Farming systems newsletter

Material Information

Farming systems newsletter
Caption title:
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center -- Eastern Africa Economics Programme
Place of Publication:
Nairobi Kenya
The Centre
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ill., forms ; 30 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems -- Periodicals -- Africa, Eastern ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


General Note:
Description based on: No. 26 (July-Sept. 1986); title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
CIMMYT Eastern Africa Economics Programme, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT).

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
18247451 ( OCLC )
sn 90040819 ( LCCN )

Full Text
"M AOr
N E---Cl-w ETI ljk -llw-qft

With Compliments
P.O. Box MP 154 Mount Pleasant HARARE
ZIMBABWE Telephone: 303544

Page 1
Notes for contributors
1.) The newsletter is published quarterly in January, April, June and September.
2.) News, comments, letters, research results and opportunities concerning on-farm research in Southern and Eastern Africa will be considered for inclusion in this newsletter.
3.) Contributions should be sent to:
Malcolm Blackie
CIMMYT P.O. Box 30727
Lilongwe 3
Steve Waddington
P.O. Box MP154
Mount Pleasant

Page 2
- Analysis and Interpretation of Agronomic Data
(for agronomists)....................................... ... 4
- On-farm Research with a Farming Systems Perspective Diagnostic Workshop ........................................ 4
- Data Collection and Analysis Workshop (for social
scientists) ................................................ 4
- International Congress on IPM/ Ecological Crop Protection in the Tropics .................................. 4
- Seventh International Course for Development Orientated Research in Agriculture ......................... 6
- Agricultural and Rural Project Management................... 7
- CIAT Africa Bean Research Prize ............................ 7
- The Project on African Agriculture: Crisis
and Transformation Fellowships 1988/89 ................... 8
- International Association of Agricultural Economists, Kellog Foundation Travel Grants................. 9
- Farming System Research and Extension Symposium ............10
- FSSP Closing down ..........................................10
- Nutrition in Agriculture Network ...........................11
- Comments on the On-farm Research Trial, Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Workshop for Agronomists held in Zimbabwe, April 1987.
A.) Cassim E. A. Masi and Mick S. Mwala (Zambia) .........13
B.) Sebenzile Matsebula and Chris Seubert (Swaziland)...... 16
- CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN NGAMILAND WEST Richard Jones ....................... ....................... 17
- Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT......... 32
- Agricultural University of Wageningen.....................33

Page 3
- International Board for Plant Genetic Resources ............ 33
- International Irrigation Management Institute, IIMI ........ 34
- International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI ........ 36
- International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, IITA ...... 36
- Texas A&M University ...................................... 39
- International Centre for Agricultural Research
in the Dry Areas, ICARDA ................................... 40

Page 4
This meeting will be held on the ILCA campus in Addis Ababa from December 14-23, 1987.
Contact: Mr. D.G. Tanner, CIMMYT, c/o ILCA, P.O. BOX 5689,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
This is the regular regional training workshop run annually in cooperation with the University of Zimbabwe. The first phase deals with the diagnosis of farm problems from a farming systems perspective. The second phase, which is run later in the year, deals with the setting up and running of on-farm trials. Participants are encouraged to take the workshops in the correct order. The first phase (diagnostic) workshop will take place on the University of Zimbabwe campus from Febuary 8-26, 1988. Contact: Dr. M. Rukuni, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe before November 15, 1987
This workshop will take place in the ILCA campus, Addis Ababa from March 21 April 2, 1988. Contact: Dr. P. Anandajayasekeram, CIMMYT, P.O. Box 25171,
Nairobi, Kenya.
June 19-24, 1988. Deventer, the Netherlands
The Congress is organized by the IPM Congress Committee, on behalf of the Foundation for Ecological Crop Protection and Pest Control, the Information Centre for Low External Input Agriculture (ILEIA), Mondiaal. Alternatief Foundation for Ecological Development Alternatives (MA), Netherlands Centre for Development Workers (CON), Pesticide Action Network Netherlands

Page 5
(PAN-NL). Support is provided by the Netherlands Government and the Wageningen Agricultural University. The sponsoring organizations are' concerned about the lack of implementation of ecological crop protection methods, either preventive or curative, and the hazards of chemical pesticides. The major aim of the Congress is to provide an evaluation of development, promotion, and implementation of Intergrated Pest Management in the Tropics.
In particular the Congress will focus on the following subjects:
- IPM in (food) crops: evaluation on existing IPM-projects,
possibilities for projects for local (food) crops.
- Impact of existing pesticide use, and management of
pesticide use (e.g. guided control)
- New developments in research and technology: pro and
pontra of IPM
- position of small farmers, and women, in various pest and
|__esticide management strategies
- IPM- database and information service; establishing of an
information network and an information centre
- IPM audiovisual and educational materials for extension
and education
- Notification and information procedures (UNEP-scheme,
FAO-code, etc): toward an effective implementation.
Individuals from Scientific Institutions, Government bodies, Extension and Information Services, International and Non-Governmental Organizations are invited to participate and submit papers in English on the subjects mentioned above. Both poster and presented papers will be accepted and the proceeding will be published.
Accomodation: the staff organizing committee will assist participants in finding hotel accomodation. A limited number of low-budget rooms is available in the centre itself. Registration fee, including lunches, etc. will be announced in due course.
Language: the official language will be English.
Proceeding and documents: congress documents will be available with the pre-congress programme.
Participation: the maximum number of participants will be 180.
Other announcements will be published in appropriate newsletters, journals, etc., and will be sent to all persons responding to this announcement.
For information and registration individuals should write

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!PM Congress Secretariat
c/o Department of Entomology, WAU
P.P. Box 8031
NL-6700 EH Wageningen
The Netherlands
Coordinator is Dr. Jan Van De Waerdt (provisional phone number .
January 18 August 6, 1988, Wageningen, the Netherlands
ICRA is a postacademic course for young agricultural
scientists working in developing countries. Its aim is to
prepare them for applying their specialized training to research designed to produce results which are appropriate to the circumstances of farmers and which are compatible with the
broader aims of governments.
The ICRA training will provide participants with the
necessary background knowledge and awareness of opportunities for and constraints to change in agriculture and enable them to use
this knowledge in their own research programmes.
The course combines theoretical training in Wageningen with
a three month field study in a developing country. This provides participants with a case study of the processes at work in agricultural development and gives them the opportunity to make an interdisciplinary study of farmers' production systems with a
view to identifying priorities for agricultural research.
Scholarships are available covering all costs, tuition,
board and lodging at Wageningen and in the field, health
insurance, and modest allowances for incidental expenses.
For more information write to:
The Director of Studies
P.O. Box 88
The Netherlands

Page 7
18TH April 8th July 1988.
In 1986 the Project Planning Centre introduced a new course aimed specifically at middle and senior level managers of agricultural and rural development projects. The rationale for the introduction of the course lay in the recognition that even well planned projects are dependent on good management for success. The need for such a course has recently been further reinforced since the adoption by a growing number of countries of structural adjustments programmes under which the strengthening of management capacity at both an institutional and project level is an essential element.
The aim of the course is to help operational project managers to biuld upon their own experience in order to develop these areas of management expertise, which are particularly relevant to the task of project management in an agricultural/rural context. Each course takes the form of a management development programme, specifically tailored to meet the learning needs of such managers in the context of a wide range of agricultural and rural developments projects.
The philosophy of the course is that each participant should be encouraged to take an active part in identifying, prioritising and fulfilling his/her own management development needs. The course brochure enclosed shows how we propose to translate that philosophy into practice.
Further information from:
John Casworth, Course Director
University of Bradford
Project Planning Centre for Developing Countries
Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP
An annual prize will be awarded by CIAT for an outstanding national contribution to research, on the development of new technology, leading to increased productivity and production of Phaseolus beans in Africa. The prize, valued at US$500, will be awarded for the purchase of scientific books, technical journals or subscriptions to professional societies. Furthermore, CIAT will ensure that the winner is given maximum publicity, so that the prize carries with its substancial prestige beyond its

Page 8
strictly monetary value. This prize is open to all who
contribute to developing technologies, including on-farm researchers.
Nominations for the prize, the first award of which will be made in 1988, should be channelled through National Coordinators for which Bean Research to the respective Regional Steering Committee, whose recommendations will be forwarded to CIAT headquarters where the winner will be selected.
Fellowships for Development of Research Projects 1988 89
A variety of opportunities for African researchers, individually or in teams, and research teams of African and non-African researchers area available from the Project of African Agriculture: Crisis and Transformation, sponsored by the Joint Committe of African Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council. The Project aims to promote interdisciplinary analysis particularly involving natural and social scientists of the agricultural crisis in the sub-Saharan Africa. Two cohorts of fellows will be selected in 1988, one in May (application deadline: February 1), and one in November (application deadline: August 1). Awards for periods of 3-12 months will be granted to support innovative projects involving training and research activities. Interdisciplinary applications are particularly encouraged. Applicants may come from any of three categories: recent graduates (minimum of Master's Degree or equivalent); mid-career scholars at universities or research institutes; professional in government posts.
For additional information write to:
Fellowship Programme, Project on African Agriculture
Social Science Research Council
605 Third Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10158
telephone (212) 661-0280

Page 9
Kellogg Foundation Travel Grants
The W.K. Kellogg Foundation has made a grant to provide support for young social scientists from the areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Africa to participate in the Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1988.
The amount of their grant is $32,000. The Kellogg Foundation suggested their grant will enable 15 rural' social scientists from Africa, Central and South America, and the Caribbean to be assisted. The funds will be, distributed among persons selected based on relative air fares. Recipients will be required to obtain funds from other sources for hotel, meal arid other expenses.
Applications will be received until February 1, 1988. The application should be in the form of a letter containing the following information:
- Name and address
- Age
- Present position
- Advance degrees received
- Position, if any, on the programme of the conference or if
a contributed paper has been submited.
- Estimate on round trip air fare to Buenos Aires
The application should be sent to:
R. J. Hildreth
Secretary Treasurer, IAAE
Farm Foundation
1211 W. 22nd Street, Suite 216
Oak Brook, Illinois 60521
Major criteria for the awards will be age and position on the programme of the conference or submission of contributed paper.
Awardees will be notified around March 1, 1988, after the selection has been made by a committee.

Page 10
The seventh annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium will be held at the University of Arkansas in
Fayetteville, October 18-21. It will be hosted by the University of Arkansas in collaboration with Winrock International Institute of Agricultural Development, and will take place at the Centre for Continuing Education, University of Arkansas, Fayeteville, Arkansas.
The theme of the 1987 symposium is "How Systems Work". Sessions will be organized around five sub-themes: a) Information and Communication Systems, b) Macro Systems, d) Crop/Livestock Systems, and e) Crop Systems. Opportunities will also be provided for practitioners to present projects, case studies, or issues of special concern. The 1987 Symposium will also feature special training opportunities immediatly before and/or after the symposium.
FSSP announce that it will close down many of its activities as from the end of 1987. The following list indicates the support FSSP will continue to be able to offer:
1.) There will be two more issues of the FSSP Newsletter in
English, Spanish and French.
2.) The Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems ends with the Spanish and French versions of Volume III when
they are issued at the end of June, and with the English
version when Volume IV is issued in September.
3.) The networking Paper Series has been terminated.
4.) The Farming Systems Research Symposium will be held in October 18-21 this year, and for two years after that, through the collaboration of the University of Arkansas and
Winrock International.
5.) There are no FSSP funds to support symposium participants or to support attendance at the project's
annual meeting.
6.) There will be an FSSP Annual Meeting in conjuntion with the annual farming systems symposium in October. Once again, the future of the farming systems support network
will be topical.

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7.) FSSP Biodata service is no longer functional.
8.) FSSP visitors' programmes and FSR/E orientation at the University of Florida is available strictly on a paid
9.) FSSP initiatives for the remainder of the year, apart from the training development and delivery schedule, can
only be considered on a total buy-in basis.
10.) By the year's end, FSSP training materials include volume III on management, incorporation of livestock consideration in existing volumes I and II, and an economics sub-unit in volume Ii. These efforts are
i1.) The Intra-household Dynamics and FSR/E Case Studies will be available by the end of 1987, complete with
conceptual framework and teaching guides.
The University of Arizona and the University of Kentucky have entered into a cooperative agreement with the Nutrition Economic Group, Office of International Cooperation and Development, United States Department of Agriculture focusing on incorporating nutritional concerns in agricultural development. The general objectives of this agreement are to:
1. ) Establish a cooperative framework for technical and research support of a program applied and technical assistance designed to assist developing countries improve
the food cosequences of their agricultural projects.
2.) To increase the capabilities of U.S. educational institutions to develop or increase expertise in this
The main activities under this project will include:
1.) Identifying, testing and evaluating alternatives ways of incorporating ways of incorporating food consumption and nutrition concerns into designs, implementation and evaluation of various types of agricultural and rural development projects, including the provision of technical
assistance as necessary.
2.) Identifying, standardizing and writing case studies on

Page 12
projects where consumption or nutrition concerns have been or are being addressed within past or current agricultural
3.) Developing and testing low-cost methods for collecting
data on diets and other relevant food related activities.
4.) Developing training materials based on the results of
the above research.
5.) Organizing a Nutrition in Agriculture network for information diseminaton in the area of adding consumption
and nutrition concerns to agricultural projects.
6.) Additional efforts to improve the food consumption and nutrition consequences of agricultural projects as identified by the cooperators during the course of the research, including technical assistance to field projects.
The first phase of this research will focus on identifying core agricultural projects with which to collaborate. In
addition, several case studies, working papers and materials will be developed to help orient upcoming research. The project intends to initially concentrate its efforts in three countries which are widely distributed geographically. A subcontractor to this project is the University of Kentucky.
Anyone interested in participating in the Nutrition in Agriculture Network or obtaining additional information please contact:
Timothy R. Frankenberger
Office of Arid lands Studies
College of Agriculture, University of Arizona
845 N. Park Avenue
Tucson, Arizona 85719
Telephone: (602) 621-1955
Cable: ARIDLANDS, Tucson, A
Dr. Patricia O'Brien-Place Nutrition Economics Group/TA
Washington, D.C. 20250

Page 13
Held in Zimbabwe, April 1987
1.) Cassim E.A. Masi and Mick S. Mwala
Adaptive Research Planning Team Agronomist and Sunflower
Breeder. Mt. Makulu Research Station, Zambia.
A total of eight countries were represented at this
workshop; Botswana, Lesotho, Malagasy Republic, Malawi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and the host country Zimbabwe. The workshop was jointly organised by CIMMYT and the University of Zimbabwe and conducted by resource personnel from CIMMYT,
Swaziland and the University of Zimbabwe. The workshop centred mainly on the use of the MSTAT micro-computer statistical package for the management and data analysis of agronomic research axperiments.
The main objective of the workshop was to learn techniques useful for analysis, interpretation and presentation of research data. In order to achieve this objective, it was necessary for participants to be introduced to MSTAT computer software and review some statistical aspects of field experimentation including data collection, analysis, interpretation and reporting of on-farm research on-farm research (OFR) trials.
The workshop was conducted by the following resource
personnel: S. Waddington, agronomist for CIMMYT Southern Africa region, D. Neeley, Statistician for the University of Zimbabwe, C. Seubert, agronomist for the Swaziland Cropping Systems
Research and Extension Training Project and S. Matsebula,
biometrician from Swaziland.
The instructional approach was very "practical" orientated. With eight personal micro-computers being used in the course all of the participants were able to spend time using the

Page 14
micro-computers to analyse agronomic data using a tutorial manual.
Exercises included entering raw data, editing and analysing it. Several MSTAT sub-programmes were introduced to participants for preparing the data for analysis. In order to reinforce the exercises, case studies from Swaziland and Zimbabwe were used to highlight various analytical aspects of the MSTAT statistical programme. Towards the end of the workshop participants were then asked to apply what they had learned on their own data sets, and to prepare a presentation to members of staff of the University of Zimbabwe for a critical evaluation.
The workshop provided an excellent opportunity for participants from different countries to discuss important issues in the management and analysis of agronomic data. Though the emphasis of the workshop was on on-farm research trials, some aspects discussed had direct applicability to on-station research trials. Of particular interest to us was the handling and analysis of data for multiple years and locations. We should emphasise here that such analyses of trial data are rarely undertaken and this means that some information such as location by season, or variety by season interaction is lost. It is the interaction which forms a basis for characterizing a technology or a variety. The methods provided by the workshop for the calculation of interactions when faced with limited computing facilities were particularly helpful to us. Another type of analysis worth mentioning, which we had tried ourselves in Zambia, is the stability analysis of data, especially from on-farm trials. This technique is useful in characterizing the performance of varieties in different environments.
In general, the MSTAT package was found very useful in helping to get through numerous research trial designs, management and analysis bottlenecks. We envisage that MSTAT will increase our ability to analyse trial data efficiently as well as enabling the research programme to handle more materials at various stages of technology and variety generation and development.
We consider that this workshop was very useful and would fully support the idea of repeating such workshop on an annual basis. However, we have several suggestions to enhance the workshop's effectiveness. These include:
a.) Giving a little more time for drafting a basic report

Page 15
on a trial for the researcher and presentation of results for other audiences such as extension, farmer, research director and policy makers. Examples of such basic reports intended for different audiences could have been presented in this workshop, so as to afford the participants an opportunity to draft their own basic reports for different audiences. Dissemination of information is a very
important aspect of agricultural research.
b.) Time is needed for participants to try out other packages such as Minitab. This was simply demonstrated and it was difficult to follow the demonstration because of
crowding on one computer.
c.) Schedule the workshop at the time when most agronomists are through with their seasonal activities. Most agronomists were not able to use the 1986/87 season data for analysis in the workshop because their data was not yet available. We propose the August-September period would be best for most agronomists from Southern Africa, as this is the period when agronomists usually complete the data
collection and analysis on the previous work.
d.) With some countries having several different farming systems projects or provincial farming systems research teams like the case of Zambia, it would be better to invite more participants from each country ensuring that all teams are represented. In order that all countries could participate each year, it would then be necessary to group countries in the region to hold at least two workshops, one for Eastern Africa and one for Southern Africa. Where the team is large then an in-country workshop would be arranged
so that all agronomists benefit from such a workshop.
e.) If possible, more consideration should be made to include presentaion of partial budgets and other economic
analysis techniques in future workshops.
In conclusion, we would like to say that this workshop was a well organised workshop, especially considering it was the first of its kind held in the regiorl. The workshop should most definately continue to be held regularly on an annual basis. We wish to thank the sponsors CIMMYT/University of Zimbabwe for their assistance and hospitality during the workshop. Particular thanks to Dr. Steve Waddington, and his support staff for mailing us feel at home during the course of the workshop and we wish them well in their future plans. Lastly we wish to take this opportunity in thanking the Ministry of Agriculture and Water

Page 16
Development of the Government of the Republic of Zambia for affording us the opportunity to attend the workshop.
2.) Sebenzile.Matsebula and Chris Seubert.
Cropping Systems Research Project, Malkerns- Research
Station, Swaziland.
Participants who were not previous MSTAT users were taught a useful skill and given a tool that they could use to assist them in agronomic research data analysis. Many 'of them were quite enthused about this. Many of the participants were introduced to some new ideas in data scrutiny. They were given some reasonably clear guidelines for when to "throw away" and when to "keep" data. The concepts and methods presented for analysis across the seasons and across sites are much needed in on-farm research and were clearly appreciated, though not always understood, by the participants. Some concepts and advantages of grouping data were presented to the participants. The link to target group farmers was made. The data reporting techniques were staight forward and useful to the participants; we've already seen and used here at Malkerns.
The participants were very enthusiastic about inputting and analyzing their own data sets. However this process took a lot of time in the course and tended to draw participant attention away from the case study data sets, and other micro-computer related activities. More time should have been spent at the start designing a customized approach to the analysis of each participant's data set. The course needs more structure and flow to it. A more step-by-step guide through the analysis process, with clearer connections between components, is needed. Perhaps more screening of participants with respect to their statistics background is needed. Alternatively, more time devoted to basic statistics may be needed. Perhaps advanced participants could work on their own data sets, while intermediate participants could work on structured case studies.

Page 17
Richard B. Jones, Agronomist/Team Leader
The Country
The Republic of Botswana is a landlocked country covering an area of 582,000 square kilometres, straddling the Tropic of Capricorn in the centre of the Southern African Plateau (figure 1). It has a small population of approximately one million. Much of the country is relatively featureless with the notable exception of the Okavango Delta in the north-west of the country formed bt the Okavango River which drains inland from Angola.
An important aspect of the country is the harsh climatic environment, often described as semi-arid. Average rainfall varies from 650-700 mm in the north-east to 150-200 mm in the extreme south-west (Sims 1981). In Western Ngamiland the average at Shakawe, the only synoptic station, is 533.5 mm (based on records from 1932-80) with more than 200 mm indicated in three years out of four. Precipitation occurs almost entirely in the summer months from November through to April and is unreliable, in that the annual total and seasonal distribution vary, and of poor quality in that is usually falls in heavy showers of short duration leading to runoff and erosion. as a consequence of this, arable agriculture is a risky undertaking, the country being better suited for extensive grazing by ruminant livestock.
The Agricultural System
Eventhough the relative importance of agriculture has declined over the past few years, (39.3% of GDP at independence in 1966 to 7.4% in 1983) (Ministry of Finance and Development Planning 1985) it is still the single most important economic activity for people in rural areas, who compose approximately 75% of the population (Ministry of Finance and Development Planning 1982).

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Figure 1 Map of Botswana_and
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Page 19
Although this paper focuses on crop production systems it is important to realize that the livestock systems cannot be ignored because the two types of production are inextricably linked together. Livestock are essential for the provision of draft power and also play an important role in the cylcling of
It should be realized that production systems not only evolve in response to physical and environmental constraints but also in response to government policies. In Botswana the
Government operates a grant/downpayment scheme referred to as the Arable Land Development Programme (ALDEP). The government
contributes 85% of the cost of selected technologies whilst the farmer contributes 15% as a downpayment. There are four components to the scheme: implements, water catchment tanks, draft power and fencing. Newly developed technologies can be included in the grant/downpayment scheme if approved by a committee. The programme is aimed at individuals who have less than 40 head of cattle.
In 1986 the government introduced a programme known as the Accelerated Rainfed Arable Production (ARAP) programme as a drought recovery measure which pays individuals cash on a one off basis to destump, plough, row plant and weed their fields. ARAP is available to anyone who cultivates land and is planned to continue for a period of 5 years. Such generous schemes make a wide range of technologies affordable to all farmers by either heavily subsidising their cost or by providing cash payments as an incentive to grow crops.
Ngamiland District which encompasses the Okavango Delta is divided into two parts. Ngamiland West is a sub-district with its headquarters in Gomare. This paper will focus on what is known as the Communal First Development Area (CFDA) where the Agricultural Development Ngamiland Project, jointly funded by the Government of Botswana and the Swedish agency SAREC, has been working. The project area was designated by the district authorities to coincide with the district development priorities which led to the establishment of the CFDA, as attempt to concentrate development initiatives over a limited area for a set period of time in order to achieve a more sustained development effort. The CFDA covers approximately one fifth of the
sub-district but encompasses all the land use patterns found throughout the sub-district.

Page 20
Table 1. Agricultural Land Use in the CFDA
Population 4 686 4 094 1 570 632 10 980
(census 1981)
Arable Aqriculture
Arable land
presently used.
Dryland 3 560 ha 304 ha 52 ha 36 ha 3 952 ha
Molapo 120 ha 1 900 ha 822 ha 369 ha 3 211 ha
3 680 ha 2 204 ha 874 ha 405 ha 7 163 ha
Potential arable land in melapo
cultivatable under wet conditions 636 ha 36 ha 168 ha
dry conditions 796 ha 264 ha 28 ha
Arable land used/ 0,8 ha 0,5 ha 0,6 ha 0,6 ha
Animal Production
Cattle crush figures 1980 5 619 10 504 16 297 10 534 42 954
May 1981 4 595 6 318 18 819 9 431 39 163
Carrying capacity 5 000 7 300 6 900 7 600 26 800
Overstocked 1980 + 619 +3 204 +9 397 +2 934 +16 154
1981 405 982 +11- 919 +1 831 +12 363
Additional No. of LSU could be carried on unused grazing potential in
dryland 4 000 3 200 2 200 1 800 i 200
Cattle per person 1980 1,2 2,6 10,4 16,7
1981 0,9 1,5 12,0 14,9
Mean area ploughed (under ARAP)
per farmer 1986/87 2,42 1,57 1,84 -

Page 21
Within the area there is a decrease in arable cultivation from north to south and an increase in livestock production. The arable system also changes from dryland cultivation as practiced by the Hanbukushu in the north to molapo (floodplain) cultivation carried out by the Bayei in the south. Table 1 illustrates this point. These two distinct arable farming systems have evolved in different ways to overcome the major limiting factor to crop production which is the lack of moisture.
Molapo Farming System
The Okavango River enters Botswana at Mahembo and flows south for approximately 100 km in what is known as the "Pan Handle", a vegetated flood plain up to 16 km wide. Just south of Seronga the Delta opens out wide to the southwest and east with several channels branching off. The Okavango is perennial but undergoes a flooding cycle which reaches a peak in the month of March of April and a minimum around November.
Three major ecotypes have been distinguished in the Okavango Delta according to their lack of or abundance of water, these are:
1.) The permanent swamp, with perennial surface water up to
4m deep.
2.) Seasonally-inundated areas, the extent of which varies to a large degree, depending -upon the magnitude of the
annual flood from Angola and the amount of local rainfall.
3.) The higher dry land masses.
Farmers utilize the floodwaters in the seasonally inundated areas to overcome the moisture constraint. However, the level and timing of the flood varies considerably from the season depending upon the rainfall in the Angolan highlands where the Okavango River rises, rainfall over the delta itself and changes in the direction of flow caused by vegetation blockages, seismic activity sedimentation and other factors. Topographical surveys of the Delta show that it has a surprinsingly regular conical shape with a slope of 1 in 3600. The result of such small gradients is that the celerity of the flood is only in the order of five centimetres per second and the pattern of the flood changes in response to the factors mentioned above, although these are not well understood. Farmers are therefore relying on water from a dynamic system and have to exercise considerable flexibility if they wish to use the moisture effectively. Since

Page 22
the beginning of the century the Thaoge River on the western margin of the Delta has declined from being the main outlet from the delta to a dry channel which only flows occasionally south of Gomare. Farmers no longer have access to the relatively flat floodplains that were in the past seasonally inundated but now rely on old river channels or other depressions where the high groundwater table moistens the surface soil throUgh -capillary rise. These areas are'limited in extent, widely dispersed and are very susceptible to flooding if the groundwater table should rise, which can happen when there is an early flood of heavy rainfall.
A complex land tenure system described in detail by Sutherland (1981) has developed which takes into account the necessity to shift cultivation in response to the changing flood regime. With the drying up of the Thagoe River the areas available for molapo cultivation have become scarce with the result that the overall productivity from the area has declined. Molapo fields need several seasons of cultivation with the
traditional ox-drawn mouldboard plough before weeds are controlled and smooth even seedbed is produced. Without this, germination is patchy reducing yields and making weed control almost impossible.
During the same period livestock numbers have increased drammatically due to campaigns carried out by the ,veterinary services, which provide free vaccinations against the major livestock diseases (foot and mouth, blackquarter evil, contagious abortion, anthrax and botulism), and the control of tsetse fly. Conflicts between the two production systems have increased because both are competing for areas with more favourable
conditions. Group fencing projects and individual fencing initiatives have not been succesful because fields protected by group fences have been abandoned as the Thaoge River has dried up. The lack of suitable materials together with the fact that individual fencing is not easily moved has meant that, solutions to these conflicts have not succeeded.
The effect that some of these factors have had on the trails programme is illustrated in figure 2 which gives a breakdown of results from two seasons of trials.
Figure 2. Results of Agronomic Trials 1983-85
Successful Livestock Pests Poor germn. Drought Flood
25% 20% 17% 15% 12% 11%

Page 23
Potential Solutions to Alleviate Constraints in the Molapo System
The drying up of the Thaoge River resulting in farmers
having to use marginal areas for cultivation is the major
constraint to crop production. A scheme to restore flow in the Thaoge River was drawn up by Kraatz (1976) as part of the United Nations project investigating the Okavango Delta. As part of the CFDA programme detailed land use plan was carried out (Bendsen and Gelmroth 1983) which again identified this as an important constraint after exhaustive consultations with local farmers. A project memorandum was therefore drawn up to implement the
original U,N. proposal and funding obtained thought the Dutch S.N.V. organisation. With the completion of the bypass channel in 1989 it is hoped taht the previous status quo will be restablished. Additional work will be carried out to ensure that the waters are used effectively.
Trials carried out during the last four seasons have been designed to improve the germination of maize by concentrating on improved seedbed preparation. The use of ox-drawn zig-zag
harrows combined with row planting techniques has helped to improve germination but the difficulties of carrying out trials under such high risk situations has made the interpretation of results very difficult. Emphasis has been placed on farmer
consultation as a means of evaluating trials with positive results. Row planting has been introduced as a way of facilitating weeding which is considered the major advantage of planting in rows.
The conflict between livestock and crops will to some extent be solved when the water regime is stabilised. Group Fencing schemes should be more effective when farmers are not having to abandon fields in search of wet areas every few seasons. Wowever it is likely that farmers will still have to exercise a considerable amount of flexibility if they are fully to utilize the floodwaters of the Delta to the maximum advantage.
Traditional bush fences have been found to use approximately 35 kg fresh wood per meter (Tietema and Gache 1986). Assuming that a bush fence has to be renewed every five years and that a field of 400 by 400 m supports a family of 6 then 1800 kg of fresh wood is needed per person annually over and above the 500 kg needed for firewood (ERL 1985). Such fences need to be discouraged if deforastation and wind erosion, already severe, are to be minimised. The only system of fencing that is portable and need not rely on wooden poles is one based on electric fencing. In such systems protection is afforded by the electric shock which results when contact is made with a conductor, usually steel wire which can be supported on light plastic poles. The electric

Page 24
fen(e energisers that have been tested are powered by 12 volt wet cell batteries which in turn are charged using a solar panel. Such technology is expensive but has been proved effective in the molapo areas.
Dryland Farming System.
The Hambukushu grow millet, their staple food crop, together with sorghum, maize, mellons, groundnuts and a variety of beans on the sandveld soils which surround the Okavango Delta.
The sandy soils have a high infiltration rate (240 mm/hour), are not liable to capping but have only a limited water holding capacity (100 mm/m). Farmers clear land burning the brush but leaving stumps in the ground. Areas with dense vegetation are chosen with preference for clearing as they are considered to be more fertile. However after approximately 10 years the fields are abandoned and new lands cleared. At the beginning of the cropping season any remaining crop residues which have not been grazed by cattle in the field are collected and burnt. Land preparation and planting is done either by single furrow mouldboard plough or by hand hoe. Plough teams are composed of only two oxen with donkeys being used very occassionally. Planting takes place by dropping seeds in every other furrow at carefully spaced intervals of 50-100 cm. Planting is done into both dry and moist soil although the latter is preferred. Often farmers will separate planting and ploughing preferring to plant into the ploughed seedbed when moisture conditions are optimal either using a hand hoe or the feet to knock over the ridge of the furrow thereby covering the seeds. If oxen are not being used land preparation is carried out by clearing an area of weeds ,using a hoe followed by planting at carefully spaced intervals.
Successful farmers stagger their plantings throughout the season whilst keeping their land free of weeds so that the soil moisture reserve is built up and preserved over the season. Plant populations are carefully controlled and fields kept weed free.
Constraints to Arable Production in Etsha.
In the Etsha area roughly 48,000 ha are presently used as pastureland. Taking 9Ha/LSU as the recommended carrying capacity (Field 1977), about 5,000 LSU's can be kept in the given area, but at the present time it is estimated that there are 7,000 animals.
There are several consequences of such drastic overstocking/ for arable agriculture.

Page 25
1. In times of drought livestock are competing for scarce
grazing resources and frequently do not survive the long
dry season.
2. Animals that do survive are often extremely weak until
the onset of the rains so that they cannot be used for
draught power until several weeks have elapsed.
3Conflicts between livestock and arable production become
intensified as livestock encroach on arable fields in
search, of fodder.
Another factor limiting the potential productivity of the area is a non-ownership or lack of direct access to draught power by the majority of the farming population due to the skewed livestock ownership patterns in the Etsha (as well as nationally). This affects a farmer's ability to plant on time with resultant affects on the potential productivity of the arable sector. One of the main features of the climate has already been noted, namely thet the annual precipitation is both unreliable and that the seasonal distribution varies. Arable farmers therefore need to exercise the' maximum flexibility if they are to be successful. The Dryland Farming Research Scheme (1985) conducted several seasons of trials to investigate the optimum spacing for sorghum and maize and from their work concluded that "it is abundantly clear that there can be no such thing as a correct or recommended time for planting sorghum in Botswana. One plants when one can and,.according to the nature of the season, different advantages or disadvantages attach to early of late planting, and the safest strategy is one which spreads planting over a range of dates." This message can be applied to any crop under dryland conditions in Botswana.
Farmers therefore relying on animal draught power are at a disadvantage if at the beginning of the season their animals are too weak to plough or if they are relying on borrowed/hired draught power, they will have to wait until animals are free usually when their owners have finished using them. The only option is to cultivate the land by hand which although effective is extremely strenuous, so that only small areas can be covered.
Reflecting the constraints discussed above, the following three recommendations domains have been identified: farmers cultivating by hand hoe, farmers borrowing/hiring oxen and farmers owning their own draught team. The results of a quantification survey (Rashem 1986) showing the percentage of farmers in each recommendation domain are presented in table 2.

Page 26
Field measurements show on average the following:
Recommendation Domain Mean no. of Ha.
Hoe farmers 1.5
People borrowing/hiring oxen 3.5
Oxen owners 4.5
It is important to note that the above recommendation domains are not-discrete. Hoe farmers often borrow or hire oxen and farmers with their own draught team frecuently cultivate some of their land by hoe. The recommendation domains are however still useful in that they help to focus the research programme in this instance towards the problem of land preparation. Trip
(1986) gives a good discussion of the use of recommendation domains.
Table 2. Percentage of Farmers in Each recommendation Domain
During the 1984/85 Season.
Total % Male Female S.D.
oxen owners 41 57 19 0.032
oxen borrowers/hirers 44 37 53 0.033
hoe farmers 15 6 28 0.030
Reasons for cultivation.
Informal surveys have shown'that the mouldboard plough pulled by 2 oxen is the only implement used for land preparation by people relying on animal draught power. The plough is
commonly used throughout the country and although not manufactured locally is readily available. However when the
reasons for ploughing are investigated it becomes apparent that two objectives are being met. Firstly one of tillage, essential in the hardveld soils of the east, and secondly weed control. Evidence that the first operation is unnecessary in the sandveld soils of Western Ngamiland is provided by the hoe farmers
themselves who do not physically invert the soil but merely clear the surface of weeds. The plough is therefore being used solely to control weeds.

Page 27
Planting i~s normally done by dropping seeds in every other furrow behind the plough so that weed control and planting both take place at the same time. Occasionally farmers plant into ploughed land by using hand hoes at. a later date.
The project has been looking at 2 technologies to firstly facilitate weed control, thereby eliminating the need to plough, and secondly to plant without relying on draught power.
Chemical Weed Control.
The lands areas are situated from between 2 and 5 kms away from villages, with water having to be carried from even greater distances. The use of conventional spraying techniques such as knapsack sprayer using 200 litres of spray mixture per Ha. could not be considered unless farmers had access to a source of water at the lands areas (no wells are known) or to draught power to transport that water. A ground driven controlled droplet applicator sprayer (developed at the National Institute of Agricultural Engineering in England) delivering 25.65 1/Ha of spray mixture has been tested together with a number of chemical treatments to determine the effectiveness of the methodology. Sprayers are manufactured in England and have been imported for testing purposes. However if successful the company has agreed to supply them in kits with certain parts being manufactured locally. Such a strategy w 'ould ensure that the heavy components like the frame will be built in Botswana whilst more specialised parts that need to be manufactured in larger quantities or cannot be found locally are imported. The ready availability of herbicides locally at prices that compete with the traditional costs of hiring oxen make such an approach attractive.
Labour data collected shows that it takes approximately 10 hours to plough 1. Ha., 100 hours to hand clear and 5 hours to spray the same area.
The main problem encountered is the lack of suitable chemicals for non selective pre emergence spraying that are not either extremely toxic or expensive. Paraquat although effective cannot be recommended due to its toxicity whilst the Glyphosate is extremely expensive. A range of chemicals are being evaluated by the project in cooperation with the weed agronomist based at the central research station.
Jab Planter.
The jab planter was developed at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) at Ibadan, Nigeria for planting

Page 28
through stubble in minimum tillage systems. The machine has 6 points mounted on a wheel which are pushed into the soil as the machine is pushed/pulled along the ground by the operator. When the point enters the soil it opens releasing a measured amount ofseed into the hole created which is then covered by a press wheel mounted to the frame. Intra row spacing is set at 25 cm but can be reduced to 12.5 cm by reducing the number of holes in the seed metering wheel to 3.
The millet plant populations established by the machine have been found to be significantly higher (o.1% level) than those established traditionally by farmers planting with hand hoes.. In the same trial planting date was also highly significant (0.1% level). Table 3 presents population data from the 1985/86 season. Hoe planting takes place in a semi circle in front of the person holding the hoe at regularly spaced intervals so that the plant population is carefully controlled.
Researcher managed and researcher implemented trials have been carried out for seasons in a 2 Ha research plot established adjacent to the main arable area. Before a definite
recommendation could be made to the extension services it was felt necessary to determine the affect of plant population on the growth and yield of millet. If high plant populations lead to reduced yields or are more likely to fail in drought years it would be irresponsible to recommend a technology that was known to result in higher plant populations being established. Trials have been carried out concurrently in farmers fields to compare the new technology with the old. Yield results from the 1985/86 season are presented in table 4. it would appear that
traditional farming methods are resulting in too low plant populations being established.

Page 29
Table 3. Population Means (plants/Ha) Obtained from 96 Millet
Plots Set Out as a Split-plot Design Which Used Planting Date as Whole Plots and Jab Planting Compared
With Traditional Practice as Split-plots.
Planting Date Jab Planting Traditional Planting Date Mean
1 16095 9095 12595
2 27485 12945 20215
3 30907 14562 22735
Mean 24827 12200
Standard Error of Difference Between:
Two Planting Date Means =2407.5 (30 df.),
Two Treatment Means = 1637.5 (45 df.)
Two Treatment Means for a
Given Planting Date Means =2837.5 (45 df.)
Two Planting Date Means
for a Given Treatment =3135
Table 4. Yields (Kg/Ha) Obtained from 96 Millet Plots Set Out as
a Split-plot Design Which Used Planting Date as Whole Plots and Jab Planting Compared With Traditional
Practise as Split -plots.
Jab Planting Traditional
Treatment Mean 466.354 386.729
Standard Error of Difference Between:
Two Treatments Means 29.187 (45 df.)
Results obtained from the research plot have shown that millet is not very sensitive to changes in plant population but as populations above 40,000 plants/Ha yields are depressed.
The total rainfall in the 1984/85 season was 282.5 mm and in the 1985/86 season 232.8 mm. The results of trials carried out in these years which have all been declared as drought years by the government can safely be used as any plant population are likely to be jeopardised. It is crucial when evaluating new
technologies to ensure that farmers will not be exposed to undue risk in poor rainfall years.
After four years of testing, including a season where extension personnel have been supplied with jab planters and asked to evaluate them, the project feels confident that the

Page 30
machines can be recommended to farmers. However an imported technology would prove to be extremely expensive due to the high transport costs involved. Discussiond are therefore in progress to have 100 machine manufactured locally which will then be made available to traders for national distribution. The planters will be elegible for subsidy under the ALDEP sheme with an 85% grant making the technology affordable to the majority of farmers in the rural areas...
To try and fully understand a complex farming system and then design and test appropriate solutions requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Where manpower and financial
resources are lacking such an ideal is rarely met so that important areas of the system remain a mistery. This situation exists in Western Ngamiland, an area that has been almost untouched by researchers and development workers until recently. The A.D.N. project could not begin to cover areas such as hydrology and water management, land tenure, or the livestock sector unless some provision was made to boost the manpower to the project. For this reason it was decided that in phase 3 of the project a training component would be added. Graduate Botswanan wishing to pursue postgraduate studies are being invited to apply for research studentships which will provide for them to carry out research toward a post-graduate degree at a SADCC university provided that the research work is carried out in the project area. With a broad based development programme there are few areas where research results would not be immediately useful. SADCC universities are preferred for several reasons. It is considerably cheaper than sending students' to the USA or UK, the traditional destinations. Contacts developed during the time spent at university will be much easier to keep up, encouraging greater transfer of knowledge within the region.
Geographical proximity will allow students to devote more time to research in the project area and for closer supervision by local supervisors. Many of the problems that require investigation will be similar within the region making the experiences gained much more relevant to the needs of the country when the researcher embarks on a later career.
Students from both within and outside of government can apily with the former continuing to draw their salary whilst the latter will be provided with a living allowance. Students will be required to draw up a detailed project memorandum once provisional approval has been given which will include a full cost breakdown. An important part of the training programme will be to expose the researchers to the financial costs involved in this type of work., University fees will be covered as well as

Page 31
any costs incurred in providing the student with local supervision in the particular discipline.
A good example is provided by the Thaoge River Project which is underway to restore the flow of water to the western side. Large areas of land that lie adjacent to the original channel appear to have been abandoned but it is likely that once the flow of water is reestablished people will return to reassert their land rights. The drying up of the river took place before the government introduced the land boards which are now responsible for land allocations. Previously land allocation was the perogative of selected people in the community whose rights are even now respected by the land board at least with respect to past allocations. It is possible that there could be severe land use conflicts in the area and therefore a detailed registration exercise is needed to ensure that people do not become disenfranchised or productive land lie idle. The local officer responsible for land issues is a graduate from the University of Botswana. He has expressed an interest in the research scheme and could very well carry out the above exercise using the results for a, masters or PhD degree. His stay in a remote area would therefore be benefitting the community whilst benefitting his career. Such opportunities not only allow local problems to be solved quickly, but also act as a powerful incentive for people to live and work in rural areas usually considered as "punishment postings".

Page 32
CIAT is recruiting a Senior Scientist: Soil Plant Nutrition in Pastures.
The Tropical Pastures Programme (TTP) aims at developing a low-input, low risk pasture technology for marginal lands on the poor acid soils of Tropical America. Considerable progress has been made in both the selection of grass/legume species and ecotypes adapted to such conditions and their establishment requirements. To improve on the extrapolability of results and the understanding of soil/germplasm/management interactions, further research is needed on nutrient recycling and N economics of grazed pastures.
To develop appropriate methodologies to assess the dynamics of different nutrient pools in grazed pastures; to formulate economically sound maintenance fertilization strategies for different pastures under contrasting management schemes.
1. The selected scientist should develop a research line to
accomplish these objectives, including research activities at lab and greenhouse level and field work at
Quilichao and Carimagua stations.
2. He/she will work closely with scientists in the TTP,
especially with the soil microbiologist, ecophysiologist and pasture management specialists, as well as with CIAT outposted staff and national scientists participating in
the Regional Tropical Pastures Network.
3. The scientist will report to the Programme Leader.
1. PhD or equivalent is soil science and plant nutrition
with at least 8 years of experience in research on
tropical pastures and nutrient recycling.
2. The candidate should be proficient in the English
language; a working knowledge of Spanish is desirable.

Page 33
Conditions of appointment
Initial appointment of two years, extendable. Sfipend and perquisites are internationally competitive.
Curriculum vitae, including names and addresses of three professional references and an indication of date of availability, should be submitted before 30 September 1987 to:
Dr. Filemon Torres
Deputy Director General
Apartado Aereo 67-13
Applications are invited for the vacancy of Full Professor of tropical Agronomy of the Agricultural University of Wageningen, The Netherlands.
A central issue in the field of Tropical Cropping Systems is the interaction of the plant production system with the natural, social, economic and political factors.
The field of Tropical Cropping Systems will, in close sooperation with the economic and socio-economic sciences,
contribute to the development of ecologically and socio-economically sound farming systems.
It is expected that the successful candidate (female or male) is an agronomist with a broad interest and experience in tropical agriculture, preferably in possession of a PhD, who is able to provide leadership to training and research in this field.
A salary up to a maximum of Dfl. 9.495 per month will be paid. Further information can be obtained from Professor Dr. C.M. Karssen (tel. 08370-83645), chairman of the selection committee or from Mr. T. Struif Bontkes (tel. 08370-83755),
secretary of the selection committee.
The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources has a vacancy for a Publications Officer.

Page 34
The officer is stationed in Rome and is responsible for the development and production of a wide variety of publications and other informal media dealing with plant genetic resources.
University degree in biology, botany, genetics, agriculture or holticulture. A minimum of 5 year's experience at the highest level in all aspects of writing, editing and production of scientific material in the subject area in stricly technical and more popular forms. Fluency in English, with a working knowledge of French or Spanish. Ability to manage a busy officerial office independently. Experience in working with senior scientists and staff of all nationaltities in committees ond on an individual day-to-day basis. Experience in managing international scientific publishing activities, and an understanding of the information requirements of international development assistance. Ability to function effectively within an international organization. Understanding of the scientific press and ability to communicate with media personnel. Close familiarity with the operation of word precessors and knowledge of desktop computers and database operation, particularly in maintaining a large mailing list. Extensive knowledge of techniques of typography, graphic design and illustration, with some ability in all three. Ability in laying out simple and complex, black and white and four-colour publications. Understanding of aesthetics and
techniques of photography. Some ability in assembling slide shows.
Salary and applications
Salary and benefits are in accordance with accepted international rates. Details will be provided on request. Interested persons should send a curriculum vitae, a recent photograph and the names, addresses and telephone numbers of three referees to:
The Director
00100 Rome, ITALY
Applications should be received before 30 September 1987.
IIMI is seeking a Regional Representative to initiate a West African programme in irrigation management that will: promote a regional research and development network on problems of mutual

Page 35
interest to IIMI and coolaborating countries; set up professional level management training activities; and communicate and exchange information.
The Regional Representative will be stationed in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The appointment is for an initial one year start-up period, and may be extended within the framework of the long-term programme implementation.
Minimum requirements. Candidates should have:
1. An advanced degree in a discipline involving irrigation
management, preferably in Agricultural Engineering,
Agricultural Economics or Agronomy.
2. Training and/or experience in a second relevant
3. At .least 5 years significant experience in
multidisciplinary research on irrigation management.
4. Proven administrative skills, including accounting.
5. Proven written and oral communication skills in French
and English
6. Proven ability to interact effectively with donors,
government officials, research staff, and irrigation and
agricultural development specialists.
7. Previous long-term resident experience in a developing
country, preferably in West Africa.
Preferred requirements.
1. Demonstrated accomplishments in irrigation management
research, particularly irrigation planning and
development, as shown by successful research leadership
and contributions to the development literature.
2. Willingness to travel, and familiarity with West African
culture and society.
3. Competence in using microcomputers in research and
Salary and benefits are based on prior experience and earnings record are coinmesurate with internationally-recruited positions in other international agricultural research institutes such as those sponsored by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Page 36
A ppication
Letters of interest, including a detailed resume and the names and addresses of three referees, should be sent to:
The Director General
International Recruitment
International Irrigation Management Institute
Digana Village via Kandy
Sri Lanka
IFPRI is seeking to employ a researcher to be stationed at the SADCC/ICRISAT Sorghum-Millet Improvement Programme in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The researcher would work primaraly on food marketing policy issues and their implications for cereal
production and comsumption. The research would involve interaction with both IFPRI and ICRISAT senior researchers, The initial employment period is three years, with a possibility of extension. The salary is in the range of $27,000 to $32,000, with a comprehensive benefit package. The salary can be
negotiable, subject to merit and experience. The individual
should have a PhD or equivalent in agricultural economics or economics. Strong field experience, particularly in household and market data collection in developing countries (preferably in Africa), is desirable. Fluency in English is required. Submit resume to the Personnel Director, IFPRI, 1776 Mass. Ave.'NW., Wshington D.C. 20036-1998, USA.
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is conducting a search for the following positions:
1. Land-Use Management Specialist/Coordinator
2. Soil Physicist
3. Plant Pathologist
4. Entomologists
5. Agricultural Economist
6. Agronomists
The Land Use Management Specialist/Coordinator will be a senior scientist based at the IITA Headquarters in Ibadan,
Nigeria and reporting to the Programme Director of the Resource and Crop Management (RCMP). His responsabilities will include:
1. Participation in studies aimed at understanding land use

Page 37
practices and constraints of small scale farmers in the Humid and Sub-humid tropics of Africa and collaboration in the development of improved land use techniques for
small scale farmers.
2. He will take leadership in developing conceptual models
to guide resource management research in different
ecologies in Sub-saharan Africa, and also coordinate the work of a multidisciplinary team of soil scientists, agronomists, weed scientists, agro-climatologists,
economists and agricultural engineers.
The ideal candidates should be between 40 and 55 and should have a PhD or Equivalent preferably in Pedology with strong background in land use management, agronomy and/or resource geography. He should also have had substancial experience and success in agricultural research and research management in tropical agriculture (including farming systems research).
The Soil Physicist is a scientist based at the IITA headquarters in Ibadan, Nigeria and reports to the Programme Director, RCMP. He will conduct on an on-going basis, relevant experiments on soil physical properties and their management, soil erosion and hydrological properties, tillage methods and residue management, watershed management and conservation practices, soil structure, and soil-plant-water relationship.
The preferable age range for this postion is between 35 and 45 years. A PhD or equivalent is Soil Physiscs with background in hydrology, or soil mechanics and minimum of 4 years experience in research in tropical soils will be required.
Candidates for both positions must posess a thorough working knowledge of English. Facility in French would be an advantage.
The Plant Pathologist will be based at IITA headquarters in Ibadan, Nigeria and report to the Programme Director of the Root and Tuber Improvement Programme (TRIP). His/her duties include:
1. Carrying out research on deveopment of efficient
screening methods.
2. Screening breeding lines for resistance to major economic
fungal, and virus diseases of root and tubercrops such as
cassava, yams and sweet potatoe.
3. Collaboration with national plant pathologists and
training of prospective and serving scientists in
collaboration nations.
The Entomologist, also reporting to the TRIP Director, will be responsible for integrated pest management for, and the

Page 38
development of efficient screening methods for breeding lines for resistance to major pests of tropical root crops such as cassava, yams and sweet pptatoe. The entomologist will also conduct studies on mechanisms of resistance to the major pests and maintain cooperation with national entomologists. Entomologists are also required for the Africa Wide Biological Central Project.
Candidates for these last two posts should hold a PhD degrees in their respective fields with strong background in
breeding. Candidates for the position of entomologist should have had experience in host plant resistance breeding. A
thorough working knowledge of English is essential while capability in French would be an advantage.
The Agricultural Economist will be placed with the National Cereals Research and Extension Project (NCRE) in Cameroon.
He/she will have the following responsabilities:
1. To assess economic consequences of proposed extension
recommendations, using microeconomic analyses to determine maximization of economic returns to the farm
enterprise, while minimizing risk and chemical inputs.
2. To analise marketing environments for proposed cropping
interventions, labour requirements and availabilities for
recommended agronomic packages.
3. To prepare information bulletins on small management and
related subjects for the benefit of the small farmer.
Candidates should possess a PhD in Agricultural Economics or in related disciplines. Ability in computer programming for micro-economic analysis will be required. Experience in
Sub-saharan Africa would be desirable. It is also required that candidates should have attained a minimum of stage S-3, R-3 French competence.
Agronomists are also required by the NCRE in Cameroon with the following responsabilities:
1. To devise and conduct agronomic experiments in
collaboration with the Maize Breeder and Cameroonian counterparts, and develop packages involving higher but
appropriate levels of technology for maize cultivation.
2. To advise in the design, implementation and evaluation of
results from on-farm trials.
3. To assist in training extension supervisors and
assistants and also provide on-the-job training for the Cameroonian maize agronomist who has been identified for
long academic training.
An Extension Agronomist for the Testing and Liaison Unit of

Page 39
NCRE is also required. Both candidates should have a PhD in Agronomy or in related disciplines. Experience in tropical agriculture especially in Sub-Saharan Africa would be desirable.It is also required that candidates should have
attained a minimum of stage S-3, R-3 French competence.
Salaries for all above posts will be determined on the basis of qualifications and experience and will be paid in US Dollars. The remunarations package also includes retirement plans, group life and medical insurance, home leave privileges, children educational grants, etc.
Applicants should send their curriculum vitae and the names of references to:
Manager, Human Resources,
c/o Ms. Maureen Larkin
L.W. Lambourn & Co. Ltd.,
Carolyn House
26 Dimgwall Road
Croydon CR9 3EE, ENGLAND
PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Texas A&M University is currently advertising for a Tropical Soils and Departmental Coordinator I International Activities. The majority of our programmes are being conducted in West Africa in the Semi-Arid tropics but the coordinator may be involved in a variety of international projects.
Candidates must possess a PhD degree with an emphasis in
soil science. It will be necessary for the person to have some overseas experience and also experience with USAID and other agencies involved in International Activities.
The primary responsibility for the position will be:
1. To develop a course in Tropical Soils to be taught at the
graduate/undergraduate level.
2. To serve as the coordinator for the Soil Management CRSP,
referred to as Tropsoils.
3. To serve as the Interface for International Programmes in
the Soil and Crop Sciences Department.
4. To develop a Research Programme in an area of soil

Page 40
The scientist will be located at College Station and the position will be a joint research and teaching position.
Details from:
Dr. E.C.A. Runge
Soil and Crop Sciences Department
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843, USA
The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), with its headquarters at Aleppo, Syria, invites applications for Post-Doctoral Fellowship Agricultural Engineering, located in Allepo, Syria.
Responsibilities: To identify and describe localized water supplies (such as groundwater, catchment basins, intermittent streams, etc.) methods of distribution, and alternative sources of water for small-scale supplemental irrigation and water harvesting farming in the Near East and North Africa.
Qualifications: A PhD degree in Agricultural Engineering or closely related field with specialization in groundwater and small-scale irrigation systems. Experience in work with aquifers and. groundwater problems is an advantage. Fluency in English is required.
Conditions of Appointment: A three year appointment; airfare and shipment of goods to and from post; use of car; allowance towards housing and schooling; annual home leave; medical and life insurance. Candidates should send their Curriculum Vitae and two letters of Reference, quoting Ref. No. FRMP/1/87 to:
Personnel Office, ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.

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