BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number 60 9 December, 1980
STUDIES IN THE CASTNIIDAE.
Jacqueline Y. Miller
Assistant Curator. Allyn Museum of Entomology
During a visit to this Museum a few years ago, Gordon Small brought along a rather
small and striking female castniid from Cerro Jefe, Panama. This specimen was
distinguished by a prominent blue-violet patch across the hindwing disc and a reddish-
fulvous hair tuft at the end of the abdomen. Thus it was apparently the same species or
closely related to a unique female described by Rothschild (1919) as Castnia (Schaef-
ferial subcoerulea. A year later while collecting with Stan Nicolay, Mr. Small took a pair
in copula. Upon examination the male had fulvous discal band and extradiscal area on
the hindwing and compared favorably with Hista pyrrhopygoides (Houlbert, 1917). The
obvious dimorphism is unlike anything else in the Castniinae save the genus Ceretes.
Further investigation of the type material at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) and ex-
amination of other species within these apparently closely related genera, has resulted
in the assignment of a new genus, Mirocastnia, to this rather unusual species complex
as well as the description of a new species from Panama which follows.
Mirocastnia, new genus
Figs. 1 (wing venation), 2, 3, 4 (legs), 5 (palpus). 6, 7 (antenna)
Athis Houlbert, 1918, Etudes de Lep. Comp. XV:75, 286, not Hubner, (1819], Verz. bek.
Schmett. (7): 101.
Schaefferia Houlbert, 1918, Etudes de Lep. Comp.:75, 421, not Absolon, 1900, Zool.
Ana. 23:615, 265.
Castnia (Schaefferia) Rothschild, 1919 (in part), Nov. Zoo. XXVI:I8.
Hista Oiticica, 1955 (in part), Rev. Brasil Ent. (3): 140, 152.
Feschaeria Oiticica. 1955 (in part), Rev. Brasil Ent. (3): 149, 155.
Type species Mirocastnia small, new species (see below).
Antenna more than half the length of forewing costa, comprised of 42-44 segments:
club prominent which with apiculus occupies terminal third of antenna: apiculus (Figs.
6,7) with numerous setae distad. Palpi (Fig. 5) three segmented, with pronounced
spicules and hair sockets and clothed with fine setae and scales.
Foreleg (Fig. 2), femur with epiphysis clothed in velvety hairs and tapered distad:
tibial and tarsal segments with tapered spines proximad, gradually becoming blunted
toward distal end segments, especially on tarsus. Midleg (Fig. 3) and hindleg (Fig. 4)
with tibial spurs; all legs with developed tarsal claws and a characteristic ochreous col-
or of sclerotization.
Forewing apex acute, arcuate along lateral margin posteriad, especially in male; both
sexes with semi-hyaline transverse band from mid-costa to near lateral margin (yellow-
ed in male, white in female); Cula arises equidistant between Culb and M, (Fig. 1); R,
and R, branch one-fifth distance from radial cell; cell length less than one-half as long as
forewing apex with cell open; discocellular veins of M, arising more distad than that of
M3. Hindwing with prominent fulvous discal markings in male and iridescent blue
markings in female; Cu, arises closer to base than to Cula and Culb; Cu2 and M, arise
equidistant from base.
Male genitalia (Fig. 17); saccus reduced; valvae elongate along costa with prominent
cleft along sacculus distad; juxta lightly to moderately sclerotized; penis moderately
sclerotized, recurved, but miniaturized.
Figures 1-5, Mirocastnia. M. small. new species d. (1). wing venation. 2. foreleg. 3.
mesothoracic leg, 4. metathoracic leg and 5. palpus (Slide no. 3958. J. Y. Miller) (figs.
1-4. scale line = 1 mm.; fig. 5. scale line = 0.5 mm.)
Female genitalia (Figs. 19, 20): Posterior apophyses one-third longer than anterior
apophyses: bursa copulatrix, bulla seminalis and ductus bursae (in part) transparent
with no external morphological convolutions; spiculose signa absent. Sterigma with
diagnostic sclerotic design; simple dorsad; pleural setal patch adjacent to lamella
Immature stages: Unknown. Eggs (in situ) the characteristic, longitudinally, fluted
Superficially the wing maculation and general color, especially of the forewing, is
similar to a number of brightly colored neotropical hesperiidae, and the reddish-fulvous
hair tuft at the end of the abdomen is characteristic of the hesperiid subfamily, Pyr-
rhopyginae. Thus the species name of pyrrhopygoides was indeed appropriate.
Houlbert (1918) in his generic revision placed pyrrphopygoides in the genus Athis, a
name already applied by Hiibner 11819] to another species complex in the Castniinae.
As it will be seen in a forthcoming paper, Houlbert's genus Athis (=Hista Oiticica, 1955)
became somewhat of a refuse can for a number of species, with at least four genera
represented. Thus I believe that Houlbert's original designation of pyrrhopygoides was
based strictly upon the hindwing maculation and its general association with such
species as hegemon and boisduvalii within the generic grouping. With the unrelated
subsequent description of subcoerulea (Rothschild, 1919) and its placement in the
"subgenus" Schaefferia (=Feschaeria, Oiticica, 1955), the association of the sexes was
made even more difficult.
Morphologically the genus Mirocastnia lies in a somewhat intermediate position bet-
ween Feschaeria and true Hista. Superficially the general appearance, especially in the
male hindwing is characteristic of H. boisduvalii whereas the forewing maculation of
both sexes lends more credence to Feschaeria as the closest relative. Labial palpi (Fig 5)
Figures 6-8. 6,7 Mirocastnia small 9, 6, apiculus (50x), 7, apiculus sixth segment
(150x) illustrating the various types of sensillae present. 8, Feschaeria amycus, apiculus
are similar within the three genera, but the distal segment is longer proportionately in
Mirocastnia than in either Feschaeria or Hista. There is no comparative size differential
in the thoracic legs among the three genera under consideration. The tarsus in
Mirocastnia has tapered blunt spines especially distad (Figs. 2,3,4); the blunt heavy
spines predominate along the entire tarsus in Hista and Feschaeria. The large, dense
scales so apparent on the tarsus in Feschaeria are absent in Mirocastnia.
Examination of the antennal club and apiculus showed some interesting compari-
sions. As Sellier (1972, 1974) has illustrated in numerous papers on the subject, the
'nudum" of Rhopalocera and Heterocera is not devoid of embellishment. At least two
types of trichoid sensillae are present in Mirocastnia (Fig. 7), Feschaeria (Fig. 8) and
Hista. The basiconic sensillae in Mirocastnia are significantly reduced in size on seg-
ment six (all counts from terminus of apiculus) when compared on the same segment
with representatives of the other two genera. Feschaeria amycus (Fig. 8) exhibits
numerous flattened scales on the recurved portion of the apiculus to the end segment,
while these scales are absent in segments 2-4 of the apiculus in Hista and 2-6 of
Mirocastnia. No sexual dimorphism in the morphology of the antennal structures was
evident in Mirocastnia. Further studies are in progress to ascertain the significance of
various antennal sensillae as taxonomic characters in the Castniinae.
Both sexes of Mirocastnia are easily separable genitalically from other members of
Hista and Feschaeria. In the males of the later two genera, the saccus is well developed
and the valvae stout and rounded along the cucullus. In Mirocastnia the saccus is
markedly reduced and the valvae elongate along the costa with a prominent cleft along
the sacculus posteriad. The female exhibits a characteristic sclerotic pattern on the
sterigma with an associated pleural setal patch. The ductus bursae is simple as in Hista
but lightly sclerotized near antrum. The heavily sclerotized spiral ductus bursae com-
monly found in many of the Castniinae including Feschaeria is absent. The bursa
copulatrix, bulla seminalis and ductus bursae (in part) are completely transparent in all
species within Mirocastnia with little or no morphological convolutions on the external
surface. Spiculose signa found in Hista, Feschaeria and a number of other Castniinae
are absent. Thus the genitalic characters are especially important in the separation of
Mirocastnia from its two theoretically closely aligned congenors.
The distribution of the species within this genus (Fig. 9) is basically Andean (Ecuador
and Peru) with the new species small found in Panama. Hista and Feschaeria are
^ ). -a
Figure 9. Present known distribution of the genus Mirocastnia. Open diamond = M
pyrrhopygoides, closed diamond = M. small, and closed star = M. canis.
generally found in eastern South America, especially in Brasil. With so few specimens
represented in Mirocastnia at the present time, no conclusions can be drawn concerning
the biogeography of the genus.
Since there is so much confusion surrounding this generic complex, the known species
are hereby redescribed along with the description of the new species, Mirocastnia
small. With the paucity of material in the genus and since the confirmation of sexual
dimorphism was first recognized in M. small, this newly described species is
designated as the type of the genus Mirocastnia. The generic name is derived from the
Latin "miror" which is to marvel or to be amazed.
Key to the Species of Mirocastnia, J. Miller
1 Forewing transverse semi-hyaline band yellowed; hindwing with fulvous
along distal half .................. ...... ......... ......... .. 2
1'. Forewing transverse semi-hyaline band transparent or overscaled with white;
prominent iridescent blue scale patch across median hindwing ................... 3
2 Hindwing above with pronounced pale ochreous marking in Cu,-1A and 1A-2A;
rayed fuscous-warm brown admixed with rust along lateral margin from M,-M,
to anal angle .. .................................. pyrrhopygoides (Houlbert) S
2'. Hindwing above with a reduced pale, ochreous marking in Cu2-1A and blackish-
brown along the entire lateral margin; isolated fulvous spots in Cula-Culb
and Culb-Cu2; additional dull buff marking end transverse band in 1A-2A on
forewing below ..................... ... .. .................. small, n. sp 6
3. Hindwing above with rust-chocolate brown rayed markings along lateral
margin; hindwing below, rayed markings duller with prominent powder blue
basad and chocolate to warm brown at anal angle; rust-chocolate brown forewing
apex below; abdominal segments 4-8 ringed with fawn anteriad each segment
............ ............................................... canis (L athy) 9
3'. Hindwing above without lateral rayed markings; forewing apex below blackish-
brown sprinkled faintly with rust; hindwing sprinkled lightly with iridescent
powder blue scales; abdominal segments 4-8 warm brown anteriad each
segm ent ................... ...... .... .... ........ ........................ 4
4. Ground color wings above blackish-brown with two prominent semi-hyaline,
circular markings in M3-Cuia and Cula-Culb on hindwing above and below;
forewing below with no faint dull buff admixed with fuscous marking at distal
end transverse band in 1A-2A ....................... pyrrhopygoides (Houlbert) 9
4'. Ground color wings above blackish-brown with semi-hyaline, bluish, crescent
shaped markings in Ms-Cula and Cula-Culb; forewing below with pale buff
admixed with fuscous marking at distal end transverse band in 1A-2A
S.............. ............ .............................. ..... small, n. sp. 9
Mirocastnia pyrrhopygoides (Houlbert), new combination
Plate I (58,9). Text figures, 10 (5 genitalia), 11, 12 (9 genitalia)
Castnia pyrrhopygoides Houlbert, 1917: 72 ( ). TL- Zaruma, Ecuador. Lectotype here
= Castnia (Schaefferia) subcoerulea Rothschild, 1919:18 (9). TL "Ecuador" Holotype
Male: Head and thorax above dark brown; abdomen above, dark brown ringed with
muted fulvous, especially posteriad with reddish-fulvous hair tuft end abdomen. Head
below fuscous, palpi buff; thorax fuscous overscaled with buff; legs clothed in buff ad-
mixed with fulvous on distal margins. Abdomen below fawn ringed with pale fulvous
end segments, shading to reddish-fulvous posteriad. Antennae above dark brown,
fulvous on club and apiculus; below, buff proximad shading to fulvous admixed with
Forewing above, ground color warm olivaceous brown, darkened basad and along
anal margin, shading lighter toward lateral margin; markings: prominent yellowed
semi-hyaline transverse band from costal margin Culb-Cu,; lighter semi-hyaline
somewhat yellowed apical markings, one each in R,-R, to M,-M: with largest in M,-M,;
distal margin of apical band heavily outlined in warm brown.
Hindwing above, dark brown basad and especially along anal margin with a discal
spotband into M,-M,; distal two-thirds of wing along costa and lateral margins
yellowed-fulvous; pale yellow rayed marking in Cu,-1A and 1A-2A; veins darkened in
yellowed-fulvous area, especially along lateral margin; lateral margin etched in reddish-
brown shading to rust in Culb-Cu2 and Cu2-1A.
Forewing below with markings as above; basal half wing dark warm brown, lighter
along anal and lateral margins; warm brown overlain with rust at apex and along lateral
margin to CulI-Culb; apical markings and transverse band overlain with sparse fulvous
scales with distal margin of apical markings heavily outlined in dark brown.
Retinaculum clothed in fulvous.
Hindwing below, ground color basad dark brown overlain with fulvous and buff
basad and along anal fold; dark brown discal marking above reproduced below in brown
overscaled with reddish-brown; reddish-brown along lateral margin, darkened at anal
angle; fulvous area as above somewhat reduced in disc and admixed with rust; veins
darkened in reddish brown.
Fringes: Forewing above, dark brown, lighter at anal angle; below, reddish-brown at
apex shading to light warm brown in M,-M, and toward anal angle. Hindwing above,
dark brown along anal and lateral margins with fulvous at anal angle; fulvous admixed
with buff M3-Cuia; below, reddish-brown darkened at 1A-2A; reddish-brown admixed
with buff in M,-Cula to Cu,-1A and reddish brown admixed with fulvous at anal angle.
Female: head and thorax above dark brown; abdomen, dark brown and darkened
posteriad end segments with dull reddish-fulvous hair tuft end abdomen. Below, head
fuscous with palpi clothed in buff heavily admixed with white; eye ringed with white;
thorax fuscous overscaled with iridescent powder blue scales especially on prothorax
and on tibia; other thoracic segments and leg segments clothed in reddish-brown. Ab-
domen below, dark reddish-brown: anterior three segments lightly sprinkled with
iridescent powder blue scales with remainder of segments ringed distad with dull rust-
brown shading to fulvous and tawny posteriad. Antenna above, blackish-brown below
blackish-brown mixed with fuscous proximad and shading to reddish-fulvous distad.
Figure 10, Mirocastnia pyrrhopygoides 6 genitalia. (gen. prep, MV-3437, Lectotype,
J. Y. Miller; scale line = 1 mm.)
Forewing above, ground color blackish-brown with markings as in male but semi-
hyaline areas are overscaled with white; transverse band extends almost to anal angle.
Hindwing above, ground color blackish-brown with a prominent iridescent powder blue
patch from near costal margin, across cell to 1A-2A and a pair of semi-hyaline markings
overscaled with iridescent powder blue in M3-Cu a and CUla-CUlb.
Forewing below with ground color blackish-brown basad, lighter along costal and
Figures 11-12, Mirocastnia pyrrhopygoides (= Castnia subcoerulea Rothschild), 9
genitalia. 11, dorsal view, 12, ventral view. (gen. prep. MV-3436, J. Y. Miller; scale line
= 1 mm.)
lateral margins; distal half of wing toward apex lightly sprinkled with iridescent
powder blue scales; semi-hyaline markings as above. Forewing fringe above blackish-
brown, lighter at anal angle; below, blackish-brown with blackish-brown admixed with
fuscous M,-Ma to Cu,-1A.
Hindwing below, ground color blackish-brown overscaled with reddish-brown, lighter
along costal margin in Sc + R, and Rs-M,; a reddish-brown admixed with fulvous cir-
cular patch in Sc + R,-Rs-M, one half distance from base; blackish-brown overscaled
with iridescent powder blue basad, especially in cell and along anal margin; distal half of
wing sparsely sprinkled with iridescent powder blue scales. Fringes above and below
blackish-brown, admixed with buff M,-M, to Cu2-1A; reddish-brown along anal margin
and at anal angle.
Plate I, Mirocastnia. Top, Mirocastnia pyrrhopygoides. Lectotype 3 (left half), upper
(left) and under (right) surfaces: ECUADOR: Zaruma. Right half, 9 M. pyrrhopygoides
(=Castnia subcoerulea), upper (left) and under (right) surfaces; "Ecuad." Center,
Mirocastnia canis, Holotype 9 upper (left) and under (right) surfaces; PERU: Rio
Perene. Bottom left, Mirocastnia small. Holotype d. upper (left) and under (right) sur-
faces; PANAMA:PANAMA: Cerro Jefe ca 900 m.; ll.iii.1977, G. B. Small. Bottom
right, M. small, 9 Paratype, upper (left) and under (right) surfaces; PANAMA:
PANAMA: Cerro Campana, 3500'; 2.vii.1970, G. B. Small.
FWL Lectotype of pyrrhopygoides 34.5 mm. The FWL of the remaining specimens
are 26.6 mm. and 30.3 mm. The female FWL is 29.88 mm. which is somewhat smaller
than the 33 mm. as listed by Rothschild in the original description.
The male genitalia as illustrated (Fig. 10) and somewhat miniaturized with a reduced
saccus and prominent cleft along the sacculus. Juxta completely sclerotized. Female
genitalia (Figs. 11, 12) with the characteristic patterned sterigma, distinct associated
pleural setal patch and transparent corpus bursae and bulla seminalis.
The male was described originally from three specimens from the type locality of
Zaruma, Ecuador and collected by M. de Mathan, 1891 (Oberthiir Colln., BMNH). A
BMNH Lectotype label in addition to the following label has been placed on the
specimen (ital., handwritten portion), LectotypelCastnia/pyrrhopygoides/ Houlbert/
designated by Jacqueline Y. Miller/ 1977." Paralectotype labels have been placed on the
remainder of the series.
The Hon. Walter Rothschild described the female under the name Castnia (Schaef-
feria) subcoerulea from a single specimen and it bears a written type label as well as the
BMNH Holotype label. The locality label reads simply "Ecuad."
To my knowledge there are no further specimens of pyrrhopygoides extant in other
collections. Although the male and female association of the above species was
unknown at the time of the respective description, evidence presented below supports
the relationship at this time.
Mirocastnia canis (Lathy), new combination
Plate I (9), Text Figures, 13, 14 (9 genitalia)
=Schaefferia canis Lathy, 1923:225 (9). TL Rio Perene, Peru BMNH
This species was described from a single female which remains unique in collections
Female: Head and thorax above, blackish-brown; abdomen, segments blackish-brown
ringed with buff admixed with fulvous especially distad; dull reddish-fulvous hair tuft
end abdomen. Below head, blackish-brown with frons, palpi. thorax, tibia and anterior
two segments abdomen clothes in fawn overscaled heavily in iridescent powder blue;
eye ringed with white; legs proximad clothed in fuscous; remainder abdomen fawn
shading to dull reddish-brown with reddish-brown sprinkled with fulvous posteriad.
Antennae above and below blackish-brown with dull dark reddish-brown on club below.
Forewing above: ground color dark blackish-brown sprinkled with iridescent olive-
green scales especially basad and along anal margin; velvety reddish-brown at apex,
sparsely sprinkled with white along lateral margin; semi-hyaline markings overscaled
with white as in pyrrhopygoides with the apical markings somewhat reduced and
transverse band does not extend into 1A-2A.
Hindwing above: ground color blackish-brown sprinkled sparsely with dull reddish-
brown scales and with a dull reddish-brown rayed marginal band. Iridescent powder
blue marking somewhat larger than in pyrrhopygoides and small with markings in
Cula-Culb and Culb-Cu, elongate and almost coalesced with the discal iridescent
powder blue band.
Forewing below with markings as above; ground color blackish-brown shading to
reddish-chocolate brown along the costa to apex and along lateral margin to M,-M3;
wing basad sprinkled with iridescent powder blue with retinaculum clothed in fawn;
transverse band extends to Cu b-Cu,. Fringe above blackish-brown sprinkled with buff
to transparent scales at anal angle; below blackish-brown sprinkled with rust along
costa and along lateral margin to anal angle; fuscous sparsely sprinkled with buff and
clear scales at anal angle.
Hindwing below: Ground color dull reddish-brown with rayed marginal band lighter
and fainter than above; darker reddish-brown along anal fold and especially at anal
angle; iridescent powder blue basad from costal margin across end cell and three-
fourths down anal margin; elongate semi-hyaline markings as above but overscaled
with white. Fringes above blackish-brown mixed with rust along costal, anal and in part
lateral margins; blue-white from M,-M, to 1A-2A. Below, reddish-brown along costal
and lateral margins to M,-M, with blue-white from M,-M, to 1A-2A; darker reddish-
brown along anal margin and at anal angle.
Genitalia as illustrated (Figs. 13, 14). The pleural setal patch dorsad is more promi-
nent and denser than in either small or pyrrhopygoides with the sclerotized pattern
\"\ i i
*/ 'vA ,i
Figures 13-14. Mirocastnia canis Lathy, 9 genitalia. 13, ventral view and 14, dorsal
view. (gen. prep MV-3435, J. Y. Miller: scale line = 1 mm.
associated with the ostium bursae diagnostic. Ductus bursae faintly sclerotized distad
with remainder ductus bursae, corpus bursae and bulbus seminalis membranous and
signa absent. Additional setae are found along lamella postvaginalis than in either pyr-
rhopygoides or small.
This species was described from a single female. FWL is 29.4 mm. The left forewing
below along the costal margin has been repaired with a fuscous wing.
The type specimen bears the following labels: "Rio Perene/Peru Watkins"; a Lathy
type label,: Schaefferia/canis Lathy/ Specimen typicum;" another BMNH label, "Joicey
Bequest/ Brit. Mus./ 1934-1120."
Lathy noted the close resemblance of canis to pyrrhopygoides (=subcoerulea), but
the expanse of iridescent powder blue markings is greater in the present species and the
reddish-chocolote brown rayed marginal markings are lacking in both pyrrhopygoides
and small. The very prominent iridescent powder blue patch basad on hindwing below
conveniently separates canis from pyrrhopygoides and small. Although unknown, I
would expect the male of M. canis to exhibit the same color combinations as in the other
two species perhaps with the additional rayed reddish-chocolate brown marginal mark-
Mirocastnia small, new species
Plate I (d, 9). Text Figures 1 (venation), 2, 3, 4 (legs) 5 (palpus),
6, 7 (antenna), 15, 16 (6 genitalia), 17, 18 (9 genitalia), 19, 20 (hindwing scales)
Overall general appearance of species generally darker and somewhat smaller than
Male: Head, thorax and anterior three segments abdomen dark brown: remaining ab-
dominal segments dark brown ringed with fulvous posteriad each segment; terminal
hair tuft fulvous admixed with dark brown. Below, head fuscous; palpi fuscous admixed
with buff; thorax and legs proximad, fuscous admixed with buff; legs distad reddish-
brown; abdomen, anterior segments, fuscous admixed with buff, ringed end segment
with fulvous, gradually shading to reddish-fulvous ringed with fulvous end segments.
Forewing above: ground color dark blackish-brown with yellowed-fuscous semi-
hyaline transverse band broader than in pyrrhopygoides; apical markings as in pyr-
rhopygoides. Hindwing above, general wing maculation and color (Fig. 19) as in pyr-
rhopygoides with pale yellow areas in Cu,-1A and 1A-2A markedly reduced and
sometimes absent in the latter: lateral margin outlined heavily in blackish-brown,
coalescing with the median blackish-brown discal band to isolate two fulvous spots in
Cuia-Cu and Culb-Cu,; faint tinge of reddish-brown along lateral margin in Cu,-1A.
Forewing below: yellowed semi-hyaline markings as above; ground color solid warm
brown from base to transverse band and along anal margin with green iridescence in
cell; dark warm brown overscaled with reddish-brown at apex and along lateral margin
and significantly darker at apex than in M. pyrrhopygoides; additional buff overscaled
with fuscous marking on transverse band distad in 1A-2A. Retinaculum clothed in dull
fulvous. Fringes above and below dark brown with buff from Cu,-IA to anal angle.
Hindwing below with general markings as in pyrrhopygoides, but with reddish-brown
ground color basad darkened: isolated fulvous spots in M,-M,, M,-Cula, Cula-Culb and
Cuib-Cu,; brown marking in 1A-2A in pyrrhopygoides, blackish-brown in small. Fr-
inges above blackish-brown sprinkled with fulvous along costs, shading to blackish-
brown mixed with buff along lateral margin; blackish-brown with rust along anal
margin and at anal angle; fringes below, reddish-brown mixed with fulvous along lateral
margin with reddish-brown at anal angle; dark brown sprinkled with reddish-brown
along anal margin.
Female: Head, thorax and abdomen above, blackish-brown; below, head fuscous with
eye ring and palpi buff. Thorax fuscous overscaled in iridescent powder blue-buff prox-
imad. Abdomen warm brown shading to darker brown end segments ringed with a fr-
inge of buff: reddish-fulvous hair tuft end abdomen.
Forewing above, ground color blackish-brown with semi-hyaline markings as in male
but overscaled with white and transverse band extends to almost anal angle. Hindwing
above as in female pyrrhopygoides but ground color and iridescent blue patch darkened
(cornflower blue, Fig. 20); iridescent blue shades to white along costa margin: semi-
hyaline markings overscaled with iridescent blue markedly reduced to crescent-shaped
especially in Cula-CuII and Culb-Cu,; discal markings in M-M:, and M,-Cula coalesced
with discal iridescent blue marking.
Forewing below: ground color blackish-brown, sprinkled basad with iridescent blue
and white, gradually shading to warm brown at apex; retinaculum clothed in buff with
some green iridescence in cell: frenulum, five bristles; semi-hyaline markings as above
with additional buff overscaled lightly with fuscous marking end transverse band near
anal angle in 1A-2A. Fringes above and below blackish-brown shading to buff from Cu,-
1A to anal angle.
Hindwing below: ground color dark reddish-brown sprinkled with iridescent blue
scales basad and along anal fold: markings in M-M:, and M,-Cu la markedly reduced as
above; reddish-fulvous circular patch in Sc + R,-Rs aligned with markings in M,-M, and
M,-Cuia; faint sprinkling of iridescent blue scales aligned with iridescent blue markings
in Cula-Culb to give indication of an extradiscal spotband; faint reddish-brown
marginal band especially in Cula-Culb to anal angle. Fringes above, blackish-brown
shading to buff from Rs-M, to Cu-1A; blackish-brown along anal margin and at anal
angle. Fringes below, dark reddish-brown shading to buff from Rs-M, to Cu,-lA; anal
margin and anal angle blackish-brown.
/ -. .. _-- ".
Figures 15-16, Mirocastnia small, new species, 6 genitalia. (gen. prep. MV-4062, J. Y.
Miller; scale line 15 = 1 mm.; 16 = 0.5 mm.)
Genitalia: Male (Fig. 15, 16): uncus shallowly bifid sparsely covered with setae and
scales; juxta almost completely sclerotized. Valva with costa proximad apparently con-
vex but intervening area membranous with associated setal and scale patch; cuillier
somewhat spatulate and covered with long to moderate setae on external and internal
margins; sacculus moderately sclerotized with distal margin excavate; saccus bifid and
forshortened. Penis recurved and moderately sclerotized with aedeagus simply or-
Female (Figs. 17, 18): Posterior apophyses two-thirds length of anterior apophyses;
antrum and one-half ductus bursae lightly sclerotized; remainder ductus bursae, bulla
seminalis and corpus bursae membranous with spiculose sign absent. Papillae anales
i ;l I "
,I' I / "\
views. (gen. prep. MV-3995, J. Y. Miller; scale line = 1 mm.)
/ '. I', | ',
lightly to modertely sclerotized, heavily clothed in setae with longer setae proximad.
Sterigma with prominently raised, lightly sclerotized plate and associated pleural setal
patch more numerous than in pyrrhopygoides: plate dorsad triangular, moderately
sclerotized with fewer setae along distal margin of lamella postvaginalis than in canis.
Described from 11 specimens, seven males and four females, collected by Gordon B.
Small from various localities in Panama.
HOLOTYPE 6: PANAMA:PANAMA: Cerro Jefe ca. 900m. 11l.iii.1977;
PARATYPES: 1 6, 1 9, same locality and date as Holotype: same locality as Holotype:
16, 21.iii.1977, 1 9, 22.iii.1977, 1 9. 13.v.1977: 1 9. PANAMA: PANAMA: Cerro Cam-
pana, 2500': 2.vii.1970: PANAMA: CHIRIQUI: Cerro Colorado, 1450 m.: 16,
9.viii.1979; 26, 10.vii.1979: 16, 26,viii.1979.
FWL Holotype 3, 21.5 mm. FWL other & Paratypes range from 21.5-26 mm. with an
average of 24.2 mm. FWL 9 Paratypes range from 19.5 29 mm. with an average of
The Holotype male and one female Paratype are deposited in the Allyn Museum of
Entomology. The remaining six male and three female Paratypes are deposited in the
private collection of Gordon B. Small.
It is with great pleasure that I name this species for Gordon B. Small, who has con-
tributed immensely to our knowledge of Central American Lepidoptera and who col-
lected the type series.
Most of the specimens collected have been taken in an area near Cerro Jefe, a semi-
cloud forest habitat, 37 km. northeast of Panama City. According to Small the
specimens were collected near the top of the mountain which rises to 980 m. The forest
is comprised of a fan palmColpothrinaxcookii Robert W. Read and various trees with
moss cover in addition to a number of Bromeliaceae with Chusquea sp. and Olyra
standleyi Hitchcock in the understory. The butterfly fauna in general is depauperate
with some Pedaliodes (Satyridae) and Argyrogrammana (Riodinidae). Specimens of
Mirocastnia small are found on the wing from March through August. The general
flight pattern is quite similar to some Hesperiidae. They rest and light frequently on
bare twigs and the fronds of C. cookii, which is known only from Guatemala and
Panama. Although some species have been associated with various species of Palmae,
the distribution of Colpothrinax does not coincide with that of Mirocastnia. Small has
observed a female frequenting a bromeliad high in these palms and thus Bromeliaceae
is more than likely the larval foodplant.
This study as well as others in progress would not be possible without the close
cooperation of collectors and museum personnel. I am indebted to the staff of the Dept.
~ winmmi~a an a3. %Ulm Eu... U
Figures 19-20, Mirocastnia small. 19, 6 hindwing fulvous scale (5,000x). 20, 9 hind-
wing iridescent blue scale (5,000x).
of Entomology, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) and especially to Allan Watson, for mak-
ing the collections and type material available for study. Additional comparative
material was obtained from the Strecker collection, Field Museum of Natural History,
on loan to this institution. Gordon B. Small, Jr. provided specimens for description as
well as habitat information. Dr. Robert Dressier, Smithsonian Tropical Research In-
stitute, Balboa, Canal Zone, Dr. Robert W. Read, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C. and Mrs. Libbe Besse, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota,
Fla., provided assistance on botanical identifications and distributions. Photographs
for this paper were prepared by our Director, A. C. Allyn. Special thanks are due Dr. J.
F. Gates Clarke, U. S. National Museum, Mr. Donald J. Harvey, Mr. Allyn and especial-
ly my husband, Lee, for their comments, many of which have been incorporated into
this manuscript. This study was supported in part by a grant through the National
Museum Act. (#FC-705-91400).
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indument employes. Etudes Lep. Comp., xiii: 72, ill.
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Hiibner, J., 1918. Verzeichniss bekannter Schemtterlinge (7): 101.
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