BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
3621 Bayshore Rd.
Sarasota, Florida 34234
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Number 135 6 August 1992
CERCYONIS PEGALA (FABRICIUS)
IN THE GREAT BASIN: NEW SUBSPECIES AND
George T. Austin
Nevada State Museum and Historical Society
700 Twin Lakes Drive, Las Vegas, Nevada 89107
The Great Basin is a vast area of mountains and valleys in the western United States,
centered on the state of Nevada. At present, the biota of each of these mountain ranges
and of the wet areas in the intervening valleys are isolated from biota in like habitats
by expanses of shrub desert, dominated by sagebrush. The island-like nature of the
montane regions of the Great Basin has been of interest to biogeographers for more than
two decades (Austin 1981; Austin and Murphy 1987; Behle 1963, 1978; Billings 1978;
Brown 1971, 1978; Grayson 1982, 1983; Harper et al. 1978; Johnson 1975, 1978; Pratt
1985; Wells 1983; Wilcox et al. 1986). The lowland wet areas have received less attention
(Austin 1985a, Johnson 1978) except for studies on fish (Hubbs and Miller 1948; Hubbs
et al. 1974; Miller 1946, 1958; Smith 1978) and a few other aquatic taxa (Hovingh 1986
and citations therein).
The isolation of Great Basin habitats has led to a diversity of speciation events (Austin
and Murphy 1987, Johnson 1978) and centers of differentiation are obvious across several
major taxonomic groups (Austin and Murphy 1987; Behle 1963, 1978; Hubbs and Miller
1948; Hubbs et al. 1974; Johnson 1970, 1978; Miller 1941; Smith 1978). Generally, the
montane regions have been more thoroughly investigated for differentiated, endemic taxa
of terrestrial biota. Such surveys have met with limited success; most montane regions
are inhabited by few endemic taxa except in exceptional instances: e.g., the Spring
Mountains in southern Nevada (Austin 1981, Clokey 1951, Hall 1946) and the White
Mountains on the California-Nevada border (Austin and Murphy 1987, Lloyd and Mitchell
Intensive studies of riparian habitats in the Great Basin valleys during the last several
years have indicated that these areas harbor a greater percentage of differentiated butterfly
taxa than the mountains (Austin 1985a, 1987; Austin and Murphy 1987). In retrospect,
this is not all that surprising when post-Pleistocene events, including geographical and
elevational changes in plant distributions during that period (e.g., Wells 1983), are
considered. Biogeographic studies on fish led to the recognition of these areas as speciation
centers long ago (Hubbs and Miller 1948; Hubbs et al. 1974; Miller 1946, 1958).
Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius) (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) lives in the wet areas of many
of the Great Basin valleys, occurring as several phenotypes (Austin 1985b). The assignment
of existing names to these populations has been inconsistent and usually incorrect. Various
workers have commented on the taxa involved and/or proposed synonymies (Austin 1985b;
Brown 1964, 1965; dos Passos 1964; Emmel 1969, in Howe 1975; Ferris and Brown 1981;
Miller and Brown 1981), but there has been no uniform consensus in matching names
to phenotypes. The most helpful work on this species was by Brown (1964, 1965) who
designated lectotypes, illustrated them and fixed type localities for many of the names.
Those two papers form a solid starting point for expanded studies of western C. pegala.
Nevertheless, subsequent workers have largely ignored Brown's work and the original
descriptions themselves. This has led to the redescription of one phenotype and the
misapplication of a number of names.
The variation of C. pegala observed in the Great Basin is obviously complex, thus
presenting a taxonomic nightmare. The easiest and most conservative solution is to
consider all heavily striated populations as Cercyonis pegala gabbii (W. H. Edwards) and
all others Cercyonis pegala nephele (W. Kirby) as did Scott (1986). Several other
combinations have been used in the several papers cited previously. Such simplification
ignores the tremendous range of phenotypic variation within the species and undoubtedly
masks interesting facets of distribution. Above all, it contradicts the biogeographic and
evolutionary history of the species in the Great Basin and elsewhere. It may be merciful
(ie., Emmel in Howe 1975) to the taxonomist but it is criminal to the evolutionary biologist
to hide these fascinating phenotypes under inappropriate, catchall names.
To aid in sorting out this confusion, I wish to add my observations of the species in
the Great Basin. This paper is presented to clear up certain nomenclatural problems
concerning Great Basin populations and to make available new names for forthcoming
regional books. In addition, the distributions of the various taxa are examined and
discussed in the context of the biogeographical history of the Great Basin. This is one
of a series of papers (Austin 1986, 1987; Austin and Murphy, in press; Austin and Smith,
in press; Mattoon and Austin, in press) to examine patterns of phenotypic variation of
Great Basin associated butterflies. Eventually, these studies should lead to a better
understanding of patterns observed today in terms of Pleistocene and Holocene events
in the region.
Size is mean forewing length (and range) in mm of 10 specimens (from type series of
new taxa; location cited for previously named taxa); = male and 9 female.
Capitalized color names are after Smithe (1975, 1981).
Of the many names applied to populations of Cercyonis pegala, the following have been
attributed at one time or another to Great Basin populations:
1. Hipparchia nephele Kirby (in Richardson 1837) TL: Canada, restricted to western
Ontario apparently near the north shore of Lake Huron, vicinity of St. Josephs
Islands, Ontario, Canada, by Brown (1965, 1966b), type probably lost (Brown 1965).
2. Satyrus ariane Boisduval (1852) TL: dans les forets [California], restricted to
Tuolumne County, California by Brown (1964), rerestricted to Plumas County,
California by Emmel et al. (in press a), lectotype male in National Museum of Natural
History (Brown 1965).
3. Satyrus boopis Behr (1864) TL: Contra Costa [County, California], type destroyed
(Brown 1965), neotype designated by Emmel et al. (in press b).
4. Satyrus gabbii Edwards (1870) TL: Oregon, suggested as Lake County by Brown
(1964), restricted to the Goose Lake region, Lake County, Oregon, herein, lectotype
female in Carnegie Museum (Brown 1964).
5. Satyrus wheeler Edwards (1873) TL: between the Cascade and Rocky mountains,
restricted to Owen's [sic] Lake, Inyo County, California by Brown (1964), lectotype
female in Carnegie Museum (Brown 1964).
6. Satyrus hoffmani Strecker (1873) TL: Owen's [sic] Lake, Nevada [=California],
lectotype male (designated herein) at Field Museum of Natural History.
7. Satyrus stephensi Wright (1905) TL: northeastern California, suggested as probably
Modoc County by Comstock (1924a) and Miller and Brown (1981), restricted to
between Lake City and Cedarville, Surprise Valley, Modoc County, California, herein,
lectotype female at California Academy of Sciences (Tilden 1975).
8. Cercyonis pegala blanca Emmel and Mattoon (1972) TL: Dufurrena Ranch,
Humboldt County, Nevada, holotype male at University of Florida, Gainesville.
I have examined the types holotypee, lectotype or syntypes) of all the above names
except H. nephele (lost or unrecognizable, Brown 1965) and S. boopis (none exists, Brown
1965). Further, I examined topotypes of all of the above named entities, other series of
these taxa, series of unnamed phenotypes in various collections, and amassed extensive
material from much of the Great Basin.
Most (or all) populations of Cercyonis pegala exhibit considerable variation involving
color and pattern (e.g., Edwards 1884, Mather 1966) and these have complex patterns
of distribution and intergradation (e.g., Shapiro 1966, 1974). Care must thus be exercised
in interpreting a single type or short syntype series. This is particularly true when the
location of capture was imprecise, as was common for much of the old material on which
many of the names were based. I had originally hoped that most or all of the phenotypes
present in the Great Basin would fall neatly within the concepts of named taxa.
Unfortunately, this was not the case and a number of new taxa will be proposed.
To facilitate the following descriptions, general characteristics of the species are given
here (see also Scudder 1889, Emmel 1969). The antennae are black, annulated with white
and the club is largely orangish. The palpi are black above and below and whitish laterally
with a central black line on their outer faces. The head, body and abdomen are dark gray
above and paler beneath (females are more grayish brown). The legs are whitish with some
gray scales. The dorsal wing surface of males is a relatively dark brown; females are paler
brown. In most populations, the forewing has two large, black submarginal ocelli centered
in cells M,-M, and CuAi-CuA2, these usually with white pupils and often encircled with
yellowish and/or set in a paler (yellow or yellow-brown) field. The pupils (especially on
females and on the ventral surface) often appear bluish away from their centers; this is
due to translucent whitish scales overlying black ones. Males have a three-parted stigma,
slightly darker than ground color, distal to the discal cell in the cells posterior to vein
CuA, on the forewing. The dorsal hindwing usually has an ocellus in cell CuA,-CuA, and
often smaller ocelli in adjacent cells, some or all encircled with yellowish and often with
white pupils. The submarginal area may be yellowish or of ground color. Both wings have
thin terminal and marginal lines, a broader submarginal line and sometimes a postmedian
line, these darker than ground color and developed to various degrees.
The ventral surface is paler than the dorsum and crossed by dark striations, the width
of which varies. The forewing has the ocelli of the dorsum repeated but with larger pupils.
The ocelli are encircled with yellow and then a thin line of brown and often set in a pale,
weakly striated field. The hindwing may or may not have submarginal ocelli. When fully
developed, these are six in number and arranged in two groups of three; the central ocellus
of each group is the largest. These usually have white pupils (at times with blue) and
are encircled as on the forewing. The basal portion of the hindwing may be of the same
color as the distal portion, may be darker, or may appear darker because of a greater
concentration of striations. Both wings have the various lines of the dorsal surface and,
often, at least a trace of a postbasalline. Differences between phenotypes involve overall
color, amount of yellow, size of forewing ocelli, presence, shape and size of hindwing ocelli
and prominence of lines and striations.
General descriptions and diagnoses are given for Great Basin phenotypes emphasizing
their overall differences. Several unambiguous characters which vary within and between
populations were examined in greater detail as listed below. Information is for the wings
on the right side since there is often asymmetry in these characters.
1. the number of dark spots and ocelli on the dorsal hindwing (Table 2).
2. the frequency of specimens with blue associated with the pupil in at least one of
the ventral forewing ocelli (Table 2).
3. the size (mm) of the dorsal forewing ocelli and the ocellus in cell CuA1-CuA, on the
dorsal hindwing (greatest length parallel to veins, Table 3).
4. the number of ocelli or traces thereof on the ventral hindwing (Table 2).
5. the number of ocelli on the ventral hindwing which were complete with pupil (Table 2).
6. the condition of the posterior two ocelli of the anterior group on the ventral hindwing
(Table 2). This was scored as "fused" if the black portions of the two touched and
as "not fused" if the yellow margins of one or both intervened (or one ocellus was
7. the shape of the central ocellus of the anterior group on the ventral hindwing
(Table 2). This was scored (by eye) as "oval" proximal-distal axis of the black portion
longer than anterior-posterior axis) or "not oval" (round or absent).
Cercyonis pegala nephele (W. Kirby)
Figs. 1-4, 9-12
DIAGNOSIS. Size 3 = 23.9 (22.5-25.1), size 9 = 27.6 (26.4-29.0). (sample from Juneau
County, Wisconsin). Males are dark brown (Prout's Brown to Hair Brown) on the dorsum
and females are somewhat paler (Verona Brown to Prout's Brown). The forewing has two
black, usually white-pupiled, ocelli as usual; these are relatively small and not or very
indistinctly encircled with pale brown on males and moderately-sized and more distinctly
(often faintly yellowish) outlined on females. These are in a submarginal patch scarcely
paler than ground color on males and in a somewhat more perceptible area on females.
The lines on the forewing are all but obsolete except for the submarginal which is a shade
darker than ground color. The hindwing of both sexes has a single (or none on some
females), often white-pupiled, ocellus in cell CuA,-CuA,. The submarginal line is as on
the forewing; the terminal and marginal lines are thinly present.
The ventral forewing of males is medium brown (Brussels Brown to Prout's Brown)
with the dorsal ocelli repeated but with larger white pupils and encircled narrowly with
dull yellowish (Yellow Ocher to Warm Buff). The basal area is finely striated. The
postmedian and submarginal lines are distinct and the outer lines are faint. The hindwing
is darker (near Raw Umber, color 223) than the forewing and finely striated. The lines
are as on the forewing except the marginal line is more prominent. There are usually six,
moderately-sized, round ocelli with white pupils and encircled with dull yellowish. The
ventral surface of females is paler than the male (both wings near Army Brown); the basal
portion of the hindwing is often darker (Mars Brown). The forewing ocelli are more broadly
encircled with yellowish and the pupils usually have bluish distally. The lines are more
prominent than on males. The hindwing has a variable number of ocelli (0-6, usually 5
or fewer). Both ventral wings have broader striations than the male.
DISTRIBUTION. There is much disagreement as to the extent of variability that should
be recognized within the concept of C. p. nephele. Populations from the Great Lakes area
from at least central Minnesota to northern New York and adjacent southern Canada
are strictly typical (Juneau County, Wisconsin, material described above).
DISCUSSION. In general, the various phenotypes without a yellow forewing patch
from the northeastern and northcentral United States northward have been assigned here.
Emmel (1969, in Howe 1975) included these brown phenotypes along with all or most
of those with a yellow patch in C. p. pegala. Scott (1986) included all brown C. pegala
without strong striations in C. p. nephele and all those with a distinct yellow patch in
C. p. pegala. A complete review of the several concepts and of the variability involved
is well beyond the scope of this paper. The taxon is included in this discussion because
of the apparent assignment of the name to certain Great Basin populations (Scott 1986).
These latter, I believe, are closer to phenotypes in California than to C. p. nephele
Cercyonis pegala ariane (Boisduval)
Figs. 17-20, 23-26
DIAGNOSIS. Size 6 = 24.2 (23.1-25.2), size 9 = 26.6 (26.0-27.2 N = 2). (sample from
Sierra and Plumas counties, California). This is a relatively dark brown (males Raw Umber,
color 223 to Sepia, color 219; females Prout's Brown to Raw Umber, color 223) phenotype
with moderate-sized forewing ocelli and very little yellow associated with the forewing
ocelli or on the hindwing. The dorsal hindwing usually has one ocellus. The ventral surface
is brownish (males Drab to Natal Brown; females Light Drab to Fawn) with some white
distally on the hindwing (especially on females) and crossed with striations of medium
width. The ventral hindwing has six (or fewer) small ocelli, these usually appearing as
set in a brownish smudge. The postmedian and postbasal lines are fairly well developed.
DISTRIBUTION. This taxon occurs in the northern Sierra Nevada of California, mostly
on the west slope. Populations with a similar phenotype occur northward into Oregon.
Studies of the phenotypes of all the Pacific Coast states are needed before the remainder
of the distribution of C p. ariane can be detailed.
DISCUSSION. The name Cercyonis pegala ariane has been applied to a wide range
of phenotypes and commonly to ones from the western Great Basin (Comstock 1927;
Dornfeld 1980; Emmel 1969, in Howe 1975; Garth and Tilden 1986; Tilden and Smith
1986). Nothing, however, could be further from the truth; it does not occur (except as
apparent intermediates, see below) east of the Sierra Nevada. This misapplication of the
name resulted from not consulting the original description (Boisduval 1852), Oberthur's
(1914) figures of Boisduval's specimens, Brown's (1965) designation and figure of the
lectotype male and subsequent discussion, or the syntypes (including the lectotype)
themselves in the National Museum of Natural History. These all indicate that Satyrus
ariane refers to a butterfly with small ocelli (some often absent) on the ventral hindwing
(especially on females) and a somewhat bicolored ventral surface without the coarse
striations seen on many of the Great Basin phenotypes of C pegala. Brown (1965) restricted
the type locality to Tuolumne County, California on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada.
Based on its known distribution (C. pegala does not occur in Tuolumne County) and
Lorquin's early travels in California, this is incorrect (fide J. F. Emmel). The types were
more likely from the Plumas-Sierra counties area further north. Comparison of the syntypes
with material from this latter region further suggests this. Emmel et aL (in press a) will
restrict the type locality to Plumas County, California.
Most figured "Cercyonis pegala ariane" are misdetermined: all Comstock's (1927) "C.
ariane" are C p. stephensi as are Dornfeld's (1980) or C. p. gabbii. Those in Holland (1931)
are near C p. boopis (plate 26, figs. 5, 6) or near C. p. gabbii (plate 63, fig. 20). One of
those in Howe (1975; plate 3, fig. 3) is near C. p. ariane but the other (plate 3, fig. 15)
is of the undescribed Carson Valley, Nevada, phenotype as are both specimens illustrated
by Tilden and Smith (1986). The lectotype male was illustrated by Brown (1965); this
specimen probably served as the model for Oberthur's (1914) figure.
Cercyonis pegala wheeleri (W. H. Edwards)
Figs. 21, 22, 27, 28
DIAGNOSIS. Size 3 = 28.2 (N = 1), size 9 = 32.0 (N = 1). (Owens Lake, California).
This highly distinctive phenotype is characterized by an invariably double apical ocellus
on the forewing [all 20 specimens examined by Edwards (1873) and Strecker (1873); 11
examined by me]. No other C. pegala regularly has doubled forewing ocelli (occasional
specimens from other populations may have a doubled ocellus on one or both forewings;
when present, this may involve the anterior or posterior ocellus, Table 1). The pale ventral
surface is crossed by coarse striations and the ventral hindwing has six, relatively large,
submarginal ocelli, the central one of the anterior group is elongate.
DISTRIBUTION. This taxon, now apparently extinct (Comstock 1927, Emmel 1969),
was known only from the Owens Lake region of east-central California (Fig. 214). Recent
intensive searches of the area have failed to locate an extant population (fide J. F. Emmel).
DISCUSSION. Among Great Basin C. pegala, the easiest names to deal with are
Edwards' Satyrus wheeler and Strecker's straight synonym Satyrus hoffmani. These
names were based on nine females (Brown 1964; called males by Edwards 1873) and one
male and ten females (Strecker 1873), respectively, from the same series taken by Ferdinand
Bischoff during the Wheeler Expedition of 1871 (Brown 1964, Mead 1875). The type locality
was confused from the beginning. Edwards (1873) had no locality data other than "between
the Cascade and Rocky Mountains" and other material taken "later by H. W. Henshaw
at Apache, Arizona" (Edwards 1884). This latter statement is a mystery as nothing like
C p. wheeler occurs today in northern Arizona and Henshaw apparently did not join
the Wheeler Expedition until 1872 nor explore California (Brown 1955, 1966a). Strecker
(1873) reported it taken at "Owen's Lake, Nevada" and credited W. J. Hoffman with the
collection even though Bischoff is named on his specimen labels. Comstock (1924a, 1927)
questioned whether this taxon was actually collected in California. Holland (1931) said
that the taxon was "taken by the Wheeler Expedition in Arizona." Brown (1957) suggested
the location as southwestern Utah or possibly Cottonwood Springs [Clark County], Nevada.
Later, however, Brown (1964) showed that Strecker's (1873) type locality was correct (but
in California, not Nevada as stated in the original description). The two names have been
variously considered as synonyms (Emmel 1969, in Howe 1975) of C. p. ariane or as
representing a recognizable entity (Comstock 1924b, 1927; dos Passos 1964; Miller and
Brown 1981). I concur with the latter opinion as the phenotype is constant and like no
other known population of the species.
The 20 specimens of the two type series [plus possibly a few more taken at the same
time; e.g., Mead evidently had one (Mead 1875)] are apparently the only ones which existed.
Edwards must have had a male before him at some time as he (1874) described and
illustrated both sexes; this may have been from the material he received "later". The
lectotype female of S. wheeler (designated by Holland 1931, see Brown 1964) and an
additional female and a male are at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. A male
and two females (all labeled "orig. type") are in the Strecker collection at the Field Museum
of Natural History. Three additional females are at the National Museum of Natural
History and two are at the American Museum of Natural History. The male in the Strecker
collection is here designated the lectotype of Satyrus hoffmani and will be labeled with
a red printed label: Lectotype/Satyrus hoffinani/Strecker/designated by/G.T. Austin, 1991.
There are several illustrations of C p. wheeler published by Brown (1964), Edwards
(1884, his plate was the basis for the figures in Mead 1875, the latter copied by Comstock
1927), Holland (1931) and Strecker (1874).
Cercyonis pegala gabbii (W. H. Edwards)
DIAGNOSIS. Size S = 25.2 (24.3-26.0), size 9 = 28.1 (27.0-30.8) (sample from Goose
Lake, Lake County, Oregon). Males of C. p. gabbii are dark brown (Raw Umber, color
223 to Sepia, color 219) above with two white-pupiled, black ocelli on the forewing (the
TABLE 1. Frequency of doubled anterior (ant.) and posterior (post.) forewing ocelli on
Great Basin Cercyonis pegala.
TAXON % doubled % doubled
N ant. post. N ant. post.
C. p. gabbii 163 0.0 0.0 21 0.0 0.0
C. p. stephensi 386 0.0 1.3 161 0.0 0.0
C p. paucilineatus 167 3.6 0.6 181 12.2 1.1
C. p. carsonensis 181 0.6 0.6 184 0.0 0.0
C. p. utahensis 150 0.7 0.7 68 5.9 1.5
C. p. pluvialis 150 0.0 0.0 63 0.0 0.0
C. p. wheeler 3 100.0 0.0 8 100.0 0.0
C. p. walkerensis 208 0.0 0.0 71 0.0 2.8
C. p. paludum 364 0.3 0.0 240 0.8 1.3
blend populations 176 0.0 0.0 108 0.0 0.0
C. p. wheeleri) 1945 0.5 0.4 1097 2.6 0.7
anterior one is the smallest). These are usually incompletely and narrowly outlined with
dull yellowish and are set in a very slightly paler brown (usually not immediately noticable)
submarginal field. The dorsal hindwing has one black, white-pupiled ocellus (frequently
encircled narrowly with dull yellow) and often small blind ocelli anteriorly and/or
posteriorly. The submarginal area of the hindwing is not paler than the disc. Each wing
has an indistinct, nearly blackish, submarginal line.
The ventral ground color is grayish brown (Light Drab to Fawn Color). The wings are
coarsely striated with brown streaks; these are heaviest at the base, thus causing the
outer third of each wing to appear paler. An irregular brown postmedian line is distinct
on both wings. The ocelli of the forewing are larger and more evenly-sized than on the
dorsum and are broadly outlined with yellowish. The pupils rarely have a trace of blue.
The hindwing usually has a full complement of six, pupiled ocelli. The ocelli are thinly
outlined with yellow and then brown. On occasion, the anterior set of three is incomplete
and/or with blind ocelli and the central one is often oval.
Females are paler brown (Brussels Brown to Prout's Brown) above than males. The
uneven-sized ocelli of the forewing are larger than on males and set in a yellowish to tan
field. The hindwing has ocelli (one to three) as on the male, the largest is white-pupiled
and all are set in a tan field that is often somewhat yellowish distally.
The venter is pale grayish brown (Cinnamon-Drab to Fawn Color) with heavy dark brown
striations, these weaker on the outer third of the wings giving a two-toned effect as on
males. The ocelli of the forewing are broadly encircled with yellow in a tan or yellowish
field. The pupils frequently have a trace to moderate amount of associated blue. The usually
white-pupiled ocelli of the hindwing are as on the male, with a greater tendency towards
reduction or absence of the anterior set of three and, occasionally, the anteriormost of
the posterior set. A brown postmedian line is present on both wings; this is often faint
on the hindwing.
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. This taxon occurs west of the Warner
Mountains in the Goose Lake area of Modoc County, California, and Lake County, Oregon,
south to Likely, Modoc County, California (at the very southern end of the Goose Lake
Basin) and west as a slightly darker phenotype to the Tulelake region of Siskiyou County,
California (this latter may eventually prove to be an intermediate phenotype when
populations to the west and north are studied in more detail, Fig. 214). Its distribution
to the northwest (a different phenotype occurs at Klamath Falls, Klamath County, Oregon)
requires further study. The reported occurrence in Utah (Emmel 1969, Emmel and Mattoon
1972, Holland 1931) is incorrect and refers to a phenotype to be described below. The
assignment of this name to various Nevada populations (Austin 1985b) is likewise
erroneous. The flight period extends from early July to early August.
DISCUSSION. The oldest name correctly applied to populations of C. pegala from the
Great Basin region is Satyrus gabbii, described from a pair taken by "Prof. [William More]
Gabb" in Oregon (Edwards 1870). Based on the travels of Gabb, Brown (1964) suggested
Lake County, Oregon as the type locality. Assignment of a single specimen of C. pegala
to a particular population is difficult due to the intrapopulation variability of the species.
Long series from several locations in southern Oregon and adjacent northeastern California
and northwestern Nevada were examined and compared with the lectotype female
(designated by Brown 1964) of Satyrus gabbii at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
A series from the northeast side of Goose Lake, Lake County, Oregon contains several
specimens closely matching the lectotype. The phenotypes of populations southward into
Modoc County, California are also nearly identical. Populations from adjacent areas to
the north and east (Summer and Crump lakes, Lake County, Oregon) have considerably
more yellow associated with the forewing ocelli, larger hindwing ocelli, a tendency towards
more submarginal yellow on the dorsal hindwing, and a paler and more contrasting ventral
surface. These are all C. p. stephensi (see below). Material from the west slope of the Warner
Mountains (Pine Creek), Modoc County, California is similar but males are somewhat
darker and with less dorsal yellow than typical of C. p. gabbii and the dorsal hindwing
ocelli are often absent on females. These are included within the concept of C. p. gabbii.
Thus, the Goose Lake region is a reasonable restriction of the type locality of Satyrus
The literature has nearly uniformly included C. p. gabbii as a synonym of C. p. ariane
(Comstock 1924b; Emmel 1969, in Howe 1975; Miller and Brown 1981) but dos Passos
(1964) considered it a recognizable subspecies. Austin (1985b) was unsure if this name
applied to western Great Basin populations in Nevada. Scott (1986) used C p. gabbii to
represent all western populations with large ventral hindwing ocelli, coarse ventral
striations and a flush of yellow on the ventral forewing.
The lectotype female of C. p. gabbii was illustrated by Brown (1964). A specimen
illustrated by Holland (1931, plate 63, fig. 20) as C. p. ariane may also be of this taxon
but his figured C. "gabbii" is of an undescribed phenotype from Utah (see below). The
C p. gabbii illustrated by Scott (1986) are C. p. stephensi.
Cercyonis pegala stephensi (W. G. Wright)
DIAGNOSIS. Size 6 = 27.0 (25.6-28.4), size 9 = 29.5 (28.6-31.0). (sample from
Dufurrena Ranch, Humboldt County, Nevada). Males of C. p. stephensi are brown (Hair
Brown to Raw Umber, color 223) above. The forewing has relatively large, black, white-
pupiled ocelli, usually outlined moderately and completely with yellowish. The hindwing
has the usual large, white-pupiled ocellus distinctly outlined with yellow and up to five
additional ocelli; the one immediately preceding the largest is also often white-pupiled,
and most are outlined with yellow. The submarginal field of the forewing and (usually)
hindwing are noticeably paler brown than the basal areas of the wings and often are
The ventral surface is similar to that of C. p. gabbii but paler (Light Drab to Drab);
some specimens have a very pale gray to almost white ground color. The ventral ocelli
on both wings are larger and more broadly outlined with a paler yellowish than dorsal
ocelli. The pupils of the forewing ocelli infrequently have a trace of associated blue. There
is almost no tendency for a reduction or blindness of the ocelli on the hindwing. These
are large and those of the anterior group are often fused. The forewing ocelli are set in
a distinctly yellowish to yellowish-brown field. The postmedian lines on both wings are
broad and there is often a distinct "V"-shaped mark in the discal cell of the hindwing.
The dorsum of females is tan to medium brown (Fawn Color to Hair Brown). The ocelli
of the forewing are usually large and set in an invariably pale yellowish field; this yellow
extends distally along the veins, occasionally to the outer margin and as a marginal
dusting. The ocelli of the hindwing are as on males and set in a yellowish or yellowish
(distally) and tan field extending distally along the veins and in the marginal area as on
The ventral surface has a very pale (Drab-Gray to Light Drab), often pale yellowish
(near Cream Color) ground color with heavy brown striations, these weaker distally as
on C. p. gabbii. The ocelli of the forewing are similar to C. p. gabbii but are set in a yellow
field; the encircling yellow does not contrast and is often fused. The pupils infrequently
have associated blue. The ocelli of the hindwing are usually completely represented and
large. The postmedian line, especially on the hindwing, is prominent and there is usually
a postbasal line, at least as a shallow "V" in the discal cell
C. p. stephensi differs from C. p. gabbii in several respects. Males of C. p. stephensi
are paler dorsally and often have a larger complement of ocelli on the hindwing. The venter
is paler (whitish), without a reduction of the ocelli on the hindwing and with coarser
striations. Similarly, female C. p. stephensi are paler; the ocelli of the forewing are set
in a yellow field, this yellow extending distally along the veins, and there is much yellow
on the hindwing. C. p. gabbii females are darker; the ocelli of the forewing are usually
in a brown (occasionally yellow-brown) field and have little or no yellow on the hindwing.
The ventral surface of the two differ as on the males. In addition, the ocelli of the forewing
of C. p. stephensi lie in a yellow field; those of C. p. gabbii are usually in a tan field.
C. p. stephensi is the known extreme in overall paleness for the species. The name should
be restricted to those populations where the dorsal ground color is pale, often yellowish
brown on females, the submarginal areas of both wings on females are nearly always yellow,
and the venter is whitish and very heavily striated. To the north, C. p. stephensi becomes
darker with less yellow (see also Newcomer 1965) and has fewer ocelli on the dorsal
hindwing. This apparently reflects influence from darker colored populations of other taxa
in central Oregon. To the west occur C. p. gabbii and phenotypes allied to C. p. ariane.
To the east in north-central Nevada is an allied but less heavily marked phenotype to
be described later. To the south, in the valleys of the upper Truckee and Carson rivers
on the lower east slope of the Carson Range is another phenotype which will also be
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. This taxon is known from northeastern Nevada
(Dufurrena Ranch, Humboldt County), southern Oregon (Summer and Crump lakes areas,
Lake County; the Crump Lake population is intermediate towards the darker phenotype
from further north in Oregon) and northeastern California (Surprise Valley, Modoc and
Lassen counties, Fig. 214). The flight period extends from late June to late August.
DISCUSSION. The identity of Satyrus stephensi has been a comedy of errors from
the beginning. Wright (1905) made the first mistakes by figuring a female as a male,
figuring males as "Satyrus gabbi" and indicating the type locality as simply "northeastern
California" in an area that "is a sort of Dead Sea region of wide, sandy wastes, draining
into dead salt lakes and marshes that have no outlets." Comstock (1924a) confirmed with
the collector of the types, Frank Stephens, that they were taken "a few miles from the
Nevada line, and some thirty miles south of the Oregon line" (this is between present-
day Lake City and Cedarville). Later, Stephens reported (Comstock 1924a) this as "some
miles south of the southernmost Alkali Lake, in Modoc Co." in August 1894. This whole
general area perfectly matches Wright's (1905) description of the type locality for C. p.
stephensi and I further restrict this locality to between Lake City and Cedarville, Surprise
Valley, Modoc County, California.
Comstock found C pegala at Goose Lake and Fort Bidwell, both in Modoc County.
He correctly pointed out (1924a) that Wright's (1905) male was a female and his male
Satyrus gabbi were male Satyrus stephensi and suggested that the name "stephensi"
be retained to refer to the extremely light female form of Cercyonis gabbii. Comstock's
(1924a) plate showing the "range of variation" of these included specimens from both
Goose Lake and the Fort Bidwell area. [Note that among Comstock's material, there are
putative Fort Bidwell specimens which appear indistinguishable from Goose Lake material.
Since subsequently collected material from the Fort Bidwell area is all undoubted C. p.
stephensi, some of Comstock's specimens must be mislabeled (perhaps when labels were
removed for photographs). This combined with his "range of variation" plate has
undoubtedly perpetuated the confusion surrounding the identities of C pegala from
northeastern California]. Later, Comstock (1924b) considered Satyrus gabbii as a synonym
of C. p. ariane with "stephensi" as a pale female form. Tilden (1975) called the females
illustrated by Wright (1905) Cercyonis pegala ariane, female form stephensi, also recognized
the "male" was actually a female, and designated the female figured as "number 249b"
as the lectotype (deposited at the California Academy of Sciences). He identified the males
(Wright's figures 250, 250b) as Cercyonis pegala ariane form gabbii. Newcomer (1965)
collected various populations of C. p. stephensi and C p. gabbii but thought it doubtful
that Stephens entered Surprise Valley. These concepts (extended to include western Great
Basin phenotypes, see under C. p. ariane above) have more or less persisted to the present
(Comstock 1927; Dornfeld 1980; Emmel 1969, in Howe 1975; Garth and Tilden 1986; Scott
1986; Tilden and Smith 1986). What has not been understood was that there are actually
two rather pale phenotypes of C. pegala in Modoc County, California: C. p. stephensi from
the Surprise Valley, east of the Warner Mountains and C. p. gabbii from the Goose Lake
region and southward, west of the Warner Mountains.
C. p. stephensi was renamed Cercyonis pegala blanca by Emmel and Mattoon (1972);
this is herein (also Austin 1985b, Ferris 1989) considered a subjective junior synonym
of Satyrus stephensi (e.g., compare figures of the types in Wright 1905 and in Emmel
and Mattoon 1972). Miller and Brown (1981) recognized C p. stephensi as distinct but
apparently for the wrong reasons as they also recognized C. p. blanca. They were aware
that western Great Basin C. pegala were not C. p. ariane and their raising of the name
"stephensi" from synonymy appears to have been an attempt to rectify such. This did
nothing but further complicate the situation.
This butterfly was illustrated by Comstock (1927, as C ariane and C ariane f stephensi),
Dornfeld (1980, as C p. ariane form "stephensi"), Emmel and Mattoon (1972, as C p.
blanca), Ferris and Brown (1981, as C. p. blanca), Scott (1986, as C. p. gabbii) and Wright
(1905, plate 23, fig. 249, b, c are correctly indicated but all are females; fig. 250, b are
indicated as S. gabbi).
Cercyonis pegala carsonensis ssp. nov.
Figs. 69, 70, 81, 82, 93-112
MALE. Size = 26.5 (25.0-28.4). Dorsum brown (Prout's Brown to Burnt Umber);
forewing with two black submarginal ocelli with minute white pupils, posterior ocellus
same size to larger than anterior, both outlined narrowly with yellowish (Trogon Yellow),
sometimes obscure especially proximally; terminal, marginal and submarginal lines
indistinctly darker than ground color. Hindwing with thin marginal and broader
submarginal blackish brown lines; white-pupiled (rarely blind) black ocellus in cell
CuA,-CuA,, this smaller than forewing ocelli, usually outlined with Trogon Yellow at least
distally; often small to minute, blind ocelli (sometimes outlined as main ocellus) in one
or both adjacent cells and less often extending anteriorly to cell M,-M,; fringes brownish
on both wings, similar to ground color.
Ventral surface paler than dorsum (Drab to Brussels Brown, often with grayish cast
especially on hindwing); forewing ocelli similar to those on dorsum, pupils white but larger
than on dorsum and frequently with trace of blue, yellow outlines broader and occasionally
fusing narrowly between ocelli, this yellow margined indistinctly with brown, field
containing ocelli lightly striated; basal portion of wing moderately striated; postmedian
line distinct; thin, dark brown terminal, marginal and submarginal lines. Hindwing
moderately striated; terminal, marginal, submarginal and postmedian lines as on forewing;
nearly always six ocelli with small white pupils, outlined with Trogon Yellow and then
indistinctly with brown, posterior group of ocelli usually roundish and separate, anterior
group variable with center ocellus usually drawn out proximally-distally, often fused with
ocellus posterior to it.
FEMALE. Size = 29.0 (27.0-31.0). Dorsum pale brown (Prout's Brown to Mikado
Brown); forewing with submarginal ocelli as male but larger, outlined more broadly with
Trogon Yellow, this usually fused into relatively distinct (but not sharply defined) yellowish
field; terminal, marginal and submarginal lines as on male. Hindwing with ocelli as on
male; submarginal area usually Trogon Yellow, this grading gradually into ground color
proximally; terminal, marginal and submarginal lines as on male.
Ventral surface paler than dorsum (Cinnamon-Drab to Fawn Color); markings much
as on male but field around forewing ocelli paler than ground color, usually yellowish;
yellow around ocelli more often fused. Hindwing marked as male; occasional ocelli absent
and less fusion among anterior group; area distal to postmedian line whiter than basal area.
TYPES. Holotype 6 NV: Douglas Co.; Carson Valley, Scossa Ranch, 26 July 1981,
leg. G. T. Austin. Allotype 9 same data as holotype. Paratypes (475 6, 428 9; all same
location as holotype; leg. G. T. Austin unless noted otherwise) 12 July 1989 (86), 13
July 1980 (2 6), 18 July 1981 (108 6, 22 9), 18 July 1985, leg. G. & A. Austin (46 6, 3 9),
20 July 1980 (16), 23 July 1972, leg. P. Herlan (6 6, 49), 24 July 1982 (16 6, 39), 24
July 1984 (44 6, 15 9), 26 July 1981 (30 6, 80 9), 27 July 1980 (50 6, 3 9), 27 July 1983,
leg. G. Harjes (7 6, 4 9), 1 Aug. 1988 (27 6, 17 9), 3 Aug. 1980 (21 6, 8 9), 5 Aug. 1980,
leg. G. Harjes (25 6, 16 9), 5 Aug. 1988, leg. P. Savage (25 6, 20 9), 6 Aug. 1981 (6 3,
33 9), 8 Aug. 1978, leg. G. Harjes (3 9), 10 Aug. 1980 (9 8, 32 9), 11 Aug. 1964, leg. P.
Herlan (36 9), 11 Aug. 1978 (8 31 9), 12 Aug. 1978 (2 11 9), 13 Aug. 1978 (16, 49),
13 Aug. 1979 (14 8, 38 9), 14 Aug. 1973, leg. A. Pinzl (1 6), 14 Aug. 1973, leg. G. Harjes
(1 9), 15 Aug. 1969, leg. P. Herlan (2 9), 17 Aug. 1980 (7 6, 25 9), 20 Aug. 1985, leg. G.
Harjes (5 9), 23 Aug. 1981 (3 9), 26 Aug. 1976, leg. P. Herlan (1 9), 26 Aug. 1976, leg.
G. Harjes (4 9), 26 Aug. 1983 (8 6, 1 9), 27 Aug. 1980 (2 9), 28 Aug. 1975, leg. P. Herlan
(29), 3 Sept. 1980, leg. G. Harjes (1l, 19), 8 Sept. 1984 (18).
DEPOSITION OF TYPES. The holotype, allotype and eight paratypes are deposited
at the Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. Numerous paratypes are at the
Nevada State Museum, Carson City. The remaining paratypes will be distributed to other
TYPE LOCALITY. NEVADA: Douglas County; Carson River Valley, Scossa Ranch,
Nevada State Route 206, 3.6 miles south of Nevada State Route 207, 1463 m, T12N R19E
S26 on USGS Freel Peak, Calif.-Nev. 15' quadrangle. The area is a lush, marsh area at
the base of the Carson Range. Adults take nectar commonly from a variety of white and
yellow flowers (Apiaceae, Asteraceae).
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. C p. carsonensis occurs in marshes of the
western Great Basin at or near the base of the Carson Range, especially in the Carson
Valley from near Stewart, Carson City, Nevada southward into extreme east-central Alpine
County, California and the Gardnerville area, Douglas County, Nevada (Fig. 214). There
are a few specimens labeled as from the Reno area, Washoe County, Nevada (no recent
collections). A population north of Reno in the Red Rock area, Washoe County, Nevada
approaches this taxon in phenotype (see below). The single brood flies from early July
to early September. Males may appear more than a week before the first females are seen
and outnumber them for the first half of the flight season, after which females are more
frequently encountered than males (see type data for 1980 above).
ETYMOLOGY. This taxon is named after the Carson River Valley, the upper part of
which forms most of the subspecies' range.
DIAGNOSIS AND DISCUSSION. The dorsum of males is similar to that of C p. gabbii
but with less contrasting ocelli. It is most similar to C. p. stephensi but has, on the average,
less yellow associated with the dorsal ocelli of both sexes and less well developed lines
on both surfaces. The venter is darker than both the above phenotypes, lacking the grayish
aspect of C. p. gabbii and the whitish or pale yellowish of C. p. stephensi. The ocelli of
the forewing and their yellow outlines are more strongly contrasting with the darker ground
color than on the other two. There are fewer ocelli on the dorsal hindwing than on C. p.
stephensi. The ocelli of the ventral hindwing are completely represented as on C. p.
stephensi, but are often less well developed (all usually present but outer ones of each
group are smaller). The center one of the anterior group is nearly always large and is often
elongate (sometimes grotesquely so) as on C. p. stephensi. All hindwing ocelli are more
narrowly outlined with a deeper, nearly orangish, yellow. On C p. gabbii, there is a tendency
towards a reduction in number of ocelli and less tendency for these to be elongate. The
postmedian line averages less distinct than on either C. p. gabbii or, especially, C p.
Females are darker brown with much less yellow on the dorsum than C. p. stephensi
and resemble the paler females of C. p. gabbii. The ground color beneath is more tan than
the whitish to pale yellowish color of C. p. stephensi and paler and less bicolored on the
hindwing than C p. gabbii. As on the male, the ocelli are nearly always completely
represented and resemble (large, tendency towards elongation) those of C p. stephensi
but are more narrowly encircled with a duller yellow.
C p. carsonensis was illustrated by Howe (1975, plate 3, fig. 15) as C p. ariane form
"stephensi" and by Tilden and Smith (1986) as C. p. ariane and C. p. ariane form
Cercyonis pegala paucilineatus ssp. nov.
Figs. 71, 72, 83, 84, 113-132
MALE. Size = 26.1 (25.2-27.6). Dorsum brown (Prout's Brown to Sepia, color 219);
forewing ocelli relatively large with small white pupils, ocelli encircled (sometimes faintly)
with Warm Buff, anterior ocellus with some tendency to be doubled (5% of type series);
inconspicuous terminal and marginal lines slightly darker than ground color; submarginal
and postmedian lines usually faint or absent. Hindwing with moderately-sized ocellus
in CuA1-CuA, encircled with Warm Buff, often flanked anteriorly with smaller ocellus
(less commonly anteriorly and posteriorly); thin terminal and marginal lines, broader
submarginal line; fringes grayish brown, slightly paler than ground color, whitish
posteriorly on forewing and anteriorly on hindwing.
Ventral surface very pale brown (Light Drab to Drab Gray) sometimes with slight
yellowish tinge (Tawny-Olive) and moderately striated; forewing ocelli encircled with
yellowish, pupils infrequently with trace of blue; outer lines as on dorsum, submarginal
line somewhat more prominent, postmedian line weakly developed. Hindwing with two
groups of three, white pupiled ocelli, these of moderate size, those of anterior group often
elongate but rarely fused; lines weakly developed.
FEMALE. Size = 28.6 (26.7-30.9). Dorsum pale brown (near Fawn Color to Dark Drab);
forewing ocelli in pale yellow (Chamois) field, this quite variable in extent, anterior ocellus
sometimes doubled (13% of type series); terminal and marginal lines as on male but more
conspicuous on paler ground color, submarginal line present or absent, postmedian line
present but not prominent. Hindwing with single ocellus in cell CuA,-CuA, (rarely absent,
rarely smaller ocelli anteriorly or posteriorly in adjacent cells); submarginal area usually
pale yellow grading into ground color proximally; thin terminal and marginal lines and
broader submarginal line prominent, postmedian line faint to absent; fringes of ground
color, paler or whitish posteriorly on forewing and anteriorly on hindwing.
Ventral surface pale grayish brown (Pale Horn Color to Drab Gray) distally, slightly
darker (Light Drab) proximally sometimes with slight yellowish cast and moderately
striated; forewing with ocelli encircled with pale yellow, this often fusing and set in large
enclosing field, pupils usually with moderate amount of associated blue; all lines weakly
developed. Hindwing with variable number of ocelli (0-6), these never large, center one
of anterior group often elongate when present, almost never fused with ocellus posterior
to it; all lines weakly developed.
TYPES. Holotype 6 NV: Humboldt Co.; Quinn River V., US 95, 3.8 mi. S Orovada,
22 July 1984, leg. G. T. Austin. Allotype 9 same data as holotype. Paratypes (79 3,
83 9) same data as holotype (40 S, 50 9), same location as holotype, 9 July 1989, leg.
G. T. Austin (31 6, 4 9), 24 July 1987, leg. G. & A. Austin (8 6, 29 9).
DEPOSITION OF TYPES. The holotype, allotype and four paratypes are deposited
at the Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. Thirty paratypes are at the
Nevada State Museum, Carson City. The remaining paratypes will be distributed to other
TYPE LOCALITY. NEVADA: Humboldt County; Quinn River Valley, U.S. route 95,
3.8 miles south of Orovada, 1304 m, T42N R37E S15 on USGS Orovada, Nev. 15'
quadrangle. This is a low, somewhat wet, grassy area east of the Quinn River channel
and adjacent to cultivated fields.
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. This taxon is known only from north-central
Humboldt County, Nevada in the Kings River Valley (at and north of the town of Kings
River), Quinn River Valley (from Nevada State Route 140 to McDermitt) and eastward
in the vicinity of Paradise Valley (Fig. 214). Populations in the Alvord Basin at Trout
Creek and near Turn Tur Lake are intermediate towards C. p. stephensi. Records for
the single brood extend from early July through late August.
ETYMOLOGY. The name reflects the relatively poor development of the terminal,
marginal, submarginal and postmedian lines, one of the characteristics of this subspecies.
DIAGNOSIS AND DISCUSSION. This subspecies is most similar to C p. stephensi
which occurs in the drainages to the west of C. p. paucilineatus. It usually has less yellow
on the dorsal surface than C. p. stephensi (especially males), has fewer ocelli on the dorsal
hindwing, the various lines (especially on the ventral surface) are weaker (the postmedian
is sometimes absent), the ventral ground color averages yellower (less whitish), the ventral
striations are less coarse and the ventral hindwing ocelli are smaller (several may be absent
This phenotype has been seen by very few collectors and references to it are lacking
in the literature. It has not been previously illustrated.
Cercyonis pegala utahensis ssp. nov.
Figs. 73, 74, 85, 86, 133-152
MALE. Size = 26.6 (24.8-28.0). Dorsum medium brown (Prout's Brown to Raw Umber,
color 23); forewing ocelli minutely white-pupiled, anterior ocellus smaller than posterior,
both usually narrowly encircled (at least distally) with ill-defined Yellow Ocher; terminal
and marginal lines faint, submarginal line indistinct or absent, stigma with portion below
vein 1A+2A absent or with very few scales. Hindwing with minutely white-pupiled, large
ocellus in cell CuA,-CuA,, flanked anteriorly and usually posteriorly with smaller (often
blind) ocelli, all distinctly to faintly encircled with thin line of Yellow Ocher; terminal
and marginal lines faint, submarginal line moderately developed, all slightly darker than
ground color; fringes of both wings grayish brown, slightly paler than ground color.
Ventral surface near Fawn Color; forewing ocelli much as on dorsum (pupils larger,
frequently with trace of associated blue) encircled broadly with Warm Buff; wing
moderately striated basally, less so distally; postmedian line moderately developed.
Hindwing usually with six ocelli, anteriormost of anterior group rarely absent, smaller
ocelli occasionally blind; central ocellus of anterior group frequently slightly elongated
and/or fused with ocellus immediately posterior to it; entire wing surface moderately
striated; lines weakly developed.
FEMALE. Size = 30.6 (27.5-32.1). Dorsum yellowish brown (near Clay Color to Brussels
Brown); forewing ocelli considerably larger than on male with larger white pupils (rarely
with trace of blue); both ocelli encircled with Yellow Ocher, this color interspersed with
brown scales to form more or less distinct enclosing field; terminal, marginal and
submarginal lines as on male, but more contrasting; postmedian line moderately developed.
Hindwing with ocellus in CuA,-CuA, as on male but larger, flanked similarly with smaller
ocelli and all encircled with Yellow Ocher; submarginal area Yellow Ocher grading into
ground color proximally; terminal, marginal and submarginal lines as on male but more
contrasting; postmedian line weakly developed anteriorly; fringes as on male.
Ventral forewing ground color pale (Drab Gray) occasionally with yellowish cast (near
Cream Color), more whitish at apex; ocelli as on dorsum but pupils larger and nearly always
with slight to extensive bluish color distally (at least posterior one); wing moderately
striated basally, less so distally; outer lines weakly developed; postmedian line moderately
developed. Hindwing ground color as forewing or whiter; marked as on male, all ocelli
usually present and pupils larger, those of the largest ocelli occasionally with distal bluish,
central ocellus of anterior group usually oval and frequently fused with ocellus posterior
TYPES. Holotype 6 UT: Utah Co.; Benjamin, 6 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin. Allotype
9 same data as holotype. Paratypes (125 6, 56 9, all UT: Utah Co.) same data as
holotype (2 6, 2 9), same location as holotype, 4 June 1979, leg. J. M. Johnson (16), 25
June 1979, leg. J. M. Johnson (1 6), 28 June 1989, leg. J. M. Johnson (5 6, 2 9), 4 July
1989, leg. J. M. Johnson (4 6, 19), 6 July 1981, leg. J. M. Johnson (16), 6 July 1981,
leg. F. & J. Preston (13 8, 3 9), 6 July 1989, leg. J. M. Johnson (2 6, 2 9), 9 July 1984,
leg. J. M. Johnson (1 8), 10 July 1985, leg. J. M. Johnson (11 6, 19), Spanish Fork River,
between Leland and Benjamin, 6 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin (17 6, 49), 6 July 1989,
leg. J. M. Johnson (14 6, 4 9), Spanish Fork River, Leland, 5 July 1989, leg. P. J. Savage
(5 6, 4 9), 2 mi. S Payson, 6 July 1989, leg. J. M. Johnson (16), U.S. 6, 2.4 mi. E Goshen,
7 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin (3 6, 1 9), Ut. 73, 3.5 mi. W 1-15, west of Lehi, 15 July
1988, leg. G. & A. Austin (5 3, 4 9), Jordan R., St. Hwy. 73, W of Lehi, 9 July 1981, leg.
F. & J. Preston (3 6), same location, 10 July 1981, leg. F. & J. Preston (5 8, 17 9), E side
Lehi at freeway entrance, 4 July 1982, leg. P. Savage (16, 19), 5750W, S of American
Fork, just SW of 1-15, 5 July 1989, leg. P. J. Savage (14 6, 6 9), Vineyard, 8 July 1915,
leg. T. Spalding (19), 20 July 1908, leg. T. Spalding (1 8), 4 Aug. 1908, leg. T. Spalding
(19), 3 Aug. 1909, leg. T. Spalding (19), 27 July 1917, leg. ? (1 ), 6 July 1908, leg. T.
Spalding (46), 11 July 1923, leg. ? (26), 19 July 1917, leg. ? (16), 21 July 1917, leg. ?
(1 ), 22 July 1917, leg. ? (36), Provo, 16 July 1917, leg. ? (16, 19), 17 July 1917, leg.
? (16), 29 July 1912, leg. T. Spalding (16).
DEPOSITION OF TYPES. The holotype, allotype and six paratypes are deposited
at the Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. The remaining paratypes will
be distributed to other collections.
TYPE LOCALITY. UTAH: Utah County; Benjamin, vicinity of 7300S at 2610W, 1390
m, on the farm of Joel M. Johnson of Payson, Utah. Types were taken here in a grassy
area along a small stream, in an orchard and in a grassy field. This taxon also flies in
tall grass and among willows along river channels. All types are from areas in the vicinity
of Utah Lake.
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. This taxon occurs in northcentral Utah from
Mona (Juab County) and Goshen (Utah County) north to the Idaho line near Portage (Box
Elder County, Fig. 214). Records for the single brood extend from early June through
ETYMOLOGY. C p. utahensis is named after the state of Utah, its type locality and
total known distribution.
DIAGNOSIS AND DISCUSSION. C. p. utahensis is like C. p. stephensi but the male
has much less dorsal yellow (the dorsal color of the female is very similar), the ventral
surface is less pale, the postmedian line is weakly developed, the ocelli on both surfaces
are generally larger, and the striations are less course. The dorsal hindwing ocelli flanking
the one in cell CuA,-CuA, are present more often and average larger than on the other
Great Basin C pegala The stigma of the male is unique in that the lower element is obsolete
or lacking. Other Great Basin C. pegala have a distinct, usually bar-shaped, portion of
the stigma beneath vein 1A+2A. North of the type locality and east of the Great Salt
Lake, both sexes tend to have more spots on the dorsal hindwing and the ocelli average
The Utah populations of C. pegala included here have previously been referred to C.
p. ariane by Comstock (1927) and Tilden and Smith (1986) or to C. p. gabbii (as a form
of C. p. ariane or as a subspecies) by Emmel (1969, in Howe 1975), Emmel and Mattoon
(1972), Holland (1931) and Scott (1986). This phenotype was illustrated by Holland (1931)
as C gabbi.
Cercyonis pegala pluvialis ssp. nov.
Figs. 75, 76, 87, 88, 153-172
MALE. Size = 27.7 (26.4-29.0). Dorsum brown (Hair Brown to Raw Umber, color 223);
forewing ocelli with small white pupils (occasionally with trace of blue), posterior ocellus
same size to larger than anterior; both outlined narrowly with yellowish (Warm Buff),
this sometimes incomplete proximally, especially around posterior ocellus; ocelli set in
field slightly paler than ground color; thin terminal and marginal lines, broader submarginal
line and broad postmedian bar near end of discal cell darker than ground color; prominent
stigma of same darker color; fringe whitish posteriorly, ground color anteriorly. Hindwing
with black, white-pupiled ocellus in cell CuA1-CuA,, often flanked on either side with small
to minute (often blind) ocelli (sometimes one in cell M,-M3), outlined with yellow as on
forewing but very narrowly; terminal and marginal lines very dark brown as is prominent
submarginal line; faint postmedian line anteriorly on some specimens; fringes ground color,
Ventral surface pale grayish-brown (Drab Gray to Light Drab); forewing ocelli of nearly
same size as on dorsum with larger pupils (frequently with trace to moderate amount
of associated blue), encircled moderately with Warm Buff, then brown, the yellow areas
not fusing; field about ocelli very lightly striated, remainder of wing very heavily striated
with dark brown; postmedian line prominent as are terminal, marginal and submarginal
lines. Hindwing heavily striated with dark brown; six yellow-encircled, black submarginal
ocelli with white pupils; central ocellus of anterior group often somewhat elongate and
occasionally fused with posterior ocellus of group; terminal and marginal lines distinct,
submarginal and postmedian lines present but not strong.
FEMALE. Size = 30.7 (29.3-32.0). Dorsum pale brown (Brussels Brown to Fawn Color);
forewing with considerably larger ocelli than male, posterior invariably larger than anterior,
white pupils moderately-sized, that of posterior ocellus usually showing some blue distally;
ocelli outlined with Trogon Yellow, this color mixed with brown to form an enclosing field
and often extending to outer margin along veins; lines as on male but more prominent.
Hindwing ocelli as on male; largest usually with trace of blue associated with pupil; area
distal to postmedian line paler than base (mottled yellowish to whitish brown due to ventral
striations); lines as on male but more prominent; fringes of both wings pale brownish,
whitish posteriorly on forewing and anteriorly on hindwing, indistinctly checkered at vein
Ventral surface very pale, nearly whitish, gray-brown (Drab Gray or paler); area distal
to postmedian line tending slightly paler than basal area; both wings heavily striated
basally, moderately distally; forewing ocelli larger than on male with large white pupils,
these with trace to extensive bluish distally; both ocelli encircled broadly with Trogon
Yellow, this yellow often fused; lines as on male. Hindwing ocelli smaller than on male,
smaller ones occasionally unpupiled; one or more ocelli (especially of anterior group) may
be obsolete or absent, these often oval when present but not fused; lines as on male.
TYPES. Holotype 5 NV: White Pine Co.; White River Valley, 1 mi. N Nye Co. line,
15 July 1984, leg. G. T. Austin. Allotype 9 same data as holotype. Paratypes (74 8,
28 9) same data as holotype (43 6, 19 9), same location as holotype, 12 July 1986, leg.
G. & A. Austin (24 69), 15 July 1989 leg. G. T. Austin (7 39).
DEPOSITION OF TYPES. The holotype, allotype and four paratypes are deposited
at the Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. Twelve paratypes are deposited
at the Nevada State Museum, Carson City. The remaining paratypes will be distributed
to other collections.
TYPE LOCALITY: NEVADA: White Pine County; White River Valley, 1 mile north
of Nye County line, 1676 m, T10N R61E S11 on USGS Moorman Spring NE, Nev. 7.5'
quadrangle. This is a narrow marshy area in the channel of the pluvial White River. Both
sexes visit the yellow flowers of composites (Asteraceae) for nectar. Males patrol grassy
areas where females perch near the bases of large grass clumps or small shrubs.
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. To date, this subspecies is known from the
type locality, in the White River channel southward to extreme northern Nye County,
Nevada; at Geysers Ranch in extreme northern Lake Valley, Lincoln County, Nevada;
in southern Steptoe Valley (Warm Springs south to the vicinity of Comins Lake), White
Pine County, Nevada, along Duck Creek, White Pine County, Nevada and along Deep
Creek in the vicinity of Ibapah, Tooele County, Utah (Fig. 214). The first two locations
are the only known populations of C. pegala from the Colorado River drainage west of
The single brood has been recorded from early July to late August.
ETYMOLOGY. As with many of the Great Basin C pegala, this phenotype is a relict
of the last pluvial period, hence the name.
DIAGNOSIS AND DISCUSSION. C. p. pluvialis is like C. p. stephensi but has less
yellow on the dorsum, the postmedian line on the dorsal forewing is better developed,
females have more persistent blue associated with pupils of the ventral forewing ocelli,
fewer ocelli on the dorsal hindwing and smaller ventral hindwing ocelli (some of these
are often absent), the striations on the ventral surface are coarser on both sexes and rather
strong indications of ventral striations on the dorsum of the female hindwing (this also
occurs on other taxa of the species but is less apparent). Males have less yellow associated
with the dorsal ocelli than C. p. carsonensis but more than on C. p. utahensis. Females
tend to have less yellow on the dorsal hindwing than any of the above Great Basin
subspecies except C. p. gabbii. None of these other subspecies have the dorsal postmedian
lines as well marked nor the indications of the ventral striations on the dorsal hindwing
of the female.
The populations in Steptoe Valley and at Ibapah are phenotypically closest to this taxon
and are so included. They, however, have fewer ocelli on the dorsal hindwing, less bold
striations, and females have fewer ocelli on the ventral hindwing. This may be the result
of some influence from populations to the north which will be described later.
This phenotype has not, heretofore, been mentioned or illustrated in the literature.
Cercyonis pegala boopis (Behr)
Figs. 5-8, 13-16
DIAGNOSIS. Size 6 = 26.5 (25.0-27.6, N = 5), size 9 = 29.1 (27.2-31.0, N = 5) (sample
from Contra Costa County, California). This is a relatively dark (male Prout's Brown;
female Brussels Brown) butterfly with a strongly bicolored ventral hindwing (male Fawn
Color to Cinnamon Brown; female Light Drab to Fawn Color) with fine striations and
few or no ocelli on either hindwing surface. Males have only a faint hint of yellow associated
with the dorsal forewing ocelli; females have a diffuse yellow-brown field about these,
this only slightly paler than the ground color.
DISTRIBUTION. The details of the distribution of C. p. boopis await a thorough
examination of the C. pegala of the Pacific States. The name does not apply to any Great
Basin population of the species nor probably to anything very far east of the Pacific Coast.
DISCUSSION. The name Satyrus boopis, like S. ariane, has been applied to a wide
range of phenotypes, from the dark butterfly with a strongly bicolored and often
unocellated ventral hindwing occurring in coastal California to a somewhat paler phenotype
with a slightly bicolored and weakly ocellated ventral hindwing flying in Oregon to the
large and relatively pale phenotypes in northern Arizona. Such a range of sins can be
appreciated by consulting almost any book treating western North American butterflies
(Brown et at 1957, Comstock 1927, Dornfield 1980, Ferris and Brown 1981, Holland 1931,
Howe 1975, Tilden and Smith 1986). I restrict the name Satyrus boopis to the first-
mentioned phenotype above, the key recorded in Behr's (1864) reference to the bicolored
wing ("Alae subtusdimidiatae pars radicalis brunnea, marginalis grisae, marginem versus
brunnescens") and the type locality of "Contra Costa". The type was lost in the San
Francisco earthquake and fire in 1906 (Brown 1965). A neotype will be designated by
Emmel et al. (in press b).
Many so-called C. p. boopis are illustrated in various books. The female illustrated by
Tilden and Smith (1986) is typical of Behr's (1864) original concept.
Cercyonis pegala paludum ssp. nov.
Figs. 77, 78, 89, 90, 173-192
MALE. Size = 25.2 (24.2-25.9). Dorsum dark brown (Prout's Brown to Raw Umber,
color 223); forewing with relatively small ocelli, posterior larger than anterior, indistinctly
encircled with paler area of mixed brown and yellow scales; terminal and marginal lines
thin, faint to obsolete; submarginal line broader but faint; postmedian line absent; fringes
grayish brown, paler posteriorly. Hindwing usually with single, relatively small, usually
white-pupiled ocellus in cell CuAi-CuA2, rarely flanked with black dots in adjacent cells;
ocellus indistinctly outlined with narrow area of mixed yellow and brown scales; lines
as on forewing; fringes grayish brown, paler anteriorly.
Ventral surface pale brownish gray (Drab to Dark Drab); forewing ocelli as on dorsum,
distinctly and narrowly outlined with Warm Buff and then medium brown, pupils larger
than on dorsum, these infrequently with trace of blue; basal portion of wing rather weakly
striated, striations nearly absent distally; terminal, marginal and submarginal lines
distinct, dark brown; postmedian line broader and distinct. Hindwing usually with
indications of six small ocelli, central one of each group most persistent, sometimes
elongate anteriorly but not fused, all narrowly outlined with yellowish; ocelli usually pupiled
(not when very small); striations thin over entire wing; lines as on forewing.
FEMALE. Size = 27.2 (26.0-29.2). Dorsum pale brown (Fawn Color to Prout's Brown);
forewing with moderately-sized ocelli, these outlined with Warm Buff, this color then
interspersed with brown scales to form yellow-brown submarginal field slightly paler than
ground color, the yellow occasionally extends along veins distally, pupils rarely with trace
of blue; lines as on male. Hindwing with ocellus in CuAi-CuA, small to obsolete, often
blind and vaguely outlined with yellowish, rarely additional adjacent dark spot;
submarginal area with some yellow scales distally often creating vague yellowish field;
lines as on forewing, submarginal more prominent; faint postmedian line anteriorly; fringes
of both wings near ground color, lightly checkered at vein tips.
Ventral surface pale brownish gray (Light Drab to Drab), sometimes grayer (even
whitish) distally on hindwing; forewing ocelli as on dorsum, pupils larger with trace to
moderate bluish distally; ocelli outlined broadly with Warm Buff, then brownish, these
outlines often fused between ocelli; lines and striations as on male. Hindwing without
or with some small (rarely oval) ocelli, the one in cell CuAi-CuA, most persistent and usually
pupiled, others often unpupiled; striations and lines as on male.
TYPES. Holotype 6 NV: Elko Co.; Pleasant Valley, Nv 227,3.7 mi. W Lamoille Canyon
Rd., 21 July 1984, leg. G. T. Austin. Allotype 9 same data as holotype. Paratypes (60 6,
37 9, all NV: Elko Co.; Pleasant Valley, Nv 227) same data as holotype (18 8, 5 9), 4
mi. W Lamoille Canyon turnoff, 15 July 1986, leg. C. Hageman (10 6, 79), 0.9 mi. W
Lamoille Canyon Rd., 15 July 1986, leg. G. & A. Austin (9 49), 3.9 mi. W Lamoille
Canyon Rd., 15 July 1986, leg. G. & A. Austin (9(, 39), 4.6 mi. W Lamoille Canyon
Rd., 29 July 1988, leg. G. T. Austin (14 6, 189).
DEPOSITION OF TYPES. The holotype, allotype and four paratypes are deposited
at the Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. Eighteen paratypes are deposited
at the Nevada State Museum, Carson City. The remaining paratypes will be distributed
to other collections.
TYPE LOCALITY. NEVADA: Elko County; Pleasant Valley, Nevada State Route 227,
3.7-4.0 miles west of Lamoille Canyon Road, 1719 m, T33N R57E S21 on USGS Lee, Nev.
15' quadrangle. The area is a wet grassy meadow along a stream lined with willows.
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. This phenotype occurs in the Humboldt River
drainage (along the Humboldt River from north of Lovelock, Pershing County, Nevada,
to northeast of Elko, Elko County, Nevada, including many of its upriver tributaries);
Salmon Falls Creek, Elko County, Nevada, northward and eastward into at least southern
Idaho and northwestern Utah and south into Clover, Butte, Ruby, Newark and northern
Steptoe valleys, Elko and White Pine counties, Nevada (Fig. 214). The single brood flies
from early June to early September.
ETYMOLOGY. The word "paludum" refers to "swamps or marshes," the habitat of
this and other taxa of the species.
DIAGNOSIS AND DISCUSSION. C. p. paludum differs from the foregoing Great Basin
phenotypes of the species in several respects: the forewing ocelli are smaller, the dorsal
hindwing has only one small ocellus (occasionally none), the male nearly lacks distinct
yellow on the dorsum, the postmedian line is not evident on the dorsal surface, the yellow
about the dorsal forewing ocelli of the female is faint and does not form an obvious field,
the ventral surface is darker and with finer striations, the various lines on the ventral
surface (including the postmedian) are weakly developed and there is little yellow flush
associated with the ventral forewing ocelli. The ventral hindwing ocelli of males are small;
those of females are small or absent. Comparisons with phenotypes outside of the Great
Basin will be made under the following taxon.
This taxon has not previously been recognized or illustrated.
Cercyonis pegala walkerensis ssp. nov.
Figs. 79, 80, 91, 92, 193-212
MALE. Size 24.7 (23.8-25.7). Dorsum brown (Prout's Brown to Vandyke Brown, color
121); forewing with relatively small, white-pupiled ocelli, posterior slightly larger than
anterior, encircled (often indistinct) with paler area of mixed brown and yellow scales;
terminal, marginal and submarginal lines very faint or absent, postmedian line absent;
fringe gray-brown, slightly paler than ground color. Hindwing usually with single small
ocellus in cell CuA,-CuA,, vaguely or not encircled with yellowish, pinpoint white pupil;
lines as on forewing, fringe as on forewing.
Ventral surface pale brown (Brussels Brown to Hair Brown); forewing ocelli as on
dorsum, narrowly but distinctly encircled with Warm Buff and then indistinctly with
brown, pupils larger than on dorsum, infrequently with trace of blue; both wings finely
striated with brown, heaviest basally (often imparting a slight two-toned aspect), striations
nearly absent in area around forewing ocelli; terminal, marginal and submarginal lines
dark brown, relatively indistinct; postmedian line present, complete, usually not distinct,
especially on hindwing; hindwing generally with at least indications of six ocelli, central
one of each group largest, usually with small white pupils; other ocelli smaller, pupiled
or not, ocelli not fused, occasionally oval, all outlined with yellowish and then brown.
FEMALE. Size = 26.8 (26.0-28.2). Dorsum pale brown (Cinnamon Brown to Natal
Brown); forewing with moderately-sized ocelli, these outlined with Warm Buff, this color
often interspersed with brown scales to form faint yellow-brown field surrounding ocelli,
occasionally extended along veins distally, pupils occasionally with trace of blue; lines
as on male. Hindwing with ocellus in cell CuAi-CuA., small, usually indistinct, often absent,
with or without white, pinpoint pupil and usually outlined with yellowish; submargin often
with light dusting of yellowish scales anteriorly; terminal and marginal lines faint,
submarginal line relatively broad and distinct, postmedian line occasionally vaguely
represented; fringes of both wings grayish, faintly checked at vein tips with brown.
Ventral surface pale brown (Fawn Color to Cinnamon Brown), usually darker basally;
forewing ocelli as on dorsum, pupils larger, nearly all with bluish distally; ocelli outlined
broadly with yellow (Cream Color to Warm Buff) and then faintly with brown, the yellow
occasionally fused between ocelli; striations as on male. Hindwing usually with two or
fewer round ocelli, most persistent in cell CuAj-CuA2 and one posterior to it; striations
and lines as on male.
TYPES. Holotype 6 CA: Mono Co.; Huntoon Valley, Swanger Creek, U.S. 395, 5.4
mi. NW Bridgeport, Huntoon Camp, 23 July 1989, leg. G. & A. Austin. Allotype 9 -
same data as holotype. Paratypes (70 6, 24 9; all CA: Mono Co.; Huntoon Valley) same
data as holotype (13 8, 7 9), same location as holotype, 13 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin
(19 6), 24 July 1989, leg. G. & A. Austin (18 6, 5 9), U.S. 395, Upper Huntoon Valley,
8.1 mi. NW of Bridgeport, 5 August 1979, leg. D. Mullins (9 6, 9 9), U.S. 395, Huntoon
Camp, Swanger Creek, 29 July 1978, leg. C. Hageman (116, 39).
DEPOSITION OF TYPES. The holotype, allotype and two paratypes are at the Allyn
Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. Two paratypes are at the Nevada State
Museum, Carson City. The remaining paratypes will be distributed to other collections.
TYPE LOCALITY. CALIFORNIA: Mono County; Huntoon Valley, Swanger Creek,
U.S. highway 395, Huntoon Camp, 5.4 road miles northwest of Bridgeport, 2048 m on
USGS Fales Hot Springs, Calif. Nev. 15' quadrangle. This is a damp to grassy area
along a creek lined with willows. Males patrol along the edges of willows and among the
grasses, especially a tall bunch grass. Females fly little but perch, mainly in the shade,
at the bases of willows, sagebrush and tall grass clumps and in rose thickets.
DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY. This subspecies is known from the north end
of the Mono Lake Basin (Mono County, California) and the East Walker River drainage
(Mono County, California; southern Lyon and extreme western Mineral counties, Nevada,
Fig. 214). Records extend from early July to late August.
ETYMOLOGY. The name refers to the Walker River drainage in which most of the
taxon's distribution occurs.
DIAGNOSIS AND DISCUSSION. C. p. walkerensis is most similar to C. p. paludum
of the northeastern Great Basin. C. p. walkerensis is slightly smaller in size and the
forewing appears squarer (less highly arched costa, straighter outer margin). The lines
on the dorsum are fainter on C. p. walkerensis, the ocelli average smaller and, on the female,
are less distinctly outlined with yellowish. The ventral surface is browner and less gray
than C. p. paludum, the female appears more distinctly two-toned on the hindwing, and
the striations are thinner. The ocelli, especially of the males, average smaller.
The dorsum of C p. walkerensis is very similar to C p. boopis but the latter usually
lacks ocelli on the dorsal hindwing and has narrower yellow around the forewing ocelli.
C. p. paludum is grayer than C. p. boopis and has much larger forewing ocelli. The venter
of C. p. walkerensis is paler than that of C. p. boopis with a less pronounced two-toned
aspect on the hindwing but the fine striations are similar. C p. paludum is paler and grayer
with somewhat coarser striations and with an even less distinctly bicolored ventral
hindwing. Males and often females of C p. walkerensis and, especially, C. p. paludum
usually have ventral hindwing ocelli; these are nearly always absent on C p. boopis.
C. p. walkerensis has not been previously recognized or illustrated.
A number of populations occur in the Great Basin that are intermediate phenotypically
and geographically with those discussed above. These are briefly characterized and
Red Rock Population
In the Red Rock Valley, north of Reno, Washoe County, Nevada, is a population which
appears intermediate between C p. carsonensis and C. p. ariane. Males are large (size
= 25.8 [24.7-27.3]) like C p. carsonensis but are dark brown on the dorsum and have the
smaller and unmargined forewing ocelli of C. p. ariane. The ventral surface is intermediate
in color between these two taxa, the forewing ocelli are as on C. p. ariane, the hindwing
ocelli are intermediate in size (but usually all present and may be elongate as on C p.
carsonensis), and the striations are coarse as on C. p. carsonensis. Females are also the
size (28.4 [27.2-29.9]) of C p. carsonensis. Their dorsal surface has intermediate color, ocelli
and extent of yellow. The ventral surface is like C. p. carsonensis but with hindwing ocelli
similar to those of C p. ariane or slightly better developed yet rarely approaching the
size of those typical of C. p. carsonensis.
Honey Lake Population
Three males from the north shore of Honey Lake, Lassen County, California, have a
"gabbii" group aspect (relatively large size, coarse striations, complete set of large ventral
hindwing ocelli), but the ventral surface is dark, possibly indicating influence from C.
p. ariane to the west. I have not seen the material (leg. C. Callahan) from just east of
Honey Lake near Flanigan, Washoe County, Nevada, nor have I been able to relocate
that colony. This is probably of the same phenotype.
A population at 19-24 km south of Ravendale, Lassen County, California, appears
intermediate between C. p. gabbii and C. p. stephensi. Both sexes resemble C p. gabbii
in size ( = 25.6 [24.4-26.2], 9 = 28.8 [27.8-29.8]), dorsal color and ocelli but the various
lines are more prominent as on C. p. stephensi. The ocelli of females are enclosed in a
somewhat more extensive yellow field than on C p. gabbii but less extensive than is typical
of C. p. stephensi. The ventral color varies from very pale as on C. p. stephensi to the
brownish of C. p. gabbii. The striations and lines are bold, nearest those of C p. stephensi.
The ocelli of the ventral hindwing of males are similar to those on C. p. gabbii; the ocelli
of females are more persistent than on C. p. gabbii, but smaller than on C. p. stephensi.
Squaw Creek Population
This population, from west of the Granite Mountains along Squaw Creek, Washoe
County, Nevada, is very similar to the Ravendale population, appearing intermediate
between C. p. stephensi and C. p. gabbii.
Crump Lake Population
Newcomer (1965) noted that the Crump Lake (Lake County, Oregon) populations of
C. pegala contained fewer females of the "stephensi form" than other populations he
sampled. This population is indeed darker than typical C. p. stephensi and appears to
be intermediate towards the central Oregon phenotype of C. pegala in other characters,
also. Both sexes have fewer ocelli (usually one) on the dorsal hindwing, females average
fewer ventral hindwing ocelli, there is no fusion of the ventral hindwing ocelli (1 of 51
specimens), and the ocelli are more often round than oval. The ventral color, however,
is nearly as pale, the striations are nearly as coarse, and the ocelli are nearly as large
as on C p. stephensi
Alvord and Harney Basin Populations
Populations of the central Alvord drainage, from just west of Denio Junction, Humboldt
County, Nevada and in the Tum Tum Lake and Trout Creek region, Harney County,
Oregon, are intermediate between C. p. stephensi and C. p. paucilineatus. The dorsum
of the male is darker with less yellow than C p. stephensi and resembles C p. paucilineatus.
The dorsum of the female ranges from the phenotype of C. p. stephensi to one that is
darker with few hindwing ocelli. The ventral surfaces of both sexes are most like C. p.
paucilineatus, but with more prominent lines and coarser striations, like C. p. stephensi.
At Frenchglen, Harney County, Oregon, and northward to Burns, both sexes are darker
above and browner (less gray-brown) and the ventral surface is darker and browner than
either C. p. paucilineatus or C. p. stephensi. These appear intermediate towards the
phenotype from further north in Oregon (see plate 10 in Dornfeld 1980). The population
in the southwestern Alvord Basin (Thousand Creek drainage) is typical C. p. stephensi.
In the northcentral Utah and southeastern Idaho area, there is a rather abrupt transition
from C. p. utahensis to a phenotype near C. p. paludum. Typical C. p. utahensis occurs
near Wellsville, Cache County, Utah. At 27 km south of the Idaho state line along highway
I-15/U.S. 89, Box Elder County, Utah, occur individuals of fairly typical C p. utahensis
and others (females) on which the anterior ocelli on the ventral hindwing are reduced in
size or absent. A similar phenotype to the latter flies near Portage, Box Elder County,
Utah, and in Richmond and High Creek canyons, Cache County, Utah. Near Malad City,
Oneida County, Idaho, and near the Oneida Power Plant, Bear River, Franklin County,
Idaho, the females usually have one or two ventral hindwing ocelli and those of males
are also reduced in size and number. There is a parallel transition from coarse to fine
striations on the venter and in the amount of dorsal yellow on females (a few of the Idaho
females still have the extensive yellow of C. p. utahensis). This Idaho material has a darker
ventral ground color than either C p. paludum or C. p. utahensis, thus apparently showing
some intergradation with the darker phenotypes occurring to the north and east (including
Cercyonis pegala ino Hall).
Beowawe Geysers Population
The C pegala population in the marsh at the outflow of Beowawe Geysers (15 km S
of the Humboldt River on the Eureka-Lander County line, Nevada) has a phenotype
appearing intermediate between C paludum and one of the coarsely striated phenotypes
with large ocelli. The dorsal surface is rather typical (little yellow, usually small or absent
hindwing ocellus) of C. p. paludum. The ventral surface, however, is paler (especially males),
and has coarser striations and bolder postmedian lines than C. p. paludum. The ventral
hindwing ocelli (especially of males) are often larger than is typical of C. p. paludum and
more often all are present. This surface resembles that of C p. pluvialis. Populations of
C. pegala just to the north from adjacent to the Humboldt River do not have this aspect
and are typical C. p. paludum.
In the Great Basin, C pegala has, at first glance, a series of seemingly anomalous
assortments of phenotypic characters. In color, adults are both pale and dark. Their
striations are bold or rather weak. The ocelli of the ventral hindwing are either large or
small to absent. The phenotypes, however, do fall into two recognizable groups (Tables
The first (the "gabbii" group) includes C. p. gabbii, C. p. stephensi C. p. carsonensis,
C p. wheeler C p. paucilineatus, C p. utahensis and C p. pluvialis. This group is generally
characterized by large forewing ocelli, large and persistent ocelli on the dorsal hindwing
(very often 2 or more), relatively large and persistent ventral hindwing ocelli (these nearly
always pupiled, often fused, often oval), coarse ventral striations (one but often two to
three scale rows in width, often uninterrupted across the wing cells), pale ventral ground
color, indications on females of a yellow field around the dorsal forewing ocelli, and a
yellowish flush in the ocellar area on the ventral forewing.
The second group including C p. paludum and C p. walkerensis (the "paludum" group)
is characterized by smaller forewing ocelli, small or absent dorsal hindwing ocelli (usually
1 or none), smaller or absent ventral hindwing ocelli (less often pupiled, not fused and
uncommonly oval), fine striations (one or rarely two scale rows in width and often
incompletely across wing cells and with scattered pale scales among the dark scales), and
little yellow associated with the forewing ocelli.
This pattern of differentiation suggests that at least two separate groups of C. pegala
populated the Great Basin and subsequently were subjected to range constrictions and
isolations. Certain dispersals within the Great Basin can be traced with some degree of
confidence. The following scenario is one possibility and is tentative pending studies of
other populations from outside the Great Basin.
In any discussion of Great Basin biogeography (as elsewhere), it is necessary to be
cognizant of Pleistocene and subsequent events. The distributional patterns of Cercyonis
pegala phenotypes in the Great Basin can be accounted for within the context of that
history for this area and adjacent regions. The major features of the post-Pleistocene in
the Great Basin involve a drying climate with a concomitant shrinking of the huge, more-
or-less contemporaneous, pluvial lakes which occupied the Great Basin valleys (Fig. 213).
This led to the increasing isolation of the wet areas in the various basins as their aquatic
connections disappeared. The potential for gene flow obviously decreased between
populations of biota in these basins. This effectively allowed differentiation in isolation,
potentially enhanced by genetic drift and founder effects.
TABLE 2. Characteristics of Great Basin Cercyonis pegala/1.
mean #(range) mean #(range) % VHW ocelli % with VHW % with VHW % with blue
Taxon DHW ocelli VHW ocelli with pupils ocelli fused ocelli oval in VFW ocelli/2
male female male female male female male female male female male female
C. p. gabbii 1.59 1.42 5.88 4.95 95.4 87.3 10.0 0.0 44.0 42.1 10 75
(1-3) (1-3) (5-6) (2-6)
C. p. stephensi 3.02 2.93 6.00 6.00 98.2 96.7 47.0 53.3 57.6 73.3 35 40
C. p. paucilineatus 1.71 1.35 5.99 5.00 96.8 84.6 11.7 1.6 64.0 49.6 30 80
(1-4) (1-3) (5-6) (0-6)
C. p. utahensis 2.98 3.09 5.84 5.94 90.4 95.1 56.8 60.0 63.4 83.9 75 95
(1-4) (2-4) (5-6) (5-6)
C. p. carsonensis 2.00 1.99 6.00 5.86 94.0 92.8 56.3 39.3 73.8 80.9 30 40
(1-4) (1-4) (3-6)
C p. pluvialis 2.44 2.23 6.00 5.88 100.0 91.5 10.0 0.0 62.9 80.8 75 100
(1-4) (1-3) (5-6)
C. p. wheeler 2 3 6 6 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 100
C. p. walkerensis 1.08 0.59 5.08 1.52 75.2 69.1 0.0 0.0 18.0 0.0 25 95
(1-2) (0-1) (2-6) (0-6)
C. p. paludum 1.28 0.90 5.26 2.45 82.7 51.4 0.0 0.0 32.3 9.7 30 100
(1-3) (0-2) (1-6) (0-6)
1/ data are from types and topotypes, sample sizes for all except the final character are as follows: C. p. gabbii 496, 199; C p. stephensi -
66 159; C. p. paucilineatus 112 1289; C. p. utahensis 80 319; C. p. carsonensis 1816, 1849; C. p. pluvialis 70 269; C. p.
wheeler 1 1 9; C. p. walkerensis 61 6, 22 9; C p. paludum 65 8, 319.
2/ N = 20 except for C. p. stephensi 10 9; C. p. wheeler 16, 19.
For the following discussion, the various drainages of the Great Basin and surrounding
areas are grouped into drainage units as established by Smith (1978), who based them
on physiography and distributions of the Great Basin fish fauna. The geological framework
was established with investigations begun in the late nineteenth century (e.g., Gilbert
1882, 1890; Russell 1883, 1885, 1889) and later summarized and correlated with probable
pluvial connections and fish distributions (e.g., Hubbs and Miller 1948, Hubbs et al 1974,
Mifflin and Wheat 1979, Miller 1946).
Throughout the following discussion, the presence or absence of hydrographic
connections between drainage basins since the end of the Pleistocene is emphasized. While
the absence of hydrographic connections obviously is not the absolute barrier to Cercyonis
butterflies that they would be with fish, the presence of connections with associated paludal
habitats undoubtedly would have facilitated dispersal of Cercyonis pegala. Additionally,
shortest distances between possible suitable habitats in the past or between extant colonies
are indicated in certain instances. Shortest distance and the existence of continuous surface
waters are illustrative of probable routes of dispersal, with the recognition that past
movements within and between drainage basins may have been more circuitous in reality.
The most clearly distinguishable and unique C. pegala taxa are of the "gabbii" group.
These occur as rather isolated populations, generally on the fringes of the Great Basin
(Fig. 214). As will be noted in Table 4 and the discussions below, the taxa of the "gabbii"
group are now (or recently were) found in eight of the nine drainage units (absent from
the Snake) outlined by Smith (1978). This pattern strongly suggests a widespread
distribution in the Great Basin during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. These
populations may have been part of a lake shore marsh community. As pluvial lakes dried,
their various basins became increasingly isolated from each other and adjacent drainage
basins. Eventually, wet areas remained only at sumps, along larger tributaries and at
springs. Many of the extant C pegala populations occur in wet areas remaining at the
margins of these extinct lakes (Figs. 213, 214: note, however, that much of the current
Great Basin marsh habitat also occurs in these same places but that the "gabbii" group
phenotypes rarely occur along the Great Basin rivers that have persisted since the last
pluvial. The lower portions of these rivers were submerged beneath the pluvial lakes.).
The peripheral and disjunct occurrence with little apparent intergradation of these taxa
in the Great Basin also argues for an old lake shore fauna hypothesis; these were left
behind and increasingly isolated into remaining wet areas as the lakes dried. What we
see today is the differentiated remnants of this previously widespread fauna. This argument
is further strengthened by the physical and biotic characteristics of present-day drainages.
Flow of Great Basin rivers and streams decreases downstream and, often, intermediate
portions disappear while headwaters and sumps persist and may parallel the temporal
pattern of post-pluvial desiccation. This is consistent with the more diverse upstream
butterfly faunas observed in the Great Basin compared with downstream faunas, the
converse of the pattern seen in the Colorado River drainage of southern Nevada (Austin
The following discussion summarizes the distribution of the "gabbii" group of C. pegala
in the Great Basin in relation to hydrogeography, physiography and present-day ecology.
Each "gabbii" group taxon is now narrowly restricted to part of one (or more than one,
closely associated) drainage basin (Table 4; Fig. 214).
C p. wheeler was an isolate in the Owens drainage basin, the northernmost of the Death
Valley drainage unit. This now isolated system undoubtedly (based on its fish fauna) had
early connections with the Colorado River drainage (via troughs to the south and/or east)
and with the Lake Lahontan drainage (via Mono Basin) (Hubbs and Miller 1948; Miller
1946, 1981; Miller and Smith 1981). The phenotype of C. p. wheeler (most similar to C.
p. carsonensis and C p. stephensi) indicates that it is of the "gabbii" group and not closely
related to any of the phenotypes in California west of the Sierra Nevada.
The Lahontan drainage unit includes the huge pluvial Lake Lahontan drainage and
several smaller drainages which had pluvial connections with the Lahontan basin. None
of these smaller drainages have present-day populations of the "gabbii" group (but see
discussion of the Beowawe Geysers population above). The pluvial Lake Lahontan basin,
TABLE 3. Size (mm) of dorsal forewing ocelli and ocellus in cell Cu--Cu, on the dorsal hindwing of Great Basin Cercyonis pegala. (all measurements
are of types or topotypes, N = 10 except for C. p. wheeler where N = 1 for each sex).
Taxon anterior FW posterior FW hindwing anterior FW posterior FW hindwing
ocellus ocellus ocellus ocellus ocellus ocellus
C. p. gabbii 2.8 (2.0-3.1) 3.4 (2.9-4.0) 1.9 (1.5-2.2) 3.8 (2.6-4.7) 4.5 (3.7-5.4) 2.0 (1.0-2.6)
C. p. stephensi 3.3 (2.7-3.8) 4.2 (3.6-4.8) 2.4 (1.8-3.2) 3.9 (3.1-4.4) 4.9 (3.8-6.1) 3.0 (1.9-4.2)
C p. paucilineatus 3.3 (2.6-4.2) 4.2 (3.2-4.8) 2.1 (1.7-2.9) 3.9 (3.3-4.6) 5.1 (4.2-6.2) 2.4 (1.6-3.2)
C p. utahensis 3.0 (2.3-4.1) 4.3 (3.4-5.2) 2.7 (2.2-3.2) 4.2 (3.9-4.7) 5.8 (4.7-6.6) 3.3 (2.8-3.9)
C. p. carsonensis 3.2 (2.8-3.8) 4.2 (3.5-5.2) 2.6 (1.9-3.3) 4.0 (3.0-4.8) 5.0 (4.1-5.9) 2.7 (2.0-3.2)
C. p. pluvialis 3.1 (2.7-3.8) 4.0 (3.4-4.6) 2.0 (1.4-2.7) 4.2 (3.7-5.0) 5.6 (4.6-6.6) 2.2 (1.7-2.9)
C. p. wheeled 2.4 3.1 2.0 3.8 4.8 2.1
C p. walkerensis 2.3 (1.8-2.5) 2.9 (2.2-3.7) 1.1 (0.5-1.5) 3.8 (3.0-4.5) 4.9 (4.0-5.9) 0.5 (0.0-1.3)
C p. paludum 2.7 (1.6-3.2) 3.5 (2.6-4.1) 1.3 (0.9-1.7) 3.9 (3.3-4.2) 5.2 (4.3-6.0) 0.7 (0.0-1.4)
itself, has two taxa (plus several blend populations) of the "gabbii" group, both peripheral,
occurring in association with the upper tributaries of pluvial Lake Lahontan. C. p.
carsonensis occurs in the upper portions of the Carson and Truckee rivers. These rivers
now drain into the Carson Sink and Pyramid Lake, respectively. C. p. carsonensis
apparently does not now occur in the Lake Washoe basin, though geographically located
between populations in the Carson and Truckee river valleys, but it may have occurred
there in the past since this basin had pluvial connections with Lake Lahontan.
A phenotype appearing intermediate between C. p. carsonensis and C. p. ariane from
north of Reno was described above. Populations near C. p. ariane occur 40 to 50 km west
of here in Sierra and Plumas counties, California. This area is in the vicinity of two pluvial
lakes (Lake Laughton, Lake Fred) which evidently had no outlet to pluvial Lake Lahontan
(Hubbs and Miller 1948) but were close enough to that lake for C. pegala to have reached
C. p. paucilineatus occurs in the Quinn River Valley (and along its tributary, the Kings
River) which now disappears into the Black Rock Desert. The Black Rock Desert/Smoke
Creek subbasin of Lake Lahontan became isolated from the southern basin of the lake
sometime between 12,500 and 10,000 years BP (Benson and Thompson 1987b). C. p.
paucilineatus also occurs in the next valley to the east in the drainages (including Big
Cottonwood and Martin creeks) of the northern part of Paradise Valley, these eventually
having outlet to the Humboldt River (via the Little Humboldt River) to the south. The
phenotype of C. p. paucilineatus appears closest to that of C. p. stephensi but with the
ventral striations, lines and hindwing ocelli less well developed. Known populations of
C. p. paucilineatus occur within about 50 km of C p. stephensi today and were undoubtedly
much closer at pluvial maxima. Apparent intermediate populations between these two
taxa in the central Alvord Basin were noted above.
The Oregon Lakes drainage unit is a series of now-isolated basins, mostly in southern
Oregon but entering extreme northeastern California and northwestern Nevada, which
apparently had a diverse history with uncertain pluvial connections (Hubbs and Miller
1948, Snyder et al. 1964). The southernmost of these pluvial lakes, in Surprise Valley,
may have had an early connection with pluvial Lake Lahontan and another with pluvial
Lake Warner. Even with no connections, the southernmost of these basins was adjacent
to the northern arms of pluvial Lake Lahontan (lake shores within 25 km). The Oregon
Lakes are inhabited by their endemic C p. stephensi in at least the Summer Lake, south
of Albert Lake, Warner Lake (blend with a phenotype from further north in Oregon),
Surprise Valley and southern Alvord drainages. At Silver Lake, the phenotype is small
and darker, intermediate towards the populations northwestward (e.g., along the Little
Deschutes River near La Pine, Deschutes County, Oregon). The characteristics of C. p.
stephensi undoubtedly indicate a close relationship to other "gabbii" group taxa.
C. p. gabbii occurs in the Goose Lake drainage unit and in part of the Klamath drainage
unit (this latter set of populations being somewhat intermediate towards a darker
phenotype). Based on its fish fauna, Goose Lake possibly had very early connections with
the Lahontan system, highly debatable later connections with the Klamath system, and
undoubted connections with the Sacramento River system via the Pit River (Hubbs and
Miller 1948, Robins and Miller 1957). The phenotype of C p. gabbii, appearing somewhat
intermediate between those of C p. stephensi and C. p. ariane, reflects this pluvial history.
The Lahontan basin may have been the source of the original C pegala here; the C. p.
ariane influence may have appeared after the Sacramento River connection.
Intermediate populations between C. p. gabbii and C. p. stephensi, as described above,
occur in localities on or near the west shore of pluvial Lake Lahontan at Squaw Creek
and south of Ravendale. It is interesting (perhaps significant) that these occur in Lake
Lahontan drainages. Are these "intermediate phenotypes" representative of early C pegala
in the Great Basin which subsequently differentiated on either side of the Warner
Mountains? C p. stephensi and C p. gabbii also appear to intergrade northward (Tulelake,
Crump Lake) with the darker phenotype(s) occurring in central Oregon.
C. p. utahensis is restricted to the eastern portions of the Bonneville drainage unit in
the Bear River-Weber River and Provo River-Utah Lake-Jordan River drainages. These
TABLE 4. Distribution of Cercyonis pegala taxa among the drainage basins of the
C. pegala populations
Provo River-Utah Lake-Jordan River
Bear River-Weber River
SNAKE RIVER GROUP
Upper Snake River
Middle Snake River
OREGON LAKES GROUP
Clover Independence Valley
Little Humboldt River
Quinn River Kings River
Red Rock Valley
East Walker River
Meadow Valley Wash
C. pegala taxon
C p. utahensis
C. p. utahensis, intermediate towards C.
p. paludum northward
C. p. pluvialis
C. p. paludum
C. p. paludum
C. p. paludum
C. p. paucilineatus(?), intermediate with
C. p. stephensi in south, intermediate
with C. p. paucilineatus northward
C. p. stephensi
C. p. stephensi
C. p. stephensi
C. p. stephensi intermediate
C. p. stephensi intermediate
C p. gabbii
C. p. gabbii intermediate and others
C. p. paludum
C. p. paludum
C p. paludum
C. p. paucilineatus
C. p. paucilineatus
intermediate C. p. stephensi/C. p. gabbii
intermediate C p. stephensi/C p. gabbii
intermediate C. p. gabbii/C. p. ariane(?)
C. p. carsonensis
C. p. carsonensis
intermediate C. p. carsonensis/C. p. ariane
C. p. walkerensis
C. p. paludum
C. p. paludum
C. p. paludum
C p. pluvialis
C p. pluvialis (extreme north only)
C. p. pluvialis (central only)
C p. wheeler
C p. walkerensis
occur in the vicinity of the east shore of the largest pluvial lake of the Great Basin, Lake
Bonneville. The phenotype of C. p. utahensis is most similar to that of C. p. stephensi
and there is little doubt as to its affinities. Lake Bonneville may have had early connections
through headwater transfers with the Lahontan and Colorado drainages (Hubbs and Miller
C p. pluvialis occurs in the Deep Creek drainage of the Bonneville group of drainages,
in the southernmost Ruby drainage unit (southern Steptoe Valley drainage) and in the
northern extensions of the Colorado drainage unit into the Great Basin (upper Meadow
Valley and White River drainages). The Deep Creek drainage was on the west-central
shore of Lake Bonneville. This is within 90 km of a population of C p. pluvialis in Steptoe
Valley. Steptoe Valley was thought to have been occupied by two pluvial lakes, Lake
Steptoe and Lake Waring separated just south of Currie by a narrows; the pluvial
connection of Lake Steptoe was northward into Lake Waring (Hubbs and Miller 1948).
More recent evidence, however, suggested that Lake Steptoe did not exist but that Steptoe
Valley had extensive paludal habitat draining into Lake Waring (Mifflin and Wheat 1979).
The White River Valley is immediately west of the southern end of Steptoe Valley. The
pluvial White River undoubtedly had connections with the Colorado River in southern
Nevada (Hubbs and Miller 1948). Upper Lake Valley was the site of pluvial Lake Carpenter
which probably drained southward via the pluvial Carpenter River, a tributary of the
Colorado River (Hubbs and Miller 1948). The Lake Valley Basin is the second valley east
of the White River Valley (separated by the now dry Cave Valley). The northern end of
Lake Valley is separated by a low pass from Spring Valley, the northern portion of which
lies just east of the southern part of Steptoe Valley. No C. pegala have been found to
date in Spring Valley, yet suitable habitat seems to exist (e.g., the Shoshone, White Pine
County, Nevada area). The distribution of C. p. pluvialis (undoubtedly a "gabbii" group
taxon) is more or less central between that of C. p. utahensis on the eastern edge of the
Great Basin and those of C p. wheeled and C. p. carsonensis in the extreme western Great
Basin. This further supports the theory of a widespread occurrence of this general
phenotype in the pluvial Great Basin.
To some degree, the members of the "gabbii" group resemble (yellow associated with
the ocelli on both surfaces of the forewing, large ocelli on both surfaces of the hindwing,
coarse ventral striations) phenotypes occurring in south-central United States, all currently
assigned to Cercyonis pegala texana (W. H. Edwards). It is not difficult to envision
expansion and subsequent isolation of ancestral "gabbii" group C. pegala in western North
America during interglacial and glacial events of the Pleistocene similar to those outlined
by Mengel (1964). Dispersal westward via a relatively southerly route by an inhabitant
of wet areas was certainly possible. Headwaters of various easterly-flowing river systems
(e.g., Rio Grande, Arkansas) closely approach those of the Colorado River drainage along
the continental divide. The latter, undoubtedly, could have provided a corridor from which
dispersal into the Great Basin was possible. I suggest that this "gabbii" group ancestor
occupied the marshy areas of the Wisconsinan Great Basin or shortly thereafter. It is
1/ C. pegala is unknown (u) or apparently absent (a) from the following basins: Bonneville
Group Snake Valley(a), Sevier(a, a Rocky Mountain phenotype occurs in the upper
Sevier drainage along Otter Creek), Shoal Creek(u); Snake River Group Wood River(u),
Lost River-Cama Creek(u); Oregon Lakes Group Alkali Lake(a), Fort Rock-Christmas
Lake(u), Catlow Valley(u), Long Valley(a); Lahontan Group Diamond Valley(a), Eagle
Lake(a), Madeline Plains(a), Dixie Valley(a), Big Smokey Valley(a), Fish Lake(a), Colorado
Group Railroad Valley(a), Virgin River(a), Las Vegas(a); Death Valley Group -
Mohave(a), Amargosa-Tecopa(a), Pahrump Valley(a). Note that there are additional
valleys, especially in south-central Nevada mostly without permanent water (Hubbs
and Miller 1948) and thus were not treated by Smith (1978). As far as is known, these
all lack C. pegala colonies. There are also many valleys within the major drainages
included above where C. pegala is absent (e.g., Washoe Valley, Reese River Valley,
Pyramid Lake, Walker Lake, etc.)
2/ drainage unit terminology after Smith (1978).
noteworthy that a C. p. texanus-like phenotype occupies the river valleys in New Mexico
while a phenotype similar to that occurring further north in Colorado occurs at middle
elevations of the mountains in the same area (S. Cary, M. Toliver, pers. comm.).
The other Great Basin phenotypes of C. pegala belong to the "paludum" group. These
taxa occur as two relatively undifferentiated phenotypes in a number of drainage basins
from at least southern Idaho, northwestern Utah and northeastern Nevada to east-central
California including parts of five (Bonneville, Snake, Ruby, Lahontan, Death Valley) of
the drainage units outlined by Smith (1978). It is found largely along the main drainages
(Humboldt and East Walker rivers) of the Great Basin, the Snake River and the present
tributaries of these rivers. The Humboldt and Walker rivers were, respectively, eastern
and western tributaries to pluvial Lake Lahontan. The upper Snake River had late pluvial
connections with Lake Bonneville (Gilbert 1890, Malde 1968) and this is reflected by the
fish fauna (Hubbs and Miller 1948). There is no evidence for a drainage connection between
the Bonneville and Lahontan systems, even where they closely approach in northeastern
Nevada; the similarities that exist in the fish fauna were attributed to stream capture
or stream migration (Hubbs and Miller 1948). The short distances between wet areas of
the Bonneville, Snake and Lahontan drainages in northeastern Nevada did not preclude
dispersal of C. pegala between them. Known populations of this species in the Bonneville
drainage (Thousand Springs Creek) are within 55 km of a Humboldt drainage population
(East Humboldt Range); the Thousand Springs Creek population is within 40 km of a
population in the Snake River drainage (south of Contact). Similarly, a population in the
Humboldt drainage (Adobe Summit) is within 55 km of a Snake River drainage population
(south of Jack Creek).
C. p. paludum also occurs in a group of four valleys east of the Ruby Mountains-East
Humboldt Range axis. These valleys, Clover, Ruby, Butte and northern Steptoe (Goshute),
contained pluvial lakes Clover, Franklin, Gale and Waring, respectively. Lake Clover
probably had an early (but not later) pluvial discharge into the Humboldt River drainage
(Hubbs and Miller 1948, Hubbs et aL 1974). Lake Franklin had no later pluvial connections
except by intermittent stream connections with Lake Waring and an inflow from Lake
Gale (Hubbs et al. 1974). The only apparent pluvial connections of Lake Waring were
those mentioned above with Lake Franklin. Lake Gale drained northward into Lake
Franklin via pluvial Butte River (Hubbs et al. 1974).
The occurrence of C. p. paludum in this group of valleys is easily explained by dispersal
from the Humboldt River drainage via populations occurring in wet areas of the mountains
to the west. One such present population occurs in a small marshy area at Angel Creek
Campground above Wells in the East Humboldt Range. The Lake Franklin drainage also
approaches that of Lake Newark to the southwest (Hubbs et al. 1974), another valley
with populations of C. p. paludum. Newark Valley was occupied by pluvial Lake Newark
which probably discharged via Huntington Creek into the Humboldt River (Hubbs et
In the western Great Basin, Mono Lake Basin is the northernmost of the Death Valley-
associated drainages. Pluvial connections did not exist or were with the Owens River;
earlier connections (possibly before C. pegala was in the area) seem to have been with
Lake Lahontan by the East Walker River through Aurora Valley and then with the Death
Valley system (Hubbs and Miller 1948, Miller 1948). Even without a surface water
connection, dispersal between the East Walker River and Mono Basin is undoubtedly
possible. Known present day colonies occur within 20 km on either side of Conway Summit,
Mono County, California.
The distribution of the "paludum" group approaches that of the "gabbii" group in
several areas. C. p. walkerensis in the Walker River and Mono Lake drainages is
distributionally between C. p. wheeler and C. p. carsonensis (within 75 km of C. p.
carsonensis). I can see no phenotypic evidence of gene flow between C. p. walkerensis
in this area and C. pegala of the "gabbii" group. Known populations of C. p. paucilineatus
and C. p. paludum are within 55 km in Humboldt County, Nevada. The reduction in the
coarseness of the ventral striations and the size and number of ventral hindwing ocelli
of C. p. paucilineatus may or may not have resulted through past gene flow from C. p.
paludum. The closest known populations of C p. paludum in northern Steptoe Valley
(just south of Currie) and C p. pluvialis in southern Steptoe Valley (Warm Springs) are
about 70 km apart. As discussed above, there appears to be some phenotypic indication
of gene flow between C. p. paludum into the northern populations of C p. pluvialis in
southern Steptoe Valley and at Ibapah. Steptoe Valley drained into Lake Waring to the
north through a narrow channel south of Currie (Hubbs and Miller 1948, Mifflin and Wheat
1979), thus somewhat isolating C. p. pluvialis before C. p. paludum appeared in northern
Steptoe Valley. The blend between C. p. utahensis and C p. paludum in northern Utah
and southern Idaho was discussed above. The population at Beowawe Geysers was also
mentioned above. Beowawe Geysers are just west of Crescent Valley, the drainage for
Pluvial Lake Gilbert of the Lahontan drainage.
The occurrence of the "paludum" group along the major river valleys, its absence from
the peripheral isolated valleys of the Great Basin, and its relatively constant, very different,
phenotype all suggest a later appearance in this region than C. pegala of the "gabbii"
group. The "paludum" group phenotype must have arrived (or evolved in situ) after the
initial post-pluvial desiccation but before the disappearance of the corridors of dispersal.
Some of the areas occupied today were below water levels from 20,000 to 10,000 years
BP (e.g., Benson and Thompson 1987a, 1987b; Curry and Oviatt 1985). Thus the ancestor
was able to pass, one way or the other, from the East Walker River drainage to that of
the Humboldt River. The Walker River flowed into the lower Carson River and both the
Carson and Humboldt rivers flowed into a common sink at least as late as 6900 years
ago and possibly later (Davis 1982). Today, the Walker River is separated from the
Humboldt by about 150 km. Nearly 250 km separate the nearest known C. pegala
populations of these two drainages.
The source of ancestral "paludum" group could have been from the north via the Snake
River drainage with dispersal southwestward into and through the Humboldt River Valley
and into the Walker River Valley; Otherwise it could have been the reverse, from the
west or southwest. I prefer this latter option. As noted above, of the Great Basin C. pegala
phenotypes, those of the "paludum" group most closely resemble C. p. boopis and, to
a certain degree, Cercyonis pegala baroni (W. H. Edwards). The major difference is the
presence of ventral hindwing ocelli on C p. paludum males and sometimes females (these
may have been acquired during the early initial contact with a member of the "gabbii"
group; but note that C. p. baroni has ocelli). These form a stepwise progression (in color
from brown to gray, number of hindwing ocelli, etc.) from the phenotype of C. p. boopis
to C. p. walkerensis to C. p. paludum. The phenotypes to the north and east of the range
of C p. paludum, however, are sharply different in color and pattern.
C p. boopis, the southernmost of the C pegala west of the Sierra Nevada, may be of
an old ancestry, possibly derived from a northwestward expansion of an eastern North
American stock during one of the earlier Pleistocene interglacials, becoming isolated in
California during a subsequent glacial period. If C p. boopis is of such an old Californian
stock, it most likely occurred south of its present range during glacial events, giving it
access to the Great Basin south of the Sierra Nevada via the Lahontan Trough (a broad,
continuous and relatively low elevation area in eastern California and western Nevada,
Reveal 1979). Remnants of potential paludal stepping stones exist as springs through
the Lahontan Trough today (Mifflin and Wheat 1979). The Lahontan Trough appears
to have been a major route of dispersal for both plants and animals into the Great Basin
(Reveal 1979, Tanner 1978). This is a more likely source than a direct dispersal across
the high crest of the southern Sierra Nevada. The species could also have tracked marshy
habitats along the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. These more western populations may
well have come into contact with pre-"gabbii" group populations. Once access to the Great
Basin was attained, this phenotype would have been able to occupy the vacuum left as
the Pleistocene lakes retreated without their "gabbii" group of C. pegala, or could have
genetically swamped these through intergradation.
An alternative explanation to the above is that all Great Basin phenotypes ("paludum"
and "gabbii" groups) are of a single origin. This circumvents the need to explain the absence
of the "gabbii" group from the Walker and Humboldt river drainages but creates several
unlikely situations: (1) it requires several differentiations into "gabbii" group phenotypes,
(2) it does not explain the presence of the "paludum" group along the major river drainages,
(3) it does not explain the absence of the "paludum" group phenotype in any peripheral,
now isolated area, (4) it requires convergence of either the "paludum" group towards C.
p. boopis or of the "gabbii" group phenotypes towards C. p. texana, and (5) it does not
explain the near absence of intergradation between "paludum" and "gabbii" group
The distribution and differentiation patterns exhibited by C pegala in the Great Basin
are strikingly parallel to those of Polites sabuleti (Boisduval) (Austin 1987). This hesperiid
is another lowland marsh species with a single phenotype (similar to a California phenotype)
in the Walker and Humboldt river basins which probably entered the Great Basin from
the south and west, similar to the route hypothesized for the "paludum" group. Other
phenotypes of P. sabuleti, with more restricted distributions, occur in localities in central,
eastern and northwestern Nevada in many of the same places where C. pegala isolates
occur. There is even an anomalous phenotype of P. sabuleti at Beowawe Geysers! Both
species have a present-day patchwork of distribution with one phenotype dissecting the
ranges of two more similar phenotypes. Thus populations of the dark, more finely striated
"paludum" group occur north of populations of C. p. wheeler, C. p. pluvialis, and C. p.
utahensis, and south of populations of C. p. gabbii, C. p. carsonensis, C. p. paucilineatus,
and C. p. stephensi (Fig. 214), all members of the "gabbii" group.
It must be noted in closing that the putative relationships between populations are
inferred only from similarities and differences of adult phenotypic characteristics in the
framework of known distributions. Additional data (early stages, genetic) may or may
not present alternatives to the above. Further study of Great Basin Cercyonis pegala
would be a fruitful endeavor and may shed additional light on their complex pattern of
distribution and variation.
I thank R. Albright, G. Andrushko, J. Brock, C. Callahan, J. F. Emmel, C. Hageman,
K. Hansen, L. Harris, F. Holley, J. M. Johnson, T. Kral, C. S. Lawson, S. O. Mattoon,
D. Mullins, D. Murphy, F. and J. Preston, R. Robertson, P. J. Savage, M. J. Smith and
D. Thomas for sending specimens for study and/or for directing me to colonies of C. pegala
Appreciation is extended to people at various museums for making the facilities available
for use and/or for lending specimens: L. D. and J. Y. Miller (Allyn Museum of Entomology),
F. H. Rindge (American Museum of Natural History), J.E. Rawlins (Carnegie Museum
of Natural History), P. Arnaud and T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences), J.
A. Powell (California Insect Survey), J. P. Donahue (Los Angeles County Museum), R.
K. Robbins (National Museum of Natural History), G. Harjes (Nevada State Museum),
D. K. Faulkner (San Diego Museum of Natural History) and T. C. Emmel (University
of Florida, Gainesville). S. Cary and M. Toliver informed me about the general distributions
of C. pegala phenotypes in New Mexico. J. F. Emmel and T. C. Emmel made available
useful information and copies of manuscripts in preparation on Lorquin's travels and
probable type localities of his and other California material. Many of my concepts were
strengthened through conversations with various people, especially T. C. Emmel and S.
O. Mattoon. Thanks are also due to A. K. Donoghue who translated several original
descriptions for me. Appreciation is extended to J. F. Emmel, T. C. Emmel and M. J.
Smith for critically reading early drafts of this paper and offering numerous helpful
suggestions. T. C. Emmel, A. M. Shapiro and an anonymous reviewer gave many additional
worthwhile suggestions on a late draft of this manuscript and are gratefully acknowledged.
S. A. Johnson kindly confirmed data on Strecker's types of Satyrus hoffmani. I thank
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'5; ; :*
Figures 1-8. Cercyonis pegala subspecies (dorsal surface, males on left, females on right).
1-4. C. p. nephele, WI: Juneau Co.; Necedah Township, leg. T. Kral (1) 28 June 1977, (2)
25 July 1984, (3) 12 July 1982, (4) 28 July 1984; 5-8. C. p. boopis, CA: Contra Costa Co.;
Point Richmond, leg. J. Scott (5, 7) 14 June 1972, (6, 8) 18 June 1971.
0 "* '0' *. 10 *
0 ... 'i
Figures 9-16 Cercyonis pegala subspecies (ventral surface). 9-12. C. p. nephele, same
specimens as in Figures 1-4; 13-16. C. p. boopis, same specimens as Figures 5-8.
21 ? 22
Figures 17-22. Cercyonis pegala subspecies (dorsal surface, males on left, females on
right). 17-20. C. p. ariane (17) CA: Plumas Co.; Ca 70, 4.1 mi. E Ca 89, 30 June 1985, leg.
G. T. Austin; (18) CA: Sierra Co.; Hwy. 49, 1.4 mi. N Hwy. 89, 3 Aug. 1987, leg. C.
Hageman; (19-20) CA: Plumas Co.; Ca 70, 1.4 mi. E Ca 89, 30 June 1985, leg. G. T. Austin;
21-22. C. p. wheeler (21) "Ariz/a", (22) "Owens Lake, Nev."
,iP .. ..-, ,,
0 0 0
Figures 23-28 Cercyonis pegala subspecies (ventral surface). 23-26. C. p. ariane, same
specimens as in Figures 17-20; 27-28 C. p. wheeler, same specimens as in Figures 21-22.
a o 9 9 .9
o o. o o 0
o : 0 t 0 9 ;0
o . 9- o .. .
: O _r _:; --
Figures 29-38. Cercyonis pegola gabbil (dorsal surface, males on left, females on right).
(29-32, 34,36,38) OR: Lake Co.; E side Goose Lake, US 395, 7.0 mi. N Calif. line, 18 July
1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (33, 35) OR: Lake Co.; Goose Lake area, US 395, 6.5 mi. N
Pine Creek, 10 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin; (37) CA: Modoc Co.; US 395, 5.1 mi. S Oregon
line, 10 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin.
0. 0 /
0 4 4
Figures 39-48 Cercyonis pegala gabbii (ventral surface). Same specimens as in Figures
o 0 0
53 -- 54 -"-
%5@ t 0 .0 "X
S57 :' f -' 58 '.-.
Figures 49-5& Cercyonis pegala stephensi (dorsal surface, males on left, females on right).
(49 51, 57) CA: Modoc Co.; Surprise Valley, Ft. Bidwell Rd., 8.2 mi. S Eagleville, 20 July
1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (50) CA: Lassen Co.; Ft. Bidwell Rd., 1.2 mi. S Modoc Co. line,
20 July 1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (52) CA: Modoc Co.; Ft. Bidwell Rd., 4.5 mi. N Fandango
Pass Rd., 19 July 1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (53) CA: Modoc Co.; Ft. Bidwell Rd., 4.3
mi. S Cedarville, 20 July 1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (54, 55,58) CA: Modoc Co.; Ft. Bidwell
Rd., 6.5 mi. S Eagleville, 20 July 1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (56) CA: Modoc Co.; Co. Rt.
1, 2.0 mi. N Lassen Co. line, 8 Aug. 1981, leg. G. T. Austin.
o-.. t 0 ,
, / 06
?-- 68 -
Figures 596& Cercyonis pegala stephensi (ventral surface). Same specimens as in Figures
0 70 '
Figures 69-80. Cercyonis pegala subspecies (dorsal surface, holotype males on left,
allotype females on right, data in text). (69-70) C p. carsonensis, (71-72) C p. paucilineatus,
(73-74) C. p. utahensis, (75-76) C. p. pluvialis, (77-78) C. p. paludum, (79-80) C p. walkerensis.
* 0 -
* 0 +
C -- C'
:\. 0.' i ., .
'' .O '' ,
It .. ..
86 -. .
Figures 81-92 Cercyonis pegala subspecies (ventral surface). 81-82 C. p. carsonensis,
same specimens as in Figures 69-70; 83-84. C p. paucilineatus, same specimens as in Figures
71-72; 85-8 C. p. utahensis, same specimens as in Figures 73-74; 87-88 C. p.. pluvialis,
same specimens as in Figures 75-76; 89-90. C p. paludum, same specimens as in Figures
77-78; 91-92 C. p. walkerensis, same specimens as in Figures 79-80.
Figures 93-102 Cercyonis pegala carsonensis (dorsal surface, males on left, females on
right). NV: Douglas Co.; Carson Valley, Scossa Ranch, leg. G. T. Austin. (93, 95, 101) 24
July 1984, (94) 11 Aug. 1979, (96, 98, 100) 26 July 1981, (97) 26 Aug. 1983, (99) 24 July
1982, (102) 6 Aug. 1981.
- 110 LL7 IF~
Figures 103-112. Cercyonis pegala carsonensis (ventral surface). Same specimens as in
Figures 113-122 Cercyonis pegala paucilineatus (dorsal surface, males on left, females
on right). NV: Humboldt Co.; Quinn River Valley, US 95, 3.8 mi. S Orovada. (113, 115,
119, 121) 9 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin; (114, 118) 24 July 1987, leg. G. & A. Austin; (116,
117, 120, 122) 22 July 1984, leg. G. T. Austin.
0 '. 0
0 8 :(
- -0 -. .' -
So.. ... ', 0
0- -0 ..
^ ; :.
Figures 123-132. Cercyonis pegala paucilineatus (ventral surface). Same specimens as
in Figures 113-122.
V 40 ~rZrlh
141 -ws 142'"-
Figures 133-142 Cercyonis pegala utahensis (dorsal surface, males on left, females on
right). UT: Utah Co. (133) Benjamin, 28 June 1989, leg. J. M. Johnson, (134, 135) Spanish
Fork River, between Leland and Benjamin, 6 July 1989, leg. J. M. Johnson (136, 142)
Benjamin, 6 July 1989, leg. J. M. Johnson; (137, 139, 141) Spanish Fork River, between
Leland and Benjamin, 6 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin; (138, 140) Benjamin, 6 July 1989,
leg. G. T. Austin.
Figures 143-152. Cercyonis pegala utahensis (ventral surface). Same specimens as in
Figures 153-162 Cercyonis pegala pluvialis (dorsal surface, males on left, females on
right). NV: White Pine Co.; White River Valley, 1.0 mi. N Nye Co. line. (153, 162) 12 July
1986, leg. G. & A. Austin; (154-161) 15 July 1984, leg. G. T. Austin.
Figures 163-172 Cercyonis pegala pluvialis (ventral surface). Same specimens as in
Figures 173-182 Cercyonis pegala paludum (dorsal surface, males on left, females on
right). NV: Elko Co.; Pleasant Valley, Nv 227. (173-175) 3.7 mi. W Lamoille Canyon Rd.,
21 July 1984, leg. G. T. Austin; (176, 178-180) 4.6 mi. W Lamoille Canyon Rd., 29 July
1988, leg. G. T. Austin; (177, 181, 182) 0.9 mi. W Lamoille Canyon Rd., 15 July 1986, leg.
G. & A. Austin.
Figures 183-192 Cercyonis pegala paludum (ventral surface). Same specimens as in
Q o -
0 .- ..
. . '
Figures 193-202. Cercyonis pegala walkerensis (dorsal surface, males on left, females
on right). CA: Mono Co.; Huntoon Valley, Swanger Creek, Huntoon Camp, US 395, 5.4
mi. NW Bridgeport. (193, 194, 198, 202) 24 July 1989, leg. G. & A. Austin; (195, 197, 199)
13 July 1989, leg. G. T. Austin; (196, 200, 201) 23 July 1989, leg. G. & A. Austin.
o a .. 0
,. .- o
AV-, 4 _.,4
Figures 203-212 Cercyonis pegala walkerensis (ventral surface). Same specimens as in
Figures 213. Major Pleistocene lakes of the northern Great Basin at their approximate
maximum elevation; line indicates hydrological limit of internal drainage. Lakes mentioned
in text include: (1) Alvord, (2) Bonneville, (3) Clover, (4) Franklin, (5) Gale, (6) Gilbert,
(7) Goose, (8) Lahontan, (9) Newark, (10) Steptoe, (11) Surprise, (12) Waring, (13) Warner.
s r p. hn (
a 0# oP o
S coO 0 o
o o00 oo
Figures 214. Northern Great Basin showing major waters that exist at present and
the distribution of Cercyonis pegala: C. p. wheeler (X), C. p. carsonensis (closed upright
triangle), C p. gabbii (open square), C. p. stephensi (closed circle), C p. paucilineatus (closed
square), C p. pluvialis (open upright triangle), C. p. utahensis (open reversed triangle),
C. p. paludum (open circle), C. p. walkerensis (closed reversed triangle).
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