Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 George the First - I
 George the First - II
 George the First - III
 George the First - IV
 George the Second - I
 George the Second - II
 The rock of the raven
 George the Second - III
 George the Second - IV
 George the Second - V
 George the Third - I
 George the Third - II
 George the Third - III
 George the Third - IV
 George the Third - V
 George the Third - VI
 George the Third - VII
 George the Third - VIII
 Battle of the Baltic
 George the Third - IX
 Napoleon and the sailor
 George the Third - X
 The burial of Sir John Moore
 George the Third - XI
 The retreat from Moscow
 George the Third - XII
 George the Third - XIII
 George the Third - XIV
 The mariners of England
 George the Fourth - I
 George the Fourth - II
 William the Fourth - I
 William the Fourth - II
 Queen Victoria - I
 Victoria's tears
 Queen Victoria - II
 Queen Victoria - III
 Queen Victoria - IV
 Queen Victoria - V
 The warden of the Cinque Ports
 Queen Victoria - VI
 Queen Victoria - VII
 Queen Victoria - VIII
 Queen Victoria - IX
 Queen Victoria - X
 Queen Victoria - XI
 Queen Victoria - XII
 Queen Victoria - XIII
 Progress in the nineteenth...
 How the British Empire grew...
 How the British Empire grew...
 Exercises on all the lessons in...
 Chief dates
 Chief persons of the Hanoverian...
 Genealogy of the house of...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Royal school series
Title: The Hanoverian period
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080004/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Hanoverian period standard VII ; a reader and a textbook in one
Series Title: Royal English history readers
Physical Description: 287 p. : ill., ports, maps. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, 1829-1902
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1891
Subject: Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Queens -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1891   ( rbgenr )
Textbooks -- 1891   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York
General Note: Publisher's advertisements precede text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080004
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002236824
notis - ALH7302
oclc - 182861698

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    George the First - I
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    George the First - II
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    George the First - III
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    George the First - IV
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    George the Second - I
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    George the Second - II
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    The rock of the raven
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    George the Second - III
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    George the Second - IV
        Page 43
        Page 44
    George the Second - V
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    George the Third - I
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    George the Third - II
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    George the Third - III
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    George the Third - IV
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    George the Third - V
        Page 67
        Page 68
    George the Third - VI
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    George the Third - VII
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    George the Third - VIII
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Battle of the Baltic
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    George the Third - IX
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Napoleon and the sailor
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    George the Third - X
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    The burial of Sir John Moore
        Page 96
        Page 97
    George the Third - XI
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    The retreat from Moscow
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    George the Third - XII
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    George the Third - XIII
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    George the Third - XIV
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    The mariners of England
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    George the Fourth - I
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    George the Fourth - II
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    William the Fourth - I
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    William the Fourth - II
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Queen Victoria - I
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Victoria's tears
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Queen Victoria - II
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    Queen Victoria - III
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Queen Victoria - IV
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Queen Victoria - V
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    The warden of the Cinque Ports
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Queen Victoria - VI
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Queen Victoria - VII
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Queen Victoria - VIII
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Queen Victoria - IX
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Queen Victoria - X
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Queen Victoria - XI
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Queen Victoria - XII
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Queen Victoria - XIII
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Progress in the nineteenth century
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    How the British Empire grew - I
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    How the British Empire grew - II
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Exercises on all the lessons in the book
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Chief dates
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
    Chief persons of the Hanoverian period
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
    Genealogy of the house of Hanover
        Page 288
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

Code 1890.

The Royal



A NEW SERIES of HISTORICAL READERS prepared to meet the
latest requirements of the Education Code.
Beautifully Illustrated, with Maps, Notes and Meanings,
Summaries, and Genealogical Tables.
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This Book contains a series of Stories relating to English History told in the
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THE Caode Requirements for Standard
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L~-~ --








A Reader and Text Book in One.

Royal School Series

London, Edinburge, and New York


* = The Asterisks indicate Poetical Pieces. -


S 18


27. GEORGE THE THIRD.-XIII., .. ... 107
28. WATERLOO,* ... .... .. .. ., 112
29. GEORGE THE THIRD.-XIV.,.. .. .. .. .. 116
30. THE MARINERS OF ENGLAND,* .. .. .. .. 122
31. GEORGE THE FOURTH.--I., .. .. .. .. .. 125
32. GEORGE THE FOURTH.-II., .. .. .. .. .. .. 129
33. WILLIAM THE FOURTH.-I., .. .. .. .. .. .. 132
34. WILLIAM THE FOURTH.-II., .. .. .. .. .. 136
35. QUEEN VICTORIA.-I., .. .. .. .. .. .. 142
36. VICTORIA'S TEARS,* .. .. .. .. .. .. 145
37. QUEEN VICTORIA.-I., .. .. .. .. 148
38. QUEEN VICTORIA.-III., .. .. .. .. .. .. 152
39. QUEEN VICTORIA.-IV., .. .. '.. .. .. .. 156
40. QUEEN VICTORIA.-V., .. .. ... .. .. 159
42. QUEEN VICTORIA.-VI., .. .. .. 166
43. BALAKLAVA,* .. ... ... .. 171
44. QUEEN VICTORIA.-VII., .. ... .. .. 173
45. QUEEN VICTORIA.-VIII., .. .. .. .. .. 177
46. QUEEN VICTORIA.-IX., .. .. .. .. ... 182
47. QUEEN VICTORIA.-X., ... .. .. .. .. 188
48. QUEEN VICTORIA.-XI., .. .. .. .. .. 192
49. QUEEN VICTORIA.-XII., .... .. .. .. 195
50. QUEEN VICTORIA.-XIII., .. .. .. .. .. 198
52. HOW THE BRITISH EMPIRE GREW.-I., .. .. .. .. 209
53. HOW THE BRITISH EMPIRE GREW.-II., .. .. .. 212

CHIEF DATES, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 263
GENEALOGICAL TREE, .... .. .. .. .. .. 288


1. GEORGE I., great-grandson of James I..........1714-1727: 13 years.
2. GEORGE II., son................. ............ .....1727-1760: 33 years.
3. GEORGE III., grandson............... .................1760-1820: 60 years.
4. GEORGE IV., son............ .................. 1820-1830: 10 years.
5. WILLIAM IV., brother....... ........... .............1830-1837: 7 years.
6. VICTORIA, niece ..................... ..............1837.

1714 To 1727: 13 YEARS.
1. The House of Hanover, which began with
George the First, was related to the House of
Stuart, which ended with Queen Anne. Elizabeth,
the daughter of James the First, married a German
Prince named Frederick, Elector-Palatine, and their
grandson became King George the First.
2. All Queen Anne's children had died before
their mother; and the Bill of Rights, passed in
1689, had shut out her half-brother, James the
Pretender, the son of James the Second, from the
throne. The Act of Settlement, passed in 1701,
had declared that Queen Anne should be succeeded
by the Electress Sophia of Hanover, the grand-
daughter of James the First, and -her children.


The Bill of Rights took the British crown from the
Stuarts, and the Act of Settlement gave it to the
House of Hanover.
3. George the First, son of the Electress Sophia,
who died two months before Queen Anne, was
Elector of Hanover, formerly a kingdom of Northern
Germany, but now part of Prussia. He became
King of the United Kingdom also, at the age of
fifty-four. Elector was the name given to each of
seven German princes who had votes in the election
of the Emperor of Germany.
4. George the First succeeded to the British
throne as quietly as if he had been the son of the
former Sovereign. Those who wished to see a strong
and peaceful Government in the land received his
proclamation with great satisfaction, for they felt that
now there was little danger of the country being
ruled by another Stuart. The new King could not
speak English, and had to leave the government for
the most part in the hands of his ministers. This
gave Parliament more power than it had ever pos-
sessed before, and helped to make the King's power
less ever' afterwards.
5.' The Whig party had been most in favour of the
accession of George. Many of the Tory party, who
had charge of the government at the time of Queen
Anne's death, were Jacobites; and they had already
begun to plan in favour of the Pretender, when the
Queen suddenly died, and they found themselves
unprepared to take any action on his behalf. It is
said that no one dared even to raise his voice for
the Pretender.


6. George at once turned the Tories out of office,
and placed his friends the Whigs in power. The
Duke of Marlborough again became commander-in-
chief of the army; and Robert Walpole, who had
been expelled from the House of Commons during
Queen Anne's reign, was made a minister. Walpole
continued as a minister, with a very short interval,



for twenty-eight years, during twenty of which he
was Prime Minister. His chief skill lay in finance,
or dealing with money, and in keeping the accounts
of the country in good order.
7. The Jacobites, who had been scheming for the
restoration of the Stuarts in the person of the Pre-
tender, took alarm. The Earl. of Oxford was im-
prisoned for two years in the Tower. Lord
Bolingbroke (Henry St. John) and other Jacobite
leaders fled to France. For fear of a rising among
the friends of the Pretender in various parts of the
country, the army and navy were made ready for
8. The Riot Act was passed in 1715, to be used as
a means of preventing a Jacobite rising. This Act
says that if twelve or more persons shall remain
together for one hour, after they have been ordered
to disperse or break up by a magistrate, they shall
be held guilty of crime. After giving such notice,
the magistrate has power to use force to make the
people obey him. He may then order soldiers to
shoot those who refuse, or he may seize and im-
prison them. The Riot Act is in force to this day.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 217.

1. The "'Fifteen" is the name given to a Jacobite
rebellion which took place in 1715. There was
good cause to fear a rising in favour of the Pre-
tender. He was in France preparing to invade this
y -


country, and there were many here who were ready
to fight for him when he came. Riots had taken
place when the Tory ministers were put out of
office, and many things had happened to show how
strong. was the feeling of some of the people in
favour of the Stuarts.
2. The death of Louis 'the Fourteenth of France,
from whom the .Jacobites had hoped to get help,
did much to discourage them. A rising in Scot-
land, however, was arranged. The Earl of Mar, by
the orders of James, gathered ten thousand High-
landers round him at Braemar. At their head he
marched southward, and took possession of Perth.
3. The Duke of Argyle, at the head of the
King's army, met the Highlanders at Sheriffmuir.
Neither side won a victory, but the battle was
sufficient to prevent the Jacobites from going
further south. They retreated to Perth as quickly
as they could.
4. The rising in Scotland put the Government
on their guard. Several gentlemen and noblemen
in the west of England who were known to favour
the Stuarts were put in prison. By this prompt
action the chances of a successful rebellion were
soon at an end. The Duke of Ormond, who had
come from France to lead the movement, went back
to that country with the news 'that nothing could
be done.
5. The Jacobites of the north of England had
been called out at the same time by the Earl of
Derwentwater and Mr. Foster, the Member of Par-
liament for Northumberland. Only a few answered


to the call. They were joined by some Scottish
nobles, among whom were Lord Kenmure and Lord
Nithsdale, and by eighteen hundred Highlanders
sent by the Earl of Mar. On the same day that the
Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought in Scotland, the
rebels in the north of England were forced into
Preston, in Lancashire, where, after a time, they
gave themselves up to the King's troops.
6. About a month after the Battle of Sheriffmuir
the Pretender landed at Peterhead; but he came
without the much-needed help from France which
was expected by his followers. Even then he did
not act wisely. He wasted his time preparing to be
crowned at Perth, when he ought to have been
fighting for the crown he wished to wear.
7. Hearing that the Duke of Argyle was ad-
'vancing, the Pretender retreated northward to the
town of Montrose. There he and the Earl of Mar
took ship for France, leaving their followers to take
care of themselves. The leaders of the party were
taken prisoners. Some of them, among whom were
the Earl of Derwentwater and Lord Kenmure, were
put to death; others lost their estates; and more
than a _thousand were banished to America. Lord
Nithsdale was sentenced to die along with Lords
Derwentwater and Kenmure, but, the night before
the execution, he escaped from the Tower by the
help of his brave and devoted wife.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 218.


1. The Septennial Act was passed in 1716 to
allow a Parliament to continue in existence seven
years. The Parliament sitting at the time would
be three years old in 1718, and by a law (the
Triennial Act, passed in 1694) a new Parliament
had to be elected at least every three years. The
putting down of the Jacobite rising had made the
Whig party stronger than ever. The ministers,
however, did not think,it would be wise to have a
general election while the country was in such an
excited state. They therefore passed the Septennial
Act. This Act is still in force, though it was only
intended to be a temporary measure. As a rule,
however, Parliaments do not last longer than five
or six years.
2. The Quadruple Alliance was made by Great
Britain, Germany, France, and Holland against
Philip, King of Spain, to force him to carry out the
Treaty of Utrecht, made in 1713, after the War of
the Spanish Succession.
3. The ministers of the King quarrelled about
the forming of this alliance. Walpole left the Min-
istry, and remained out of office for about three
years. The allies were too strong for Philip. He
was able, however, to send a fleet to Scotland to
help the Pretender. All the ships but two were
wrecked, and Philip was forced to seek peace shortly
afterwards in 1720.
4. The South Sea Bubble, in 1720, was the name
given to a great trading scheme which was intended


to help the Government to pay the interest on the
National Debt. It will be remembered that the
wars of William the Third had burdened the country
with a heavy debt which had never been paid.
The debt had now grown to the large sum of
53,000,000, for which the Government had to pay
as interest more than 3,000,000 every year. This
was nearly half of the whole income of the country,
and it became a heavy burden. Many plans were
formed to make the burden lighter, but the one best
known is the South Sea Scheme.
5. The South Sea Company had been formed for
the purpose of carrying on trade in the South
Seas. -To have the sole right of trading in that
part of the world, the Company agreed to give the
Government a large sum of money at once, and
800,000 every year, to help to pay the interest
on the National Debt. In order to persuade people
to buy shares in the scheme-that is, to lend the
Company money to work with-the managers spread
abroad stories of the great wealth to be found in the
golden islands of the South Seas. Hundreds, both
rich and poor, ran to buy shares, and money flowed
fast- into the hands of the Company. The people
went mad about it, and some even paid 1,000 for
a share that had at first cost only 100.
6. The success of the South Sea Company seemed
to be so great that many other companies were
started. Everybody wanted to make money in
some easier and quicker way than by working for
it. The money was spent, and little trade was
done. At last the bubble burst. It was found



that those who were in the secret had sold their
shares when the price was at its highest. This
caused great alarm, and those who held shares were
now as eager to sell as they had been to buy. No
one would take the shares at any price. The Com-
pany was broken up, and hundreds of persons who
had invested all their money were ruined.
7. Sir Robert Walpole, who had left the Ministry
(883) 2


three years before, had never believed in the South
Sea Scheme; and as he was well skilled in money
matters, he now came forward to advise the country.
He divided the loss between the Bank of England,
the East India Company, and the Government.
Some of the ministers had to resign for having
taken money from the founders of the Company.
Those who had taken a leading part in it had to
sell all they possessed to repay the shareholders.,
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 219.

1. Sir Robert Walpole was the first adviser of the
Sovereign who was called Prime Minister. There
had, always been one of the Monarch's advisers or
ministers who had held the chief place. In Norman
and early Plantagenet times it was the Justiciar.
Then this post was held by the Chancellor, Claren-
don being the last great Chancellor.
2. When it became the practice to choose all the
ministers in power at the same time from the
political party that had a majority in the House of
Commons, they acted together much more than they
had formerly done, and this gave them the name of
the Ministry, and their leader was known as the,
Premier or Prime Minister.
3. The Ministry, the Government, or the Cabinet,
as it is called now, generally consists of from twelve
to fifteen persons, chosen by the Prime Minister
from the leading members of his party or supporters


in both Houses of Parliament. When Parliament
meets after a general election, the leader of the
party that is-in a majority in the House of Com-
mons takes the office of Premier, and selects the
Ministry from the majority. If, therefore, the people
have elected more Conservative than Liberal mem-
bers, the Cabinet or Government will be Conserva-
tive; if more Liberals be elected, the Cabinet will
be Liberal. In this way the people, when they are
electing members of Parliament, are really deciding
who shall govern them.
4. Walpole was Premier for twenty years.
The people trusted him, and were willing that he
should have his own way. By freely giving money
and titles of honour, he won over to his side those
who might have given him trouble. He used to
say, "Every man has his price." He meant that
the vote of every man could be bought, if. only its
price could be found out. He always tried to keep
the country out of war, and did all that he could to
improve trade and manufactures. On the whole,
everything went well with the country as long as
Walpole was Prime Minister. In 1722 he had to
deal with a small Jacobite plot, set on foot by
Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester. Atterbury
was banished for life, and spent the rest of his days
in France.
5. The death of the King took place suddenly
while he was travelling in Hanover. George and
his wife, Sophia of Zell, had not been good friends.
He used her very harshly, and kept her for thirty-
three years shut up ,in a castle in Hanover; even


her own children were not allowed to see her. She
died there only a few months before him. They
had one son, George the Second, who succeeded his
6. The chief authors during this reign were
Daniel Defoe, who wrote the famous story Robinson
Crusoe, in which he describes a shipwrecked sailor's
life and adventures on a desert island; Dean Swift,
who wrote a satire on English society in the form
of a story which he called Gulliver's Travels;
Isaac Watts, who composed his Divine and Moral
Songs; and James Thomson, the author of a poem
called The Seasons.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 220.




1727 To 1760: 33 YEARS.
1. George the Second, the son of George the First,
was forty-four years of age when he became King.

7r, -
: _- -._


Unlike his father, he could speak the English lan-
guage. His wife, Caroline of Anspach, in Bavaria,


was a good and clever woman. She had great in-
fluence over him, and with her advice he was able
to govern well. They had two sons-Frederick,
Prince of Wales, whose son was afterwards George
the Third, and William, Duke of Cumberland. Sir
Robert Walpole was at first set aside by the King;
but Caroline, who was Walpole's friend, obtained
his restoration to power, and he continued to be
the chief minister of the Crown during the first
fifteen years of this reign.
2. An Excise Bill was introduced in 1733, for at
this time there was a great deal of smuggling car-
ried on. Goods on which a' tax should have been
paid were brought secretly into the country. Wal-
pole therefore proposed to bring wine and tobacco
under the law of Excise-that is, to allow no one
to deal in them without a license. The merchants
cried out that if this Excise Bill became law, their
business would be ruined. When Walpole saw how
many were against the Bill, he decided to with-
draw it rather than lose his power.
3. The Porteous Riot took place in 1736 in con-
nection with Wilson and Robertson, two smugglers
who had been condemned to death for breaking into
a custom-house and carrying off a large sum of money
to repay themselves for the seizure of their contra-
band goods. They were confined in the Tolbooth
Prison, Edinburgh; and on the Sunday before they
were to be hanged, Wilson bravely helped Robertson
to escape. The mob of Edinburgh were so delighted
with Wilson's act that they pelted the hangman and
the soldiers when the smuggler was brought out to '


be hanged. Captain Porteous, who was in command
of the City Guard, told his men to fire on the crowd,
and several persons were killed.
4. Porteous was tried for murder, and condemned
to death; but an order came from London to put
off his execution. The people thought that the
King meant to pardon him; and so one night they
broke into the Tolbooth Prison, dragged Porteous
out, and hanged him on a dyer's pole in the Grass-
market. When the King and his ministers knew
what had been done, they were very angry. A
Bill was brought into Parliament to break down
the city wall and take away the charter of Edin-
burgh; but the Scottish Members of Parliament spoke
so strongly against it that the Bill was withdrawn,
and the city was punished with a fine of 2,000.
The story of the Porteous Riot is told in Sir Walter
Scott's novel, the Hleart of Midlothian.
5. The death of Queen Caroline took place in
1737, and Walpole lost a warm friend and sup-
porter. After this his' work was not so easy or
his power so great. Neither the King nor the
Prince of Wales liked him, and those who were
against him in Parliament found an able leader in
William Pitt, afterwards Earl of Chatham.
6. A War with Spain broke out in 1739. The
Spaniards had at this time large colonies in South
America, and they would only allow British ships
to trade with them under very hard conditions.
One thing the British would not agree to-that
was, to allow the Spanish the right to search all
British vessels found near their colonies. In vain


Walpole tried to arrange the difficulty without
fighting. War was declared, to the great joy of
the people. When Walpole heard the London bells
ringing because the war had begun, he said, They
may ring their bells now; they will soon be wring-
ing their hands."
7. Walpole was right, for the war was not a
success. A great fleet and army under Admiral
Vernon and Lord Wentworth failed to take Carta-
gena, a sea-port of New Granada, in South America,
chiefly because the leaders could not agree among
themselves. Commodore (afterwards Lord) Anson
was sent out with ships to help Vernon, but he
failed in his object. He did not return to England
for three years. During this time, though he had
lost all his ships but one, he had sailed round the
world, capturing Spanish treasure-ships containing
8. The retirement of Walpole took place in 1742,
after he had been Prime Minister for twenty years.
Though he had opposed the Spanish War from the
first, yet he was blamed for its failure; and when
the new Parliament met in 1741, he found that he
had not a sufficient majority of supporters in the
Commons to carry on the government, and there-
fore he resigned his place as Premier. The King
made him Earl of Orford in 1742; and he died in
9. The War of the Austrian Succession began in
1741, before the war with Spain had come to an
end. Charles the Sixth of Austria had died in
1740, and left a will making his daughter, Maria-


Theresa, Queeni of the countries over which he had
ruled. The Elector of Bavaria wanted to take
Hungary from her, and the King of Prussia took
Silesia, while the King of France said she had no
right to rule at all. The British, alarmed for
Hanover, took the part of Maria. King George
crossed to the Continent with an army, and put the
French to flight in a battle near Dettingen, on the
river Main (1743). This was the last time that
a British King was under the fire of an enemy.
Two years later his second son, the Duke of Cum-
berland, was beaten by Marshal Saxe at Fontenoy,
in Belgium. After years of fighting, Maria-Theresa's
claims were acknowledged by all the Powers.
EXERCISES onr the Lesson, page 220.

1. The "'Forty-five" is the name given to a
Jacobite rising in 1745. Charles Edward ("Bonnie
Prince Charlie "), the young Pretender, the son of
James, the old Pretender, who had been promised
the support of France, came to Scotland to make
another attempt to win back the throne the Stuarts
had lost. He landed with seven officers at Moi-
dart, on the Inverness coast, and many of the
Highland chiefs, the most noted of whom was
Cameron of Lochiel, gathered round him. Though
these chiefs thought that the attempt was badly
planned, they felt themselves bound in honour to
support the Prince. With seven hundred men he


moved southward, and at Perth he was proclaimed
Regent for his father. The people of Edinburgh
gave him a hearty welcome, and he took up his
abode in Holyrood Palace. The Castle of Edin-
burgh, however, held out for King George.
2. Sir John Cope was in the north, near Inver-
ness, with the King's army when Charles marched
southward. He embarked his troops at Aberdeen,
and took them'by sea to Dunbar, where he landed
them on the same day that Charles entered Edin-
burgh. Marching out of Edinburgh, the Prince
found the Royal troops at Prestonpans. Round
their watchfires the clansmen waited for the dawn
of day; and almost before there was light enough
to see their way, they crossed a marsh that sepa-
rated the two armies, and made a dash at the Royal
troops. The first rush of the Highlanders won the
battle. They fired their pistols, and dashed on with
their claymores. The King's army broke, and fled
to Berwick, with Sir John at its head.
3. Charles returned to Edinburgh, where he
wasted the time in banquets and balls. He spared
no pains in his attempts to please the Scottish
people; but he allowed the eagerness of his fol-
lowers to cool. Six weeks after his victory,
Charles set out for London with an army of five
thousand men. If he had only pressed on to
London, he might have driven George from the
throne; but the delay gave the King time to muster
his forces. Charles crossed the Border, took Car-
lisle, and marched to Derby. The help he had ex-
pected to receive on the way never came. Almost


hemmed in by thirty thousand men under General
Wade, who was marching from the east, and the
Duke of Cumberland, who lay to the south, Charles
began the homeward march. On his way to the
north he gained a victory over the Royal troops at
Falkirk, in Stirlingshire; but he was still driven
northwards, and had to seek shelter among the
4. The Battle of Culloden was fought in 1746.
Charles fell back on Inverness, and the Duke of

I The Royajist Army
2 The Jacobite Army

_, Cawdor


Cumberland, at the head of the Royal army, followed
him. Charles made his last stand at Culloden.
The Highlanders, sword in hand, rushed on the first
line of. the Royal troops, and broke it, only to find a
second and a third ready to withstand their attack.
In less than an hour they were completely beaten.
One part of the army yielded at Inverness; the
other scattered and disappeared in the glens from
which, the clansmen had come. The victory was so
complete that the Pretender's hopes and courage
melted away.




5. Charles fled to the hills, and wandered about
for five months. Although a reward of 30,000
was offered for his head, and hundreds of persons,
some of whom were very poor, knew where he was
hiding, no one would give him up. The most fam-
ous of those who helped him to escape was Flora
Macdonald. She dared every danger, and even
risked her own life, to protect him. At last he
escaped to France; but when peace was made with
that country, he had to seek refuge in another land.
6. The sufferings of the Highlanders did not end
with their defeat at Culloden. Those parts of the
country from which the followers of Charles had
come were overrun by the King's soldiers. Cum-


berland spared none on whom he could lay his
hands. His cruelty earned for him the name of
" Butcher." The country was wasted with fire and
sword; the men were hunted down on the moun-
tains; their houses were pulled down, and the
women and children were left to die of hunger and
cold. The clans were broken up, forts were built,
and the people were forbidden to wear the High-
land dress. About eighty of the chief Jacobites
were executed, among whom were Lord Kilmarnock,
Lord Balmerino, and Lord Lovat. Flora Macdonald
was put in prison for a year. This was the last
Jacobite rising. The Stuarts never again tried to
regain their throne.
7. The last of the Stuarts died on the Continent.
James, the old Pretender, died in 1766. Charles
Edward spent his later days in Rome, under the
title of Duke of Albany. The gallant young sol-
dier, the Bonnie Prince Charlie of song'and
story, became a broken-down drunkard. He died
in 1788. His brother Henry, Cardinal of York,
the last male of the Stuart line, died nineteen years
later. The two brothers were buried in the Church
of St. Peter at Rome. The marble monument over
their grave records their rank as Charles the Third
and Henry the Ninth, two names not found in the
roll of British Kings.
8. The Treaty of Aix-la-Ohapelle in 1748 brought
the war of the Austrian Succession to a close, all
parties being thoroughly tired of the conflict. The
husband of Maria-Theresa was acknowledged as Em-
peror of Germany. The Pretender and his family


were banished from France, and the House of Han-
over acknowledged as rightful Sovereigns of the
United Kingdom.
9. A change in the Calendar was made in 1752.
Since the days of Julius Cesar each year had been
reckoned eleven minutes too long, and this had at
length caused the British date to be eleven days
behind the right time. To make the reckoning
right, eleven days were dropped in 1752-the 3rd
of September being called the 14th. The people
at first disliked the change, and called upon the
Government to give them back their eleven days.
The calendar was also arranged so that the year
should commence on the first day of January
instead of the 25th March as hitherto. Pope
Gregory had long before adopted the new style
-that is, had made this change in all Roman
Catholic countries; but England, being Protestant,
had refused -to do so. Russia is at present the
only country in Europe that still reckons by the
old style.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 222.

1. The ruined castle of Invergarry stands on a
rock on the banks of Loch Oich, in Inverness-shire,
close to the confluence of the river Garry with the
lake. The crag on which the castle is built was
the ancient gathering-place of the Macdonells of
Glengarry, and so its name, "The Rock of the


Raven," was given to the slogan or war-cry of the
2. At the commencement of Prince Charles
Edward's rash enterprise, the Prince spent a night
there in August 1745. Once again Charles slept
in that castle, on the morning after the fatal fight
of Culloden. A few days afterwards, the deserted
fortress fell a prey to the destroying army of
Duke William of Cumberland. Its strength' resisted
in some measure the flames with which it was
assailed, and the blackened and ivy-grown bulwarks
still rear themselves grandly over the blue waters
of Loch Oich.
3. It appears that the chief of Glengarry himself
took no part in the rising, nor did his eldest son,
who was absent in France. The younger son was
the leader, and the intended scapegoat for the
family; but the Government was too angry to
attend to distinctions of so doubtful a character,
and, accordingly, in the succeeding vengeance, the
Macdonells of Glengarry suffered bitterly for their
4. In 1794, the Macdonells were formed into a
Government corps, under the command of their
chieftain; but this regiment being disbanded in
1802, the principal part of the clan removed to
Upper Canada, where they have given to many
scenes the same beloved names as those borne by
the glens of their fathers. The remnant of these
Macdonells live peaceably in their old locality; nor
is there in all Scotland a more interesting or beauti-
ful district than that of Glengarry.


Beware of Macdonell, beware of his wrath!
I4 friendship or foray, oh, cross not his path!
He knoweth'no bounds to his love or his hate,
And the wind of his claymore is blasting as Fate.
Like the hill-cat that springs from her lair in the rock,
He leaps on his foe-there is death in the shock;
And the birds of the air shall be gorged with their
When the chief of Glengarry comes down to the fray:
With his war-cry, The Rock of the Raven!"


The eagle he loveth dominion on high,
He dwells with his kindred alone in the sky;
Nor heedeth he, sailing at noon o'er the glen,
The turbulent cares and dissensions of men.
But the Raven exulteth when strife is at hand,
His eyes are alight with the gleam of the brand;
And still, when the red burning cross goeth round,
And gathers Clan Colla at fortified mound,
The first at the tryst is the Raven.
On the Rock of the Raven, that looks o'er the flood,
All scathed with the cannon, all stained with the
Had old Invergarry long baffled the snows,
The gales of the mountain, the league of its foes;
And sternly its bulwarks confronted the tide,
And safely the skiff in their shadow could ride,
For upwards and downwards, as far as the sight,
That castle commanded the vale and the height,
From its eyrie, the Rock of the Raven. -
But woe for Duke William his doom shall be bale
When against him in judgment upriseth the Gael;
When they cry how green Albyn lay weltering in gore
From western Loch Linnh6 to Cromarty's shore;
How the course of the victor was marked on the cloud,
By the black wreathing smoke hanging down like a
O'er the hut of the vassal, the tower of his lord;
For the fire worketh swifter than carbine or sword,
And giveth more joy to the Raven.


Then downcast was Colla, sore smitten with dread,
And hunted for sport with the fox and the gled;
While old Invergarry, in silence forlorn,
Resounded no longer the pipe and the horn.
But the Raven sat flapping his wings in the brake,
When 'the troops of Duke William marched down by
the lake:
Their march was at sunset-at dawning of day
In smouldering heaps were those battlements gray,
And the castle was left to the Raven.
From mountain and loch hath departed its sway;
Yet still the old. fortress defieth decay:
The name of Duke William is foul with disgrace,
But the bastions he fired are firm in their place;
And the clansmen he scattered are gathered again,
The song and the dance are restored to the glen;
And the chief of Glengarry hath builded his halls
On the low woody beach, in the shade of those walls
That frown from the Rock of the Raven.
And still hath Macdonell the soul of his sires,
And still hath Clan Colla the old Gaelic fires;
For the 'pulse beateth strongly for honour and pride,
As it throbbed in their breasts who for loyalty died.
With peace and with plenty the valleys rejoice,
And the wind hath forgotten the slogan's dread voice;
And the home of the Gael is as tranquil and bright
As Loch Oich when it sleeps on a blue summer's night
At the foot of the Rock of the Raven.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 223.

- I


1. The Pelhams-Sir Henry Pelham and his'
brother, the Duke of Newcastle-became the lead-
ing ministers in 1743. Sir Robert Walpole had
resigned the office of Prime Minister in 1742, and
was succeeded by the Earl of Wilmington. Then
Sir Henry Pelham became Prime Minister. He was
a very good man of business; and his brother, the
Duke, knew how to keep people in good humour
and get their votes. So, by obliging everybody,
the brothers managed to keep in power for nearly
twenty years. When Sir Henry died, in 1754, the
Duke became Prime Minister.
2. William Pitt, called the Great Commoner, after-
wards made Earl of Chatham, entered Parliament
in 1735. He had gained some influence in Wal-
pole's time, and under the Pelhams he rose quickly
to a high position. He did not possess the King's
favour; but as the ministers would not continue in
office without him, George had to leave him alone.
3. The Seven Years' War began two years after
the death of Henry Pelham. The British were
attacked by the French on the Continent, in
America, and in India. At first everything seemed
to be going wrong, and the people were in despair,
till Pitt came forward, after the loss of Minorca, and
said, "I know that I can save the nation, and that
no one else can."
4. In 1757 he was made Foreign Secretary, and
though Newcastle was Prime Minister, Pitt was
really the head of the Government. He was one of

36 .

the greatest and most powerful ministers that the
country has ever had. The people trusted him
more than all the other members of the Govern-
ment, and the management of the war was left
entirely in his hands. Unlike Sir Robert Walpole,
he hated bribery, and never made a wrong use of
public money. He was a very eloquent speaker,
and this alohe gave him great influence in the House
of Commons. It was during the Seven Years' War
that our successes in North America and in India
made Pitt's name famous throughout the world.
5. The British Empire had made considerable pro-
gress in the one 'hundred and fifty years from 1600
to 1750. Our navy had greatly improved, and our




(Each Square 1,000 miles.)

ships were ploughing every sea; our commerce
had increased at a rapid rate; and many of our
countrymen had gone forth to other lands to trade
and to colonize. Our nearest neighbour at home
was France, and in spite of the "silver streak that
separated us, we had often quarrelled and fought
on the continent of Europe. When we settled


abroad, the French were our neighbours there also,
for they planted colonies alongside of ours. In
North America and in India, Britain and France
quarrelled and fought till, in the end, the French
were defeated, and these two great countries were
added to the British Empire.
6. The British Coloiies in North America had be-
come a very important part of the empire. You
will remember that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth
Sir Walter Ralegh had planted an English colony on
the shores of North America. He called it Virginia,
in honour of the virgin Queen. During the follow-
ing reigns other colonies were planted all along the
Atlantic coast of North America. Among these


were the New England States, founded by the Pil-
grim Fathers in the reign of James the First. These
colonies had grown in number and in population till
now, in George the Second's reign, we find thirteen
of them, containing more than a million well-to-do
people, managing their own affairs, but under gover-
nors appointed by the King of Great Britain,
7. The French Colonies in North America were chiefly
on the great river St. Lawrence, and were then
called Lower Canada, which is now known as the
Province of Quebec. The French wished to keep in
their hands all the trade carried on with the Indians
who dwelt between the British colonies and the
great river Mississippi. To do this they built a
chain of forts along the river Ohio. If their plans
had been successful, they would have confined the
British settlers to a narrow strip of country along
the sea-coast. This led to fighting between the
British and the French colonists, each wanting to
be master in America. Pitt was eager to drive the
French out of that continent.
8. The English East India Company was formed in
1600, towards the end of Elizabeth's reign. While
some of our countrymen were sailing west to plant
colonies in America, others were sailing east to trade
with the people of India. They had at this time
no thought of becoming the rulers of that great
country. The Portuguese and the Dutch were
already there, and wished to keep out other
9. Little by' little, however, the English made
good their footing. Their first establishment was


^Kt -^^* .j


Bombay as part of his wife's dowry, he handed it

over to the Company. In 1698 Calcutta was
-at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta Here forts
-. =- I- v : -

on one of 'he islands. In 1:40 Madras was
over t he Company. In 16 Calcutta was--

founded; and thus in George the Second's reign vhe

Company possessed three factories or trading centres
--at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta: Here forts


had been built for the protection of the Company's
warehouses, and were guarded by a few sepoys or
paid native soldiers.
10. A French East. ..
India Company had been ( .
started in 1664 at Pon- -
dicherry, on the east
coast, about one hun- Patn
dred miles south of 'enare ..
Madras. The French,
our neighbours at home, P .
were now our rivals
both in America and aU
in India.
11. The British and
the French traders in
India were very jealous of each other; and when
war broke out be-
tween the home -
Britain. and 'i, E :
Fran c e-- the t- e_-
French Govern-
n. n Tnrl --\ ..

tried to drive out
the British and
set up a great
French Empire in
that country.
12. For some
time the French
were successful.

* _- -- I-_-* -

-- -4

They destroyed the British fac-


tory at Madras in 1746, and carried off the mer-
chants and clerks as prisoners. But when the war
in Europe came to an end, two years afterwards,
Madras was again given up to the English Company.
13. Robert (afterwards Lord) Clive, a clerk in the
English East India Company's service, was among
the captives at the taking of Madras; but he
escaped, and entered the army in 1746, where he
soon became famous for his daring and bravery.
In 1751, with a small force, he seized Arcot, in
Southern India, where he stood a famous siege by
a French and native: army, in which he came off
victorious. To this man we owe our Indian Empire.
EXERCOTES on the Lesson, page 224.


1. The Seven Years' War began in 1756, and ended
in 1763. All the great powers of Europe took
part in this conflict. France, Austria, and Russia
joined against Frederick the Great of Prussia, and
Great Britain took the part of Prussia for the de-
fence of Hanover. Many battles were fought on
the Continent which do not belong to British his-
tory. Our share of the: conflict took place chiefly
in India and in America...;
2. The capture of Minorca, one of the Balearic
Islands, in the Mediterraneain, took place at the
beginning of the war. This island had been taken
by the British from- Spain in 1708. In 1756 it
was blockaded by a powerful French fleet. A
British fleet, under Admiral Byng, was sent out to
relieve it. Thinking that his force was not strong
enough, the admiral sailed .away to Gibraltar, and
Minorca was taken by the French. The people of
this country were so angry that Byng was tried
for neglect of duty and condemned to death. He
was shot on the deck of a man-of-war at Portsmouth
in 1757.
3. The Nabob of Bengal, a native prince, attacked
the British settlements on the Ganges in 1756.
Fort William, at Calcutta, abandoned by its gover-
nor and the commander of its troops, fell into his
hands, upon which he ordered all the British pris-
oners to be thrust into a small room only eighteen
feet long and fifteen feet wide.
4. The Black Hole of Calcutta, as this chamber was


afterwards called, was packed with one hundred
and forty-six persons, who were locked up all night.
Suffering all the agonies of heat, thirst, and suffoca-
tion, they endeavoured in vain to bribe the guards
to transfer some of them to another room. In vain
they begged for mercy, and tried to burst open the
door. Their jailers only mocked them, and would
do nothing. Then the prisoners went mad with
despair, trampled each other down, fought to'get at
the windows, and implored the guards to fire upon
them." Next morning only twenty-three came out
5. The Battle of Plassey avenged this cruel deed.
Clive, who was in England when the outbreak took
place, hurried to the scene of action. Landing in
December, he captured a fortress ten miles below
Calcutta; and then forcing his way with only two
thousand four hundred men to Calcutta, he held it
against the Nabob with forty thousand men. In
June, Clive met the Nabob in battle at Plassey,
ninety miles north of Calcutta, and with less than
four thousand men he defeated an army of sixty
thousand. The Nabob was taken prisoner, and
afterwards put to death.
6. This victory gained for Britain the large and
fertile Province of Bengal, and made us masters of
India. Several other battles were fought, and in
1760 Clive again returned home. While he had
been extending the British power in Bengal the
French were gaining ground at Madras. Fort St.
David, which protected that place, was taken, but
the town itself held out. Shortly afterwards the


power of the French was greatly weakened by the
Battle of Wandewash, in which they were defeated
by Sir Eyre Coote. The fall of Pondicherry in the
following year destroyed their hopes of forming a
French Empire in India.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 225.

1. The capture of Quebec was decided upon by
Pitt, and he sent to Canada a very gallant general

named James Wolfe. Pitt himself planned the
campaign, and ordered Wolfe to take the French
capital of Canada. This was a hard thing to do, as



rocks, t of which runs the river St. Law-

rence, and was held by the French under general
Montcalm. At first unsuccessful, Wolfe began to
think that he should have to give up the attempt to
take the city. At last he thought of a daring plan,
Quebewhich he set about carry strong fortress built on hig at once.

2. Outside of Quebec there is a table-land, called
rocks, at the Heights of Abraham, which runs overlooks the city.Law-

A zigzag path leads from the river to the top of
these heights. The narrow landing-place at the foot
was leftnce, and almost unguarded, forheld by the French under General
Montcalm. At first unsuccessful, Wolfe began to

never dreamed that an enemy would have to give uphe attempt to
takehim by the ct way. During he the niought of a daring plan,, Wolfe took
which he set about carrying out at once.

his soldiers in boats down the is a table-lver, and landed
them at the Heights of Abraham, which overlooks the climbed
the zigzag path, and when morning broke they weretop of
these heights. The narrow landing-place at the foot
was left almost unguarded, for the French general
never dreamed that an enemy would come upon
him by that way. During the night, Wolfe took
his soldiers in boats down the river, and landed
them at the foot of the cliffs. Silently they climbed
the zigzag path, and when morning broke they were



all ready for battle on the plain above. The French
were taken completely by surprise, yet they ad-
vanced with great bravery.
3. The steadiness of the British won the day.
The French broke, and fled for safety to the town.
Wolfe was killed in the moment of victory. When
he felt that his wound was mortal, he said, Hold
me up; do not let my brave fellows see me fall!"
As he rested in the arms of one of his officers, the
British general heard him say, See, they run!"
" Who run ?" asked Wolfe. The enemy, sir; they
give way everywhere." Now, God be praised; I
die happy." These were the hero's last words.
Montcalm was also wounded, and died the next day.
Quebec was given up four days afterwards. In the
following year Montreal and the whole of Canada
passed into the hands of the British.
4. The Battle of Minden was fought in 1759.
The French were defeated by Prince Ferdinand of
Brunswick. From dawn to noon the battle con-
tinued, British guns and bayonets contributing much
to the defeat of the enemy. A month later, Admiral
Boscawen shattered a French fleet in a naval action
off Cape Lagos, in the south of Portugal. Another
French fleet was also destroyed by Admiral Hawke
off the rocky coast of Brittany.
5. George the Second died suddenly of heart dis-
ease in the seventy-seventh year of his age. He
was a good King, and his. homely manners and
kindly ways made him a favourite with his people.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, had been struck by a
cricket ball and killed some years before, leaving


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- II,


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nine children, the eldest of whom came to the
throne as George the Third.
6. The Methodists were founded by a number of
men who desired to bring about a revival in religion.
At the beginning of the reign the Nonconformists,
as the chief religious bodies outside the Church of
England were called, were the Independents, the
Presbyterians, the Baptists, and the Society of
Friends. The members of the Established Church
were far more numerous than the Nonconformists;
but the Church itself was not in a satisfactory con-
7. In 1730 a band of Oxford students, led by
John Wesley, his brother Charles, and a famous
preacher named George Whitefield, formed themselves
into a society for the purpose of bringing about the
revival they so much desired. From their methodi-
cal or regular meetings for worship, and because of
their strict religious lives, they received the name of
Methodists. At first Wesley had no intention of
separating from the Church; but as the clergy would
not recognize the movement, meetings were held in*
the open air and in barns till chapels were built,
and at length the Methodists formed themselves into
a separate communion.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 226.


1760 To 1820: 60 YEARS.
1. George the Third, son of Frederick, Prince of
Wales, and grandson of George the Second, was
twenty-two years of age when he became King.
The two Georges who had reigned before him had
been born and brought up in Germany; but the
young King was an Englishman. In his first speech


to Parliament he said, "I glory in the name of
2. Great Britain had now become the leading
nation in the world; but France still struggled for
the mastery, and the Seven Years' War continued.
The French made overtures for peace, hoping to
detach Britain from her alliance with Prussia.
Pitt, however, continued firm in his attachment to
Prussia. To make matters worse, the French put
forward a statement of Spanish claims against the
British Government, and urged the settlement of
these claims at the same time as the conclusion of
peace. The paper was sent back to France with
an intimation that the French Government must
not presume to meddle between Great Britain and
3. The Family Compact was the result of these
strained relations between Great Britain and France.
Pitt soon learned that the Kings of France, Spain,
and Naples had joined together against Great
Britain. They all belonged to the Bourbon family,
or royal house of France, and the agreement was
called the Family Compact. They were to aid one
another against all their enemies, and chiefly against
Great Britain. Pitt wished to declare war at once
against Spain, and boldly strike the first blow by
attacking the Spanish colonies.' But George, by the
advice of the Earl of Bute, who had been his tutor,
and who had great influence over him, refused to
allow this; on which Pitt resigned.
4. War with Spain followed in 1762, for that
power was quite ready to carry out the terms of


the Family Compact. Bute became Prime Minister,
and Parliament voted large sums of money to carry
on the war. In the East and West Indies one place
after another belonging to France and Spain fell into
our hands. At length both France and Spain asked
for peace. Bute was willing to grant their request,
because he was getting alarmed at the growth of the
National Debt, which had risen to 132,000,000.
5. The Peace of Paris, in 1763, put an end to the
war. It left Canada, which had been won by
Wolfe in 1759, and other places in North America,
in the hands of Britain; but Pondicherfy, taken in
1761, was restored to the French. The people
were angry, because they thought too much had
been given back to France and Spain. When Bute
saw that the feeling of the country was against
him, he resigned, and his place was taken by George
6. John Wilkes, who was a member of Parlia-
ment and the editor of a newspaper called the
North Briton, was sent to the Tower of London in
1763, for stating in his paper that the King had
told a lie in a speech from the throne. Under the
Habeas Corpus Act Wilkes was set free; but he
was turned out of the House of Commons, and out-
lawed. After being away in France for a time he
came back, and the people, who regarded his treat-
ment as unlawful, elected him four times as Member
of Parliament for Middlesex; but the House of
Commons would not let him take his seat.
7. Determined to stand up for freedom of speech,
the people still took his part, and made him


Lord Mayor of London in 1774. In the end
the House of Commons had to yield and allow
Wilkes to take his seat. While this agitation was
going on, the printers and publishers of the Let-
ters of Junius" were tried and acquitted. These
letters appeared in the Public Advertiser, and con-
tained violent attacks on the King and the Prime
Minister for interfering with the freedom of election.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 226.

1. The Stamp Act, passed in 1765, caused a quarrel
with our American colonies, which ended in their
separation from the mother country. The Govern-
ment at home claimed the right of taxing them
without their permission. The late war had cost
a large sum of money, and as much of it had
been spent on behalf of the colonies, Grenville
thought that they ought to help to pay the bill.
A Stamp Act was therefore passed, by means of
which he hoped to raise the amount he wanted
from America.
2. This Act required that all legal documents,
such as deeds, wills, notes, and receipts, should be
written on paper bearing Government stamps, for
which a payment was required. The Americans
answered that they were willing to give money of
their own free will, but that they would not be
forced to pay taxes which they had no share in
levying, as they sent no members to the British


Parliament. Grenville resigned, and his successor,
the Marquis of Rockingham, repealed the Stamp
3. New taxes were imposed on the American
colonists in 1767. Pitt, who was now Earl of
Chatham, had warned the Government against the
Stamp Act, and told them what would happen.
He was strongly against taxing the colonists at all;
but the ministers, led by the Duke of Grafton,
Prime Minister, and Charles Townshend, Chancellor
of the Exchequer, had not yet learned wisdom.
They therefore imposed new taxes on tea, lead,
glass, and other things which were sent to America.
Chatham left the Ministry, and two years later the
Duke of-Grafton gave way to Lord North.
4. It was not because the taxes were large that
the Americans refused to pay them, for they were
very small, but because the colonists considered that
the home Government had no right to tax them at
all. The King was more to blame than any of his
ministers. He would not give way in what he
thought was his right as Sovereign of the colonies.
5. The Boston Tea-Party, as it is called, brought
matters to a crisis. In December 1773 ships ar-
rived in Boston harbour with cargoes of taxed
tea, upon which a number of men dressed like
Indians went on board and emptied three hundred
and forty-two chests of tea into the water. As a
punishment, the Government ordered the port of
Boston to be closed. The object of this was to
ruin the Boston merchants by preventing the land-
ing of goods there.


6. In the following year twelve men, chosen
from each of twelve States (to which a thirteenth
was afterwards added), met 'in congress at Phila-
delphia, and sent an address to the King, asking
him to withdraw the taxes; but the King refused.
Chatham (Pitt) said to the Lords that it was folly
to force taxes in the face of a continent in arms.
Edmund Burke bade the Commons take care lest
they broke that tie of kindred blood which, light as
air though strong as iron, bound the colonies to the
mother land.
7. The American War of Independence was now
fought out to the bitter end. It was ten years since
the passing and withdrawing of the Stamp Act.
Everything had been tried to bring about a settle-
ment, but the foolishness of the King had made
all efforts vain. War began, and went on for nearly
eight years. The King found that he could get
Lord North to do much as he wished, and so he
kept him in power during the whole American
8. The first campaign began in 1775 at Lexington,
near Boston, between a few British soldiers and
some American riflemen. The colonists, who were
used to shooting deer in the forests, soon proved
their skill, and they now shot down men with
deadly aim. The British lost more than twice as
many men as the Americans. The Americans next
besieged the British under General Gage in Boston,
and a battle took place on Bunker's Hill, near the
town, where the Americans had thrown up earth-
works. They were forced to retreat, but they did


not lose heart. They now saw that they could
hold their own when they met the best British
troops on equal terms.
9. George Washington was made commander-in-
chief of the American army. He had done good
service for the British in Canada in their struggle
with the French in the Seven Years' War. Now
he had but one thought, one desire, and that was
to secure the freedom of his country. "First in
war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his
countrymen," was said of him. He was in favour
of union with Great Britain, till he saw that it was
no longer possible.
10. The invasion of Canada was the second great
event in the campaign of 1775. General Montgomery


took Montreal, on the St. Lawrence, and Colonel
Arnold joined him before Quebec, on the same river.
They were beaten back from that fortress, and
Montgomery was slain.
11. In the second campaign, in 1776, the British,
under General Howe, were early in the year forced
by the cannon of the Americans to leave Boston,
which the British army had held, and sail to Halifax.
Washington then hurried to New York, where he
had reason to expect the next attack.'
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 227.

1. The Declaration of American Independence was
made in 1776. Up to this time the Americans had
been fighting for their liberties as British subjects, but


the war had weaned them from the mother country.
On the 4th of July, the Congress of Americans met
at Philadelphia and drew up the Declaration of
Independence," in which they declared themselves
no longer subjects of King George. In August of
the same year, General Howe, reinforced by his
brother, drove Washington from New York, and
planted the British flag on its batteries.
2. The third campaign opened in June 1777. A
victory at Brandywine River, and the capture
of Philadelphia, raised hopes in Britain that the
Americans would be forced to yield. But a great
disaster changed these hopes into fears. General
Burgoyne, who was marching from Canada to join
Howe at New York, was surrounded at Saratoga,
on the Hudson river, and forced to surrender. This
was the turning-point of the war in favour of the
3. The fourth campaign, in 1778, saw a change in the
British commanders. General Howe was succeeded
by Sir Henry Clinton, who abandoned the city of
Philadelphia, and moved toward New York, which
he reached in safety. Washington then threw a
line of cantonments around the city, and so the
opposing forces spent the winter. It was during
this year that Chatham, while speaking, in spite of
age and illness, against a proposal to grant inde-
pendence to the colonies, fell in a fit on the floor of
the House of Lords, and was carried to bed, from
which he never rose. During the fifth campaign no
event of any importance took place.
4. The sixth campaign, in 1780, resulted in the


capture of Charleston, the capital of South Caro-
lina, by the British. In that year Arnold, an
American officer, deserted and became a general in
the British service. Major Andre, a British officer
who had arranged the affair, being taken by the
Americans, was hanged as a spy by- the orders of
Washington, though many tried to turn the Ameri-
can leader from his stern purpose.
5. During the seventh campaign, in 1781, Lord
Cornwallis was shut up in Yorktown, and forced to
surrender with seven thousand men. This was the
decisive blow; for although the war went on for
another campaign, the American colonies were now
really severed from the British Empire.
6. The Treaty of Versailles was signed in' 1783.
In November of that year George the Third entered
the House of Lords, and with a faltering voice read
a paper in which he acknowledged the independence
of the United States of America. He closed his
reading with the prayer that neither Great Britain
nor America might suffer from the separation. By
the Treaty of Versailles the thirteen United States
of America were declared to be a free nation. They
became a Republic, and chose George Washington
as their first President.
7. War in Europe had taken place during the
latter part of the American struggle. France,
Spain, and Holland had been in arms against Great
Britain. Russia, Sweden, and Denmark had formed
an armed neutrality, which meant that they were
ready to attack us when they thought it was safe
to do so.


8. The chief event of the war was the un-
successful siege of Gibraltar for three years (1779-
1782) by the French
and Spaniards. The :
besiegers were re-
ceived with a warm T Et

completely repulsed. V
Since then this great n
rock-fortress has been
in the hands of the b_ -p
British. The Treaty
of Versailles not only ended the American War,
but it also put an end to the fighting in Europe.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 228.

1. Lord Clive was compelled by ill-health to leave
India for England in 1760. During his absence
several victories were gained, but in other respects
things began to go wrong. The natives became
more and more unfriendly, because they were un-
fairly treated by the East India Company's servants.
The native princes began to assume an independent
manner, and to throw off their allegiance to the
2. When Clive returned to India as Governor of
Bengal in 1765, he found everything in disorder.
The government was disorganized, and the very.


existence of the Company threatened. With a
vigorous hand he at once began to reform the
service, putting down abuses that had crept in, and
placing the government on a new footing. He
concluded a favourable treaty with the Mogul Em-
peror, and, after great labour, managed to put
things right. But in doing so he aroused much
ill-will against himself.
3. On his return to England, Clive was charged
by his enemies with having abused his powers. It
was nothing to them that he had gained an empire,
and made the natives happier under British rule
than'they had been under their own Kings. They
set themselves to hunt him to death, and they
succeeded; for although the House of Commons
acquitted him, he was so worried by all that he
had gone through, that he put an end to his own
life in 1774, at the age of forty-eight.
4. Warren Hastings, the Governor of Bengal, be-
came, in 1773, the first Governor-General of India.
He had been in the Company's service for more
than twenty years, and had passed through the
various grades with credit and success. The idea
of a British sovereignty in India had long before
taken root in his mind, and therefore, when he
found himself at the head of affairs, he eagerly
acted upon his convictions. He did not deal so
fairly with the natives as Clive had done, but, on
the whole, he ruled justly and well. He carried on
a great war with the Mahrattas, who lived far
inland, and overthrew Hyder Ali, the Sultan of



5. When Hastings returned to England in 1785,
he was put on his trial, as Clive had been. He
was charged before the House of Lords with having
hired out British troops to put down free native
princes, and also with having forced native princes
to give him large sums of money. The trial lasted
nearly eight years, from 1788 to 1795. The great
orators Burke, Fox, Sheridan all spoke against him;
but Hastings was found not guilty. The trial left
him penniless. He spent the rest of his days in
retirement, on a pension allowed him by the East
India Company.
6. William Pitt (the younger), the second son of
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, was at this time a


young man of twenty-four. He had only been a
member of Parliament for about two years when
the Commons thoroughly discussed the question
" How to govern India." The charges made against
Lord Clive had shown that those who held power
in India were not so just and merciful as they
ought to have been, and that many acts of oppres-
sion were constantly taking place. The East India
Company had been the rulers of British India ever
since they had received their charter from Queen
Elizabeth in 1600.' The Company had done much
for India, but they were- unable or unwilling to
check the evils which were caused by those who
went out there only to make money.


7. Pitt opposed the plans of the ministers for
the government of India, and a hard battle was
fought in the House of Commons. Though so
young, Pitt showed great ability, and spoke so
eloquently that he at length won the day. Gradu-
ally he gained the confidence of the nation, and at
the general election of 1783 he secured such an
overwhelming majority, that he was in power for
nearly the remainder of his life. He was the
youngest man who had ever filled the important
office of Prime Minister.
8. One of the first uses Pitt made of his majority
was to settle the government of India. In 1784
he passed an Act appointing a Board of Control,
(s88 5



which consisted of six privy councillors appointed
by the Crown, the principal Secretaries of State,
and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Board
ruled the country, leaving the East India Company
free to carry on the trade for which it was first
formed. This arrangement continued in force till
9. Lord Cornwallis succeeded Hastings as Gover-
nor-General of India. He carried on war against
Tippoo Saib, the son of Hyder Ali, and in 1792
forced him to yield. Tippoo renewed the fight in
1799; but the town of Seringapatam was stormed




by Sir David Baird, and Tippoo was slain. Colonel
Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington,
was Governor of Mysore, and took a leading part
in the campaign. He showed here the beginnings
of that military skill which afterwards made him
so famous.
10. Captain James Cook was a famous British
sailor who, while Hastings was building up our
power in India, was adding largely to the empire
in another quarter of the globe. He may be
regarded as the founder of the great Australian
colonies; for he made three voyages round the
world, exploring the South Seas and the coast of
Australia. He was killed in 1779 at Hawaii, one
of the Sandwich Islands, by the spear of a treacher-
ous native.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 229.

1. The Reform of the House of Commons had begun
to engage the attention of the popular leaders, who
said that Parliament ought really to represent the
people. Not one person in fifty throughout the
kingdom had the right to vote, and those who had
votes sold them freely to the highest bidder. Pitt
declared that the House of Commons represented
not the nation, but "ruined towns, noble families,
wealthy individuals, and foreign potentates."
2. The King had far too much influence over
Parliament and the Ministry; therefore, in 1780,


a motion was passed in the House of Commons de-
claring that the power of the Crown has increased,
is increasing, and ought to be diminished." A Bill
proposing annual Parliaments, manhood suffrage, and
electoral districts was introduced into the House of
Lords; but it did not pass. Manhood suffrage meant
that every man of full age (twenty-one) should have
a right to vote for members of Parliament, and
electoral districts meant the division of the country
into equal parts for the election of members.
3. The Gordon Riots took place in 1780. Some
of the severe and unjust laws that had been passed
against the Roman Catholics were now repealed.
They were allowed to acquire land, and their priests
were permitted to say mass. These concessions
raised a strong feeling in the country, and Lord
George Gordon, escorted by sixty thousand persons,
presented a petition to Parliament against them.
When the petition was rejected, great riots took
place in the capital. For some days London was
at the mercy of a furious mob, which set fire to
Roman Catholic chapels, plundered houses, broke
open Neivgate prison, and set the prisoners free.
4. No one was safe unless he wore a blue ribbon
to show that he was a Protestant, and chalked "No
Popery on the door of his house. It is said that
one person, to make doubly sure, wrote No religion
whatever." A large amount of property was de-
stroyed, many lives were lost, and the riot was not
put down till the soldiers fired on the mob. A
description of these' events is given in Charles
Dickens's novel Barnaby .Rudge.


5. The Slave Trade, begun in Queen Elizabeth's
reign, now came before Parliament for the first
time. Horrible tales were told of how negroes
were seized in Africa, packed in ships, carried
across the Atlantic, and sold to work as slaves in
the West Indies and in America. It is said that
in the beginning of George the Third's reign no
less than fifty thousand blacks were carried off
every year in British ships. William Wilberforce
brought in a Bill, and tried to persuade Parliament
to stop the slave trade; but the slave merchants,
who had their headquarters in Liverpool, got the
Bill thrown out. It was eighteen years before the
slave trade was abolished.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 230.

1. The French Revolution, which began in 1789,
was the greatest event of the eighteenth century.
For many years the French had been growing
weary of the great burdens laid on them by their
Kings and nobles. The laws were unjust, and the
taxes were not fairly levied on all ranks alike.
Tradesmen, farmers, and labourers were made to
pay heavily, while nobles got off without paying
anything. Until near the close of Louis the Four-
teenth's reign, the people had looked upon their
Sovereigns with loyalty and affection, as their pro-
tectors against the aristocracy, and the promoters of
the national glory.


2. In the reign of his successor, Louis the Fif-
teenth, the French lost even their respect for a
King who traded upon the distress of his subjects.
He bought up corn, and held it till the price was
raised, and then sold it to the starving people. This
was never forgotten or forgiven. When the royal
family-Louis the Sixteenth, his wife, and child-
were led captive to Paris in 1789, they were greeted
with the cry, "The baker, his wife, and the little
3. Unable longer to bear the burden of poverty,
and finding that no relief was to be obtained from
their rulers, the people rose in rebellion against all
in authority. The mob of Paris stormed the great
French prison called the Bastille, and set the pris-
oners free. They also put to death their rulers
and many of their leading men. All France was
drenched in blood. The Reign of Terror, as it is
called, lasted for more than a year.
4. In 1792 the French set up another form of
government, without a monarch, called a Republic,
and sent a message to the British people offering to
help them to do the same. In the following year
they beheaded their King and Queen, Louis the
Sixteenth and Marie Antoinette. All the revolts
against the Republic were put down with much
cruelty and bloodshed.
5. In La Vendee many brave deeds were done,
but nothing could stand against the forces of the
Republic. The people of Toulon obtained the help
of a British force from some British ships; but they
were driven out, and the town nearly blown to pieces,


by a young French (Corsican) officer, named Na-
poleon Bonaparte, afterwards the famous Emperor.
6. The French Revolution caused much fear
amongst our leading men. Would the movement
against those in authority extend to this country,
and the poor and the ignorant be induced to follow
the example of their neighbours across the Channel?
Such might have been the case had not wise changes
been made from time to time to improve the condi-
tion of the British people. It was the refusal of
these reforms in France that had done all the mis-
chief there. Fox was in sympathy with the Revolu-
tion. He thought the French people had done right
to put down the selfish nobles who had oppressed
them. Burke spoke strongly on the other side.
He saw how much evil might happen in a country
when law and order were overturned.
7. War with France began in 1793. The other
countries of Europe felt that the French had carried
matters too far in upsetting existing authority, and
Great Britain, Spain, Holland, Austria, Prussia,
Russia, and several smaller states, united against
them. Pitt, hoping the storm would soon pass
over, did not wish to interfere; but the offer of
the French to help the British against their "tyran-
nical" Government, and the cruel deeds done in
France, had set the mass of the people against that
country, and the cry was in favour of war.
8. The British were for the most part successful
at sea, and in the East and West Indies; but on the
continent of, Europe they, along with the Austrians
and Prussians, were driven back by the French. In


the following year Holland, Prussia, and Spain were
forced to make peace with France, leaving Austria,
Russia, and Great Britain to carry on the war.
9. Two Mutinies in the British Royal Navy took
place at this time-the one at Spithead, near the
Isle of Wight, and the other at the Nore, in the
mouth of the Thames. The sailors asked for better
food, better pay, and kinder treatment. Those at
Spithead returned to their duty at once on their
wishes being granted. At the Nore, the mutiny
was not put down till their leader, who called
himself Rear-Admiral Parker, and several others
had been hanged.
10. The Battles of St. Vincent and Camperdown
were won in 1797. The French, Spanish, and
Dutch hoped that by uniting their fleets they
would be able to defeat our fleet and invade the
British Islands. While the Spanish fleet of thirty-
two ships was on its way to join the French fleet
at Brest, it was met off Cape St. Vincent by Ad-
miral Jervis and Commodore Nelson with twenty-
one ships. The Spaniards were defeated, and driven
back to Cadiz, with the loss of four of their finest
vessels. For this victory Jervis was made Earl St.
Vincent, and Nelson became Admiral. Later in the
year Admiral Duncan met and scattered the Dutch
fleet off the village of Camperdown, in Holland.
This fleet was intended to join a French expedition
to Ireland, to help the rebels there to obtain separa-
tion from England.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 231.


1. Ireland was in a very unsettled state at this
time. The Ulster "plantation" in 1611 was the
beginning of Protestant ascendency in the island.
In the reign of Charles the First, Thomas Went-
worth, afterwards Lord Strafford, worked out his
scheme of tyranny called "Thorough" in Ireland,
and treated with savage cruelty every man who
dared to show the least trace of an independent spirit.
2. One good thing Wentworth did for Ireland
was to import a quantity of flax-seed, which laid
the foundation of the Irish linen trade. He also
cleared the Irish Sea of pirates, so that goods might
be safely conveyed from Ireland to Britain.
3. The Rebellion of 1641 was the result of bad
government. The iron rule of Wentworth alone
had kept down the growing discontent; and when
that was at an end, the flame burst forth in Ulster.
There a terrible rising took place, accompanied by
a massacre of Protestants. Men, women, and chil-
dren were ruthlessly torn from home and murdered
or driven away. From thirty to forty thousand
persons are said to have been killed.
4. Cromwell, in 1649, put down those in arms for
Charles the Second with a strong hand. His stern
and terrible soldiers passed through the land in a
whirlwind of fire and slaughter. Town after town
was taken, and massacre followed massacre. As
fire and sword and starvation did their terrible
work, the people felt indeed that "the curse of
Cromwell" was upon them. After that terrible


visitation, Ireland lay exhausted, helpless, and des-
5. James the Second, in 1689, hoped to win back
his lost throne by the help of the Roman Catholics
in Ireland. He landed at Kinsale, and got together
an army of thirty thousand men, with which he laid
siege to Londonderry, but failed to take it. William
the Third landed in 1690, and defeated him in the
Battle of the Boyne. The Treaty of Limerick put
an end to the rebellion. That treaty was not kept;
the Irish Parliament, which consisted chiefly of
Protestants, refused to pass it.
6. Penal Laws were passed in 1696 by the En-
glish Parliament, which expelled the Roman Catho-
lics from the Irish Parliament, and prevented them
from holding any office in the state or the army.
Roman Catholics were obliged to have their children
taught in Protestant schools, forbidden to carry arms,
not allowed to practise as solicitors, and, except in
special cases, forbidden to marry with Protestants.
When these laws failed, stronger laws were made
to keep land and learning from the Roman Catholics.
7. In 1733 Roman Catholics were disfranchised
-that is, their right to vote for members of town
councils and Parliament was taken away. For fear
that British farmers should suffer, no Irish cattle
and no dairy produce were allowed to be imported
into Britain. The Irish had a good trade in wool,
but it was destroyed in the interests of the British
wool trade. The results of all this persecution and
oppression have been felt to this day, and the Irish
people have been taught to believe that all the evils


they suffer have come from their connection with
8. In the reign of George the Third an Irish Par-
liament sat in Dublin, but no Roman Catholic was
allowed to be a member of it; and as the majority
of the people were Roman Catholics, they felt that
they were not fairly treated by England. The
success of the- French Revolution had caused the
Irish to become very restless. Many of them wanted
to be free from Great Britain; so when the French
offered to help them, they accepted the offer.
9. The United Irishmen, a great secret society
formed to throw off British rule, rose in revolt.
They were met by General Lake on Vinegar Hill,
in County Wexford, and defeated. The rising was
not well timed, as the French help they had looked
for had not come. Owing to a storm only a very
small part of the French fleet reached Ireland, and
it was too late to be of any use. A small French
force landed on the shores of Mayo, but the soldiers
were all taken prisoners.
10. The Union of Great Britain and Ireland was
completed in 1801. To bring about a better state
of things in Ireland, it was decided to unite the
two Parliaments, and have but one Parliament for
the United Kihgdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
After much discussion and the free use of bribes
the union was agreed to. Ireland was to send
thirty noblemen to the House of Lords, and one
hundred-now one hundred and three-members
to the House of Commons. Free trade was to
be established between Great Britain and Ireland.


The union came into force on the 1st of January
11. Catholic Emancipation was proposed by Pitt
in 1801. He thought that the union was a good
time to do away with the laws that would not allow
a Roman Catholic to be a member of Parliament or
to fill a public office. The King refused to allow
any change to be made, and Pitt gave up the office
he had held for seventeen years. The next Prime
Minister was Henry Addington. He remained in
office only three years, when Pitt again returned to
power in 1804; but he had to agree to put off his
plan for the relief of the Roman Catholics.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 382.

1. Napoleon Bonaparte, the young French officer
who had driven the
British out of Toulon
in 1793, had risen
quickly, and was now
at the head of the
French army. He be-
lieved that the best
way to weaken Great
Britain was to attack -/
India. As the shortest
road to that country,
called the overland
route, passed through Egypt and down the Red Sea,


he sailed for Alexandria with a large fleet and a
powerful army. On his way he took Malta without
firing a shot. When he arrived in Egypt, he met
and defeated an Egyptian army near Cairo, on the
Nile, in the Battle of the Pyramids, in 1798. Before
the battle the great French general pointed to the
pyramids and said to his army, Soldiers, remember
that from these pyramids forty centuries look down
on your deeds."
2. Admiral Nelson followed the French to Egypt.
Napoleon was the greatest soldier France ever had,


-'-r zpc:;~:


but his plans were upset by our greatest sailor. In
Aboukir Bay, at the mouth of the Nile, Nelson
completely destroyed the French fleet. Nelson was
wounded during the battle, and when he was carried
below from the deck of his ship a doctor ran to
attend him. No," said the admiral; "I will take
my turn with my brave fellows." His wound
proved to be a slight one.
3. Napoleon led his soldiers from Egypt into Syria
to meet a Turkish army that was gathered there.
He tried to take the town of Acre; but the Turks,
aided by a British force under Sir Sidney Smith,
were able to hold their own, and the French were


forced to retreat. Napoleon now returned to France,
when he was made First Consul, or President of the
French Republic. His army, which had returned
to Alexandria, was defeated there two years after-
wards, in 1801. In this battle Sir Ralph Aber-
cromby, the British leader, was slain. Napoleon
next led an army against Austria, and defeated her
twice-at Marengo and at Hohenlinden, in 1800-
forcing her to accept his terms of peace.
4. The Northern League was now formed against
us by Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Denmark, leaving
us ,to struggle alone
with France. The
_- bombardment of
K-. H.nbr H borg Copenhagen by Nel-
M Els'i son in the Battle of
the Baltic caused the
Federsksbog -- Danes to submit to
ona ur terms and with-
draw from theleague.
The defeat of the
Fdericksber go Danes and the death
of the Emperor of
Russia caused the
league to be broken
up, and a general
peace was signed at Amiens in 1802. The peace
did not last long. Malta had been taken by, the
British in 1800, and because we would not give it
up at once the war began again. In 1804 Na-
poleon was made Emperor of the French, with the
title of Napoleon the First.


5. Napoleon threatened to invade Great Britain in
1803. He had grown so powerful that Great
Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden united against
France and Spain.
Napoleon's plan was P
to get the British
men-of-war out of
the way, in order -
that he might invade __-' --
this country. To
draw Nelson with
his fleet away from
the English Channel, Lc A
Napoleon sent the
French fleet out to sea, as if to cross the Atlantic
to attack the West Indies. Nelson followed; but the
French turned back without being seen, and'joined
the Spanish fleet at Cadiz.
6. Nelson returned from the West Indies to
England; but when he heard where the combined
fleets of France and Spain lay, he sailed to join
Admiral Collingwood, who had been watching them.
The French and Spanish ships left the harbour of
Cadiz, and on the 21st of October they were met
by Nelson off Cape Trafalgar. The British fleet
bore down on them in two columns, the one led by
Nelson in the Victory, and the other led by Colling-
wood in the Royal Sovereign.
7. Before the Battle of Trafalgar began, Nelson
made his last signal from the mast-head of his ship.
At the time it roused the seamen to do great deeds,
and even now our hearts are stirred when we read
(ss88) 6


the noble words, "England expects every man to do
his duty."
8. In the midst of the fight the rigging of the
Victory got entangled with that of the Redoubtable.
One of the riflemen in the rigging of the French
ship saw a one-armed officer with many stars on his
breast on the deck of the Victory. He fired, and
the officer fell shot through the shoulder. That
shot was the death-stroke of Lord Nelson. To the
captain of his ship he said, "They have done for
me at last, Hardy; my back-bone is shot through."
Three hours later be died, but not till he knew
that he had won a great victory. His last words
were, "Thank God, I have done my duty." His


body was taken to England, and buried in St. Paul's
Cathedral, in London, amidst the tears of a whole
9. The Battle of Trafalgar at once freed Great
Britain from all fear of an invasion. The fleets of
the enemy were not only defeated, they were de-
stroyed. New ships would have to be built and


a new race of seamen reared to man them before
they could make another attack on the shores of
our island home.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 238.

1. In 1800 the Northern States-Russia,
Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden-formed a league
against Great Britain. To separate Denmark from the
league, and to prevent the Danish ships from aiding
France, a fleet of eighteen vessels, under Sir Hyde
Parker and Admiral Nelson, was sent to the Baltic.
2. Nelson undertook, with the ships under his
command, to destroy the forts of Copenhagen. The
battle took place on April 2nd, 1801. After a
struggle of four hours, the Danes yielded. In the
heat of the fight Parker signalled to Nelson to stop
firing; but Nelson put his telescope to his blind
eye, and ordered his own signal for closer action"
to be nailed to the mast.

3. Of Nelson and the North
Sing the glorious day's renown,
When to battle fierce came forth
All the might of Denmark's crown,
And her arms along the deep proudly shone;
By each gun the lighted brand,
In a bold, determined hand,
Arid the Prince of all the land
Led them on.


4. Like leviathans afloat,
Lay their bulwarks on the brine;
While the sign of battle flew
On the lofty British line:
It was ten of April morn by the chime:
As they drifted on their path,
There was silence deep as death,
And the boldest held his breath
For a time.

5. But the might of England flushed
To anticipate the scene;
And her van the fleeter rushed
O'er the deadly space between.
"Hearts of oak!" our captains cried; when
each gun
From its adamantine lips
Spread a death-shade round the ships,
Like the hurricane eclipse
Of the sun.

6. Again! again! again!
And the havoc did not slack,
Till a feeble cheer the Dane
To our cheering sent us back ;-
Their shots along the deep slowly boom;
Then ceased-and all is wail,
As they strike the shattered sail,
Or, in conflagration pale,
Light the gloom.

7. Out spoke the victor then,
As he hailed then o'er the wave:


"Ye are brothers ye are men!
And we conquer but to save;
So peace instead of death let us bring:
But yield, proud foe, thy fleet,
With the crews, at England's feet,
And make submission meet
To our King."

8. Then Denmark blessed our chief,
That he gave her wounds repose;
And the sounds of joy and grief
From her people wildly rose,
As Death withdrew his shades from the day,
While the sun looked smiling bright
O'er a wide and woful sight,
Where the fires of funeral light
Died away.

9. Now joy, Old England, raise!
For the tidings of thy might,
By the festal cities' blaze,
While the wine-cup shines in light;
And yet, amidst that joy and uproar,
Let us think of them that sleep,
Full many a fathom deep,
By thy wild and stormy steep,

10. Brave hearts to Britain's pride
Once so faithful and so true,
On the deck of fame that died,
With the gallant, good Riou.


Soft sigh the winds of heaven o'er their
While the billow mournful rolls,
And the mermaid's song condoles,
Singing glory to the souls
Of the brave OAMPBzLL.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 234.

1. The Battle of Austerlitz was fought in 1805.
While Great Britain was successful at, sea, Napoleon
was successful on land. At Ulm he forced an
Austrian army to surrender, and at Austerlitz he
defeated the combined armies of Russia and Austria.
This defeat broke up the alliance which Pitt had
made with Russia, Austria, and Sweden.
2. William Pitt died in January 1806, at the age
of forty-six years. He was worn out with worry
and hard work. The defeat at Austerlitz, which
broke up the alliance he had made, was his death-
blow. It is said that when Pitt heard the news he
laid aside a map he was studying, and said sadly,
" Roll up the map of Europe." He had earned for
himself the regard of his countrymen by his faith-
ful life and upright service. He was buried in
Westminster Abbey.
3. Charles James Fox was the most important
member in the new Ministry, though Lord Gren-
ville was Prime Minister. It did not last long, but
it did one good thing-it put an end to the dread-


ful slave trade, and British ships were no longer
allowed to carry off negroes to be sold as slaves.
But the friends of the slaves had not yet finished
their work. They had to fight for twenty-seven
years longer before all the slaves in the British
colonies were set free, in 1833. In September, Fox
died, aged fifty-seven. He too was laid in West-
minster Abbey, beside his great rival Pitt.
4. The Prussians were defeated at Jena in 1806.
Great Britain again, for the fourth time, made an
alliance against France. This time her allies were
Russia, Prussia, and Saxony. Napoleon struck the
first blow at Prussia. At Jena he won, a great
victory, and a large part of Prussia fell into his
5. The Berlin Decree was issued in 1807. All
Europe, except Russia and Great Britain, now lay
at the feet of Napoleon-the one strong in her
snowy steppes and thick forests of pine, and the
other safe within her island shores, securely guarded
by her wooden walls. From Berlin, Napoleon sent
forth his famous "Berlin Decree," in which he for-
bade all trade between Great Britain and the Con-
tinent, and ordered all British subjects found in
countries held by France to be made prisoners of
war. The British Government replied by sending
out Orders in Council," forbidding trade with
France and her allies.
6. George Canning now came to the front. The
" Ministry of all the talents," as Grenville's govern-
ment was called, proposed to allow Roman Catholics
to be officers in the army and navy. The King



refused to agree to this, and asked all the mini-
sters to resign. They did so, and a new Ministry
was formed, with the Duke of Portland as Prime
Minister and George Canning as Foreign Secretary.
The Chief Secretary of Ireland was Sir Arthur
Wellesley-the man who stands out as the hero
of his time.
7. The Treaty of Tilsit was made in 1807. Napo-
leon defeated the Russians and Prussians at Eylau;
and in the same year the Russian and French Em-
perors' met on a raft on the river Niemen, and there
drew up the Treaty of Tilsit. Russia and Prussia
both agreed to carry out the Berlin Decree, and so
help Napoleon to ruin the trade.of England. Can-



ning knew that Napoleon meant to seize the fleets
of Denmark and Portugal, and use them against
Great Britain; so, when he heard of this treaty, he
sent out a fleet that bombarded Copenhagen, and
seized the Danish ships of war.
EXERCIBES on the Lesson, page 235.

1. In 1803 Napoleon resolved upon the invasion
of Great Britain, and brought together a vast army
for that purpose at Boulogne. This step of Napo-
leon's aroused among Britons a warm feeling of
patriotism, and 300,000 men offered themselves as
volunteers to resist the enemy if they should land.
It was thus that Napoleon's "banners at Boulogne
armed in our island every freeman."
2. Napoleon seems to have doubted whether an
attack on Britain would be successful, and as he
was eager to punish Austria, he suddenly gave up
his design of invading this country, and marched
his army to the banks of the Danube.
3. The story told in the following verses hap-
pened when Napoleon and his army were at
Boulogne. A British sailor, who was a prisoner,
wishing to gain his freedom, escaped in an empty
barrel. He was caught by the Frenchmen, and
was taken before Napoleon. When asked why he
had risked his life in that way, he replied that he
had a strong desire to see his mother, from whom
he had been long parted. Napoleon was so pleased


with his courage and dutiful conduct that he set
him at liberty.

4. Napoleon's banners at Boulogne
Armed in our island every freeman;
His navy chanced to capture one
Poor British seaman.

5. They suffered him-I know not how-
Unprisoned on the shore to roam;
And aye was bent his longing brow
On England's home.

6. His eye, methinks, pursued the flight
Of birds to Britain half way over,
With envy-they could reach the white
Dear cliffs of Dover.

7. A stormy midnight watch, he thought,
Than this sojourn would have been dearer,
If but the storm his vessel brought
To England nearer.

8. At last, when care had banished sleep,
He saw one morning, dreaming, dating,
An empty hogshead from the deep
Come shoreward floating.

9. He hid it in a cave, and wrought
The livelong day, laborious, lurking,
Until he launched a tiny boat
By mighty working.


10. Heaven help us 'twas a thing beyond
Description wretched: such a wherry
Perhaps ne'er ventured on a pond,
Or crossed a ferry.

11. For ploughing in the salt sea field,
It would have made the boldest shudder;
Untarred, uncompassed, and unkeeled,
No sail-no rudder !

12. From neighboring woods he interlaced
His sorry skiff with wattled willows;
And thus equipped he would have passed
The foaming billows.

13. But Frenchmen caught him on the beach,
His little Argo sorely jeering;
Till tidings of him chanced to reach
Napoleon's hearing.

14. With folded arms Napoleon stood,
Serene alike in peace and danger,
And in his wonted attitude
Addressed the stranger:-

15." Rash man, that wouldst yon Channel pass
On twigs and staves so rudely fashioned,
Thy heart with some sweet British lass
Must be impassioned."

16." I have no sweetheart," said the lad;
"But, absent long from one another,


Great was the longing that I had
To see my mother."

17." And so thou shalt Napoleon said;
Ye've both my favour fairly won:
A noble mother must have bred
So brave a son."

18. He gave the tar a piece of gold,
And with a flag of truce commanded
He should be shipped to England Old
And safely landed.

19. Our sailor oft could scantly shift
To find a dinner plain and hearty;
But never changed the coin and gift
Of Bonaparte. CAMPBELL.
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 236.

1. The French invaded Portugal in 1807. That
country had always been friendly to Great Britain,
and when Napoleon sent out the Berlin Decree
Portugal would not agree to it. The French Em-
peror therefore sent General Junot, with 30,000
men, to take Lisbon. The royal family fled to
Brazil, in South America (at that time a Portuguese
dependency), and Junot held Portugal in the name
of Napoleon. This was- the beginning of the great
Peninsular War, so called because it was fought in


Spain and Portugal, which form a great peninsula
south-west of France.
2. The French invaded Spain in 1808. The King
of Spain had, a "quarrel with his eldest son, and


/' Vlalld id

Za T I.-af"~.,ISi)I)A Ii
3 oled.

ir Beibaos
0 ) ribl-ra
a Y~-I Crdov ~ Alicante.




F r* -

a Bar,



rEach SqnarE 100 miles.)
asked Napoleon to advise him what to do. The
Emperor, hoping to get Spain into his own hands,
sent for both the father and the son. Having per-
suaded the King to give up his crown, he sent the
son as a prisoner to another part of France, and



a Le



then made his own brother Joseph King of Spain.
This brother he had already made King of Naples,
but he now gave that kingdom to one of his
generals named Murat.
3. The Spaniards rose in arms, and asked Great
Britain to help them. In 1808 Sir Arthur Welles-
ley, who afterwards became Duke of Wellington,
was sent to the Peninsula with an army of 10,000
men. He landed in Portugal, and defeated the
French at Vimiera, north of Lisbon. Soon after
this Sir Hew Dalrymple took the chief command,
and by the Convention of Cintra, a small town near
Lisbon, allowed the French to leave Portugal with
all their arms and warlike stores. For making
this agreement, Sir Hew was recalled and censured,
and his place was taken by Sir John Moore. Wel-
lesley was also recalled, but was freed from blame.
4. A French army having been made prisoners
by the Spaniards, Napoleon marched another army
into Spain, beat the Spaniards, and entered Madrid.
Sir John Moore, expecting the Spaniards to join
him against the French, marched his army into the
heart of Spain. The Spaniards did not help him,
and he had -to retreat before a much larger army
than his own under Marshal Soult. The sufferings
of the British army during that backward march
are past description. Moore offered battle before he
reached the shore, but Soult would not fight.
5. The Battle of Corunna was fought in 1809. The
British reached Corunna, in the north-west of Spain,
before the ships which were to take them off had
arrived. The French were close upon them, and


there was nothing to prevent a battle being fought.
The French were defeated, but Sir John Moore was
killed by a cannon ball. His hasty burial by night
on the battle-field is beautifully told in Wolfe's
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 236.

1 Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,
As his corpse to the ramparts we hurried;
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot
O'er the grave of the hero we buried.

2. We buried him darkly at dead of night,
The sods with our bayonets turning,
By the struggling moonbeams' misty light,
And the lantern dimly burning.

3. No useless coffin enclosed his breast,
Not in sheet nor in shroud we wound him;
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,
With his martial cloak around him.

4. Few and short were the prayers we said,
And we spoke not a word of sorrow;
But we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead,
And we bitterly thought of the morrow.

5. We thought, as we hollowed his narrow bed,
And smoothed down his lonely pillow,


1- -- jf -

That the foe and the stranger would tread o'er
his head,
And we far away on the billow.


6. Lightly they'll talk of the spirit that's gone,
And o'er his cold ashes upbraid him;
But little he'll reck, if they'll let him sleep on
In the grave where a Briton has laid him!

7. But half of our heavy task was done
When the clock struck the hour for retiring;
And we heard the distant and random gun
That the foe was sullenly firing.

8. Slowly and sadly we laid him down,
From the field of his fame fresh and gory;
We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone-
But we left him alone with his glory!
EXERCISES on the Lesson, page 237.

1. Wellesley returned to Portugal in 1809 with a
fresh army. He drove the French out of Oporto,
at the mouth of the Douro, and then pushed on to
Madrid. On the way he met the French at Tala-
vera, and defeated them. For this victory he was
made Lord Wellington. Unable to reach Madrid in
the face of the large French forces that guarded
the city, Wellington retreated into Portugal.
2. The French tried to drive the British to their
ships, but in the Battle of Busaco in 1810 they
were beaten back with great loss; and Wellington
retreated to Torres Vedras, .where he threw up lines
of defence from the Tagus to the Atlantic so strong

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