 and depart on October 1. Names and biographical data of participants should be submitted by July 15, 1988. Participants should have a round-trip ticket from their home to Champaign, Illinois. Once travel schedule is firm please telex arrival date, time and flight number so that housing and transportation from airport can be arranged.
The course fee of US$ 2,550 covers training costs, university health services, transportation during the course, instructional materials, and computer time. International travel and living expenses are not included in t 'his fee. The suggested living allowance is US$ 1,820 (US$ 65 per day), plus US$ 100 for books, mailing, photocopying, etc. This allowance should be given directly to the participant by his/her sponsor. Course fees should be remitted in the form of a check payable to the University of Illinois. Participants must arrange their own financial support. INTERPAKS does not provide scholarships.
Because of the high interest in this short course, we urge individuals who want to participate to apply without delay by letter, telex or cable to: John W. Santas, INTERPAKS Training Officer, University of Illinois, 113 Mumford Hall, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. Telephone, 217-333-3638, Telex, 206957, Cable, INTSOY.
VISITING STUDY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMME.
September to December 1988, Food Studies Group, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
The Food Studies Group ((FSG) is part of the International Development Centre at Queen Elizabeth House, a department of Oxford University. Its main objective is to strengthen the capacity of Third World institutions to improve food security, through the generation and analysis of information related to food and agricultural policy. In this connection and as part of FSG's overall training work, the Group will offer a Visiting Study Fellowship Programme between September and December 1988. This residential course of individual study at the University of Oxford has been held each year since 1983.
The programme is designed for people who deal with food policy, the use of information for food sector planning, or the management of food and nutrition programmes in the Third World. Visiting Study Fellows have access to the academic resources of the University of Oxford and receive tuition and guidance from the Food Studies Group. Coming to Oxford offers the chance of more intensive study than is possible under normal working conditions. The course of study linked to tutorials and seminars
will enable the results of academic research to be made relevant to the practical problems facing policy makers in Third World countries. The practical project necessitates in-depth investigation of a particular issue, using data from the Fellow's country.
The Visiting Study Fellow Programme is not a formally taught course. It allows Fellows to pursue independent study with guidance and tuition from FSG members and other specialists. The programme is therefore very flexible and can ber tailored to individual needs. The topics to be studied are decided by consultations between FSG, the study fellow and the sponsoring organization.
Visiting Study Fellows are welcome in Oxford during the period of September to December 1988. The exact starting and finishing dates of the programmes for individual participants within this eighteen week period are flexible. It is recommended however that Fellows are in Oxford for at least the duration of one University term to enable them to take full advantage of the facilites available. Term dates for 1988 are 9th October to 3rd December.
Each Fellow is required to complete a practical project. This is usually done in the last four weeks after study has been made of selected topics in several areas. The nature of the project will depend upon the needs and interests of the Fellow, and the requirements of the sponsoring organisation. Where possible a working title will be decided upon in consultation with their supervisor in Oxford before the Fellow arrives, and material and data should be brought to assist in the project report before they leave Oxford to be sent to their sponsoring organization or funding agency.
Fellows will follow a course of study which is directed by means of tutorials and'seminars. As a larg part of their time will be spent in private reading and research it is important that potential study Fellowa be capable of working independently. Each Fellow will have a personal supervisor for the duration of their fellowship. All Fellows automatically become members of Queen Elizabeth House and as such can attend the wide range of lectures, tutorials and seminars on development issues run within the University. Troughout the Fellowship the emphasis will be placed upon practical work. Fellows will be given access to FSG's microcomputer and the facilities of the Oxford University Computing Service. Training can be provided in programming techniques and in particular in the use of microcomputers for data processing and survey analysis.
Visiting Study Fellows are normally resident at Queen
Elizabeth House which privides single study bedrooms and breakfast. Should accomodation at Queen Elizabeth House be oversubscribed, alternative arrangements will be made by FSG.
Visiting Study Fellows are usually from middle and senior level personnel in government, parastatal organizations and development agencies (including NGO's). The training is multidisciplinary and particularly suited to the needs of economists, planners, statisticians, nutritional planners, and agriculturalists. Although no formal qualifications are required it is expected that most Fellows will have attended a university, polytechnic or similar institution. All fellows must be proficient in English to derive full benefit from the programme.
The exact cost of the programme will depend on how long the Fellow spends in Oxford. Assuming that a Fellow is resident for twelve weeks the basic cost will be 3990 Pounds Sterling. This includes tuition fees and accomodation. Donors should also provide an allowance for meals, travel, books, warm clothing, and other sundry expenses.
Application should be made by letter, in English, containing the following information:
- title, family name, other names, sex, date of birth,
- full address for correspondence;
- details of education: college or university attended,
qualifications gained with dates and subjects of
- relevant work experience prior to present job;
- details of present post with an .outline of
responsibilities and an indication of how the proposed
training will benefit future work plans;
- organisations approached to seek funds and the results of
these approaches (e.g. funds applied for, expected,
Applicants should enclose a letter of support from their employer. They will be advised of their suitability for the programme when all this information is received. A firm offer of a place can only be made after confirmation of finance has been received form a recognised funding agency.
Please send applications, or request for more information to: The VSF Programme Organiser, The Food Studies Group, Queen Elizabeth House, 21 st Giles, Oxford OXi 3LA, United Kingdom. Telephone: (0865) 270262, Telex 83147 viaor g Ref: FOODSTATS.
THE USE OF MICROCOMPUTERS FOR SURVEY ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING. A SEVEN-WEEK RESIDENTIAL COURSE IN OXFORD
June 27th to August 12th, 1988, Food Studies Group, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM.
This course, the first in a two-part series, will cover the principles underlying the design, implementation and analysis of multi-purpose surveys. Applicable software running on IBM PC or AT compatible computers will be considered in detail, including instruction in the use of dBASE III PLUS and SPSS/PC+.
The course will consist of six modules:
1. Introduction to Computers and MS/DOS.
2Survey Methods and Design: questionnaire design, sample
design and code blocks.
3. Data Entry and Validation: introduction to dBASE II PLUS,
customised data entry forms, data organization, retrieval
and editing, management of data entry and validation.
4. Production and Tables and Surveys Estimates: introduction
to SPSS/PC+, calculating surveys estimates, simple
5. Preliminary Data Analysis: frequencies, descriptives and
6. Individual Project Work (one week).
Each participant will have the use of a microcomputer which will also be available outside the timetabled course hours. A variety of teaching methods will be used including video training films to provide background information and further training in basic techniques. In addition, disk-based tutorials for software packages will be available, with a typing tutor, for those who wish to practise on their own. The first six weeks will consist of formal teaching and practical sessions, of progressively more complex exercises. The major stages of survey design and processing will be considered through the development of a specific case study. Participants will also undertake project work related to their own situation either individually or in small groups. In order to do this, material such as questionnaires or data on disks should be brought from the participant' s country.
This course is the first part of an integrated 13 week programme. It will be followed by "The Use of Microcomputers for Report Preparation and Analysis". Either course can be taken individually, but it is recommended that participants, where possible, do both. The topics considered in the second course follow on directly from those covered by the first. A separate brochure is available for the second course.
The most suitable applicants are those who are involved in planning, processing or the use of survey data in Government or parastatal institutions. The course does not assume previous experience in the use of computers but it is essential that applicants have access to a suitable computer and relevant software on their return. Participants must be proficient in English as all teaching will be in this medium.
The fee for this course is 3450 Pounds Sterling, which includes single bed and breakfast accommodation in Oxford. Participants will also require a living allowance to cover midday and evening meals as well as other incidental expenses. Fees are normally payable in Pounds Sterling to the Food Studies Group. They may also be paid in US dollars at an exchange rate set six weeks prior to the start of the course.
The number of places is limited to twelve to ensure personal instruction and a friendly atmosphere. Applications must be received before April 27th, 1988. Notification of acceptance will be sent by May 4th, 1988. Payment in full should be received by June 13th 1988, after which time there will be a 10% cancellation fee.
For further information please write to: The Training Coordinator, The Food Studies Group; Queen Elizabeth House, 21 St Giles, Oxford OXi 3LA, United Kingdom. Telephone: (0865) 270262,
Telex: 83147 viaor g Ref: FOODSTATS.
THE USE OF MICROCOMPUTERS FOR REPORT PREPARATION AND DATA ANALYSIS, A RESIDENTIAL SIX-WEEK COURSE IN OXFORD.
August 15th to September 23rd, 1988. Food Studies Group. Quenn Elizabeth House, University of Oxford. UNITED KINGDOM.
The course will cover the principles of data analysis and presentation, leading to the compilation of clear reports.
It will consist of four modules:
1. Data Analysis: general principles of data examination and
analysis, and use of appropriate statistical techniques.
2. Data Presentation: design of tables, using a spreadsheet
(Lotus 1-2-3), when and how to use graphs, producing graphs on the computer, overview of graphics software,
and details of one graphics package.
3. Writing Reports: structure and content, using a
wordprocessor (WordPerfect), procedures for combining output from different packages into a report, and
introduction to desktop publishing.
4. Individual Project Work.
Each participant will have the use of a microcomputer which will also be available outside timetabled course hours. A variety of teaching methods will be used including video training films to provide background information and further training in basic techniques. In addition, disk-based tutorials for software packages will be available, with a typing tutor, for those who wish to practise on their own. The first five weeks will consist of formal teaching and practical sessions of progressively more complex exercises. Participants will also undertake project work, either individually or in small groups. In order to do this, appropriate materials, such as data on disks or questionnaires should be brought from the participant's country.
This course forms the second part of an integrated thirteen week programme during the summer of 1988. Participants may attend both courses and the material is designed to provide continuity throughout.
The most suitable applicants are those who prepare reports using data in a planning or managerial context in a Government or parastatal institution. It is essential that participants are proficient in English as all teaching will be in this medium. The course does assume some previous experience in the use of computers and it is essential that applicants have access to a suitable computer and relevant software when they return to their organisation.
The fee for the six week course is 2965 Pounds Sterling. This includes the cost of single bed and breakfast which will be provided in Oxford. Participants will also require a living allowance during their stay in Oxford, to cover midday and evening meals as well as other incidental expenses. Fees are normally payable in Pounds Sterling to FSG. They may also be paid in US dollars at an exchange rate set six weeks prior to the start of the course. Applications must be received before June 20th, 1988 when the selection of candidates will be made. The number of places on the course will be limited to twelve to ensure personal instruction and a friendly atmosphere. Notification of acceptance will be sent by June 27th, 1988, and payment in full should be received by 31st July. A 10% cancellation fee will be payable by participants who withdraw after this date.
For further information please write to: The Training Coordinator, The Food Studies Group, Queen Elizabeth House, 21 St. Giles, Oxford OXi 3LA, United Kingdom. Telephone: (0865) 270262, Telex: 83147 viaor g Ref: FOOODSTATS.
NEW BIBLIOGRAPHY PUBLISHED
a)LAND TENURE, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
compiled by Beverly R. Phillips, Librarian, with Teresa J. Anderson and the LTC Library Staff.
The Land Tenure Center Library has prepared a new bibliography of materials added to its collection from 1982 through 1985. The bibliography includes numerous reports, government documents and unpublished studies, as well as journal articles and more traditional literature. The bibliography provides an excellent supplement to the Training and Methods series, which is no longer published. Subjects covered include not only land tenure, agrarian reform and agrarian structure, but also women in development, rural employment, small farms, income distribution, peasantry, agricultural cooperatives, settlement schemes, and many other aspects of agricultural economics and rural development in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Oceania.
We are providing this bibliography in a number of formats for your convenience. The price reflects only our reproduction cost. We are sorry that we are unable to make this bibliography available on exchange.
COMPLETE SET, US$ 82.50 (7717 citations, subject, author, title, institutional, conference, series and geographic indexes).
COMPLETE CITATIONS, US$ 47.00 (7717 citations, geographic arrangement, no indexes).
AFRICA SECTION, US$ 11.00 (1687 citations, by country).
ASIA SECTION, US$ 10.00 (1605 citations, by country).
LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN SECTION, US$ 15.00 (2585 citations,
b)LAND. TREES AND TENURE, Proceedings of an International Workshop on Tenure Issues in Agroforestry.
This volume is an outcome of a three-day workshop held in Nairobi in 1985, convened jointly by LTC and ICRAF (the International Council for Research in Agroforestry) and funded by the Ford Foundation. The Workshop brought together for the first time researchers from Africa, Latin America, and Asia who have been exploring the impact of tenure in trees and land on
agroforestry projects and programs. This was an unprecedented focusing of expertise on these issues, and the sharing of
experience generated important new insights and practical approaches.
The Proceedings include five background papers commisioned for the Workshop: James C. Riddell on "Land Tenure and
Agroforestry: A Regional Overview"; Louise Fortmann on "Tree
Tenure: An Analytical Framework for Agroforestry Projects"; John B. Raintree on "Agroforestry, Tropical Land Use and Tenure", Dianne E. Rocheleau on "Women, Trees and Tenure: Implications for Agroforestry Research and Development"; and John W. Bruce and Raymond Noronha on "Land Tenure Issues in the Forestry and
Agroforestry Projects Contexts". There are also 23 regional position papers by participants from Africa, Asia and Latinamerica. The volume concludes with the reports of eight working groups and a postscript by John Bruce and Louise Fortmann on "Tenurial Aspects of Agroforestry: Research Priorities". Price: US$ 15.00 *
To order copies of a) or b) send check in US dollars or an international money order to Land Tenure Center, 1300 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA.
* Now available at a special price when ordering LAND, TREES AND TENURE is TREES AND TENURE: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR AGROFORESTERS AND OTHERS, produced jointly by LTC and ICRAF, January 1985. Both items may be purchased for US$ 20.00.
PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR PAPERS FARMING SYSTEMS
October 9 12, 1988, The University of Arkansas in collaboration with Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development.
The eigth annual Farming Systems Research/Extension Symposium, hosted by the University of Arkansas in collaboration with Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, will be held at the Center for Continuing Education at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, October 9 12, 1988.
1988 Themes and Structure.
The 1988 Symposium will examine "Contributions of FSR/E Towards Sustainable Agricultural Systems", first regionally and then globally across the following sub-themes:
- FSR/E Accomplishements in the Field
- Methodologies for Assessing the Impact of FSR/E
- Gender and Intra-Household issues in FSR/E
- The Role of Information/Communication Systems in FSR/E
- Special Topics
Special training courses, such as the 1987 "Microcomputer Applications", will once again be offered prior to and following the Symposium, both at the University of Arkansas and at the other institutions, and will be advertised as they are developed. The symposium itself will officially open with a reception Sunday night, October 9, and adjourn Wednesday evening, October 12, 1988.
Feedback from the 1987 Symposium indicated a strong desire to focus upon FSR/E from a regional perspective, allowing more attention to the details of concrete systems environments. On Monday, October 10, 1988, therefore, there will be four current programs, each focusing upon the sub-themes above within one of the following regions: Africa, Latin America, Asia\Near East, and United States. Tuesday and Wednesday, October 11 12, the sub-themes will be addressed from a broader global perspective. Emphasis will be placed on presentations which offer a synthesis or over-view of issues within a given sub-theme, cutting across regional differences.
For further information please contact: Ms. Pam Styles,
Symposium Coordinator, International Agricultural Programs Office, 300 Hotz Hall, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
Arkansas, 72701, USA (Tel. 501-575-6857).
LOOKING AT SORGHUM IN THE VALLEY AREAS
OF LUSAKA PROVINCE
Coordinator and Agronomist
ARPT-Southern Province, Zambia
Sorghum is an important crop for small scale farmers in the dry areas of Zanbia. However, until recently sorghum has
received little attention from plant breeders or agronomists in Zambia. Sorghum is well adapted to a wide range of ecological conditions and is well known for its ability to produce good yields of grain under low rainfall conditions. Zambian OFR agronomists are beginning to look at sorghum because of its stability of yield in dry areas and its good performance with few inputs.
The history of sorghum improvement in Zambia can be traced back to 1968 when three varieties; Framida, Lulimbagulila (an improved local variety), and 17/57 were recommended for cultivation. Framida was, found suitable for commercial production while Lulimbagulila and 17/57 were suitable for
subsistance production. With the establishment of the sorghum/millet section in the Research Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture, one more improved, non-photosensitive, cultivar has been produced, namely Zambia Sorghum Variety 1 (ZSV1). ZSV1 is a white seeded sorghum that is suitable for food, feed or brewing. It is of medium height which is an advantage for bird scaring.
However, while this progress has been made on developing improved sorghum varieties, very little continues to be known about indigenous local sorghums and how they might contribute to future breeding efforts. In an attempt to add to this knowledge these notes summarise some of our findings on local sorghums during survey work in the valley areas of Lusaka Province.
Areas of Sorghum Production in Lusaka Province
Sorghum has been shown to outyield maize in the low
rainfall, low elevation areas of Lusaka Province and tends to be grown in these areas. The main growing areas for sorghum in
Lusaka Province are Chief Shikabeta's area in the Luano Valley, parts of Rufunsa and Chief Chiawa's area in the Zambezi valley. In these areas sorghum is the principal food crop. The sorghums grown are mostly the indigenous long season type. A range of local cultivars are grown, each with different qualities that farmers prefer like grain colour and taste. 'Exotic' improved sorghum varieties developed at the Mount Makalu Research Station are rarely grown in these areas, in part because the seeds are not available at the local depots. However, it is envisaged that the use of early maturing cultivars of sorghum within these areas would provide more food early in the growing season, a time of food deficit.
Traditional Methods of Growing Local Sorghum
Traditionally, sorghum is either mono-cropped on permanent fields and rotated occasionally with maize, or intercropped with pumpkins or cowpeas on the uplands. Local sorghum is dry planted (in October November) before the beginning of the rainy season. Replanting of the crop may be done if there is poor emergence as a result of lack of moisture or due to pest damage. Planting is on the flat and the crop is spaced in irregular hills. A large number of seeds per hole are sown, and after emergence no thinning is carried out. As a result, over five plants per hill may be found in the field. Weeding is done at least twice, depending on the infestation and soil type.
Local sorghum is said to withstand low fertility and for this reason farmers do not normally apply fertilizer. Hence it is a preferred crop to plant after soil fertility has been depleted by a previous maize crop.
Harvesting starts by slashing the crop, using a small knife or hoe. The mature plants are cut and left in the field with the head exposed to the sun to dry. Drying in the field takes about one week. When dry, panicles are cut below the grain-bearing portion, sun-dried again and then either stored on open platforms or put into cribs unthreshed. Threshing is done if and when required. The stems of the crop are left in the field and burned towards the end of the dry season. Some farmers indicated using stalks for fencing, thatching and making mats.
Local Sorghum Varieties Grown
The names of local sorghums in Lusaka Province, their characteristics and locations are indicated in Table 1. The local sorghum varieties are typically large, tall plants (over 3m height) and are adapted to growing without fertilizer. They are photosensitive and their headings concides with the end of the rains, while grain filling occurs under an accumulating water
deficit. The local varieties have an extended pre-anthesis phase and reach physiological maturity in about 180 days.
Present local varieties are said to produce less than 0.5 t/ha of grain yield under farmer conditions (interim lima
recommendation chart), but an assessment of local sorghum grain yield in farmers' fields in Chiawa and Rufunsa areas by the
Lusaka Province Adaptive Research Planning team indicated an
average yield of 3.0 t/ha. The range of grain yield was
approximately 1-5 t/ha (Table 2). These ARPT data, gathered from 1 m2 samples, indicate local sorghums are capable of quite high yields without fertilizer. Thus there seems to be some potential of the local varieties under very low management.
Good palatability is another important factor which is
associated with the local sorghums. The pericarp color of two popular cultivars (Nyakapeela and Mbweende) is mainly white, which is greatly preferred. The thickness of the mesocarp is important and cultivars which give a high proportion of bran when milled tend to be unpopular.
Consumption of sorghum is mainly in the form of flour that is made into a thick porridge called nshima and may be served with vegetables, fish, meat or stew. The white grain type seem to be more acceptable for making nshima than the red ones which are popular for beer brewing.
The most common varieties in the valley areas for beer production are Kapile and Kambiyombyo. These two varieties are early maturing. Their seeds are generally brown to reddish brown and have a floury endosperm with bitter taste.
The other important aspect of grain quality is that associated with resistance to insect pest attack. Most of the local sorghums have corneous grains which tend to be more
resistant to weevils in store and can be more easily separated from the bran by pounding.
Birds, especially quelea, represent the biggest problem for the white sweet grained sorghum. Wild pigs and monkeys also
attack sorghum at the head formation time, usually at the dough stage. Control of these pests is difficult because of the long time to maturity for the local sorghums. The length of time spent in protecting sorghum from either birds or game is too demanding (scaring of birds lasts for many weeks). Farmers often leave their homestead to sleep in the field to help scare birds and animals away both night and day.
As regards insect pests, the most serious one indicated by farmers is the armoured cricket, which eats the grains from the
soft dough stage until maturity and harvest. Some farmers kill the crickets physically but this method is not at all practical.
The most serious disease of local sorghum is head smut, locally known around Rufunsa area as 'Nkhonya'. The infected head appears to be covered with black thick soot. Local farmers have no means of controlling this disease.
The local sorghums should not be completely ignored as they possess qualities which the farmers prefer. What needs to be done is to investigate how serious and widespread head smut is in these areas and then improve the local varieties so that they become free of this disease. The local cultivars with good qualities should be studied further and may be useful as sources of germplasm in the Zambian sorghum breeding programme.
There is need to evaluate the performance of the exotic, improved sorghums under farmer conditions and agronomic work needs to be extended to local sorghums as well.
Better and less tedious methods of control, especially of armoured crickets and birds, need to be found to alleviate the labour bottleneck that occurs for these farmers pre-harvest.
There is no doubt that improved sorghum cultivars like ZSV1 have a role to play in the valley areas where rainfall is erratic, but local sorghums must also play a mayor role. What is clear is the dependence on maize in these areas will only perpetuate hunger due to crop failure. Sorghum is the crop that will reduce the food shortage in the valley areas of Lusaka Province and therefore more attention must be diverted to the development of the crop.
The author wishes to acknowledge Dr. Bholanath Verma, Sorghum/Millet Coordinator and Mr. R. Edwards, agronomist ARPT Lusaka Province for their useful comments in the preparation of this article. Thanks are also extended to the farmers of Lusaka Rural District for their valuable contributions.
Table 1. Some Local Sorghums, their Names, Characteristics and Location where described.
Local Sorghum Name Characteristics Location
Mbweende White grained, preferred for Luangwa
food and beer (long maturing)
Longwe White grained and long season Luangwa,
(very similar to Mpande) Chiawa Kapile Red type, preferred for beer Luangwa
Nyakapeela White grained, preferred for Rufunsa
Mpande Long maturing, white with Rufunsa
black husk, tastes sweet
Kambiyombyo Red type, early maturing Luangwa
Mbeende White, early maturing Luangwa
Nyaombwe Characteristics not obtained Rufunsa
Kasela Characteristics not obtained Rufunsa
Table 2. Some Yields of Farmer Grown Local Sorghum Sampled from Small Scale Farmers in Chiawa and Rufunsa Areas Area Farmer Variety Grown No. Samples Yield Kg/ha
Chiawa Fl Longwe 5 4970
F2 Longwe 5 960
F3 Longwe 4 1540
F4 Longwe 5 1840
Rufunsa F1 Nyaombwe 2 1760
F2 Nyakapyela 2 5200
F3 Kasela 2 2730
F4 Kasela 2 3030
F5 Mpande 2 3430
Note these varieties were grown without any fertilizer.
IMPROVING SMALL SCALE FARMERS' MAIZE PRODUCTION
IN ZAMBIA: EXPERIENCES IN COLLABORATION BETWEEN COMMODITY
RESEARCH. ADAPTIVE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION WORKERS.
R. Edwards, P. Gibson, S. Kean,
c. Lubasi and J. Waterworth
Current policy of the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) aims to increase the productivity of the rural sector and in particular that of small scale farmers who compromise some 85% of rural households. With maize being a major starch staple and an important source of income for many households much attention has been given to ways of increasing production. Overall,
government policy aims to achieve self sufficiency in maize, with sufficient reserves for drought years, such as the 1981-1984
Maize is the dominant subsistence and commercial crop in Zambia, with most rural households and many urban households as well growing at least some maize. Current official estimates indicate that approximately 600,000 households cultivate a total of 500,000 600,000 hectares of maize which produces a total national output slightly over 1,000,000 tonnes, of which 600,000
- 700,000 are marketed through the official marketing agencies. Provisional estimates indicate that the total amount of maize produced in 1985 was approxiamtely 1,110,000 tonnes, of which 640,000 was marketed through official channels.
On account of its importance in Zambia the task of improving maize production receives more research and extension effort than any other crop. Among Commodity Research Teams in the Research Branch of the Department of Agriculture, the Maize Research Team is the largest, employing 12 professional officers. In addition, a major part of the work of the Adaptive Research Planning Teams' work is also addressing problems associated with maize production and more than 80% of the Teams' trials involve maize either wholly or partially. Similarly, the number of extension demonstrations relate to maize production outnumbers those for any other crop.
The purpose of this paper is to explain how the current
Department of Agriculture has been reorganized in order to ensure that agricultural research and extension efforts are relevant to the needs of Zambia's small scale farmers. The paper highlights how the process of technology generation and dissemination in Zambia brings together commodity and adaptive scientists with extension workers. This collaborative process is illustrated in the paper by examining the achievements of maize research and
extension in Zambia.
PART ONE REORGANIZATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STRUCTURE TO IMROVE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN ZAMBIA
Reason for reorganizing
Most agricultural research in Zambia, particularly crop research, is conducted by the Research Branch of the Department of Agriculture. Until the early 1980's most of the agricultural research was carried out under separate disciplines (e.g. plant breeding, agronomy, etc). Whilst this work was succesful in enabling large scale commercial farmers to produce and maintain high yields (around 5 tonnes per hectare for maize), yields from small scale and subsistence farmers were not greatly increased. Before 1980, much of the research was undertaken on research stations under quite different conditions from those facing small scale farmers. Results of this research found that maize yields of up to 7 8 tonnes per hectare could be obtained in the most favourable agro-ecological zones.
However, much of the research work appeared to be by-passing most subsistence and small scale farmers. This was disturbing as, some 85% of the rural households in Zambia are small scale farmers. Furthermore, work in Zambia has shown that much of the potential for increasing crop production lies with the small scale farmers, whose yields show great variation (from 1/4 to 6 tonnes reported for maize) and therefore have clear potential for improvement.
The reasons why research recommendations generally have not been as widely adopted by small scale farmers as had been hoped, has been attributed to three main problems:'
1. Ineffective research programme formulation with
insufficient on-farm research and ignorance of farmer
2. Single crop or activity approach rather than a whole
farm, systems approach.
3. Neglect of economic and social factors.
For maize research in particular, there were two serious hindrances which prevented earlier development of cultivars better suited to small farm conditions. The first was the limited research capability resulting from lack of staff, discontinuity of staff and lack of facilities. As an example, efforts to develop earlier maturing maize hybrids, considered to be essential for small scale farmers, were begun in the early 1970's
but discontinuity of staff combined with poor seed storage facilities resulted in the loss of most of the breeding materials. Similarly, efforts to develop streak virus resistance material began in the mid 1970's, but again lack of facilities and staff continuity prevented any major impact until recently.
The second factor which delayed the development of suitable cultivars from the small scale sector was the lack of adequate knowledge about the varietal characteristics needed or wanted by the farmers. Early attempts to introduce an open pollinated variety (ZUCA) in the 70's, which outyielded local material failed, primarily because the characteristics required by farmers, particularly the desire to have grain which could store well and be easily pounded, had not been fully understood. Similarly recommendations based on planting early have not been altered over the last couple of decades. Technically early planting was correct because the varieties promoted in the past had maturity periods equal to or longer than SR 52 i.e. 165 days. However, in practice few farmers plant hybrid maize at the technically optimum time on account of resource limitations and other activities taking priority and, until recently, this had not been taken into account.
There was certainly a willingness to develop material for small scale farmers but ignorance of their farming conditions and goals hampered the success of this. For example, during the 1970's it was assumed that a factor which would limit the adoption of SR 52 was the cost of seed. [SR 52 was a maize hybrid (single cross) developed in the 1960's and it dominated seed production and sales from then until 1984. It has been superseded by MM752, primaraly because parent material for SR 52 became impure. MM 752 has been developed by reselecting from the parents of SR 52 to provide a more pure hybrid.] Therefore, Zambian Hybrid 1 (ZH 1, a three way cross involving SR 52 as a parent) was developed to reduce seed cost. Although the performance of ZH 1 was essentially equal to SR 52 at low yield levels (below 4 tonnes/ha). SR 52 was noticeably superior at higher yield levels. ZH 1 was basically little different than SR 52. Farmers tried growing ZH 1, but it seemed that the slight additional yield of Sr 52 was worth the substancial difference in seed cost. In this case the farmers' response disproved the assumption, made by researchers and policy makers, that seed cost would be the determining factor in the farmers choice of cultivars. Another case in point is that of the breeding carried out during the late 1970's in Zambia to develop high Lysine cultivars. It has since become accepted that malnutrition in Zambia, as well as most other locations, can better be addressed by increasing total calories (i.e. yield) and by supplementation with other proteins, both leguminous and animal.
Extension recommendations for small scale farmer outlined in the Lima crop memos described a range of fertilizer rates and varying management practices. However, the highest rate of fertilizer was generally perceived as being "the Lima recommendation," even though most farmers' other management practices did not justify this level of fertilizer. ["ILima", which means "to cultivate", is essentially an extension method for advising small scale farmers how to make efficient use of their fertilizer. The "Lima" Crop Memos provided extension recommendations in units of 25 hectares.) Since the previous research and extension structure did not encourage feedback from farmers or extension workers to research scientists, neither the recommendations nor the method of publicizing them were modified.
The reorganized structure
By the beginning of the 1980's, in recognition of these limitations within the agricultural research programme, the Research Branch was reorganized into multidisciplinary Commodity and Specialist Research Teams and provincial Adaptive Research Planning Teams.
There are sixteen Commodity and Specialist Research Teams (CSRTs) and there are multidisciplinary comprising technical scientists from different disciplines, mainly plant breeding, agronomy, plant pathology, etc. The CSRTs are based at the different regional research stations and have the task of developing improved technology for the different agro ecological zones in Zambia. The Maize Research Team presently comprises 12 scientists from several disciplines including breeding, agronomy and plant pathology.
The Adaptive Research Planning Team (ARPT) is a provincially based team conducting farming systems research. Each provincial ARPT comprises an agronomist, economist and a Research Extension Liaison officer. The team also has four regionally based rural sociologists supporting the provincial teams. Linking with both commodity scientists and extension workers, ARPT carries out diagnostic farm surveys to identify farmers' problems and then tests potentially acceptable technologies in trials on farmers' fields. ARPT endeavours to involve the farmer throughout the technology generation process to ensure that the research and extension effort is effective.
For the technology transfer process to function effectively it is essential that there is a good liaison between farmers, commodity and adaptive scientists and extension workers. A structure now exists which encourages this interaction. Diagram 2, shows how the different sections relate to one another.
CONCEPTS BEHIND THE TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ZAMBIA.
In order to produce technology that most farmers can utilise it is considered of primary importance to understand the total environment in which the farmers operate, and to recognise the problems they face. Once an understanding of these factors has been achieved, it is then necessary to design and test potential solutions on farmers fields under the circumstances experienced by the farmers. A key point here is that the research is dictated by the problems and conditions found on farmers fields. Understanding the farmers' situation and problems and testing of technical solutions can only be achieved effectively if scientists respect farmers opinions and maintain a dialogue with farmers throughout the research process. The research carried out is therefore a response to the felt and observed needs of the 'people in the community. An advantage of a structure which formally incorporates adaptive research is that assumptions can be tested prior to extensive efforts by research and/or extension. Research directives are then based on real issues, as monitored on farmers fields.
Theoretically, the generation of solutions follows a logical progression from description of the farming system to design, testing and eventual dissemination. However, a considerable body of knowledge already exists from previous agricultural research conducted both within Zambia and in neighbouring countries and this can be drawn upon by adaptive researchers for use in on-farm trials. Dissemination rarely marks the end of the process due to changing circumstances and the need to improve technologies. Feedback on ideas tested and disseminated will continue to glean more information on the description of the farming systems.
Thus, the work of the Adaptive Research Planning Team can be broken down into a sequence with several stages:
1. Description of the farming system through a process of
both formal and non formal survey methods, monitoring
biological, physical and socio-economic aspects.
2. Diagnosis of farmers' priorities, resource and
environmental production problems and the possible
3. Design, identification and evaluation of materials and
techniques offering potential for the solution of
problems and exploitation of opportunities.
4. Testing of potential techniques and materials in on-farm
trials under farmers' field conditions.
5. Monitoring the level of adoption by farmers of new
technology. On farm test demonstrations help to
disseminate information about the new technology.
6. Advising research and policy makers on recommended
changes to institutional and infrastractural aspects.
The way in which ARPT relates to CSRTs is illustrated in the Diagram
Diagram. Relationship between ARPT and commodity or disciplinary teams.
FARMING SYSTEM : TARGET GROUPS
/ I. DISSEMINATION BY EXTENSION
/ \WITH CONTINUED MONITORING
L/ RELO/ARPT/EXTENSI ON
DESCRIPTION OF THE ON-FARM I
FARMING SYSTEM FOR ADAPTIVE ON-FARM
EACH PROVINCE: GROUPING RESEARCH TESTING OF
OF FARMERS INTO DOMAINS TECHNOLOGY,.'
AND RECOGNITION OF AREAS <-------------------- /I STRATEGIES------------FOR DEVELOPMENT / /I',
\ IDENTIFICATION & EVALUATION INSTITUTIONAL &
\ OF MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES / INFRASTRUCTURAL
OFFERING POTENTIAL FOR PROBI EiM ..POLICY RECOMMENDSOLUTION & THE EXPLOITATION OF I1. ATIONS TO PLANNING OPPORTUNITIES. UNI TS
UNSOLVED TECHNICAL C.R.T BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
PROBLEMS & POSSIBLE STATION OF MATERIALS &
TO FARMERS DEVELOP- SOILS OF THE AREA
MENT OPPORTUNITIES. /I
COMMODITY & DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
SOLVING PRIORITY TECHNICAL PROBLEMS
& INVESTIGATING POSSIBLE NEW MATERIALS
The integration of commodity research and work carried out on farmers fields is vital and thus ARPT and CSRT are mutually supprotive. ARPT and the CSRTs work together in a complementary manner; information on farmers' problems is passed to the CSRTs which in turn provide technical solutions to be tested in on-farm trials by ARPT. Opportunities for interaction between ARPT and the CSRTs include the following occasions:
- Participation during farm surveys.
- Setting of research priorities for both applied and
- Visits to on-farm trials.
INTERACTION BETWEEN RESEARCH AND EXTENSION WORKERS
Extension activities are undertaken by the Extension Branch of the Department of Agriculture. At the national headquarters level extension is headed by the Assistant Director (Extension) who is supported by section heads, i.e. Senior Subject Matter Specialists. At provincial and district levels the provincial and district agricultural officers, respectively, are also supported by a team of subject matter specialists. A network of agricultural stations and camps within each district, comprise the field level where field extension workers are based. These are the staff who are in direct contact with the farmers.
The Extension Branch has three major objectives:
a) To promote the adoption of improved agricultural
practices among farming community, particularly small
b) To promote efficient and wide spread use of various
c) To bring farmers problems to the attention of scientists
in the research branch in order that solutions can be found. Ultimately, the Extension Branch aims to generate
and service a thriving, self reliant, rural sector.
Extension workers have always been involved in the technology transfer process but until recently the involvement has tended to be limited to disseminating messages which have been developed by research workers, at research stations, in isolation from extension workers. There was limited contact between research and extension workers and the two-way flow of information was only intermittent at the very best of times.
With the establishment of ARPT, a range of opportunities has been created to enable extension workers, of all levels, to be more fully involved in the technology generation process. This means that extension workers are involved in all the following activities: classifying the different groups of farmers; helping to undertake farm surveys; conducting and assessing on farm trials; monitoring farmers adoption of new technologies; and finally advising on recommendation release.
In addition to this general involvement in the research process, several other important steps have been taken to improve the level of interaction between extension and research workers.
(I) Nine positions of Research Extension Research Officer (RELO) and one Chief RELO have been created in the Extension Branch. The RELO is a provincial subject matter specialist, who is a member of the ARPT. The RELO is involved in all the teams' activities, but takes a major role during on farm test stage when, together with local extension workers, they monitor demonstrations and the levels of adoption by farmers of new technologies which have proved successful in on farm trial. The RELO also undertakes a lot of training of local extension staff, in conjunction with the extension training officers, in order to explain the farming systems perspectives in simple, practical terms, and in so doing help the staff to plan their work programmes to address farmers' needs. Other major activities of the RELO include eliciting farmers' reactions to the new technologies being tested in trials, organizing field days and disseminating the latest research findings. Field days in which CSRT, ARPT, and extension officers view and discuss both ARPT and CSRT trials have been very useful in encouraging the exchange of ideas and often result in the continuation and strengthening of interaction with all sections.
(II) The trial assistants, who supervise and collect data on the on farm trials on a day to day basis, are seconded, technically, from the extension branch to work with the ARPT for a period of 4 to 5 years.
(III) Through the training and visit (T&V) system of extension, several opportunities for cooperation have become Possible. As the process of selection of contact farmers becomes more systematic and contact farmers become more representative of their communities, so it is possible for ARPT to select more contact farmers as trial farmers. Even where this is not yet the case, it is possible for the farmers groups to meet at the site of a farmer having trials, in order to get farmers comments on the technology being tested. Similarly, the monthly training of Block Supervisors can be held at two or three times during a season at the sites of on farm trials. For all but a few
extension workers, participation in research activities with ARPT staff, involves no time away from their T&V duties but instead is incorporated into their work programmes to strengthen their effectiveness.
(IV) The national extension demonstration programme has been rationalized in such a way that there are two sources of ideas for demonstrations. The first, is those problems identified by farmers and extension workers at camp level who, for example, may wish to have a demonstration on maize weeding. This problem is passed to the provincial level where the problem is discussed by the provincial ARPT committee, which decides what is the most relevant advice to put into a demonstration on the problem, given the particular circumstances of the farmers in question and the results of previous research. The second source of demonstrations is the ARPT on farm trials which, after several seasons may identify an important improvement for a particular farming system. This new technology is then passed on to the on farm test stage as a demonstration, when it is carefully monitored by camp staff in the target area, where on farm trials were conducted.
INVOLVEMENT OF SERVICE INSTITUTIONS.
It has been realized that other institutions serving the farming community must be aware of the research being undertaken and be involved in the technology transfer process if farmers are to benefit at the end of the day*. For this reason good cooperation has been developed with organizations such as the Zanbia Seed Company, the Seed Control and Certification Institute, the National Agricultural Marketing Board, the Cooperative Marketing unions, etc.
PART TWO COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS ADDRESSING CONSTRAINTS IN MAIZE PRODUCTION
In order to effectively concentrate resources on the major productions constraints, it is necessary to identify what those constraints are, and to determine which deserve the most attention. In an effort to categorize the production practices of farmers, ARPT identifies the different farming systems in an area. Each farming system is then studied in detail, and the resulting information, combined with that already known, is useful in determining the priorities of the Maize CSRT. Basic agronomic recommendations have been developed for SR 52 (Crop Advisory Sheets and Lima Crop Memos), and are applicable generally to the new hybrids and open pollinated varieties. Refinements are needed to bring these recommendations up to date
and to tailor them more closely to the needs of specific groups of farmers. The Maize CRT has only recently added an agronomist to its staff and must rely heavily on ARPT to identify and address agronomic issues.
Some of the most important factors in improving maize production are 1. cropping system, 2. land preparation, 3. soil fertility, 4. pest control, and 5. varietal suitability. Each of these five topics will be discussed in more detail, describing the needs identified and the steps taken so far to address those needs.
Clearly effective extension is also needed and this is discussed elsewhere in this paper. The importance of input availability is recognised but this is largely outside the scope of this paper.
I. Cropping system
The broadest issue in improving maize production is understanding the specific cropping systems, of which maize is a part. Although the most common system is a based, rainfed system, on permanent or semi permanent fields, many variations do exist. Some of these include "Chitemene" (slash, gathering and burning), irrigated green maize, residual moisture crops on riverbeds, floodplain cropping which relies on a shallow water table prior to the onset of the rains and subsequent flooding, and various intercrop systems incorporating maize. Some preliminary work has been done on some of these different systems with interesting results. For exampl49, cropping on flood plains and on residual moisture has been investigated by the Kalabo Agricultural Development project (Western Province), and more recently by Western and Lusaka Province ARPT's. Both systems require short season varieties, and considerable enthusiasm has been shown by farmers for the very short season open pollinated variety MMV 400 (90 100 days to physiological maturity). Other examples of this type of research include intercropping and crop rotations which involve maize and which are being investigated by several CSRT's and by several of the ARPT's.
II. Land preparation.
In Zambia, most small scale farmers prepare their land by either hand hoe or, to a lesser extent, oxen tillage. There is a severe lack of labour for land preparation during the critical period right after the single 3 to 6 month rainy period begins. The consequence of this is that many farmers are planting their maize late. Delays in planting can cause up to 3% loss in yield per day. There are very few tractors available for hire, and the number of working oxen is very small compared to the amount of
land to be prepared. Even those oxen available are not strong enough to work until some weeks after the rains begin, providing them with fresh grazing. In some areas where oxen are available the implements may not be available or may not always be of an efficient design. In addition, many of the soils have a natural compaction layer, no more than 20 cm below the surface, which is aggravated by ox or tractor tillage. Crusting can be severe on many of these soils after the frequently heavy rains during the planting season.
Lusaka Province ARPT has conducted some work with manual and ox-drawn implements for land preparation and planting. Central Province ARPT has conducted herbicide trials to determine if it is both technically feasible and economically justifiable to reduce tillage requirements in this way. A contribution by the Maize CSRT has been the development of varieties with shorter maturity that tolerate late planting partly because they have streak virus resistance.
Results so far, across 4 provinces (Lusaka, Eastern, Western, and Luapula) have shown that the recently released hybrids MM603 and 604, are outstanding material, superior for December to the long standing hybrid MM 752 (SR 52) which is still the best in some areas for November planting. MM 603 also shows good streak resistance thereby making it attractive for the Northern areas of Zambia and for late planting dates. Certainly on farmers' fields, as tested by ARPT, their performance warrants recommendation. However, even these'shorter maturity varieties show a loss in yield when planting later than early December but, the loss is less than for the longer maturity streak susceptible MM 752. These new cultivars are suited for systems where late planting is common. Furthermore, these varieties also have drought escaping characteristics which reduces the yield losses from shallower rooting due to inadequate tillage methods. The multifaceted approach of reduced tillage, better planting methods, and better adapted cultivars illustrates the possibilities arising from cooperation between ARPTs and CSRTs.
The problems of land preparation has been difficult to deal with, partly because neither CSRT nor ARPT have had the resources to tackle this problem effectively. Much of the work on tillage and machinery has relied on testing and screening of implements designed (but not always built) in countries other than Zambia. The problem of tillage has been recognised as being a major issue in many farming systems but only limited resources have been available to do this work. However, a fully staffed and funded Tillage Research Team has recently been proposed, which should rectify the situation.
This also serves to illustrate the benefit to be gained from
collaborative work with other countries. Implements have been obtained from the neighbouring countries, such as Botswana and Zimbabwe, where more work has been directed towards animal drawn implement development. However, it is essential that a thorough dialogue sould be initiated between researchers investigating such topics. An exchange of materials and adequate dialogue between the practitioners involved would be of great benefit because a considerable body of knowledge already exists on many aspects of farm implement development for small scale farmers.
III Soil fertility
Much of the most fertile land in Zambia was occupied by large scale commercial farmers in the past and continues as large holdings. Small scale farmers, through lack of knowledge and lack of resources, have decreased the inherent fertility of many of their fields. At present, Although most farmers use some fertilizers, many do not obtain the yield levels they should due to using less than optimal rates or by innefective methods of application. In addition, many of the soils in Zambia are dependent on lime application to maintain productivity. The soil productivity research team has conducted long term fertility and liming studies, and recently has conducted both macro and micro nutrient trials with the new maize hybrids. Several ARPT's have on going studies of fertilizer rates, and time and method of application. A few of the ARPT's having liming studies, and Central Province ARPT is studying a modified Lima which includes liming and a legume rotation crop as a means of maintaining long term fertility with minimal fertilizer inputs.
The Maize CSRT has done a limited amount of experimentation comparing different hybrids and open pollinated variety at high and medium levels of fertilizer application. These comparisons have been extended this year to include a zero level of added fertilizer. In addition, the breeding work of open pollinated varieties has been carried out since 1982 at a reduced level of fertilizer (88.5 N, 40 P205, 20 K20 Kg/ha). Several ARPT's have conducted maize variety trials al low levels of fertilizer and, in Luapula province, these trials indicated a strong superiority of the open pollinated variety ZUCA and MMV 600 compared to both "local" and SR 52. The difference between open pollinated varieties and SR 52 was especially marked at the two lowest fertilizer levels (zero and 44 N, 20 P2Os, 10 K20 kg/ha). This information encouraged the Maize CSRT to emphasize breeding efforts on these two varieties. In addition, under low fertility on-farm trials conducted in Eastern Province, MMV 600 outyielded another open pollinated variety, Across 7844, which had previously outyielded MMV 600 on the Msekera Research Station, in the same geographical area. This information allowed the Maize CSRT to _promote MMV 600 with greater confidence in Eastern
Province and indicated that more on-farm .testing would be needed on Across 7844 before possible release.
IV Pest Control
Weeds, diseases, and insects are all important pests reducing maize yields in Zambia. Weeds become a major problem in fields cultivated more than one or two years. ARPT's have found that late planting is not only due to lack of drought power, but also due to farmers delaying ploughing or hoeing until weeds have germinated. Maximum return from weeding labour occurs at two to four weeks after planting. However, early planting maize
reaches this* stage while preparation and planting are still continuing, so that these two activities compete for limited labour. If the farmer also plants a later sown crop, such as sorghum, sunflower, or beans, these activities also compete with weeding the maize. In addition to the herbicide trials already mentioned, several ARPT's are investigating reducing labour needs by combining the first (and possibly only) weeding and top dressing when the maize is 20 to 30 cm tall. The Maize CRST scores varieties for early vigour, assuming that this trait is related to ability to withstand weed competition.
Disease can severely affect maize yields 'in Zambia, with most serious being leaf streak virus and cob rots. The most effective control of leaf streak virus is early planting, but tillage and other problems make this difficult for many small scale farmers. The Maize CSRT .has been succesful in developing several hybrids and open pollinated varieties with improved streak virus resistance. Hybrids MM 603, MM 502, and open pollinated variety MMV 600 are especially resistant and have performed extremely well on late plantings in on farm trials. A reasonable level of streak virus resistance is now considered essential for a new maize hybrid or variety to be released. Effective control of cob rots, either through management practices of varietal resistance, has not been achieved. The Maize CSRT has a substantial effort on identifying sources of cob rot resistance, and all potentially useful varieties are rated for their degree of susceptibility to this disease. In general, selection emphasizes cobs that turn over at maturity, have well covered tips and flinty grain. While not providing adequate resistance these traits do appear to reduce susceptibility, leaf blight (mainly Helminthosporium turcicum) can be a problem in the northern high rainfall areas and some selection is being done for resistance. Field documentation od its importance. would better indicate how much attention this trait should receive.
Insects can cause substantial damage on maize in Zambia. The most important pests are the stalk borer (Buseola and esamia spp.), and various root pests including termites. There is some
incidence of ear worms, and the armoured cricket is occasionally important. Research has shown that Aldrin or Dieldrin is helpful for stand establishment and yield, presumably due to control of rootworms, cutworms, and termites. Central province ARPT showed a substantial economic benefit of using Dieldrin on maize in
on-farm trials. There is as yet no systematic breeding for resistance to any insect. Such a programme would require
substantial investment to develop insect rearing facilities and would only be embarked upon if assessment of the losses in
farmers' fields show there is sufficient justification.
V. Varietal suitability.
Obviously, one of the most important factors in production is the suitability of the cultivar to the specific situation of the farmer. It is axiomatic that to match cultivars and growing conditions one must have both a range of cultivars and adequate knowledge of the farmers' climatic and socio-economic conditions. Until the growing season, there has been very limited choice of varieties. Hickory king was the most publicized open pollinated variety from the early 1900's. During the 1960's double cross hybrids SR 11 and SR 13 became popular, as did single cross SR 52 which dominated maize seed production and sales from the late 1960's until 1984. ZH 1, Zambian Composite A (ZCA), and Zambian Ukiriguru Composite A (ZUCA) have had minor importance during this period. In addition, various hybrids of shorter maturity have been imported from Zimbabwe and South Africa to meet farmer demands.
When ARPT was first established there was little new
technology available in the form of new cultivars and seed. As a result of this it was not possible to take much new materials to farmers. With widespread availability of new hybrids and open pollinated varieties beginning in 1985, and the capability of the Maize CSRT to develop cultivars "to order", the on farm testing of cultivars and the identification of varietal characteristics needed or preferred in different recommendation domains has taken on added urgency. Some of the issues which influence the
suitability of a cultivar are discussed below.
A. Open pollinated variety versus hybrid
Assuming that there are cultivars of both types that suit the climatic conditions, the choice between open pollinated varieties and hybrids revolves around the reliability of input delivery, whether the grain will be sold or retained on farm, cash constraints, and taste preferences.
If the delivery of seed is uncertain or late, the farmer is forced to plant "retained seed". It has been known, and
documented more fully by ARPTs, that many farmers are using
advanced generations of SR 52 for planting. Central province
ARPT recorded and avarage loss of 33% from planting seed retained in one generation. Open pollinated variety MMV 600 consistently outyields the second generation of SR 52 or MM 752. It is assumed (and is being tested) that MMV 600 will also outyield advanced generations of the newly released hybrids. However, if the farmer can purchase fresh seed every year, MM 601, MM 603 and MM 604 substantially outyields MMV 600 under medium levels of fertilizer. Whether MM 603 outyields MMV 600 under low
management with little or no added fertilizer is currently being investigated by both the maize CSRT and ARPT's. Therefore, the reliability of seed delivery is a major factor in the choice
between an open pollinated variety and a hybrid, and the
availability of fertilizer may also influence this choice.
A farmer in a totally subsistance situation, who sells little or none of his crops, may not have the cash available to purchase fresh seed each year, even if the hybrid gives substantial yield advantage and is readily available. Probably not many farmers in Zambia are totally subsistent, but ARPT surveys and observations will help determine how many are.
Farmers in Eastern Province and to some extent elsewhere, grow their local varieties from home consumption and produce the hybrid for sale. The Eastern province ARPT has clearly documented the distinctness between these two activities, and cites taste preferences, local methods of processing, storabiltiy, and tolerance to low fertility levels as reasons that farmers prefer the local varieties for home consumption. Therefore, as mentioned earlier, the development of open
pollinated varieties is conducted at intermediate fertility levels with selection.
Appropriate maturity is another key factor in varietal suitability, and depends upon the time of planting, the climate of the specific geographical area, and the intended use.
Interestingly, in Eastern Province, the local maize is planted first, in order to ensure the food supply, while hybrid maize is planted later, despite the fact that the hybrid apparently looses more yield to late planting than the local. Two important
applications for varietal selection have arisen from this knowledge of local practices. The first is that the local maize has a longer maturity period than does SR 52, and this maturity is appropriate since the farmers plant early and the rains in most of Eastern province are reliable. Therefore, the high
yielding, long season variety ZUCA, is probably a more
appropriate potential substitute for local varieties than the
shorter season MMV 600, which has entered by the Maize CSRT into ARPT on-farm tests earlier. The need for a long duration
cultivar for early planting is also evident in the Northern areas of the country, and ZUCA is being tested by ARPT's in Luapala and North Western provinces. A second implication of the system in Eastern province is that hybrids generally need a shorter maturity period than SR 52 and need to tolerate late planting. A third important point has arisen from ARPT investigations in Eastern province supplemented by those of other agencies. Maize is the dominant staple, with little other source of starch available, and there is a hungry period in February and March, after the stored maize runs out before the new crop is ready. As a result, even in the plateau areas with rains of long duration, farmers are very keen to substitute the very short season MMV 400 for a portion of their longer season local maize, despite its lower yields. Preliminary estimates indicate that the most households. would like to grow about 1/4 ha of MMV 400 out of an average of 1.5 ha of local maize. In total, this would represent a potential of 30,000 ha of MMV 400 in Eastern province
something not previously anticipated by the maize CRT nor Zamseed.
In order to identify the best cultivars for both early and late plantings, the Maize CSRT is now including a range of planting dates (mid-November, early-December and late December) in their national variety trials. MMV 400 was initially
developed for the very drought prone locations in Zambia which require a very short maturity cultivar especially the Gwembe valley from Livingstone to the confluence of the Zambezi and Luangwa rivers. In the absence of ARPT in Southern province, farmer responses were gathered through the Lusitu Research Sub Station, through developmental agencies, individual farmer contacts, and eventually through pilot demo scheme operated by the extension branch. Although these arrangements worked and were helpful, an ARPT would have given a greater capacity for feed back and interaction. In addition, the relative advantages of the open pollinated variety MMV 400 versus the various new hybrids, are not clearly established under these severe conditions, and there is little capacity to obtain accurate farmer feed back at present, although attempts are being made through the provincial crop husbandry officers. Recently, Lusaka Province ARPT has initiated work in Luangwa district and this work will give some much needed information.
C. Drought tolerance
A serious weakness of SR 52 is its suseptibility to drought, not only because of its long maturity, but also because of the lengthy period between pollen shed and silk emergence. This weakness was quickly recognised by farmers, and they had
indicated their desire for a more stable cultivar by their enthusiastic purchase of imported hybrids of shorter duration and greater tolerance. Farmers responded very favourably to the
single cross hybrid MM 502 in on-farm tests in Central and Western Provinces, and although this variety has not been widely marketed due to expensive seed production and a noticeably yellow tint, the feed back strongly confirmed the farmers desire for a cultivar of similar characteristics. Three-way cross hybrid MM 504 is related to MM 502, but appears to be distinctly lower yielding and has not yet had adequate farmer testing to fully assess its value.
D. Disease resistance.
Through observations on farmers' fields, ARPT's in Luapula, Northwestern, Central, and Lusaka provinces have confirmed the critical importance of streak virus resistance. On farm trials in 1982 in Central Province clearly showed the open pollinated variety Across 7844 was far too susceptible to streak virus to be usable. The following year, the streak resistant varieties Population 10 and EV 8076 (parent material for MMV 600, developed and released in Tanzania as STAHA) were included in on-farm trials in Luapula, Western, Central and Lusaka provinces. These trials clearly showed the superiority of these varieties for late planting, and EV 8076 did exceptionally well in Luapula, encouraging its immediate release as MMV 600. Subsequent trials have confirmed its suitability, resulting in widespread adoption of this variety in Luapula and Northwestern Provinces. In contrast, ZUCA performed well in on-farm trials in Luapula, but was judged too streak susceptible to be ready for release. ZUCA, and all other varieties and populations being improved are being strongly selected for streak resistance. Although valuable for streak resistance, population 10 was outyielded by MMV 600 in most trials. Consequently, it is being evaluated more seriously now in drier areas where its shorter maturity is an advantage.
Farmers in many districts have requested a variety which they could plant late. An on-station trial at Mt Makulu in
1983/84 indicated that the substitution of either MM 502 or population 10 over the range of planting dates found by a survey in Chipapa would approximately double the overall maize yield in the area. In 1982 Pirsabak (2) 7930 (the parent material for MMV 400) was tested in Serenje by the Central Province ARPT. Although farmers liked the quick maturity, the yields were very low due to streak virus attack. Consequently, the variety was excluded from testing in the wetter areas until this year, when the Maize CSRT felt that it was worth trying a streak virus resistant variety (EV 8330 SR) related to MMV 400 again in the Serenje area. The farmers' reaction will indicate whether there is a place for late planting a very early maturing, streak
resistant variety in this and similar areas.
EXTENSION OF MAIZE RESEARCH RESULTS
Following on farm trials, conducted by ARPT, in several provinces a number of different ideas related to maize production have been passed on to extension as either tentative or complete recommendations. These are now beihig tested and monitored in demonstrations around the country. For example, in Eastern province, there are three demonstrations being conducted with the following objectives:
1) For farmers on the plateau and in the valley who are
short of food and mainly grow local varieties of maize demonstrate the value of MMV 400, which is a short
duration maize variety able to provide early food.
2) For those farmers able to purcahse seed demonstrate the
value of MM601 as a short duration maize hybrid for later
3) Demonstrate the yield loss resulting from late
application of urea top dressing to hybrid maize.
The majority of the maize demonstrations conducted around Zambia. have tested the new hybrid and open pollinated varieties as compared with varieties used by farmers. Demonstrations have also been conducted showing yield loss as a result of farmers using retained seed and potential gains to be made from including legumes in crop rotations with maize.
In the case of both types of demonstrations they are used as focal points for training farmers and extension workers throughout the season.
The Department of Agriculture has published a range of material used related to recommendations for maize production. These include:
1) Lima crop memos for each province and, most recently in
Eastern province, memos for the three major farming
systems in the province.
11) Crop advisory sheets which are mainly intended for use
by commercial farmers.
111) Interim national Lima recommendations for field crops.
THE LIMA CONCEPT
The lima was introduced by the Department of Agriculture in 1979 as an extension method for advising small scale farmers on how to make best use of their fertilizer. A lima is 0.25
hectares in area and can be measured by a farmer using a 25 meter rope. Using this same rope and a breaker it is possible to give recommendations on spacing and fertilizer rates in units which farmers can understand and apply. By scaling down the recommendations to the 0.25 ha level and by making inputs more readily available in the amounts appropriate for one lima, the Department has been able to give small scale farmers more appropriate advice.
Recommendations of cultivars appropriate to each district were prepared and distributed informally to the extension personnel and Zamseed. Extension personnel, based on these recommendations and often confirmed by their own observations of an on farm and station trials, have influenced the choice of cultivars ordered by the different Provincial Cooperative Unions.
PART THREE CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT.
The experiences of the collaborative research and extension efforts to increae maize production in Zambia have highlighted several points which could be of interest to other countries in the region.
1. An important feature of the recent developments has been the fact that the Department of Agriculture has institutionalised the process of bringing together commodity and adaptive researchers, extension workers and farmers. There is now a clear structure for all those working to increase small scale farmer maize production. This has involved more than simply appending a project to the structure, it has restructured the Departmental research organization into multidisciplinary commodity research teams and an on farm systems focused research team closel! involving extension.
2. The Maize Research Team has more specifically addresse, the needs of small scale farmers as a result of government police emphasizing these needs. Two open pollinated varieties tailore to small scale farmers were released in 1984 and now ar available to farmers. In addition, the testing of cultivars ha been expanded to include more geographical diversity, a wide
range of planting dates, and lower fertility levels.
3. The ARPT has been able to provide technical scientists in the Maize Research Team with baseline data about what farmers are doing and the constraints they are facing and how this is influencing their productivity thereby enabling the CRT to refine and develop its research programme. The provision of quantified agronomic data on all aspects of farmers' maize production practices has been a useful input into the Maize Research Team and'something on which more work is required.
4. For ARPT to be able to test and select technologies suitable for small scale farmers the technology must already be available from previous technical research. CSRTs must be capable of responding to research needs as highlighted by descriptive survey work.
5. A prerequisite for effective cooperation between commodity and adaptive scientists is that they have mutual respect for the contribution that one another can make to the research process. Commodity scientists bring their specialists insight of a particular crop to bear whilst the on farm researcher is able to have an understanding of the broader issues which affects the decisions farmers make about technology adoption e.g. desired varietal characteristics, management practices, etc. Both perspectives are needed if technology acceptable to farmers is to be produced. To be able to achieve this it is essential that adequate opportunities exist for commodity and adaptive scientists to communicate with one another. Such opportunities include participation in farm surveys, discussion of adaptive and applied research programmes and joint field visits, involving extension workers, to on farm trials and to CSRT on-station trials.
6. The adoption of the new cultivars has been more rapid in those provinces where there has been very close cooperation between the Maize Research Team, ARPT and extension workers throughout the design, testing and demonstration stages.
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, IFPRI.
IFPRI is seeking an Agricultural Economist/Economist to work in the project "The Food Consumption and Supply Impacts of Agricultural Price Policies in Senegal". The work will involve two years of fieldwork/primary data collection at the farm
household and village level and at least one year of analysis. The researcher will be stationed in Dakar for all of the
fieldwork and half of the analysis, and the remainder time in Washington D.C.
The researcher would normally have a doctorate in agricultural economics or economics. Familiarity with quantitative work, and ability to conduct oneself in a
multidisciplinary and multicultural environment, are essential. Proficiency in French, and field experience, particularly in Africa, will be viewed favorably. This is an entry level
position; salary will be commesurate with other international
Please submit two copies of CV to Personnel/Senegal, IFPRI, 1776 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036, USA.
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
North Carolina State University is inviting nominations and applications for the position of Director of the Management Entity for TropSoils, a Collaborative Research Support Program funded by USAID under Title XII. TropSoils's goal is to develop and adapt soil-management technology that is agronomically, ecologically and economically sound for developing countries in the tropics. The position is on the campus of North Carolina State University in Raleigh.
The Program Director must provide strong leadership for
TropSoils and is responsible for technical and fiscal management of the program. Major responsibilities include: (1) providing programmatic and administrative leadership to TropSoils; (2) representing the four participating universities in official contacts with the Board of International Food and Agricultural Development, with USAID, and in overseas cooperating institutions; (3) ensuring appropriate review of the program; (4) coordinating the reporting and publishing phases of the program; and (5) performing such other duties as recommended by the Board and as required by the University.
Candidates should have a doctoral degree in soils or in a
closely related field; demonstrated leadership skills;
demonstrated achievement in research; administrative experience in the US land-grant university system; interest and experience in international agricultural development; ability to work effectively with a multi-institutional team of scientists; and willingness and capability to travel in developing countries.
Salary commensurate with qualifications and experience, consistent with guidelines of North Carolina State University. Interested persons should send a resume, a letter of application (stating interest and commenting on qualifications), and the names and addresses of three references to: Dr. J.L. Apple, Office of International Programs, Box 7112, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7112, USA.
NOTES TO CONTRIBUTORS
The newsletter is published quarterly in January, April, June and September. News, comments, letters, research results and opportunities concerning on-farm research in Southern and Eastern Africa will be considered for inclusion in this newsletter.
Contributions should be sent to:
Malcolm J. Blackie, CIMMYT, P.O. Box 30727, Lilongwe 3, MALA WI.
(Telex 4487 CBS MI)
Steve Waddington, CIMMYT, P.O. Box MP 154, Mount Pleasant, Harare, ZIMBABWE. (Telex 2462 CIMMYT ZW)
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