Title: Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
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Title: Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
Series Title: Bulletin of the Allyn Museum.
Abbreviated Title: Bull. Allyn Mus.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. News Bureau.
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Florida State Museum
Florida Museum of Natural History
Publisher: The Museum
Place of Publication: Sarasota Fla
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Subject: Entomology   ( lcsh )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1971.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1985>- issued by the Florida State Museum; <1988>- by the Florida Museum of Natural History.
General Note: Separately cataloged in LC before no. 48.
General Note: Description based on: No. 4, published in 1972; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 123, published in 1988.
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BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM

Published by
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Sarasota, Florida

Number 29 5 December 1975





AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE HESPERIIDAE
OF EL SALVADOR

Stephen R. Steinhauser

Research Associate, Allyn Museum of Entomology;
Apartado Aereo 20433, Cali, Colombia

INTRODUCTION

Six years (1967-1973) of collecting and studying butterflies in El Salvador in-
dicated an unexpectedly rich fauna for such a small, densely populated country.
Published information on the fauna of El Salvador is scarce; that of Lepidoptera
especially so. In discussions with other local collectors, principally Miguel and
Francisco Serrano, we decided to summarize what was known and publish the data
as lists of the different families of Rhopalocera; the Serranos to work with the Papi-
lionoidea and I the Hesperioidea. To date this has resulted in the publication of an
illustrated and keyed list of the Papilionidae (Serrano & Serrano, 1972) and descrip-
tions of new species of Hesperiidae and Nymphalidae with notes on others (Stein-
hauser, 1972, 1974).
The principal general sources consulted were Godman & Salvin (1879-1901),
Draudt (in Seitz, 1921-1924) and Evans (1951, 1952, 1953, 1955). Godman & Salvin
generally mentioned specific localities for the material they studied, but referred
to El Salvador for only one species of Hesperiidae. Draudt gave geographic ranges
rather than specific localities and I found no references to El Salvador. Evans, who
carefully recorded type localities and country of origin for all material in the British
Museum (Natural History), was the principal source for published records. I did
not have access to most of the works of Lindsey, Skinner, Williams and Bell, thus
any El Salvador records they may contain unfortunately are not included. Any
information on geographic distribution which might be available from Godman and
Salvin and from Hoffman's (1940-1941) list of the butterflies of Mexico is not included
as I do not have these publications on hand as this is written.
The first published reference to skippers of El Salvador appears to have been
by Bailey (1880) with his description of Celaenorrhinus fritzgaertneri from Loma
Larga near San Miguel, which is the only species mentioned from El Salvador by
Godman & Salvin. The next published records are in Evans' catalogue. Volume 1
(1951), Pyrrhopyginae, contains no El Salvador records. Volume 2 (1952) and
Volume 3 (1953), Pyrginae, list 46 new records from BMNH material. Franz &
SchrSder (1954) published a list of the species in a small collection of El Salvador











butterflies that included 23 species of Pyrginae, at least one of which is a probable
mis-identification, impossible to re-assign. This added 8 new Pyrginae records.
They also list 10 species of Hesperiinae of which one is extremely doubtful, leaving
9 new Hesperiinae records. Volume 4 (1955) of Evans' catalogue added 6 more
Hesperiinae records. Three Pyrginae were added by Steinhauser (1972) and 8
Pyrginae and 10 Hesperiinae (1974), bringing the total Hesperiidae record for El
Salvador to 91 (66 Pyrginae and 25 Hesperiinae).

COMPILATION

The sources of the material used are the published references mentioned
above plus various collections of El Salvador skippers. Undoubtedly a great wealth
of additional material exists in museums and private collections, but the task of
assembling even a fraction of this is formidable and remains for the future. All
of the determinations except for BMNH material and the Franz & Schroder col-
lection were made by me except as otherwise noted. Any errors are my full res-
ponsibility.
For each species, immediately following the name, the total number of examples
known from El Salvador is shown in parentheses. Following this is a statement of
approximate geographic range. Unless otherwise noted, this is based on Evans
(1951, 1952, 1953, 1955), Draudt (1921 1924) and/or Dos Passos (1964). For species
described after 1955, it is obvious that distribution data must come from the publica-
tion in which the insect was described and no additional reference to it is made.
Observed food plant association is given where possible based on El Salvador
observations. Habits, biological notes, systematic notes and various peculiarites
are noted if considered of interest. Capture records are listed by months for each
locality, brief descriptions of which are given following the list. To note complete
data (specific date and collector) would be too voluminous. Material from sources
other than the Steinhauser collection are followed by appropriate identifying
abbreviations which are listed below.
I have reversed the normal procedure for earmarking new records. As 68%
of the entries are new records, only previous records are earmarked: ** for Bailey,
* for Evans, + for Franz & Schroder and # for Steinhauser. Queried (?) entries are
doubtful records not included in the totals.
Listed below are the collections which supplied the source material, their
identifying abbreviations and comments on contributors:

AM Allyn Museum of Entomology. This refers ony to material on hand prior to
accession of the Steinhauser collection. The Hesperiidae had not been arranged
when I was in Sarasota and only 4 El Salvador specimens are included in the
list.
BMNH British Museum (Natural History) as determined and catalogued by Evans.
B Bailey (1880). I have included the 12 specimens of unknown sex which comprise
the type series of C. fritzgaertneri. Their present location is not known.
FS The collection reported on by Franz & Schroder (1954). Presumably the deter-
minations were by the authors.
MS Miguel and Francisco Serrano; collected mostly by them froml957 to 1973.
U University of El Salvador; collected mostly by Victor Hellebuyck and Francisco
Serrano with contributions from various students and a few specimens salvaged
from older collections (Edward Fischer and Rex J. Bartges).
VH Victor Hellebuyck; collected by him.
RB Richard Bosse; collected by him.
SLS Stephen R. and Levona M. Steinhauser. Except for 10 specimens contributed
by Victor Hellebuyck, Alberto Muyshondt and T. R. Manley, all were collected
by the author and his wife. More than 99% of this collection is now in the Allyn
Museum. These initials are used only in the Summary of Material Used; entries
not otherwise classified are from the Steinhauser collection.











SUMMARY OF MATERIAL USED


Pyrrhopyginae Pyrginae Hesperiinae Total



Coll.

AM 1 3 1 1 2 4
BMNH 46 56 8 9 54 65
B 1 12 1 12
FS 22 71 9 16 31 87
MS 3 4 98 188 58 102 159 294
U 53 82 25 31 78 113
VH 66 115 44 71 110 186
RB 9 11 1 1 10 12
SLS 3 3 148 4373 114 2705 265 7081
Total 4 7 155 4911 125 2936 284 7854*
New
Record 4 89 100 193

Of this total, 272 remain undetermined: 7599 of the Urbanus proteus complex;
16 Astraptes (?) sp. from the Franz & Schrbder list; 52 undetermined specimens,
mostly females of the Pyrginae "E" Group in the Steinhauser collection; 16
Psoralis (?) sp. (Hesperiinae) SLS; 13 Tigasis (?) sp. MS; 29 Mellana sp. SLS; 140
assorted Hesperiinae of the "J, K, L" Groups (137 SLS, 1 FS, 1 MS, 1 VH). It should
be noted that a large portion of the Steinhauser collection was still in papers when
these data were compiled, explaining the large amount of undetermined material.

PYRRHOPYGINAE

Elbella scylla scylla (M6netries, 1855). (16 19). Range Mexico to Nicaragua.
Hindwing is narrowly white before fringe, trending toward the subspecies dulcinea
(Pl6tz, 1879). Female perches beneath leaves with wings flat; male not observed.
San Salvador 1$ Mar (MS); La Libertad 19 Nov.
E. patrobas patrobas (Hewitson, 1857). (1l). Range Guatemala to Colombia.
No data 16 (MS).
Myscelus amystis hages Godman & Salvin, 1893. (26 19). Range Mexico to
Panama. Los Chorros 16 Mar (MS), 18 Dec (MS); La Libertad 19 Nov.
M. belti Godman & Salvin, 1879. (19). Range Guatemala to Costa Rica. Cerro
Boqueron 19 Oct.

PYRGINAE

Phocidespolybius lilea (Reakirt, 1866). (46 59.) Range Texas to Costa Rica. Santa
Tecla 19 June, 1l July, 16 Oct; San Salvador 19 July (VH), 19 Aug (MS), 13 Nov
(MS), 19 Dec (U); Ilopango 19 Feb (VH); Ataco 16Aug.
P. pigmalion belus Godman & Salvin, 1893. (96 79). Evans (1952) shows 6 sub-
species, 3 of which apply to Central and South American forms: belus from Mexico,
pigmalion (Cramer, 1779) from Guatemala to Venezuela and hewitsonius Mabille,
1883 from Venezuela to Argentina. Belus has very broad forewing hyaline markings,
pigmalion very narrow and hewitsonius medium. El Salvador specimens are quite
variable, but mostly approach belus, indicating a rather peculiar geographical











distribution for the subspecies if it is not indeed a valid species. The entire
pigmalion complex needs detailed study and review. Meanwhile El Salvador ex-
amples are tentatively placed in belus. Food plant Terminalia catappa (Combre-
taceae). San Salvador 1 Mar (VH), 13 Oct, 19 Nov (VH), 29 Dec (1 RB, 1 U); Santa
Tecla 1 Jan, 16 19 July, 1l 19 Sept, 16 19 Nov; Los Chorros 16 July (MS); Ilopango
19 Feb (VH); La Perla 1( Jan; La Libertad 13 Nov.
P. urania urania (Westwood, 1852). (273 119). Range USA to El Salvador. This
is apparently a high altitude insect as it has been found in El Salvador only above
1800 m. Hda. Montecristo 23 Jan (U), 13 19 Feb, 213 69 Mar (43 VH, 18 MS), 13
May; Cerro Verde 23 49 Aug.
+ Phanus vitreus (Stoll, 1781). (83 109). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Perches
with wings semi-closed when feeding on flowers; rests beneath leaves with wings
flat. Some males have white scaling at apex of upper forewing. San Salvador 19 July
(MS), 13 Aug, 19 Nov (FS); Santa Tecla 33 39 July, 13 29 Aug, 29 Sept; Cerro Las
Pavas 19 Aug (MS); Cojutepeque 13 July (MS); Cerro San Jacinto 13 Nov; Tamanique
13 Aug.
P. marshallii Kirby, 1880. (23). Range Mexico to Brasil. Rests beneath leaves
with wings flat. La Libertad 23 Nov.
Udranomia kikkawai (Weeks, 1906). (13). Range Mexico to Brasil. La Libertad
13 Nov.
Proteides mercurius mercurius (Fabricius, 1787). (23 29). Range USA to
Argentina. San Salvador 13 Nov. (MS); Hda. La Carrera 13 July (VH); Santa Tecla
19 Aug; La Libertad 19 Nov.
Epargyreus socus orizaba Scudder, 1872. (33). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
As Monroe & Miller (1967) say, "The species in this group are poorly understood--".
All the examples known from El Salvador belong in that part of the exadeus com-
plex without an additional dorsal spine to the clasp, namely socus and exadeus
with their various subspecies, nutra and aspina. The great bulk of Salvadorean
Epargyreus fit roughly into Evans' cruza with much individual variation. The
arrangement (spot in 2 overlapping cell spot) and the orange color of the forewing
spots, the genitalia and the character of the under hindwing white spot place these
high altitude specimens clearly as orizaba. All 3 specimens collected by V. Helle-
buyck. Cerro Cacaguatique 23 Mar (13 VH); Hda. Montecristo 13 Mar (U).
*E. exadeus cruza Evans, 1952. (1443 669). These all key out to cruza Evans, but
needed revisionary work on the exadeus complex may result in some different
determinations. Food plant Leguminosae "madre de cacao". The relative seasonal
abundance is more or less reflected in the monthly captures shown below. San
Salvador 19 no date (RB), 23 April (1 RB, 1 FS), 63 July (FS), 33 19 Aug (FS), 33
Sept (FS), 23 Oct (FS), 19 Sept (U), 19 Nov (U); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 13 19 Mar, 19
April, 19 May, 153 29 June, 293 169 July, 33 59 Aug, 563 279 Sept, 39 Oct, 19 Nov,
29 Dec; Sta. Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 43 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto 23 19 Jan, 13 Dec;
Los Chorros 13 Mar (VH), 23 Sept (MS), 19 Oct (VH), 13 Nov (VH); Quezaltepeque
13 Feb (U); San Isidro 13 July; Rio El Molino 43 April, 33 May; La Libertad 13
Feb; Hda. Montecristo 23 Mar; no data available 13 (BMNH).
*Polygonus leo leo (Gmelin, 1790). (223 149). Range Florida to Argentina. The
l)os Passos check list (1964) indicates arizonensis (Shumer, 1911) as the US sub-
species. Evans considered arizonensis a synonym of leo. Dos Passos lists pallida
Riber, 1925 as a synonym of arizonensis, but the type locality of pallida is Peru.
Evans considered pallida a synonym of leo. I have followed Evans. The insect fre-
quents shaded undergrowth areas and spends much time resting on tree trunks,
beneath leaves and on rocks and overhanging gully banks with wings together.
La Libertad 23 1 9 Jan, 19 Feb (U), 128 69 Nov, 19 Dec; La Perla 13 Jan, 13 19 Dec;
Santa Tecla 43 39 July; Los Chorros 19 Nov (VH); Agua Caliente 13 Feb; No data
available 13 (BMNH).
P. manueli manueli Bell & Comstock, 1948. (13). Range Florida to Argentina.
Santa Tecla, 13 Sept.
*Chioides catillus albofasciatus (Hewitson, 1867). (143 19). Range USA to










Colombia. San Salvador 16 Aug (MS), 16 Dec (MS); San Miguel 16 June (U);
Los Chorros 23 19 Dec (16 U); Santa Tecla 15 April; San Isidro 28 Jan, 26 Dec; La
Perla 13 Dec; Ilopango 16 Jan; Rio El Molino 16 May; No data available 16
(BMNH).
C. zilpa zilpa (Butler, 1874). (126 39). Range Mexico (Guerrero) to Ecuador.
Evans (1952) indicates namba Evans, 1952 as a subspecies from N. Sonora and
Arizona. Dos Passos (1964) shows zilpa as a USA occurrence, but does not list
namba as a synonym, apparently having overlooked this name. San Salvador 18
Sept (MS); Ilopango 18 July; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan; Los Chorros 15 Feb, 15
April (U), 15 June (MS); Santa Tecla 19 June, 53 July, 15 Aug, 19 Sept; Rio El
Molino 18 April.
*Aguna asander asander (Hewitson, 1867). (198 299). Range USA to Argentina.
Santa Ana 19 Aug (MS); Hda. La Carrera 19 July (VH); Cerro Verde 23 29 June, 13
89 Aug (19 VH); San Isidro 25 Mar, 13 July; Rio El Molino 15 April, 13 May; Santa
Tecla 25 79 July, 19 Aug, 18 Sept, 19 Oct; La Libertad 19 Nov; Tamanique 13 19
April, 4( 29 Nov, 25 29 Dec; Hda. Montecristo 29 Mar; no data available 15 (BMNH).
A. aurunce (Hewitson, 1867). (35 19). Range Guatemala to Brasil. Santa Tecla
25 July; Sta. Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 19 Aug; La Libertad 15 Feb.
A. metophis (Latreille, 1824). (38). Range Mexico to Brasil. Presa El Guayabo
15 Jan; La Libertad 15 Feb; Agua Caliente 13 Feb.
*Typhedanus undulatus (Hewitson, 1867). (53 39). Range USA to Argentina.
San Salvador 19 Jan (MS), 15 July (FS); Ilopango 28 Jan; Santa Tecla 15 Jan, 19
July; Rio El Molino 15 April; no data available 19 (BMNH).
Polythrix octomaculata octomaculata (Sepp, 1848). (26 89). Range USA (Free-
man, 1967) to Argentina. Godman & Salvin (1893) described Eudamas alciphron
from a female from Guerrero, Mexico. Only the type is in the British Museum
(Natural History). In El Salvador females of both alciphron (broad white area on
hind wing beneath) and octomaculata (no white area) are found together along with
some with more or less white dusting. The males are of octomaculata form and I
have decided that alciphron merely represents an extreme in the normal variation
of intensity of white scaling in the female rather than a separate subspecific or
specific entity. A male and a female, apparently siblings, were found as larvae by
A. Muyshondt on a single branch of Toluiferaperreirae at El Balsamar on the coast
west of La Libertad and were raised by the author. Both are the dark octomaculata
form. San Salvador 19 (octomaculata) Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 18 (octomaculata)
29 (alciphron) July, 39 (1 octomaculata, 2 alciphron) Aug, 19 (alciphron) Sept; El
Balsamar 15 (octomaculata) 30 Oct, 19 (octomaculata) 2 Nov (Ex larvae siblings).
P. asine (Hewitson, 1867). (615 699). Range Mexico to Peru. Always perches
with wings flat. San Salvador 19 Sept (U), 15 Oct (VH), 19 no date (RB); Cerro San
Jacinto 25 Jan, 18 Nov, 38 19 Dec; Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 25 39 June, 265 319
July, 118 149 Aug, 88 129 Sept, 16 19 Oct, 19 Nov, 13 Dec; La Libertad 19 Feb; San
Isidro 25 Jan; Cerro Verde 19 Aug (MS), 19 Dec; Los Chorros 15 Dec; Ilopango
13 Jan; Rio El Molino 15 May.
P. caunus (Herrich-Schfiffer, 1869). (19). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Determined
by H. A. Freeman, May, 1973. La Libertad 19 Nov.
Chrysoplectrum perniciosus epicincia (Butler & Druce, 1872). (19). Range Mexico
to Costa Rica. The one female was hiding beneath a leaf. La Libertad 19 Nov.
#Zestusa staudingeri staudingeri (Mabille, 1888). (723 19). Range Guatemala
to El Salvador. Hda. Montecristo 58 Feb, 678 19 Mar (18 U).
#Z. levona Steinhauser, 1972. (165 19). Range Mexico to El Salvador (Stein-
hauser, 1974). Hda. Montecristo 25 Feb, 145 19 Mar.
Codatractus carlos carlos Evans, 1952. (68 29). Range Mexico to Peru. Cerro
San Jacinto 19 Dec; Santa Tecla 15 June, 28 July; Tamanique 19 July; Ilopango 18
Jan; La Perla 16 Jan; Los Chorros 15 Feb (VH).
C. alcaeus alcaeus (Hewitson, 1867). (28 129). Range USA to Costa Rica. San
Salvador 19 July (U); Santa Tecla 19 June, 15 59 July; Tamanique 29 July, 19 Aug;
Rio El Molino 15 April; Los Chorros 19 June (MS), 19 July (MS).












C. bryaxis bryaxis (Hewitson, 1867). (236 99). Range Mexico (Vera Cruz)
to Honduras. Los Chorros 16 Mar (U), 16 June (VH), 19 July (MS); Santa Tecla
13 Feb, 92 29 July, 16 Aug, 16 Sept. 16 Oct; San Isidro 13 Jan; Sta. Tecla-Comasagua
Rd. 16 Aug; Tamanique 36 39 July, 36 29 Aug; Hda. Montecristo 19 Mar.
C. hyster (Dyar, 1916). (13 19). Range Mexico (D. F., Acapulco, Guerrero) to
El Salvador. This represents a considerable southern extension of the previously
known range. Santa Tecla 19 May, 16 July.
#Ridens crison howarthi Steinhauser, 1974. (1926 579). Range Cerro Mira-
mundo Cloud Forest, El Salvador 22-2400 m. Distribution in various collections not
indicated below was reported by Steinhauser (1974). Hda. Montecristo 193 49
Jan, 946 89 Feb (46 U), 536 279 Mar (19 U, 16 39 VH, 16 39 MS, 23 19 AM), 39 April,
83 59 May, 76 49 Nov, 116 69 Dec.
#R. toddi Steinhauser, 1974. (103 59). Range Cerro Miramundo Cloud Forest,
El Salvador, 22-2400 m. Distribution in collections not indicated below was reported
by Steinhauser (1974). One 9 from the SLS collection was taken by T. R. Manley.
Hda. Montecristo 33 Jan, 23 Feb, 53 39 Mar (19 U), 29 May.
(?)R. fulminans (Herrich-Schiffer, 1869). (16). Range Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia. According to Franz & Schroder (1954) one male of Thymele fulminans
Herrich-Schiffer, 1869 was taken in San Salvador 23-IX. Some other obvious mis-
identifications in that publication make this one doubtful. I suspect that it may act-
ually be an Astraptes species, perhaps egregius Butler, known to occur in El Salvador
and superficially similar. I have mentioned it here but do not include it as an El
Salvador record.
Urbanus proteus complex (759). I use the term "complex" with double meaning to
include all the green-blue bodied forms of Urbanus. The complex can be further
subdivided into two groups: those with the inner hindwing central band either con-
tinuous or, if of separated spots, with the cell spot larger (proteus gp.), and those with
the band consisting of small, sub-equal, well separated spots (esmeraldus gp.).
(U. acawois Williams, 1926 forms a separate third group, but has not been found in
El Salvador). Even this breakdown leaves many individuals, especially females, in
an uncertain position. The males can be fairly well identified by genitalia, but
even here there is much variation and detailed studies of long series are needed to
determine if this is merely variation or bears some taxonomic significance. The
females are another problem. Some can be readily identified from characteristic
wing markings: proteus (in part), viterboana (without tyring to separate alva) and
pronta. For the rest, much work remains to be done. Below is a capture breakdown of
75 undetermined females. San Salvador 19 Sept (U); Santa Tecla 29 June, 209
July, 99 Aug, 279 Sept; La Perla 19 Jan; San Isidro 19 July, 19 Dec; Rio El Molino 19
May; Cerro Verde 59 June, 19 Aug; Los Chorros 19 Sept; La Libertad 29 Sept, 29
Nov; Tamanique 19 Dec.
+ U. proteus proteus (Linnaeus, 1758). (358 369). Range USA to Argentina. The
females are difficult to separate from females of U. pronus. The characteristics by
which Evans separates the proteus group from the esmeraldus group are not
always clear cut. Some unidentified females may be proteus but I doubt if any I have
determined as proteus are incorrectly placed. San Salvador 13 39 July (FS), 16
19 Sept (U); Santa Tecla 16 19 Mar (13 MS), 26 39 June, 156 179 July, 56 49 Aug,
23 39 Sept, 16 Oct, 29 Dec; Vol. Conchagua 13 Aug (MS); Sensuntepeque 19 July
(MS); Apastepeque 16 July (FS); La Libertad 16 April; San Isidro 16 Dec; Cerro
Verde 16 June, 19 Aug; Cerro San Jacinto 13 Jan; Ilopango 16 Jan.
U. viterboana (Ehrmann, 1907). (43 19). Evans indicates 3 "subspecies"
of viterboana: alva Evans, 1952 ranging from Mexico to Argentina, viterboana
ranging from Mexico to Bolivia and belli Hayward, 1935 ranging from Bolivia to
Argentina. It is clear that at least viterboana and alva are separate species, with

slight but consistent differences in color, maculation and genitalia. In order to
separate them with any degree of certainty, the genitalia (male and female) must
be examined, and long series of spread material compared. As the major part of the
material I worked with was still in papers, this was difficult. The material from the











Miramundo Cloud Forest (Hda. Montecristo) is clearly viterboana, but much of the
rest is doubtful. Therefore I have listed only the cloud forest material as viterboana
and the rest as alva, though I am sure that the alva listing contains numerous
specimens of viterboana. Hda. Montercristo 35 Mar, 16 19 May.
*U. alva Evans, 1952. (110$ 909). See note under U. viterboana. Los Chorros
16 Oct (VH); Cerro Las Pavas 16 July (MS); Vol. Conchagua 1 Aug (MS); Santa
Tecla 16 Jan, 19 Feb, 19 Mar, 18 59 June, 196 189 July, 256 249 Aug, 475 319 Sept,
23 39 Dec; La Libertad 23 Nov; San Isidro 13 Jan; Cerro Verde 19 June, 18 29
Aug, 19 Dec; Tamanique 19 Nov, 13 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 48 Jan; La Perla 23
Jan; Ilopango 1 19 Jan; no data available 19 (BMNH).
U. pronta Evans, 1952. (135 239). Range Mexico to Paraguay. These are easily
distinguished by the underside hindwing markings (broken discal stripe) and gen-
italia. Santa Tecla 19 May, 29 June, 35 99 July, 35 49 Aug, 48 39 Sept, 13 39 Oct; Los
Chorros 19 June, 18 Oct; Ilopango 13 Jan.
U. pronus Evans, 1952. (98 69). Range Mexico to Bolivia. The females are
difficult to separate from other females of the proteus complex except in areas where
a limited number of forms occur as in the Miramundo cloud forest. Thus the only
females I have positively determined are from Miramundo. Santa Tecla 1&
Sept; Cerro Verde 23 Aug; Majaditas 15 Feb; Hda. Montecristo 19 Feb, 55 39 Mar
(15 U), 29 April.
U. esmeraldus (Butler 1877). (658). Range Mexico to Paraguay. According to
Evans, esmeraldus always has hyaline markings in spaces 4 & 5 of the forewing.
The majority of El Salvador specimens, clearly determined from the male genitalia,
have no such markings. The form of the clasp of the male genitalia as sketched by
Evans is quite different from the Godman & Salvin drawing. The majority of
the El Salvador specimens are very close to Evans' figure with normal individual
variation. Four specimens, however, agree with the G & S figure and there are no
intermediate forms. This suggests that "esmeraldus" consists of at least two se-
parate species. I have been unable to separate the females from others of the
esmeraldus group, thus no females are shown in the capture data below. San
Salvador 15 Nov (MS); Santa Tecla 23 June, 165 July (one with G & S type genitalia),
106 Aug, 15$ Sept (one with G & S type genitalia), 15 Oct, 38 Nov, 18 Dec; La
Libertad 1 June; San Isidro 15 July; Cerro Verde 1 Aug; Cerro San Jacinto 25
Jan, 25 Nov, 65 Dec; lopango 35 Jan (2 with G & S type genitalia).
U. evona Evans, 1952. (128). Range Mexico to Brasil. As with the rest of the
esmeraldus group I have been unable to identify females with any surety and they
are all lumped in the unidentified category. Vol. Conchagua 15 Aug (MS); Santa
Tecla 38 July, 18 Aug, 15 Sept,1 Dec; San Isidro 1 Jan, 1C July; Sta Tecla-
Comasagua Rd. 18 Aug, 15 Sept; Hda. Montecristo 13 Mar.
U. esta Evans, 1952. (43). Range Mexico to Argentina. Again no females could
be positively identified. La Libertad 15 Oct; Santa Tecla 15 Jan, 25 July.
U. dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790.) (663 399). Range USA to Argentina. Often
found in great numbers beneath well shaded rock overhangs or along steep creek
banks where rocks or tree roots provide cave-like shaded areas. This is the most
common Urbanus species in El Salvador. San Salvador 15 June (FS), 15 19
July (FS), 15 Sept (FS), 15 Oct (MS), 1l no date (RB); Los Chorros 19 Mar (VH)
13 Sept; Sensuntepeque 23 July (MS); Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 15 April (U);
Santa Tecla 15 Jan, 15 Mar, 88 69 June, 255 159 July, 78 39 Aug, 38 29 Sept,
19 Nov, 15 Dec; La Libertad 18 19 Feb, 13 Aug, 19 Oct, 18 Nov, 19 Dec; San Isidro
15 Jan, 13 April; Cerro Verde 39 June, 25 Aug, 15 Dec; La Perla 19 Jan; Ilopango
19 Jan; Agua Caliente 19 Feb; Rio El Molino 23 May; no data available 1 (BMNH).
+U. teleus (Hiibner, 1821). (265 229). Range USA to Argentina. Franz &
Schrider report 2 specimens of U. eurycles (Latreille, 1723 (sic!)) and one U. eurycles
latipennis (Mabille & Vuillot, 1891). Both these names are treated by Evans (1952)
and Dos Passos (1964) as synonyms of teleus. San Salvador 19 July (FS), 19
Aug (FS), 19 Sept (MS), 19 Oct (FS); Sensuntepeque 15 July (MS); Los Chorros
19 June (MS); Santa Tecla 15 Jan, 19 Mar, 43 39 June, 78 89 July, 28 19 Aug,












96 39 Sept, 19 Oct; La Libertad 16 Feb; Cerro Boqueron 16 Dec.
*U. tanna Evans, 1952. (216 159). Range USA to Ecuador. San Salvador 16
Sept (U), 19 Nov (U); Ilopango 16 Feb (VH); Cerro San Jacinto 1Dec; Santa Tecla
19 Mar, 16 19 April, 26 59 June, 86 49 July, 16 19 Aug, 46 Sept; Los Chorros 16
April (MS); La Libertad 19 Aug; Presa El Guayabo 16 Jan; no data available 19
(BMNH).
*U. simplicius (Stoll, 1790). (236 119). Range USA to Argentina. Franz &
Schroder (1954) list 16 & 19 of U. gracilicauda (Pltz, 1880 (sic!)) which Evans (1952)
and Dos Passos (1964) treat as a synonym of simplicius. San Salvador 16 June
(FS), 29 Aug (1 FS, 1 VH), 16 19 no date (RB); Vol. Conchagua 16 Aug (MS); Santa
Tecla 19 Jan, 16 June, 46 29 July, 16 19 Aug, 46 39 Sept; La Libertad 16 Aug;
San Isidro 16 Mar, 16 July, 19 Oct; Tamanique 16 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 16
May; Ilopango 26 Jan; Presa El Guayabo 16 Jan; Meanguera 16 April; no data
available 16 (BMNH).
U. procne (Pltz, 1880). (506 179). Range USA to Argentina. San Salvador
16 Sept (U); Apopa 16 Oct (MS); Santa Tecla 33 49 Jan, 46 Mar, 26 29 June,
276 89 July, 16 Aug, 76 29 Sept, 19 Dec; La Libertad 26 Feb; La Perla 16 Oct; Rio
El Molino 16 Arpil.
U. doryssus doryssus Swainson, 1831. (136 49). Range USA to Brasil. San
Salvador 19 Oct (MS); Ilopango 16 Feb (VH); Los Chorros 16 19 Mar (VH); La
Libertad 26 Feb (1 U), 36 19 Nov, 46 Dec; San Isidro 16 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto
19 Jan; La Perla 16 Dec.
U. albimargo albimargo (Mabille, 1875). (156). Range Mexico to Ecuador.
Santa Tecla 16 Sept; La Libertad 26 Feb, 16 June, 38 Aug, 86 Nov.
Astraptes talus (Cramer, 1777). (76 29). Range Mexico to Brasil and Antilles.
Santa Tecla 16 19 July; La Libertad 16 Nov; La Perla 26 Jan, 19 Oct, 36 Dec.
A. fulgerator azul (Reakirt, 1866). (576 469). Range USA to Bolivia. The
fulgerator fulgor Hayward, 1938 complex of Astraptes which includes azul,
catemacoensis Freeman, 1967 and perhaps some others as yet undescribed, is, like
the Epargyreus exadeus complex, in need of revision. The variation in color, size,
wing shape, maculation and genitalia of the below-listed El Salvador material is
considerable. I have lumped them all together until such time as greater clarity is
established. San Salvador 19 April (RB), 19 June (MS), 19 nodate (MS); Los Chorros
16 April, 16 July (MS), 16 Nov (VH); Santa Tecla 16 29 June, 246 239 July, 76
39 Aug, 36 19 Sept, 16 19 Oct; La Libertad 19 Jan, 16 19 Feb, 16 April, 29 June, 16
Nov, 46 29 Dec; San Isidro 16 Jan, 19 Feb, 19 April, 16 Aug, 16 Oct; Cerro Verde
29 Aug (1 VH); Tamanique 16 19 Aug; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Nov (VH), 16 Dec; La
Perla 16 Jan; Ilopango 16 Jan; Hda. Montecristo 36 29 Mar (16 19 U).
A. egregius egregius (Butler, 1870). (16 29). Range Mexico to Brasil. San Salva-
dor 19 Oct (MS); Los Chorros 19 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 16 July.
A. enotrus (Stroll, 1781). (16 19). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Ilopango 16
Feb (VH); San Isidro 19 Jan.
A. samson Evans, 1952. (16). Range El Salvador to Brasil. San Salvador 16
Aug (MS).
A. megalurus (Mabille, 1877). (26 29). Range Mexico to Colombia. Los Chorros
19 July (MS); Cerro Verde 16 June; Hda. Montecristo 16 19 Mar.
*A. alardus latia Evans, 1952. (56 99). Range Mexico to Colombia. Evans gives
male forewing length as 30mm. which agrees with El Salvador males; females are
generally 33-35mm. but one taken in December, measures only 26mm. "El Salvador"
19 no date (MS); Cerro Las Pavas 16 July (MS); Los Chorros 19 Oct (VH); Santa
Tecla 36 49 July, 19 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Dec; Ataco 19 Aug; no data avail-
able 16 (BMNH).
A. alector (Felder, 1866). (19). Range El Salvador to Colombia. A single female
from the Miramundo cloud forest (2300 m.) is very close to the single female of
gilbert which was taken at sea level along the coast. It differs from gilbert in
having much more extensive white both above and beneath and in the ostium
bursae which is much less deeply cleft than in gilbert. The extent and clarity of the


~











upper forewing white patch is much less than in the Seitz illustration of alector.
This may well be a new subspecies of either alector or gilbert or perhaps a median
form in a clinal variation between the two. On the other hand, the presence of both
forms in El Salvador, albeit in completely different environments, may indicate a
form variation based on environmental factors rather than genetically controlled.
No firm decision can be made based on such scant material. Hda. Montecristo
19 Mar.
A. gilbert Freeman, 1969 (19). Range USA to El Salvador. Evans indicates
hopfferi (Plitz, 1882) as a subspecies of alector. Freeman (1969) in describing
gilbert from San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas, Mexico and Hidalgo Co., Texas
separates alector and hopfferi as distinct species, a decision with which I concur.
Evans does not illustrate separately the male genitalia of hopfferi and alector and
since the British Museum had but one male of alector but 33 of hopfferi, the genitalia
illustrated are presumably hopfferi. I don't know whether Freeman had any ex-
amples of alector to actually compare the genitalia or whether he compared with
actual examples of hopfferi and assumed Evans' sketch to be alector (which it may
be). In order to be sure that gilbert is a valid species rather than a subspecies of
alector, these comparisons and similar comparisons of female genitalia should be
made. Pending such action I will follow Freeman and consider this a valid species.
The one female from El Salvador is tentatively placed here because it fits quite close-
ly to Freeman's description and the genitalia are somewhat different from the
single female I have determined tentatively as alector. La Perla 19 Jan.
A. creteus crana Evans, 1952. (23 49). Range Chiapas, Mexico (Freeman, 1967)
to Panama. Freeman (1967) separates A. escalantei Freeman, 1967 from A. creteus
siges Mabille, 1903 on the basis of slight differences in wing shape and male
genitalia and the absence of green iridescense on the under forewing basal costa
in escalantei which he states is present in siges though Evans states that there are
rarely traces of green iridescence. Freeman separates escalantei from crana Evans,
1952 (which he has raised to specific rank) on the basis of white along the under
forewing costa in crana whereas in escalantei the costa is entirely brown. Both
escalantei and crana fly together in Chiapas but siges is known only from Brasil,
Paraguay and Argentina. The female of escalantei is unknown. The females from
El Salvador that I have determined as crana are quite clearly so, with prominent
white costa of the under forewing. The two males are not so clear. One, a badly
battered specimen, has but a very few scattered white scales along its otherwise
brown costa and the other, though more plentifully white still does not approach
the whiteness of the females. I had originally determined the battered male as
escalantei until I caught the second male. I now consider them all to be crana and
the validity of escalantei as more than a variation of crana is questionable. Cerro
Verde 19 April (VH), 18 19 June, 1c 19 Aug; Tamanique 19 Nov.
*A. anaphus annetta Evans, 1952. (456 509). Range USA to Bolivia. San Salvador
16 June (MS), 19 Aug (MS), 19 Sept (U), 19 Oct (MS); Shalpa 19 July (MS); Ilopango
13 Jan, 13 19 Feb (VH); Santa Tecla 13 19 Feb, 23 19 June, 83 139 July, 23 39 Aug,
33 69 Sept, 29 Oct, 19 Dec; La Libertad 33 Nov; San Isidro 18 Oct; Cerro Verde 43
19 Aug (1 VH) Tamanique 19 Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 13 39 Dec; Cerro Boqueron
19 Nov, 16 Dec; Hda. Montecristo 153 129 Mar (1 19 U, 19 MS, 19 VH); no data
available 16 (BMNH).
*Autochton cellus mexicana (Draudt, 1922). (203 19). Evans (1952) shows
range of cellus as USA and Mexico and classes mexicana as a synonym as does Dos
Passos (1964). Draudt (in Seitz, 1922) credits cellus as "widespread in North and
Central America" and describes mexicana as "form. nov." from Mexico. Until I
can learn more of the relative geographical distribution of cells and mexicana
I tentatively resurrect mexicana Draudt as a valid subspecies. The Miramundo
specimens, however, do not fit Draudt's description, as the apical spots are
prominent and I suspect this will eventually prove to be a separate subspecies or
even species. Hda. Montecristo (extending down to Los Planes at about 1900 m.)
53 April, 153 19 May (13MS, 23U).












+ A. cincta (Plotz, 1882). (46 19). Range Mexico to El Salvador. Los Planes -
Miramundo area 1500-1800 m. 16 Mar, 26 April, 19 Aug (FS), 18 Nov.
A. vectilucis (Butler, 1874). (1196 169). Range Mexico to Panama. In El Salvador
vectilucis is limited to high altitudes, ie. above 1500 m. Cerro Verde 16 Mar, 23
39 June, 98 39 Aug, 1 Nov (MS), 106 29 Dec (19 VH): Miramundo area 16-1800 m.
48 Dec; Hda. Montecristo 166 Jan, 216 29 Feb; 236 39 Mar (19 U, 13 MS, 16 VH),
23 Oct (U), 136 19 Nov, 176 29 Dec.
*A. neis (Geyer, 1832). (426 139). Range Mexico to Paraguay. San Salvador
13 Aug (MS); Ilopango 43 Jan, 16 Mar (MS); Tecomatepec 19 Dec (U); Los Chorros
16 Mar (VH), 16 April, 26 June, 16 Aug (MS), 16 Sept, 23 Oct; Santa Tecla 19
Jan, 16 July, 19 Aug, 29 Sept, 19 Oct; La Libertad 16 June, 16 Nov; San Isidro 26
Jan, 16 April, 26 July, 29 Aug, 13 Sept, 16 19 Oct, 19 Dec; Tamanique 36 July, 13
Oct, 66 Nov, 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 26 Jan, 29 Dec; Sta Tecla-Comasaqua Rd.
19 Aug, 16 Sept; Majaditas 36 Feb; no data available 16 (BMNH).
*A. zarex (Hfibner, 1818). (396 59). Range Mexico to Argentina. San Salvador
16 May (FS as A. aunus (Fabricius, 1781)), 13 July (MS), 16 Dec (MS); Cerro San
Jacinto 113 Jan, 36 Nov (2 VH), 36 Dec; Santa Tecla 29 Sept, 19 Oct; La Libertad
78 Nov, 18 Dec; San Isidro 16 July, 16 Aug; Los Chorros 13 Oct; 16 Dec; La Perla
26 Dec; Ilopango 16 19 Jan; Rio El Molino 16 May; no data available 3 19 (BMNH).
#Achalarus casica (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (23 19). Range USA to El Salvador.
Los Chorros 19 June (MS), 13 July (MS); Rio El Molino 16 April.
*A. albociliatus albociliatus (Mabille, 1877). (186 79 1 sex not determined).
Range USA to Costa Rica. San Salvador 1 sex undertermined April (U), 19 Sept
(VH), 13 Dec (MS); Vol. Conchagua 1i July (VH); Los Chorros 23 April, 19 July
(MS), 1a Dec; Santa Tecla 46 29 July, 16 Aug, 16 Sept; La Libertad 16 Feb, 19
Oct; San Isidro 1a Jan, 13 April; Tamanique 13 19 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan;
16 May; Ilopango 13 Jan; no data available 1 (BMNH).
+A. toxeus (Pl6tz, 1882). (156 69). Range USA to Panama. San Salvador 19
Aug (FS), 13 Oct (U), 16 no date (RB); La Libertad 26 49 Jan, 76 19 Feb, 26 Nov, 13
Dec; Tamanique 16 Oct.
*Cabares potrillo potrillo (Lucas, 1857). (218 69). Range USA to Costa Rica and
Antilles. Metapan 19 Mar (U); Tecomatepec 16 Dec (U); La Libertad 26 Aug (MS),
26 Nov, 18 Dec; Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 19 July, 16 Sept, 19 Dec; San Isidro 16 Jan,
16 Aug, 16 Sept, 13 Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 36 19 Jan; Majaditas 19 Feb; La Perla
16 Jan, 18 Oct, 16 Dec; Rio El Molino 16 May; Barrios 23 April; no data available
13 (BMNH).
Bungalotis astylos (Cramer, 1780). (29). Range El Salvador to Brasil. Both
specimens were taken at the University; one trapped in a classroom. San Salvador
29 Feb (U).
B. quadratum quadratum (Sepp, 1848). (19). Range El Salvador to Surinam.
Santa Tecla 19 June.
+Nascus phocus (Cramer, 1777). (29). Range Guatemala to Paraguay. San
Salvador 19 Aug (FS), 19 Nov (U).
N. paulliniae (Sepp, 1848). (13 19). Range Guatemala to Brasil. San Salvador
19 Feb, 16 Sept (MS).
Ocyba calathana calanus (Godman & Salvin, 1894). (78 19). Range Mexico
to Costa Rica. San Salvador 16 Sept (MS); Cerro San Jacinto 16 Nov (VH), 13 19
Dec (16 U); Los Chorros 13 Sept (VH); Ilopango 28 Feb (VH); Presa El Guayabo
13 Jan.
**Celaenorrhinus fritzgaertneri (Bailey, 1880). (348 239 12 sex not known -
type series). Range Mexico to Costa Rica; type locality Loma Larga near San Miguel,
El Salvador. Evans (1952) lists variegatus Godman & Salvin, 1894 as a subspecies
of fritzgaertneri but suggests that it may be a seasonal variation as both have the
same geographic range. It appears to be a dimorphism independent of season. In
any event, variegatus cannot be accepted as a subspecies. The males, and to a lesser
extent the females, often congregate in great numbers in deep shade beneath rock
overhangs and in shallow caves; the type series, in fact, was captured by Dr. Fritz-










gaertner from 80 feet within the Loma Larga silver mine (Bailey, 1880). They do
not roost in close groups, however, as does Smyrna karwinskii Geyer, 1833
(Muyshondt, 1974). San Salvador I1 19 Feb, 1$ 19 May (FS), 19 June (MS), 19 Aug
(MS), 16 Dec; Tecomatepec 26 19 Dec (U); Los Chorros 26 29 Mar (VH), 16 Oct
(VH); Santa Tecla 39 Jan, 19 April, 16 29 July, 28 Sept, 26 Nov; La Libertad 16
June, 146 59 Nov, 16 29 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 28 Nov, 26 39 Dec; Barrios 16 April.
C. eligius (Stoll, 1782). (56 19). Range according to Seitz from Mexico to South
America; Evans records examples from Costa Rica to Peru. In El Salvador it is
much scarcer than C. fritzgaertneri but flies with it and has similar habits. Los
Chorros 16 Feb (VH); La Libertad 19 Feb (U), 26 Nov, 16 Dec; La Perla 13 Jan.
*Spathilepia clonius (Cramer, 1775). (386 199). Range USA to Argentina. San
Salvador 16 no date (RB), 16 Sept (FS); Tecomatepec 16 Dec (U); Los Chorros 36
April, 16 19 June (MS); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 19 April 16 39 June, 26 29 July, 13 29
Aug, 76 69 Sept, 19 Oct, 19 Dec; La Libertad 26 Nov, 16 Dec; Tamanique 13 Oct,
28 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 76 19 Jan, 16 Dec; Cerro Boqueron 16 Dec; Ilopango
16 Jan; Rio El Molino 36 May; no data available 16 (BMNH).
*Cogia cajeta eluina Godman & Salvin, 1894. (203 49). Range Mexico to
Costa Rica. San Salvador 19 Sept (MS); La Libertad 16 Feb, 18 April, 23 19 June,
19 July (MS); 46 Aug, 48 19 Nov, 26 Dec; La Perla 16 Oct; Rio El Molino 16 April,
16 May; Meanguera 26 April; no data available 16 (BMNH).
C. hippalus hiska Evans, 1953. (46). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. San Salvador
18 July (MS); Rio El Molino 16 April, 23 May.
*C. calchas (Herrich-Schdiffer, 1869). (246 319). Range USA to Argentina. San
Salvador 19 Jan (MS), 16 19 June (16 MS, 19 FS), 16 Aug (FS); Comasagua 19
Aug (MS); Ayagualo 19 Mar (MS); Santa Tecla 59 Jan, 19 May, 26 29 June, 26 49
July, 16 Aug, 39 Sept, 39 Oct, 29 Dec; La Libertad 19 Feb, 19 Aug, 29 Nov; San Isidro
26 Jan, 16 Mar, 16 Aug; Los Chorros 13 April, 36 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 29 Jan;
Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 16 Aug; Ilopango 26 Jan; Rio El Molino 33 April;
Citala 26 Feb, 16 May, no data available 19 (BMNH).
Telemiades megallus Mabille, 1888. (18). Range Mexico to Honduras. Evans
considered megallus a subspecies of epicalus Hubner, 1819 which ranges from
Chiriqui (Western Panama) to Brasil. The only megallus in the British Museum
were 16 39 from Mexico and 19 from Honduras. The type (9) is from W. Colombia.
Draudt in Seitz p.869 shows Panama as the locale. The overlap in geographical
distribution between epicalus and megallus plus the considerable difference in
male genitalia lead me to consider them separate species. The sole male (Mexico)
in the British Museum has no white on the underside hindwing nor does the one
specimen (3) from El Salvador. It may be that there is a northern subspecies without
white in the male, but the material on hand is too scant to be sure. Cerro San Jacinto
16 Dec (VH).
T. amphion fides Bell, 1942. (116 49). Range Mexico to Ecuador. San Salvador
16 July (MS); Santa Tecla 19 Aug, 16 19 Sept; La Libertad 16 Oct, 23 Nov; San Isidro
16 Sept, 26 Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 16 Nov; La Perla 16 Oct; Ilopango 16
19 Jan.
Arteurotia tractipennis tractipennis Butler & Druce, 1872. (176 69). Range
Mexico to Bolivia. Food plant in El Salvador is Croton niveus. Pupa is equipped
with peculiar tufted hairs on the head. Comasagua 16 Oct (VH); Los Chorros 13
no date (MS), 18 Aug (MS), 13 Sept (VH). 18 Dec; Cerro Verde 13 Aug (MS);
Santa Tecla 16 Jan, 19 Feb, 66 29 July, 16 29 Aug, 18 19 Sept; Tamanique 16 Dec;
Cerro Boqueron 16 Dec.
Polyctor cleta Evans, 1953. (476 69). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. Evans (1953)
shows 3 subspecies: polyctor (Prittwitz, 1868), cleta and dagua Evans, 1953,
and states that the genitalia of polyctor and dagua are identical, but differ from
cleta. I have separated cleta therefore as a distinct species. It is possible that some
of the less carefully examined El Salvador material may prove to be polyctor.
Los Chorros 16 July (MS); La Libertad 46 39 Feb, 16 Aug, 236 19 Nov, 176 19 Dec;
Cerro San Jacinto 19 Dec; La Perla 16 Jan.











Nisoniades bessus godma Evans, 1953. (416 99). Range Mexico to Costa Rica.
Because of considerable differences in genitalia, the 9 subsepecies listed by Evans
(1953) probably should be treated as valid separate species. San Salvador 16
June (MS), 16 Aug (MS), 16 Nov; La Libertad 1( Jan, 63 29 Feb, 196 59 Nov, 63
19 Dec; La Perla 16 Dec; Los Chorros 16 19 Sept, 16 Oct, 16 Dec; Rio El Molino
26 April.
+N. rubescens (Moschler, 1876). (676 299). Range USA to Brasil. Reported by
Franz & Schroder as Pellicia bromias (Godman & Salvin, 1894). A male from La
Libertad (26.xii.70) has aberrant genitalia and may be a new species but is included
pending the discovery of more like it. San Salvador 19 Sept (FS); Santa Tecla 26
79 Jan, 19 Feb, 19 May, 16 June, 39 July, 29 Aug, 36 Sept, 19 Nov, 16 69 Dec; La
Libertad 13 Feb, 486 39 Nov, 108 Dec; San Isidro 19 Dec; Cerro Verde 19 June;
Cerro San Jacinto 29 Jan; Metapan 13 Dec.
*N. ephora (Herrich-Schaffer, 1870). (60( 179). Range Mexico to Peru. Los
Chorros 26 Feb (1 MS), 26 April, 16 Sept, 36 Oct (1 U), 166 Dec; Santa Tecla 26
29 Jan, 29 June, 29 Sept, 16 19 Dec; La Libertad 146 19 Nov; San Isidro 13 Jan;
Cerro Verde 29 June, 19 Aug; Tamanique 26 July, 26 Oct, 16 19 Nov; Cerro San
Jacinto 46 39 Jan, 19 Nov, 36 19 Dec; Cerro Boqueron 18 Dec; Ilopango 36 Jan;
Rio El Molino 16 May; no data available 16 (BMNH).
Pachyneuria licisca licisca (Plotz, 1882). (86 39). Range Mexico to Colombia &
Venezuela. Santa Tecla 16 June; La Libertad 16 June, 36 29 Nov; San Isidro 19
Dec; Los Chorros 26 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Jan.
Pellicia costimacula arina Evans, 1953. (136 29). Range Mexico to Panama.
La Libertad 26 19 Feb, 76 19 Nov, 33 Dec; Los Chorros 16 June.
*P. dimidiata dimidiata Herrich-Schaffer, 1870. (346 259). Range Mexico to
Ecuador. Santa Tecla 69 Jan, 19 July, 16 Aug, 1 19 Sept, 19 Oct, 39 Dec; La Libertad
36 Feb, 166 Nov, 16 19 Dec; San Isidro 13 Aug, 23 Oct, 39 Dec; Los Chorros 26
19 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 26 29 Jan, 16 49 Dec; Cerro Boqueron 29 Dec; La Perla
16 Oct, 16 Dec; Rio El Molino 16 April; no data available 16 (BMNH).
Noctuana noctua bipuncta (Plotz, 1884). (113 79). Range Mexico to Nicaragua.
Los Chorros 16 Jan (MS), 16 April, 19 May (MS), 16 June (VH), 16 July (MS),
16 19 Oct; Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 19 July, 29 Sept; Cerro Verde 19 Aug; Sta Tecla-
Comasagua Rd. 26 Aug, 26 Sept; Picacho 23 Mar.
N. stator (Godman & Salvin, 1899). (86 99). Range Mexico to Peru. San
Salvador 19 Sept (MS), 36 19 Oct (16 U, 26 VH, 19 MS); Santa Tecla 16 39 Jan, 19
June, 16 29 July, 18 Aug, 19 Sept; La Libertad 16 Nov; Los Chorros 16 Oct.
Cyclosemia anastomosis Mabille, 1878. (66 39). Range Mexico to Ecuador.
Food plant in El Salvador is Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) (Melastomaceae)
determined by J. Wurdack. San Salvador 19 Sept (MS); Ilopango 13 Feb (VH);
Santa Tecla 16 Feb; Cerro San Jacinto 36 19 Jan, 16 19 Dec.
Bolla cupreiceps (Mabille, 1891). (176 79). Range Mexico to Brasil. San Salvador
16 Nov (MS); Los Chorros 13 Mar (VH), 16 Dec; Santa Tecla 16 19 June, 36 19
Aug, 29 Sept, 19 Oct; La Libertad 16 Jan, 16 19 Feb; Tamanique 19 July; Cerro San
Jacinto 16 Dec; Ilopango 56 Jan, 16 Feb; Rio El Molino 16 May.
*B. orsines (Godman & Salvin, 1896). (16 39). Range Mexico to El Salvador. It
would be interesting to know if Evans' (1952) determination of 16 and 19 orsines
from El Salvador in the BMNH was based on genitalia or maculation. He reports
no examples of evippe (Godman & Salvin, 1896), a very similar insect, from El
Salvador, but I have found evippe to be about the commonest Bolla species there
and have never encountered orsines. Franz & Schr6der's determination of 29
orsines is questionable because of the great problem of determining stray females,
but I include their reported occurrence as part of the record. San Salvador 19
Aug (FS); no data available 13 29 (18 19 BMNH, 19 FS).
B. evippe (Godman & Salvin, 1896). (456 209). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
San Salvador 16 July (MS); Tamanique 16 July, 13 19 Oct (19 VH), 29 Nov;
Santa Tecla 16 Jan, 58 May, 76 39 June, 36 49 July, 23 39 Aug, 26 Sept, 19 Oct,
16 Dec; San Isidro 16 April; Los Chorros 26 April, 16 June, 26 Dec; Cerro San


__











Jacinto 19 May, 19 Nov, 19 Dec; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 56 19 Aug, 26 Sept;
Ilopango 19 Jan; Rio El Molino 46 April, 26 May; Ataco 19 Aug, Metapan 16
May.
B. phylo pullata (Mabille, 1878). (276 139). Range Mexico to northern
South America. San Salvador 19 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 36 29 June,
26 19 July, 16 Aug, 58 19 Sept, 16 19 Oct. 19 Dec; La Libertad 36 29 Nov; Tamanique
19 Dec; Los Chorros 36 June, 26 Sept, 23 Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 16 May,
19 Nov; Ilopango 46 Jan.
B. brennus brennus (Godman & Salvin, 1896). (316 49). Range USA to Panama.
Food plant tomato. San Salvador 19 June (MS); Santa Tecla 16 July, 16 Sept,
19 Dec; San Isidro 16 Dec; Tamanique 26 July, 16 Nov, 16 Dec; Los Chorros 46
Feb, 26 June, 36 Sept, 16 Oct, 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 46 Jan, 36 29 Dec; Cerro
Boqueron 16 Dec; Ilopango 56 Jan.
B. boliviensis (Bell, 1937). (546 119). Range Guatemala to Bolivia. Evans (1952)
includes boliviensis as one of 5 subspecies of tetra (Mabille, 1878). From north to
south their ranges progressively overlap and each has distinct though similar
genitalia. Because of these conditions I believe each is a valid species. In El Sal-
vador, boliviensis was found only in the Miramundo Cloud Forest. Hda. Mon-
tecristo 76 Jan, 76 39 Feb, 146 19 Mar, 56 19 April, 116 29 May, 56 39 Nov, 56
19 Dec.
B. eusebius (Pl6tz, 1884). (226 79). Range Mexico to Colombia. Santa Tecla
29 July, 19 Sept; San Isidro 16 Mar, 26 April, 19 July, 16 Oct, 18 Dec; Cerro Verde
16 Aug; Tamanique 16 Oct, 16 19 Nov; Los Chorros 116 April, 19 Sept; Sta Tecla-
Comasagua Rd. 26 Sept; Cerro Boqueron 16 Dec; Ataco 19 Aug.
#B. clytius (Godman & Salvin, 1897). (36). Range Mexico to Honduras. Rio
Apancoyo 16 Oct (VH); San Isidro 16 Jan; La Libertad 16 Dec.
#B. salva Steinhauser, 1974. (96). Range El Salvador. Rio El Molino (Type
locality) 26 May; San Isidro 16 Jan, 16 Mar; Los Chorros 16 Feb, 16 April; Sta
Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 16 Sept; Santa Tecla 16 May, 16 June.
Staphylus vulgata vulgata (M6schler, 1878). (396 199). Range Mexico to
Argentina. Santa Tecla 26 29 Jan, 16 29 May, 126 49 June, 16 July, 16 Aug, 19
Sept; La Libertad 36 Feb, 16 June, 16 Aug, 16 Oct, 56 79 Nov, 3 19 Dec; Los Chorros
16 29 June, 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 May; Ilopango 56 Jan.
S. tierra Evans, 1953. (68 49). Range Mexico to El Salvador. See note on
following species. La Libertad 16 19 Jan, 46 19 Nov, 16 Dec; La Perla 19 Jan, 19
Dec.
*S. ascalaphus (Staudinger, 1876). (1016 269). Range Mexico to Brasil. I
follow Freeman (1969) and Monroe & Miller (1967) in considering Evans' (1953)
various subspecies of S. mazans (Reakirt, 1866) to be valid species. San Salvador
16 July (MS), 16 Dec (MS); Los Chorros 16 Jan (MS), 26 Feb, 66 April, 26 19
June, 26 19 Sept, 46 19 Oct, 106 Dec; Santa Tecla 36 19 Jan, 56 May, 176 79 June,
36 69 July, 56 Aug, 16 Sept, 26 19 Dec; La Libertad 19 Mar, 29 Aug; San Isidro
16 Jan, 16 Mar, 16 April, 16 July; Cerro San Jacinto 36 May, 19 Nov, 16 19
Dec; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 19 Aug, 16 Sept; La Perla 19 Jan; Ilopango 106
Jan, 19 Dec; Rio El Molino 76 April, 36 May; Ataco 36 Aug; Barrios 26 April;
no data available 26 (BMNH).
*S. azteca (Scudder, 1872). (646 179). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. Because of
appreciable genitalic difference between S. azteca and S. tyro (Mabille, 1878)
I consider them valid species rather than subspecies as treated by Evans (1953).
San Salvador 16 Jan (VH); Ilopango 16 Jan, 19 Mar (MS); Santa Tecla 26 Jan,
76 29 May, 106 39 June, 96 19 July, 66 Aug, 16 Oct, 36 Dec; La Libertad 2( 29
Mar, 16 July (FS), 36 Aug, 16 49 Nov, 23 29 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 76 19 May;
La Perla 16 Jan; Rio El Molino 26 April, 36 May; Sto. Tomas 16 April; Barrios
19 April; no data available 16 (BMNH).
Gorgythion begga pyralina (Mbschler, 1876). (156 49). Range USA to Peru.
Coatepeque 19 Aug (MS); Ilopango 19 Mar (MS); Santa Tecla 16 April; La Libertad
26 Jan, 16 Feb, 16 June, 16 Aug, 16 Nov, 16 Dec; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd.












15 Sept; La Perla 2$ 19 Jan, 45 19 Dec.
*G. vox Evans, 1953. (478 99). Range USA to Costa Rica. Freeman (pers.
comm.) states that vox is a valid separate species and I treat it so. San Salvador
19 July (MS); Santa Tecla 19 June; La Libertad 25 Feb, 18 Mar, 18 April, 18 June,
16 Aug, 53 Nov, 23 Dec; San Isidro 19 Jan, 1& Mar, 26 19 Dec; Tamanique 15 July,
13 Aug, 33 Nov, 19 Dec; Los Chorros 15 Feb, 16 April, 35 June, 25 Oct (1 VH)
125 19 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 25 19 Jan, 19 Nov, 18 19 Dec; La Perla 13 Dec; Ilo-
pango 25 Jan, no data available 13 (BMNH).
Ouleus salvina Evans, 1953. (365 79). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. I treat this
and panna Evans as valid species rather than subspecies of 0. fridericus. Evans
(1953) shows somewhat different genitalia for fridericus and salvina, but does
not illustrate the genitalia of panna, hilarina, trina and riona, all treated as sub-
species of fridericus. Two panna females were taken in El Salvador, effectively
separating panna from salvina as separate species. San Salvador 13 Sept (MS);
Ilopango 15 19 Jan, 15 Feb (U); Metapan 13 Mar (U); Santa Tecla 19 Feb, 15
Sept, 19 Oct, 19 Nov; La Libertad 15 Jan, 28 Feb, 35 June, 25 19 Aug, 163 19
Nov, 38 19 Dec; Los Chorros 16 Sept; La Perla 18 Oct; Rio El Molino 15 May;
Barrios 15 April
0. panna Evans, 1953. (29). Range Guatemala to Colombia. Food Plant Pi-
peraceae. See note for 0. salvina. San Salvador 19 Dec (VH); La Libertad 19 Aug.
Zera hyacinthinus hyacinthinus (Mabille, 1877). (135 79). Range Mexico to
Colombia. Food plant is avocado. San Salvador 15 Jan (VH), 13April (MS),
13 May (MS), 19 July (MS); Los Chorros 13 Mar (VH); Santa Tecia 15 Jan, 15
May, 13 39 June, 38 29 Aug, 15 Sept, 15 Dec; La Libertad 19 Feb; San Isidro 1 Jan.
Quadrus cerialis (Stoll, 1782). (368 69). Range Mexico to Argentina. San
Salvador 19 Jan (MS), 13 Oct (MS), Tecomatepec 13 Dec (U); Lost Chorros 18
Oct (VH); Ilopango 23 Jan, 15 Feb (VH); La Libertad 45 Jan, 25 Feb, 13 Aug,
105 49 Nov, 58 Dec; San Isidro 15 July; Tamanique 1 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto
13 Jan; La Perla 15 19 Oct, 25 Dec; Rio El Molino 25 May.
Q. lugubris lugubris (Felder, 1869). (208 179). Range Mexico to Costa Rica.
Food plant Piperaceae. San Salvador 19 Nov (MS); Los Chorros 15 Jan (MS),
25 Oct (VH); Santa Tecla 13 49 Jan, 13 19 Feb, 13 Mar, 23 Sept, 19 Nov, 18 29
Dec; La Libertad 48 Feb (1 U), 19 Aug, 23 19 Nov, 29 Dec; Tamanique 15 April,
19 Oct, 19 Nov, 23 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 13 May, 13 19 Dec; Ataco 19 Aug.
Gindanes brontinus brontinus Godman & Salvin, 1895. (19). Range El Salvador
to Nicaragua. This represents an appreciable northward range extension. Santa
Tecla 19 July.
Sostrata bifasciata nordica Evans, 1953. (218 109). Range Mexico to Costa
Rica. San Salvador 19 Oct (MS), 15 Nov (MS); Los Chorros 15 Mar (VH), 15 Dec;
Santa Tecla 28 Jan, 13 29 Feb, 15 Sept, 39 Dec; La Libertad 23 Feb, 13 19 Nov;
San Isidro 35 Jan, 19 July; Cerro Verde 19 Dec; Tamanique 13 Dec; Cerro San
Jacinto 23 Nov; Majaditas 15 Feb; Ilopango 25 19 Jan; Metapan 26 Dec.
*Paches loxus zonula (Mabille, 1889). (455 189). Range Mexico to Costa Rica.
Franz & Schroder (1954) report a female of Autochton subalbatus (Pl6tz, 1882).
Evans treats subalbata Plotz, 1884 as a synonym of loxus Westwood, 1852. I
must assume that the insect in question is most likely P. I. zonula and I include it
as such below. San Salvador 23 Jan (MS), 19 Sept (FS); Los Chorros 19 June,
15 Aug (MS), 33 Oct (2 VH), 15 Dec; Picacho 15 July (U); Quezaltepeque 13 July
(U); Ilopango 19 Jan, 19 Feb (U), 15 Dec; La Libertad 56 29 Feb, 15 June, 15 Aug,
193 69 Nov, 35 39 Dec; San Isidro 15 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 29 Dec; La Perla 15
Jan, 18 Sept, 25 Dec; no data available 13 19 (BMNH).
Paches polla (Mabille, 1888). (55). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. Females
of polla are difficult to separate from zonula; some of the above listed zonula fe-
males may be polla. Los Chorros 25 Feb (MS); La Libertad 1 Nov; San Isidro
1l April; Santo Tomas 13 May.
Atarnes sallei (Felder, 1867). (105 99). Range Mexico to Colombia. San Salvador
1l June (MS); Tecomatepec 13 19 Dec (U); Santa Tecla 29 July; La Libertad 15


16- ---A










Jan, 48 Feb, 29 Nov; San Isidro 26 Oct; Tamanique 29 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 29
Dec; Ilopango 13 Jan.
+Mylon lassia (Hewitson, 1868). (186 79). Range Mexico to northern South
America. San Salvador 16 June (MS), 16 19 July (VH), 19 Aug (FS); Las Brumas
16 Mar (VH); Los Chorros 13 June (MS); Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 16 Nov,
16 19 Dec (19 U); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 19 July, 18 Sept, 16 Oct; San Isidro
13 Jan, 16 Dec; Cerro Verde 16 Mar; Tamanique 13 Oct, 16 19 Nov; Sta Tecla-
Comasagua Rd. 46 Aug; Santo Tomas 13 April.
M. salvia Evans, 1953. (13). Range Mexico to Colombia. Ilopango 13 Jan.
*M. menippus (Fabricius, 1776). (48). Range Mexico to Argentina. San Sal-
vador 1 Sept (MS); Los Chorros 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Nov; no data
available 13 (BMNH).
*M. pelopidas (Fabricius, 1793). (166 89). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Los
Chorros 19 June (VH); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 16 June, 43 39 July, 16 Sept; La Libertad
29 Jan, 38 Feb, 19 Aug; San Isidro 16 Jan; La Perla 16 Oct, 46 Dec; no data avail-
able 16 (BMNH).
M. jason Ehrmann, 1907. (16). Range Guatemala to Paraguay. San Salvador
16 July (MS).
#Carrhenes fuscescens fuscescens (Mabille, 1891). (113 19). Range Mexico
to Nicaragua. La Libertad 19 Aug; San Isidro 16 April; Los Chorros 26 April;
Rio El Molino 16 April, 76 May.
#C. calidius Godman & Salvin, 1895. (16). Range Mexico to Bolivia. Rio El
Molino 16 May.
*C. canescens canescens (Felder, 1869). (288 109). Range USA to Panama.
Food plant Hibiscus sp. San Salvador 19 July (MS), 16 Sept (MS); Cerro Las Pavas
13 July (MS); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 13 Mar, 18 29 June, 26 19 July, 36 19 Aug,
19 Sept, 19 Dec; La Libertad 16 Feb, 26 Nov; San Isidro 16 Sept, 26 Oct; Los Chorros
16 June, 26 Oct, 26 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 May, 18 Nov, 18 19 Dec; Ilopango
46 19 Jan; no data available 16 (BMNH).
C. callipetes callipetes Godman & Salvin, 1895. (16). Range Mexico to El
Salvador. San Isidro 13 April.
Clito clito (Fabricius, 1787). (18). Range Mexico (Bell, 1942) to Brasil. La
Libertad 13 June.
*Xenophanes tryxus (Stoll, 1780). (476 199). Range USA to Argentina. A
very common species. San Salvador 26 July (1 VH, 1 MS), 16 Oct (MS), 19 Nov
(RB); Los Chorros 16 Mar (VH), 26 Sept, 26 Oct (1 VH); Cerro San Jacinto 16
19 Jan, 19 May, 23 39 Dec (13 U); Santa Tecla 16 Jan, 19 May, 43 39 July, 36 19
Aug, 56 49 Sept, 36 19 Oct, 19 Nov, 36 19 Dec; La Libertad 19 Jan, 16 Feb, 26
Aug, 26 Dec; San Isidro 28 Mar, 16 July, 26 Aug; Cerro Boqueron 26 Dec; La
Perla 23 Jan; Ilopango 16 Jan; Atecozol Pk. 18 Dec; no data available 16 (BMNH).
Onenses hyalophora (Felder, 1869). (33). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
Hda. Ashuqueman 16 April (VH); San Isidro 16 Oct; Hda. Montecristo 16 Feb.
*Antigonus nearchus Latreille, 1824. (56 39). Range Mexico to Paraguay.
San Salvador 13 19 Dec (MS); Los Chorros 16 Mar (MS); Ilopango 16 Feb (VH);
La Libertad 16 Jan; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan; no data available 16 19 (BMNH).
*A. erosus (Hiibner, 1812). (426 79). Range Mexico to Paraguay. A very common
insect in shady areas. San Salvador 16 Feb (MS), 19 July (VH), 19 Aug (FS);
Los Chorros 19 April, 16 June (VH), 26 July (MS), 16 Sept; Ilopango 26 Jan, 16
19 Feb (16 VH, 19 U); Vol. Conchagua 16 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 16 June, 26
July, 19 Aug; La Libertad 146 29 Feb, 56 Nov; San Isidro 16 Jan, 16 Mar; La Perla
26 Oct; Rio El Molino 26 April, 36 May; no data available 26 (BMNH).
*A. corrosus Mabille, 1878. (236 29). Range Mexico to Panama. Los Chorros
16 April (MS), 26 June, 46 Oct, 16 Nov (VH), 16 Dec; San Isidro 16 April, 16
July, 16 Aug, 19 Nov; Tamanique 16 April, 26 July, 26 Aug, 26 Oct, 26 19 Nov;
Cerro San Jacinto 16 May; no data available 16 BMNH).
Zopyrion sandace Godman & Salvin, 1896. (446 129). Range Mexico to El
Salvador. Metapan 13 Mar (MS); La Libertad 16 Mar, 18 19 April, 26 29 June,











56 49 Aug (2& MS), 19 Oct, 256 39 Nov, 66 19 Dec; La Perla 13 Jan; Citala 16 May;
Barrios 16 April.
*Anisochoria pedaliodina bacchus Evans, 1953. (66 19). Range Mexico to El
Salvador. San Salvador 15 Jan (MS); La Libertad 13 Nov, 33 Dec; Rio El Molino
19 May; no data available 13 (BMNH).
Aethilla chiapa Freeman, 1969. (106 29). Range Chiapas, Mexico to El Salvador.
This is apparently a strictly high altitude forest species, so far known only from
Chiapas, Vol. Sta Maria in Guatemala and the Cerro Miramundo Cloud Forest of
El Salvador. Hda. Montecristo 29 Mar, 15 April, 66 May, 35 Dec.
Achlyodes busirus heros Ehrmann, 1909. (86 19). Range Mexico to Bolivia.
Vol. San Miguel 15 Jan (U); Los Chorros 16 Feb (VH); La Libertad 15 19 Feb, 36
Nov, 13 Dec; Rio El Molino 13 May.
*A. thraso thraso (Hiibner, 1807). (65 19). Range USA to Argentina. San
Salvador 13 Jan (U); Apopa 16 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 19 July; La Libertad
25 Feb; La Perla 16 Dec; no data available 16 (BMNH).
*A. selva Evans, 1953. (438 219). Range Mexico to Brasil. Food plant Citrus.
San Salvador 16 Jan (U), 15 April (MS), 16 Nov (U); Ilopango 13 Feb (VH);
Los Chorros 19 July (MS); Cerro Verde 16 Mar (MS); Santa Tecla 1 Jan, 15
19 Feb, 19 Mar, 13 May, 19 June, 28 39 July, 26 19 Aug, 88 59 Sept, 38 19 Oct, 19
Dec; Hda. Montecristo 19 Jan, 25 19 Feb, 16 Mar, 16 April, 35 May (1 U), 16
Nov, 26 Dec; Tamanique 26 Nov, 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 1 Nov, 16 29 Dec;
Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 15 Oct; Ataco 23 19 Aug; Santo Tomas 15 19 April; no
data available 18 (BMNH).
Grais stigmaticus stigmaticus (Mabille, 1883). (29). Range USA to Argentina.
La Libertad 19 Jan, 19 April (MS).
#Doberes anticus sobrinus (Godman & Salvin, 1895). (1066 199). Range
Mexico to Costa Rica. Known in El Salvador only from the Cerro Miramundo Cloud
Forest. The food plant is an unidentified vine with hooked thorns and tough leaves.
The larvae in at least the last 2 instars weave a dense silken home between two
leaves to which they retreat when not feeding. Pupation takes place in this
same "cocoon" after sealing the entrance lightly with silk. Hda. Montecristo
46 Jan, 195 79 Feb, 555 89 Mar (23 19 MS, 13 19 VH), 26 April, 176 39 May (23
U), 63 Nov, 33 19 Dec.
*Timochares trifasciata trifasciata (Hewitson, 1868). (73 79). Range Mexico
to Paraguay. San Salvador 13 June (MS), 19 July (VH); Vol. Conchagua 19 Aug
(MS); Santa Tecla 13 Jan; La Libertad 26 19 Feb, 19 Nov; Tamanique 19 July; Los
Chorros 13 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 19 May; La Perla 19 Jan; Agua Caliente 16
Feb; no data available 16 (BMNH).
Anastrus sempiternus sempiternus Butler & Druce, 1872. (186 79). Range
Mexico to Ecuador. Food plant almond, Terminalia catappa. San Salvador 16
July (MS), 26 Sept (1 U, 1 MS), 16 Oct; Quezaltepeque 19 Dec (U); Santa Tecla 16
29 July, 19 Aug, 33 Sept, 16 Oct; La Libertad 66 39 Feb, 18 Dec; Los Chorros
25 Dec.
A. obscurus neaeris Moschler, 1878. (106). Range Mexico to Ecuador. La
Libertad 16 June, 58 Nov, 33 Dec; La Perla 1 Dec.
*Ebrietas anacreon anacreon (Staudinger, 1876). (103 19). Range Mexico to
Argentina. San Salvador 16 Nov (MS); La Libertad 19 Jan, 16 Feb; Tamanique
15 Aug; Los Chorros 33 Dec; Rio El Molino 16 April, 26 May; no data available
13 (BMNH).
#E. sappho Steinhauser, 1974. (25 19). Range El Salvador. Los Chorros (Type
locality) 25 Dec; Santa Tecla 19 Sept.
Cycloglypha thrasibulus thrasibulus (Fabricius, 1793). (123 19). Range Mexico
to Paraguay. Apopa 16 Aug (MS); La Libertad 63 Feb, 46 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto
19 Nov; La Perla 1 Dec.
Helias phalaenoides cama Evans, 1953. (336 139). Range Mexico to Colombia.
San Salvador 15 Nov (MS), 13 Dec (MS); Los Chorros 13 April, 23 19 Oct (VH),
19 Nov (VH), 35 Dec; La Libertad 13 Feb, 13 Nov, 19 Dec; San Isidro 19 Jan, 16


B











19 July, 16 Oct, 36 19 Dec; Tamanique 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 36 49 Jan, 16
19 Nov, 86 19 Dec; Cerro Boqueron 19 Nov; Ilopango 56 Jan.
Camptopleura auxo Moschler, 1878. (88). Range Guatemala to Argentina.
La Libertad 66 Feb, 13 Nov; Puente Cuscatlan 16 Jan.
*Theagenes albiplaga aegides (Herrich-Schtiffer, 1869). (206 89). Range
Mexico to Panama. Comasagua 19 Aug (MS); Los Chorros 16 Feb, 16 Mar (VH),
16 April; Cerro Verde 19 May (U), 96 29 Aug, 16 19 Sept, 26 Nov (MS), 26 19 Dec;
Santa Tecla 16 Oct; Cerro Boqueron 16 Dec; Majaditas 19 Nov; Hda. Montecristo
19 Dec; no data available 13 (BMNH).
*Chiomara asychis georgina (Reakirt, 1868). (116 39). Range USA to Costa
Rica. Los Chorros 16 Feb (MS), 16 Oct (VH), 66 Dec; Santa Tecla 19 July, Cerro
Verde 16 June; Cerro San Jacinto 19 May, 26 Nov; no data available 19 (BMNH).
*Gesta gesta invisus (Butler & Druce, 1872). (206 59). Range USA to Costa
Rica. San Salvador 19 June (MS), 19 Aug (MS); Tecomatepec 16 Dec (U); Los Chorros
16 June (MS), 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 23 Dec (1 VH); La Libertad 16
19 Feb, 16 Mar; San Isidro 33 Jan, 26 Dec; Cerro Verde 19 Dec; Ilopango 36 Jan;
Rio El Molino 16 April; Meanguera 16 April; Metapan 16 Dec; no data available
26 (BMNH).
*Erynnis zarucco funeralis (Scudder & Burgess, 1870).(6( 79). Range USA to
Argentina. Vol. Conchagua 19 Jan (VH), 19 Aug (MS); Comasagua 19 Oct (VH);
Santa Tecla 29 Feb, 16 June (MS), 16 July, 16 Sept, 19 Dec; Los Chorros 26 Dec;
Cerro Boqueron 19 Dec; no data available 16 (BMNH).
E. tristis tatius (Edwards, 1882). (19). Range USA to Colombia. Cerro Verde
19 June.
*Pyrgus communis adepta PlBtz, 1884. (313 299). Range Mexico to Colombia.
Franz & Schroder (1954) list 66 39 of "Pyrgus notata (Blanchard, 1852)" from El
Salvador. Since notata is a Chilean species this is an obvious mis-identification
and I have assumed they are adepta since they also list oileus. San Salvador 46
June (1'MS, 3 FS), 36 July (2 VH, 1FS), 19 Sept (MS); Vol. Conchagua 19 Aug (MS);
La Libertad 28 39 July (FS), 18 19 Aug; Santa Tecla 46 49 Jan, 19 Feb, 19 Mar, 16
49 May, 36 29 June, 76 49 July, 16 19 Sept, 19 Oct, 49 Dec; San Isidro 13 July; Cerro
San Jacinto 19 May; La Perla 16 Dec; Rio El Molino 26 April; no data available
16 (BMNH).
*P. oileus oileus (Linnaeus, 1767). (393 219). Range USA to Costa Rica and
Antilles. I have not listed the darker montivagus form separately. San Salvador
19 June (MS); 16 Sept (U), 16 Oct (MS), 16 19 Dec (MS); Las Brumas 26 Mar (VH);
Los Chorros 16 April, 16 Sept (MS); La Libertad 73 79 July (16 19 MS, 66 69 FS),
33 29 Aug, 18 19 Oct, 16 Nov; Santa Tecla 1 Jan, 16 Feb, 36 May, 19 June, 33
49 July, 26 Aug, 13 Sept; San Isidro 26 Mar, 19 April; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd.
16 Aug; Majaditas 16 Nov; Citala 16 Feb; Puente Cuscatlan 16 Jan; Hda. Monte-
cristo 16 19 Feb, 16 29 Dec; no data available 16 (BMNH).
Heliopetes domicella domicella (Erichson, 1848). (16). Range USA to northern
South America. San Salvador 16 Nov. (MS).
*H. macaira macaira (Reakirt, 1866). (68 59). Range USA to Panama. San
Salvador 19 July (VH); San Ignacio 16 Aug (MS); Los Chorros 16 April (MS);
Santa Tecla 19 Mar; La Libertad 16 19 Aug, 16 19 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan;
Agua Caliente 16 Feb; no data available 16 (BMNH).
*H. arsalte arsalte (Linnaeus, 1758). (123 89). Range Mexico to Argentina.
San Salvador 26 June (1 U, 1 MS), 16 July (VH), 1( Oct (MS); Santa Tecla 29
Jan, 13 May, 19 June; La Libertad 19 Mar, 16 Dec; San Isidro 13 July; Los Chorros
18 Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 23 19 May; Cerro Boqueron 19 Nov; La Perla
18 Jan; no data available 1( 19 (BMNH).
*H. alana Reakirt, 1868. (198 99). Range Mexico to Argentina. San Salvador
16 July (VH), 13 Nov (MS); Coatepeque 19 July (MS); Los Chorros 16 Mar (VH),
13 July (MS), 36 Sept, 19 Oct; Santa Tecla 26 Jan, 16 19 July, 19 Sept; La Libertad
16 Jan, 13 19 Feb, 36 Nov, 16 Dec; San Isidro 16 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan,
16 19 Dec; La Perla 19 Dec; Ilopango 16 Jan; no data available 19 (BMNH).











HESPERIINAE

Dardarina dardaris (Hewitson, 1877). (175 109). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
La Libertad 95 39 June, 35 29 Aug, 55 29 Nov, 39 Dec.
Dalla ligilla (Hewitson, 1877). (55). Range Mexico to El Salvador. These key
out to ligilla but without determined specimens for comparison the identification
is somewhat tentative. Hda. Ashuqueman 55 April (VH).
Synapte malitiosa pecta Evans, 1955. (185 39). Range USA to Costa Rica.
San Salvador 15 Jan (VH), 15 July (VH); Coatepeque 15 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 15
Sept; La Libertad 33 April, 23 June, 55 Aug, 26 19 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 1l
Jan, 15 29 Dec.
S. syraces (Godman, 1901). (65 19). Range Mexico to El Salvador. Evans
(1955) includes shiva Evans, 1955 as a subspecies with range from Jalisco, Mexico
to Guatemala. The given range for syraces is Guerrero, Mexico. The El Salvador
specimens fit closer to the description of syraces and I am treating them as separate
species. San Salvador 19 Aug (MS); Coatepeque 15 Aug (MS); Vol. Conchagua
15 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 25 July, 15 Aug; no data 15 (MS).
*S. salenus salenus (Mabille, 1883). (486 169). Range Mexico to Colombia. San
Salvador 19 April (MS); Los Chorros 45 June, 25 Aug (MS), 75 19 Sept, 15 Oct;
Cerro San Jacinto 56 19 Jan, 25 May, 19 June, 25 19 Nov (15 VH), 35 29 Dec; Santa
Tecla 15 29 July, 15 19 Aug, 15 29 Sept, 19 Oct, 19 Dec; San Isidro 15 Mar, 25 June,
25 July, 25 Sept, 55 29 Oct, 25 Dec; Tamanique 15 July, 15 Aug; Ilopango 15
Jan; no data available 25 (BMNH).
Zariaspes mys (Hiibner, 1808). (135 39). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Santa
Tecla 15 July; La Libertad 85 39 Nov, 35 Dec; La Perla 15 Dec.
Anthoptus epictetus (Fabricius, 1793). (165). Range Mexico to Argentina.
Los Chorros 15 Aug (MS), 35 Oct (2 VH); La Libertad 15 Nov; Tamanique 6 5
Nov, 55 Dec.
Corticea corticea corticea (Plotz, 1883). (525 109). Range Mexico to Paraguay.
San Salvador 13 July (VH), 15 Nov (VH); Los Chorros 15 July (MS); Santa Tecla
58 19 Jan, 15 Feb, 15 19 Mar, 29 May, 55 19 June, 45 19 July, 65 19 Aug, 33 39 Sept,
15 Dec; La Libertad 25 Aug, 25 Nov, 15 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 15 Jan, 25 Nov,
55 Dec; La Perla 25 Jan, 15 Dec; Ilopango 75 Jan.
C. lysias lysias (Pl6tz, 1883). (95 29). Range Mexico to Panama. La Libertad
18 Aug, 25 Oct, 55 19 Nov, 15 19 Dec.
Callimormus juventus Scudder, 1872. (355 109). Range Mexico to Argentina.
Los Chorros 25 June, 55 19 Sept (19 MS), 123 19 Oct (15 VH, 19 MS), 19 Dec; Santa
Tecla 39 Jan, 19 July, 15 29 Aug, 19 Sept; La Libertad 15 Nov; San Isidro 75 Jan,
25 April, 15 July; Tamanique 15 Nov, 15 Dec; Cerro Boqueron 15 Dec; Majaditas
15 Feb.
C. saturnus (Herrich-Schiffer, 1869). (475 249). Range USA to Paraguay.
San Salvador 15 19 July (MS); 16 Nov (MS); Ilopango 15 Feb, 15 Mar (MS); Los
Chorros 29 June (1 MS); Santa Tecla 25 29 Jan, 19 April, 26 May, 65 29 June, 95
69 July, 75 29 Aug, 45 29 Sept, 25 Oct; La Libertad 15 April, 19 Aug, 15 19 Nov;
San Isidro 15 July; Tamanique 15 Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 15 19 Jan, 25 19 May,
15 Nov, 19 Dec; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 19 Sept; Citala 25 May; Meanguera
15 April.
Eutocus facilis (Plitz, 1884). (59). Range Mexico to Bolivia. As no males
were found, this determination is tentative. Santa Tecla 39 Jan; Ilopango 29 Dec.
Eprius veleda veleda Godman, 1901. (15). Range Mexico to Bolivia. Rio El
Molino 15 May.
Mnasicles hicetaon Godman, 1901. (225 69). Range Mexico to Paraguay. La
Libertad 15 Jan, 35 29 Feb, 15 19 June, 25 29 Aug, 15 Oct, 76 19 Nov. 75 Dec.
Methionopsis ina (Plotz, 1882). (45 29). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Santa
Tecla 19 Jan, 15 19 Sept; La Libertad 15 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 25 Dec.
M. typhon Godman, 1901. (265 19). Range Guatemala to El Salvador. La
Libertad 19 Feb (U); Tamanique 15 July, 75 Nov, 68 Dec; Los Chorros 15 April,










36 June, 26 Sept, 56 Oct, 16 Dec.
Flaccilla aecas (Stoll, 1781). (26 29). Range Guatemala to Brasil. Food plant
bamboo (I have raised aecas on bamboo in Colombia, but the food plant in El
Salvador was not observed). San Salvador 16 Sept (MS);, 16 Oct (MS); La Libertad
19 Feb (U), 19 Nov.
Methion melas Godman, 1900. (626 169). Range Mexico to El Salvador where it
is found only in the Miramundo Cloud Forest. Hda. Montecristo 66 Jan, 156 39
Feb, 76 49 Mar (19 MS), 56 29 April, 98 49 May, 116 19 Nov, 98 29 Dec.
Repens repta Evans, 1955. (46 19). Mexico to El Salvador. Vol. Conchague
16 Aug (MS); Los Chorros 16 April, 16 Oct (VH); San Isidro 19 Aug, 16 Oct.
Phanes aletes (Geyer, 1832). (29). Range Mexico to Brasil. Los Chorros 19
Feb (VH), 19 July (MS).
Monca telata tyrtaeus (Plotz, 1883). (26). Range USA to Colombia. Los Chorros
13 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Dec.
Nastra neamathla (Skinner & Williams, 1923). (16). Range USA to Costa Rica.
San Isidro 16 April.
N. insignis (Plotz, 1882). (116 139). Range Mexico to Brasil. San Salvador
16 Nov (MS); La Libertad 16 Feb (U), 13 Nov, 16 Dec; Santa Tecla 39 Jan, 29 Feb,
29 June, 16 Oct, 29 Dec; Tamanique 19 Aug, 16 19 Nov, 19 Dec; Los Chorros 26
Oct; Cerro San Jacinto 13 19 Dec; La Perla 13 Jan, 16 Dec.
+Cymaenes odilia trebius (Mabille, 1891). (836 849). Range USA to Colombia.
Tecomatepec 19 Dec. (U); Picacho 19 Nov (MS); Vol. Conchagua 16 Aug (MS);
La Union 16 Oct (FS as Lerodea edata Plitz); Los Chorros 16 Sept (MS); Santa
Tecla 29 Jan, 16 19 May, 45 39 June, 246 279 July, 256 309 Aug, 76 69 Sept, 16 19
Oct, 36 39 Dec; La Libertad 13 April, 13 29 Aug, 18 19 Nov; San Isidro 19 July;
Cerro Verde 29 June, 36 Aug, 13 Dec; Tamanique 16 Nov, 19 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto
26 Nov, 16 19 Dec; Majaditas 16 Nov, 26 Dec; Hda. Montecristo 16 Mar, 19 Nov.
C. fraus (Godman, 1900). (26 29). Range Mexico to Nicaragua. Santa Tecla
19 Feb, 16 19 Aug; La Libertad 16 Dec.
*Vehilius stictomenes illudens (Mabille, 1891). (436 229). Range Mexico to
Panama. San Salvador 19 Oct (U); La Libertad 18 Feb, 16 April (MS), 26 49 Aug,
16 19 Oct, 16 Nov; Santa Tecla 46 29 Jan, 16 Feb, 45 29 June, 56 29 July, 36 49
Aug, 36 29 Sept, 26 Oct, 86 19 Dec; Tamanique 19 July; Cerro San Jacinto 26
Jan, 36 Dec; Cerro Boqueron 16 Dec; Majaditas 19 Nov; La Perla 16 Dec; no data
available 19 (BMNH).
V. inca (Scudder, 1872). (86). Range Mexico to Argentina. San Salvador 16
April (MS), 16 June (MS); Santa Tecla 13 Jan, 16 Feb, 16 May, 26 Aug; La Libertad
16 Feb.
V. vetulus vetulus (Mabille, 1883). (16). Range El Salvador to Nicaragua.
Tamanique 16 Oct.
Mnasilus allubita (Butler, 1877). (96 29). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Los
Chorros 19 June (MS); Santa Tecla 16 July; La Libertad 16 Jan, 16 Feb, 36 Aug,
28 19 Nov, 16 Dec.
Mnasinous patage Godman, 1900. (113 39). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. San
Isidro 16 Sept; Cerro Verde 26 June, 26 29 Aug; Tamanique 16 July, 16 Aug, 16
Nov; Los Chorros 16 Oct; Majaditas 18 19 Feb; Hda. Montecristo 16 Nov.
Mnasitheus chrysophrys (Mabille, 1891). (46 19). Range Mexico to Paraguay.
San Isidro 16 Dec; Tamanique 16 Dec; Los Chorros 13 19 Sept, 18 Dec.
Moeris remus (Fabricius, 1798). (19). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Santa
Tecla 19 Jan.
M. rita Evans, 1955. (336 89). Range Mexico to Panama. San Salvador 19
Feb (MS), 16 Dec (MS); Los Chorros 16 June, 46 19 Sept, 28 Oct (1 U); 16 Dec;
Santa Tecla 16 July, 49 Aug, 16 Sept; San Isidro 16 April, 36 July; Tamanique
26 29 Aug, 16 Oct, 96 Nov, 16 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Jan, 16 Dec; Majaditas
28 Feb; Ataco 13 Aug.
M. vopiscus vopiscus (Herrich-Schiffer, 1869). (286 109). Range Mexico to
Brasil. San Salvador 19 Oct(U), 19 Nov (U); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 26 19 June, 106 19










July, 86 29 Aug, 56 19 Sept, 19 Oct; San Isidro 19 Jan, 18 Dec; Taminique 16 Oct;
La Perla 1 Dec.
M. striga stroma Evans, 1955. (46). Range Mexico to Colombia. I have seen a
female ovipositing on a tall, unidentified grass but was unable to raise larvae. San
Salvador 1 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 13 July; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 13 Sept;
Cerro Boqueron 13 Dec.
M. hyagnis hyagnis Godman, 1900. (16). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
Majaditas 16 Nov.
Parphorus decora (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (36 29). Range Mexico to Argentina.
Cerro San Jacinto 18 Nov, 29 Dec; La Perla 16 Jan, 13 Dec.
Papias phainis Godman, 1900. (186 119). Range Mexico to Brasil. Tamanique
16 July, 16 Aug, 78 69 Nov, 76 29 Dec; Los Chorros 23 39 Sept, 16 Oct.
P. dictys Godman, 1900. (56 29). Range Mexico to Ecuador. Las Brumas 16
Mar (VH); San Isidro 26 Dec; Cerro Verde 19 June, 19 Dec; Tamanique 16 Oct;
Hda. Montecristo 13 Dec.
P. subcostulata integra (Mabille, 1891). (176 19). Range Mexico to Ecuador.
San Salvador 16 Oct (MS); Los Chorros 36 Sept (1 MS), 38 Oct (1 VH), 26 Dec; La
Libertad 23 Feb (1 U), 13 Aug, 36 Nov; Tamanique 19 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 13
Dec; Metapan 16 Dec.
Cobalopsis autumna (Pl6tz, 1883). (19). Range Mexico to Brasil. This, as with
many single females, is a somewhat tentative determination. Santa Tecla 19
July.
C. potaro Williams & Bell, 1931. (19). Range El Salvador to Paraguay. This is
another tentative identification. If correct it indicates a considerable northward
range extension. The single female is ex larva on "long grass". San Salvador 19
May (MS).
Lerema lumina (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (303 429). Range Guatemala to
Colombia. In El Salvador lumina is usually found only above 1600 m. Las Brumas
13 Mar (VH); Cerro Verde 19 May (U), 46 149 June, 133 109 Aug, 13 Sept, 76 69
Dec; Santa Tecla 19 July; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 19 Sept; Majaditas 36 Feb, 16
Dec; Hda. Montecristo 49 Feb, 29 Mar, 29 Nov, 19 Dec.
L. accius (Abbott & Smith, 1797). (206 179). Range USA to Venezuela. Evans
(1955) includes lochius Plotz, 1883 as a subspecies of accius. If these are indeed
separatee entities they must be separate species. Because of the great individual
variation found, I am not sure that both species are not included in the El Salvador
material. Because of the uncertainty involved I have listed only accius. San Salva-
dor 19 July (VH), 13 Oct (VH); Santa Tecla 29 July, 16 Sept; La Libertad 16 Mar,
26 Nov; San Isidro 18 Oct, 26 Dec; Cerro Verde 29 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Dec;
Ilopango 43 29 Jan; La Palma 16 Sept; Presa El Guayabo 78 99 Jan.
L. ancillaris liris Evans, 1955. (466 359). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. Sensun-
tepeque 16 July (MS); Santa Tecla 26 May, 118 59 June, 83 89 July, 36 69 Aug, 13
29 Sept, 19 Dec; La Libertad 16 Jan, 33 29 Feb, 1619 Mar, 53 39 June, 56 39 Aug, 33
29 Nov, 16 19 Dec; Cerro Verde 19 Aug; Meanguera 1 April.
Morys valerius valda Evans, 1955. (73 49). Range Mexico to Honduras. Santa
Tecla 13 Aug; La Libertad 16 19 Feb, 16 19 April, 16 June, 19 Nov; San Isidro 13
Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Jan, 16 Nov; La Perla 19 Jan.
M. compta micythus (Godman, 1900). (36 19). Range Mexico to Ecuador.
Santa Tecla 16 Aug, 16 Sept; La Libertad 16 19 Dec.
(?)Psoralis sp. Tamanique 16 July. I include this and the next as matters of
interest. Having failed to identify them, I do not include them in the totals, except
as part of the unidentified material.
(?)Tigasis (?) sp. Tejutla 16 Aug (MS). See note above.
T. nausiphanes Schaus, 1913. (16). Range El Salvador to Costa Rica. Maja-
ditas 13 Feb.
*Vettius onaca Evans, 1955. (476 159). Range Mexico to Honduras. As pointed
out by Monroe & Miller (1967), Evans' placement of onaca as a subspecies of
fantasos (Stoll, 1780) was in error as both fly together in the northern part of the











range of fantasos. San Salvador 16 Dec (MS); Cerro Las Pavas 19 July (MS); Los
Chorros 36 April, 29 Sept, 13 Oct (VH), 19 Dec; Santa Tecla 19 Feb, 19 Aug, 19
Oct; San Isidro 6( Jan, 26 Dec; Cerro Verde 19 June, 29 Dec; Tamanique 1l April,
16 19 Oct, 78 29 Nov, 36 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 46 29 Jan, 36 Sept, 36 Nov, 76
Dec; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 16 Sept; Majaditas 28 Feb; Ilopango 16 Jan; no
data available 13 (BMNH).
V. fantasos (Stoll, 1780). (123 69). Range Mexico to Paraguay. San Salvador
13 Sept (MS); La Libertad 16 Jan, 18 19 April, 26 June, 13 Aug, 26 49 Nov, 36
19 Dec; Rio El Molino 16 May.
#V. tertianus (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (19). Range Chiapas, Mexico (Stein-
hauser, 1974) to Colombia. Santa Tecla 19 Sept.
V. argentus Freeman, 1969. (56 39). Range Chiapas, Mexico to El Salvador.
Cerro Verde 13 June, 19 Aug; Hda. Montecristo 1 Jan, 36 Feb, 19 April, 19 May.
Thoon modius (Mabille, 1889). (13). Range Guatemala to Boliva. San Isidro
16 Mar.
(?)Eutychide subcordata (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (16). Evans (1955) shows
two subspecies; subcordata and ochus Godman, 1900. Differences in the genitalia
as well as maculation suggest that these are separate valid species. The range given
for ochus is Mexico and Nicaragua (based on 3 specimens in BMNH); for subcordata,
Colombia to Peru and Brasil. It appears unlikely that this insect is correctly
identified. I include it as a doubtful species which is not to be included in the totals
as an El Salvador record. San Salvador 1 April (FS).
Naevolus orius orius (Mabille, 1883). (96 139). Range Mexico to Brasil. Santa
Tecla 19 June, 66 59 July, 16 29 Aug, 26 39 Sept, 19 Oct; Ataco 19 Aug.
Enosis achelous (Plotz, 1882). (126 139). Range Mexico to Ecuador. Santa Tecla
19 Dec; La Libertad 18 19 June, 16 49 Aug, 16 19 Oct, 93 39 Nov, 39 Dec.
Argon argus (Mbschler, 1878). (76 109). Range El Salvador to Argentina. Food
plant various palms. San Salvador 39 Jan, 16 39 Feb, 19 Mar (MS), 16 19 Sept (16
U), 23 Dec; Santa Tecla 19 Sept; La Libertad 16 April, 16 May, 16 19 Aug.
Talides sergestus (Cramer, 1775). (29). Range Mexico to Brasil. Food plant
Heliconia collinsiana (Musaceae). San Salvador 19 Aug (MS); Cerro San Jacinto
19 Jan.
T. alternate alternate Bell, 1941. (13 39). Range Guatemala to Brasil. Food
plant Heliconia latispathia and undetermined Musa sp. (Musaceae). San Salvador
13 19 Jan; Santa Tecla 19 Oct, 19 Nov.
Tromba xanthura (Godman, 1901). (156 89). Range Guatemala to Colombia.
Food plant an un-identified palm. San Salvador 16 Jan, 46 29 Feb, 16 Mar; La
Libertad 19 April, 16 19 Sept (VH), 13 Nov; Santa Tecla 19 Feb, 16 Mar, 26 July,
13 Aug, 16 29 Sept, 16 Oct; Ataco 16 19 Aug.
Synale cynaxa (Hewitson, 1868). (19). Range Mexico to Costa Rica. Food plant
un-identified palm. Cerro Verde 19 April (MS).
Telles arcalaus (Stoll, 1782). (16 29). Range El Salvador to Peru. Food plant
Heliconia collinsiana and Musa sp. (Musaceae) in general. San Salvador 19 Mar
(U), 16 Nov (MS); Ilopango 19 Feb.
Carystoides lila Evans, 1955. (36 39). Range El Salvador to Ecuador. Food
plant an un-identified small palm growing in a shaded ravine at Los Chorros. Victor
Hellebuyck reports seeing adults flying about just after daybreak and then hiding
during full daylight. San Salvador 19 Feb (MS), 16 Aug (MS); Los Chorros 26
29 Mar (VH).
+Perichares philetes adela (Hewitson, 1867). (216 139). Range Mexico to Brasil.
San Salvador 16 June (MS), 33 Aug (1 MS, 2 FS), 16 Sept (MS); Los Chorros 16
Aug (MS), 18 Oct (VH), 16 Dec (U); Santa Tecla 16 19 Jan, 16 19 July, 16 19 Aug,
33 29 Sept, 16 Oct, 36 49 Dec; La Libertad 19 Aug, 29 Nov; San Isidro 1d July; Cerro
Verde 19 Aug; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Dec; Hda. Montecristo 16 Oct (U).
P. lotus (Butler, 1870). (19). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Cerro San Jacinto
19 Dec.
P. deceptus deceptus (Butler & Druce, 1872). (16). Range El Salvador to Costa










Rica. San Salvador 16 Aug (MS).
Lycas argentea (Hewitson, 1866). (16). Range Mexico to Argentina. San
Salvador 1& Oct (MS).
Saturnus tiberius obscurus (Bell, 1941). (16). Range Mexico to Colombia.
Los Chorros 16 Sept.
Quinta cannae (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (69& 609). Range Mexico to Argentina.
Food plant Canna and Calathea macrosepala (Musaceae). This skipper and
Calpodes ethlius frequently infest decorative plantings of Canna so heavily as to
nearly defoliate the plants. The larvae are frequently parasitized by nematodes
which can be seen through the nearly transparent skin of still living larva. San
Salvador 19 June (MS), 13 July (MS), 13 Aug (MS), 19 Sept (MS), 36 39 Dec (16
19 VH); Santa Tecla 13 59 Jan, 13 19 Feb, 26 49 Mar, 39 April, 1& 19 May, 116 29
June, 196 189 July, 56 59 Aug, 96 19 Sept, 46 19 Oct, 19 Nov, 39 Dec; La Libertad
26 79 Jan, 19 Aug, 16 19 Nov, 78 19 Dec; San Isidro 13 Aug; Cerro Verde 19 Aug.
Cynea irma (Mdschler, 1878). (58 69). Range Mexico to Brasil. Food plant
Calathea macrosepala (Musaceae); larvae were successfully transferred to Canna
sp. Usulutan 1 July (VH); La Libertad 19 Feb, 29 Nov, 46 39 Dec.
C. megalops (Godman, 1900). (19). Range Mexico to Ecuador. Food plant
Heliconia collinsiana (Musaceae). Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan.
C. cynea (Hewitson, 1876). (36 39). Range Mexico to Venezuela and Colombia.
An interesting sidelight indicating the perilous nature of romance was the capture
of a female (Santa Tecla 15.x.71) with the penis of her last lover still inserted in the
ductus bursae. San Salvador 19 Sept (U); Los Chorros 16 Oct (VH); Santa Tecla 16
19 Aug, 19 Oct, 16 Nov.
Rhinthon cubana osca (Pl6tz, 1883). (43 69). Range Mexico to Ecuador. Vol.
Conchagua 16 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 33 19 July, 29 Aug, 19 Oct; San Isidro
19 Sept.
Mucia zygia (Pltz, 1886). (76 69). Range Mexico to Argentina. Los Chorros
19 July (MS); Santa Tecla 26 29 July, 26 Aug, 36 39 Sept.
Decinea percosius (Godman, 1900). (33 29). Range USA to Guayana. These
were determined by H. A. Freeman in May, 1973. Santa Tecla 19 July; San Isidro
16 Sept, 16 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 19 May; Ilopango 16 Jan.
+Conga chydaea (Butler, 1870). (668 369). Range Mexico to Argentina. Los
Chorros 19 Mar (MS), 19 Sept, 16 19 Oct; Santa Tecla 19 Mar, 26 39 June, 266
139 July, 86 29 Aug, 15( 99 Sept, 53 39 Oct, 16 Dec; La Libertad 13 June, 16 19
Oct, 26 Nov; Tamanique 13 July, 19 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 1( Nov, 13 Dec; San
Salvador 18 Aug (FS as Panoquina vala (Mabille, 1891).
Ancyloxypha arene (Edwards, 1871). (126 59). Range USA to Costa Rica. San
Salvador 16 Dec (MS); Rio Apancoyo 13 Oct (VH); Santa Tecla 26 29 Jan, 13 Mar,
26 Aug, 16 Oct, 39 Dec; Cerro Verde 26 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 16 Jan; Citala
13 Oct.
+Copaeodes aurantiaca (Hewitson, 1868). (19). Range USA to Panama. I am
inclined to question this, but as it is a species found on both sides of El Salvador
let it stand. San Salvador 19 June (FS).
C. minima (Edwards, 1870). (56 99). Range USA to Costa Rica. San Salvador
19 Jan (MS), 19 July (VH); Santa Tecla 16 49 Jan, 13 Mar, 16 June, 13 29 July, 19
Dec; Citala 16 Feb.
+Hylephila phyleus phyleus (Drury, 1773). (648 359). Range USA to Argentina.
San Salvador 16 29 June (13 19 FS, 19 MS), 36 July (2 FS, 1 MS), 43 Oct (1 MS, 2 VH,
1 U); Los Chorros 16 Nov (VH); Santa Tecla 9( 39 Jan, 36 19 Feb, 53 19 Mar, 16
April, 19 May, 26 49 June, 76 109 July, 156 59 Aug, 86 29 Sept, 13 19 Oct, 26 19 Dec;
La Libertad 19 June; Cerro Verde 18 19 June, 19 Aug; Cerro San Jacinto 19 May;
no data available 13 (BMNH).
Yvretta cars subreticulata (Plotz, 1882). (59). Range Mexico to Honduras.
Santa Tecla 29 June, 19 July, 19 Sept, 19 Dec.
*Polites vibex praeceps (Scudder, 1872). (326 149). Range USA to Peru. San
Salvador 1( Jan (VH), 19 April (MS), 16 19 June (MS); Santa Tecla 16 Feb, 66 Mar,


iii












16 April (MS), 26 May, 36 79 June 86 29 July, 56 29 Aug, 16 Sept, 16 Dec; Cerro
Verde 19 Aug; Presa El Guayabo 13 Jan; no data available 16 (BMNH).
*Wallengrenia otho otho (Abbott & Smith, 1797). (456 329). Range USA to
Costa Rica. La Libertad 16 Feb, 16 Aug (MS); Santa Tecla 19 Jan, 13 Mar, 43
May, 96 39 June, 216 209 July, 36 39 Aug, 23 19 Sept, 19 Oct; San Isidro 26 July;
Cerro Verde 19 June; Tamanique 19 July; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan; no data avail-
able 16 (BMNH).
+Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, 1824). (1026 609). Range Mexico to Argentina.
This is probably the commonest skipper in El Salvador. San Salvador 16 Jan
(VH), 16 June (FS), 19 July (MS), 19 Aug (FS), 16 Dec (MS), 19 no date (RB); Ilopango
16 Feb (U); Rio Apancoyo 16 Oct (VH); La Libertad 19 Jan, 26 Feb, 16 July (MS),
23 19 Aug, 19 Nov, 19 Dec; Santa Tecla 56 59 Jan, 93 19 Feb, 106 69 Mar (16 MS),
16 19 May, 56 59 June, 208 119 July, 76 49 Aug, 86 69 Sept, 23 Oct, 13 Nov, 106 59
Dec; San Isidro 16 Jan; Cerro Verde 56 39 June, 16 19 Dec; Cerro San Jacinto 18
19 Jan, 28 May, 16 29 Dec; Ataco 16 Aug; Presa El Guayabo 16 Jan; Hda. Monte-
cristo 19 Mar, 19 Dec; no data available 13 (BMNH).
Atalopedes campestris (Boisduval, 1852). (43 99). Range USA to Brasil.
Cerro Verde 16 May (U), 23 39 June, 16 19 Aug; Santa Tecla 29 June, 19 July; Hda.
Montecristo 19 Feb, 19 Mar.
Atrytone mazai Freeman, 1969. (16). Range Texas to El Salvador. Santa
Tecla 18 Aug.
Poanes zabulon (Boisduval & LeConte, 1829). (596 159). Range USA to
Panama. In El Salvador seldom found below 1800 m. Cerro Verde 16 May (U),
63 29 June, 166 99 Aug, 83 19 Dec (16 VH); Majaditas 1600 m. 13 Feb; Hda. Monte-
cristo 16 Jan, 96 19 Feb, 116 Mar, 56 April, 1 May, 19 Nov, 19 Dec.
P. inimica (Butler & Druce, 1872). (186 149). Range Mexico to Colombia and
Venezuela. In El Salvador commonly flies with P. zabulon and Paratrytone melane
poa, generally above 1800 m. Vol. San Miguel 19 Feb (VH); Cerro Verde 19 Jan
(MS), 33 19 June, 56 109 July, 16 Sept, 26 Dec; Majaditas 16 Feb; Hda. Monte-
cristo 16 Feb, 26 Mar, 19 April, 36 May.
#Onespa nubis Steinhauser, 1974. (23 39). Range Miramundo Cloud Forest,
El Salvador. Food plant bamboo (Chusquea sp.). 23 29 Mar, 19 Dec.
+Paratrytone melane poa Evans, 1955. (1153 499). Range Guatemala to
Panama. In El Salvador usually found only above 1600 m. Las Brumas 16 Mar
(VH); Los Planes 13 Aug (FS); Cerro Verde 36 19 Mar (18 MS), 19 April 303 269
Aug (16 VH), 19 Sept, 193 69 Dec (16 VH); Tamanique 66 49 June; Majaditas 36
Nov; Hda. Montecristo 16 Jan, 126 Feb, 356 89 Mar (33 U, 26 VH), 26 19 April,
16 May, 18 19 Dec.
#Mellana eulogius (Pltz, 1883). (58). Range USA to Paraguay. Los Chorros
16 Nov (VH); Cerro San Jacinto 16 April (U); Santa Tecla 26 June; La Libertad
13 Mar.
+M. gala (Godman, 1900). (23). Range Mexico to El Salvador (?). Evans (1955)
shows gala as a synonym of monica (Plitz, 1886). I have examined the Holotype
of gala in the USNM and it does not resemble the illustration of monica in Seitz.
The genitalia of gala have not been dissected thus cannot be compared with monica,
but I feel certain they are distinct species. It is also worth noting that the known
range of monica is Brasil whereas gala was described from Mexico. I reluctantly
accept Franz & Schroder's (1954) identification of gala and include it in the list.
San Salvador 16 July (FS), 16 Aug (FS).
#M. montezuma Freeman, 1969. (196 119). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
Determined by H. A. Freeman, May 1973. San Salvador 16 Jan (VH), 16 Sept (U),
16 Nov (MS); Santa Tecla 19 June, 113 79 July, 36 19 Aug, 26 29 Sept.
M. myron (Godman, 1900). (26). Range given by Evans (1955) is Mexico to
Costa Rica; he also listed 2 subspecies: verba Evans, 1955 from Costa Rica to
Ecuador and inconspicua Hayward, 1950 from Bolivia and Peru, noting that the
genitalia of verba differs from the other two. This suggests that verba may be
specifically distinct. Until the confusion is cleared up, I shall treat all as distinct











species. The two specimens here listed were examined separately rather than directly
compared. I originally determined the one in the Serrano collection as myron
and that in the Allyn Museum as uerba, but must admit that they are very likely
the same and I have decided to apply the name myron, as a tentative determination.
The entire genus Mellana is in great need of revision. San Salvador 16 Jan (AM);
Los Chorros 16 Sept (MS).
#M. tecla Steinhauser, 1974. (126 19). Range El Salvador. Cerro San Jacinto
16 April (U); Tamanique 16 July; Santa Tecla 19 May, 96 July, 16 Aug.
#M. tamana Steinhauser, 1974. (146 49). Range El Salvador. Los Chorros
15 July (MS); Santa Tecla 29 July; Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 19 Aug; Tamanique
33 19 July, 106 Aug.
#M. balsa freeman Steinhauser, 1974. (66 39). Range El Salvador. Santa
Tecla 26 June, 46 29 July, 19 Oct.
(?) M. sp. (29). These 2 un-identified females are placed here as a matter of
interest as they probably represent at least one more species. They are not included
as a record. Santa Tecla 29 June.
Halotus angellus (Pl6tz, 1886). (156). Range El Salvador to Panama. Tamanique
16 July, 46 Oct, 56 Nov, 56 Dec.
H. rica (Bell, 1942). (266 249). Range Guatemala to Ecuador. San Salvador
19 Aug (MS); Los Chorros 16 June, 13 July (MS); Santa Tecla 49 June, 56 119
July, 83 69 Aug, 76 19 Sept, 18 Oct; Cerro Verde 26 June; Tamanique 19 Oct; Ataco
16 Aug.
Metron chrysogastra chrysogastra (Butler, 1870). (126 29). Range Mexico to
Colombia and Venezuela. San Salvador 16 Dec (MS); Los Chorros 16 Aug (MS),
16 Sept, 36 Oct (1 VH); San Isidro 19 Jan; Tamanique 1( Oct, 46 Nov, 16 Dec;
Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan.
Amblyscirtes tolteca (?) Scudder, 1872. (288 89). Range Mexico to El Salvador.
These specimens were determined tentatively as tolteca before publication by
Freeman (1973) of his generic revision, and I have not had the chance to review
them, thus the determinations remain uncertain. I have followed Freeman's
treatment of all forms as valid species. San Salvador 16 June (MS); Vol. Conchagua
19 Aug (MS); Los Chorros 16 Mar (MS), 36 June, 19 July (VH); Santa Tecla 16
29 June, 76 19 July, 19 Aug, 19 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto 76 May;
Ataco 19 Aug; Barrios 86 April.
Lerodea eufala eufala (Edwards, 1869). (26). Range USA to Argentina.
Santa Tecla 16 June; Ilopango 16 Jan.
L. dysaules Godman, 1900. (156 39). Range Mexico to El Salvador. Santa Tecla
19 Mar, 16 19 June, 96 19 July, 36 Aug, 23 Sept.
+Calpodes ethlius (Stoll, 1782). (146 199). Range USA to Argentina. Food plant
Canna sp. Apastepeque 16 July (FS); Los Chorros 16 19 Aug (MS); Cerro Verde
46 Aug (2 VH); La Libertad 26 39 June (16 39 VH); Tamanique 19 July; Santa Tecla
26 39 May, 13 39 June, 26 19 July, 29 Aug, 39 Oct; Ataco 16 29 Aug.
Panoquina ocola (Edwards, 1863). (76 19). Range USA to Argentina. Santa
Tecla 3I 19 July; Tamanique 16 July; Ilopango 36 Jan.
*P. hecebolus (Scudder, 1872). (86 59). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Rio Apancoyo
16 Oct (VH); Santa Tecla 16 Jan, 29 June, 56 39 July; no data available 16 (BMNH).
P. sylvicola (Herrich-SchAffer, 1865). (246 159). Range USA to Argentina.
San Salvador 16 19 July (16 MS, 19 VH); Vol. Conchagua 19 Aug (MS); Los Chorros
16 July (MS); Cerro San Jacinto 16 19 Nov (16 VH), 26 Dec; Santa Tecla 16 Mar,
76 39 July, 16 39 Aug, 66 39 Sept, 16 Oct, 19 Dec; La Libertad 26 Nov;
Sta Tecla-Comasagua Rd. 19 Sept; La Perla 16 19 Dec.
P. evadnes (Stoll, 1781). (66 49). Range Guatemala to Argentina. San Salvador
16 Oct (MS); Hda. La Carrera 19 July (VH); Santa Tecla 46 29 July, 16 Aug, 16 Sept.
Zenis jebus janka Evans, 1955 (26). Range Mexico to Peru. These key tojanka
except for 2 features; the mid tibiae are spined and the shape of the valva is slightly
different. They may be a new species, but tentatively are placed here. Ilopango
16 Feb (VH); Hda. Montecristo 16 Mar.











Nyctelius nyctelius nyctelius (Latreille, 1824). (86 59). Range USA to Argentina.
Santa Tecla 86 39 July, 19 Dec; Cerro Verde 19 June.
Thespieus dalmani (Latreille, 1824). (56 49). Range Mexico to Argentina.
Santa Tecla 39 July, 16 Aug; Cerro Verde 19 Aug; Tamanique 16 Oct, 26 Nov, 16
Dec.
T. macareus (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869). (126 89). Range USA to Venzuela and
Colombia. Cerro Cacaguatique 16 Mar (VH); Santa Tecla 19 June, 29 July, 36
Aug; Cerro Verde 26 June, 56 19 Aug; Hda. Montecristo 19 Feb, 16 39 Mar (19 U).
T. aspernatus Draudt, 1924. (26 19). Range Mexico to Paraguay. Ataco 16
Aug; Tamanique 16 19 July.
# Vacerra bonfilius aeas (Plitz, 1882). (29). Range Mexico to Colombia. Santa
Tecla 19 Aug; La Libertad 19 Dec.
#V. lachares Godman, 1900. (16). Range Mexico to Ecuador. Santa Tecla
16 Sept.
#V. cervara Steinhauser, 1974. (26 39). Range El Salvador. Tamanique 16
Oct; Ataco 16 39 Aug (N.B. The date was incorrectly reported as July by Steinhauser
1974).
Oxynthes corusca (Herrich-Schaiffer, 1869). (56 59). Range Mexico to Brasil.
Santa Tecla 36 29 July, 16 19 Aug, 19 Sept, 16 Nov; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan.
Niconiades xanthaphes Hibner, 1821. (36 19). Range Mexico to Paraguay.
San Rafael 19 Oct (VH); Coatepeque 16 Aug (MS); La Libertad 16 Nov; La Perla
16 Jan.
N. nikko Hayward, 1948. (453 209). Range Mexico to Argentina. San Salvador
36 Aug (MS); 19 Sept (U), 16 Oct (U); Ilopango 16 Feb (VH); Santa Tecla 16 Jan,
36 29 June, 226 139 July, 56 19 Aug, 76 29 Sept; Cerro San Jacinto 19 Jan, 16 Dec;
Ataco 16 Aug.
Saliana triangularis (Kaye, 1913). (46 29). Range Mexico to Argentina. Food
plant Calathea macrosepala (Musaceae). San Salvador 16 Oct (MS); Ilopango 16
19 Feb (U); Los Chorros 16 June; Tamanique 16 19 Dec.
S. fusta Evans, 1955. (66 109). Range Mexico to Brasil. Food plant C.
macrosepala. S. fusta is easily confused with triangularis. Besides differences noted
by Evans (1955), the palpi beneath are whitish in fusta, ochreous in triangularis.
San Salvador 16 June (MS), 16 Oct (MS); Los Chorros 19 June, 16 29 July (16 19
MS, 19 VH), 16 19 Oct (16 VH); La Libertad 19 Feb, 19 June, 19 Nov, 16 Dec; San
Isidro 16 19 June; La Perla 19 Oct; Atecozol Pk. 19 Dec.
S. esperi Evans, 1955. (36). Range Mexico to Brasil. Los Chorros 16 Feb (VH);
La Perla 16 Jan, 16 Dec.
S. antoninus (Latreille, 1824). (16). Range Guatemala to Brasil. Santa Tecla
16 Sept.
S. longirostris (Sepp, 1848). (76 69). Range Mexico to Brasil. Food plant
Heliconia latispathia (Musaceae). Lago Chanmico 16 Jan (VH); San Salvador 19
Jan, 19 May, 38 19 Sept, 16 19 Dec (19 MS); Santa Tecla 16 Jan, 19 Mar, 19 Oct;
Cerro San Jacinto 16 Dec.
Thracides phidon (Cramer, 1779). (46 49). Range Mexico to Brasil. Food plant
Musa sp. and Heliconia collinsiana (Musaceae). San Salvador 13 Feb (U), 16
Nov; Ilopango 19 Mar (VH); Los Chorros 16 Aug (MS); Cerro San Jacinto 29 Jan,
16 19 Feb.
Neoxeniades scipio luda (Hewitson, 1877). (16). Range El Salvador to Colombia.
San Salvador 16 Jan (VH).

COLLECTING SITES

All of the collecting sites mentioned in the list are tabulated below. Where
possible, brief descriptions of the environment are given. However, several of the
localities where I have not collected personally had to be described either from my
general knowledge of the country or from verbal descriptions given by collectors
who know the areas. Several localities (those with no description) are either too












ambiguous to describe or completely unknown to me. Those that I have been unable
to locate at all are grouped at the end of the list. The number preceding each site
refers to its location on the index map.

EL SALVADOR
-Mop of Collectn Lowoe
SiL /7 LEGE ND













1. Hda Montecristo 2200-2400m. Virgin cloud forest and some "pena wind scrub"
on the upper slopes and summits of Cerros Miramundo and Montecristo.
This is the extreme northwest corner of the country where El Salvador joins
Guatemala and Honduras. The fauna and flora are very distinctive.
2. Miramundo and Los Planes 1800-2100m. Open pasture, temperate pine and
deciduous forest and "pena wind scrub" just below the Miramundo cloud forest.
This area, centering on the Hda. Los Planes, is the site of an experimental FAO
reforestation project and recently has been seeded in pine and cypress.
3. Majaditas 1300-1600m. Coffee plantation and partially cleared temperate pine
and deciduous forest on the lower slopes of Cerro Miramundo above Metapan.
4. Metapan 300-800m. Several different collecting sites in and around Metapan are
lumped here. The environment includes semi-arid brush, open pasture, coffee
plantations, secondary growth lowland forest and residential gardens.
5. Citala 700-1000m. Collecting was along 5 kms. of trail between Citala and
San Ramon. Semi-arid brush with some remnants of temperate pine and
deciduous forest in the higher parts.
6. San Ignacio. Exact site not known, may be high country on Honduras border.
7. La Palma 1800m. Secondary growth temperate pine and deciduous forest.
8. Tejutla. The area around Tejutla is generally semi-arid brush with secondary
growth forest along streams. I am not familiar with the collecting sites.
9. Agua Caliente 500m. Dry creek bed in hot, semi-arid brush.
10. Santa Ana.
11. Rio E Molino 6 0000m. Coffee plantation and secondary growth tropical rain
forest along streams about 3 kms. west of Ahuachapan.
12. Ataco. The general area is tropical rain forest and coffee plantation at about
900-1300m. All my specimens were taken in one day from the flower garden of a
friend in the town of Concepcion de Ataco. The elevation was not recorded.
13. Hda. Ashuqueman. Described by Hellebuyck as remnants of cloud forest and
temperate deciduous forest above the town of Tacuba, probably between
1800 and 2000m.
14. Coatepeque 900m. A caldera lake at the base of Volcan Santa Ana. Tropical
rain forest (secondary growth), coffee plantation and residential gardens.
15. San Isidro 100m. Dense secondary growth tropical rain forest along a small
mountain stream on the east flank of Cerro Verde about 5 kms. by road from
the large sugar mill of San Isidro.
16. Cerro Verde 1600-2000m. Most collecting was from the extensive gardens of
16. Cerro Verde 1600-2000m. Most collecting was from the extensive gardens of


I











the Hotel de la Montafia in a "semi" cloud forest environment at the summit of
Cerro Verde, and along the road below the forest in secondary growth temperate
deciduous forest and coffee plantation.
17. Las Brumas 1800-1900m. Temperate deciduous forest and coffee plantation
in the saddle between Cerro Verde and Volcan Santa Ana. This and the Cerro
Verde site are contiguous.
18. Atecozol Park 400m. Tropical rain forest from which the understory has been
removed and replaced with decorative plantings. The park is at the foot of
Volcan Izalco. Natural springs have been dammed to provide several swimming
areas and the park is bordered by a small stream.
19. La Chanmico.
20. Quezaltepeque.
21. Los Chorros 700m. This is another park in a canyon on the west flank of Cerro
Boqueron in tropical rain forest with decorative plantings and spring-fed
swimming areas. Collecting is good in secondary growth and understory in the
shaded canyon above the park as well as in flower plantings, from flowering
shrubs and along seeps in the park itself.
22. Santa Tecla 900m. A developed residential area amid coffee plantation and
secondary growth tropical rain forest. Most collecting was in my flower garden
and along a small quebrada carrying sewage through coffee plantation.
23. Sta. Tecla Comasagua Road 1200m. A 5 kms. stretch of road along a ridge in
secondary growth tropical rain forest and coffee plantation.
24. Comasagua 1200m. Same as 23 about 5 kms. east along the ridge.
25. Cerro Boqueron 1100m. A small mountain stream in coffee plantation and
secondary growth forest transitional between tropical rain and temperate
deciduous. The site is on the south flank of Cerro Boqueron above Santa Tecla.
26. Picacho 2000m. Temperate deciduous forest approaching rain forest character-
istics. Cerro El Picacho, also called Cerro San Salvador, is an erosional rem-
nant of the rim of a once huge volcanic cone now occupied by Cerro Boqueron,
an intermittently active volcano.
27. San Salvador 600-800m. The minor collecting done by me in San Salvador
was at the office compound where I worked and on the grounds of the University.
How much area is included as San Salvador by Franz & Schr6der (1954), I
do not know. Much of the Serrano collection from San Salvador came from a
forested zone up the slopes of Cerro Boqueron that has since been destroyed.
28. Cerro San Jacinto 800-900m. Coffee plantation and secondary growth tropical
rain forest with some open pasture in the hills overlooking San Salvador from
the southeast. I have included here the very few specimens from Puerta del
Diablo in the same area but slightly higher.
29. Ilopango 500m. Two separate areas about 5 kms. apart are included here; one
a residential garden area on the lake shore and the other a small stream in
secondary growth tropical fain forest below open pasture and cultivated land
near the airport.
30. Apopa.
31. Santo Tomas 1000m. Coffee plantation and secondary growth tropical rain for-
est just soith of San Salvador.
32. San Rafael.
33. Sensuntepeque.
34. Presa El Guayabo 200m. The general environment is semi-arid brush, open
pasture and some secondary forest growth along streams. All collecting here
was in one day in the housing compound of the hydroelectric station.
35. Tamanique 1000-1300m. An area between 6 and 10 kms. north of Tamanique
with small streams in secondary growth tropical rain forest and abandoned
coffee plantation. Some of the best collecting here was from flowering shrubs
and trees along the road.
36. La Libertad 10m. Tropical lowland forest, secondary brush and open pasture on
the littoral highway 5 kms. east of La Libertad. The best collecting was in











partly cleared forest along a small stream.
37. El Balsamar 10m. A resort area 10 kms. west of La Libertad on the coast with
the same general environment as 36.
38. La Perla 0-30m. Tropical lowland forest with a small stream on the coast
about 25 kms. west of La Libertad.
39. Rio Apancoyo.
40. Cojutepeque.
41. Cerro Las Pavas.
42. Apastepeque.
43. Puenta Cuscatlan 100m. A small patch of lowland tropical forest surrounded
by cane fields and pasture.
44. Vol. San Miguel.
45. San Miguel.
46. Cerro Cacaguatique.
47. Meanguera 300m. Semi-arid brush with some secondary growth lowland forest
along streams.
48. Loma Larga. Hot, arid brush. The type series of Celaenorrhinus fritzgnertneri
were taken from 800 feet within the Loma Larga silver mine in complete
darkness.
49. Barrios 500-600m. Similar to 47 but with some secondary growth tropical rain
forest along streams in an area near Ciudad Barrios.
50. Usulutan.
51. La Union.
52. Vol. Conchagua.

Unlocated sites: Hda La Carrera (Usulutan); Shalpa (La Libertad); Tecomatepec;
Ayagualo.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am particularly indebted to Victor Hellebuyck and Miguel and Frank Serrano
for their close cooperation and for making their collections and that of the Uni-
versity of El Salvador available for study. Special thanks are due to Lee D. Miller
for suggestions and critical review of the manuscript and to my wife Levona who
collected so much of the material.

LITERATURE CITED

Bailey, James S. 1880. Description of a New Species of Pleusioneura from Central
America. Bull. Brooklyn Lenton. Soc.: 62-63.
Bell, E. L. 1942. New Records and New Species of Hesperiidae from Mexico (Lep.
Hesp.) Anal. Escuela Nac; Cienc. Biol. II: 455-468.
Draudt, M. 1921-1924. Hesperidae (sic). In A. Seitz, The Macrolepidoptera of the
World 5: 826-1011; 1046-1055 pl. 113B, 160-193.
Evans, W. H. 1951. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Part I, Pyrrhopyginae.
British Museum (Natural History), London 92 pp. pl. 1-9.
------. 1952. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Part II, Pyrginae, Section
1. British Museum (Natural History), London 170 pp. pl. 10-25.
.--------. 1953. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Part III, Pyrginae, Section
2. British Museum (Natural History), London 246 pp. pl. 26-53.
1955. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Part IV, Hesperiinae.
British Museum (Natural History), London. 449 pp. pl. 54-88.
Franz, Von Elli and H. Schroder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador.
Senck biol. Band 35, No. 1/2. Frankfurt 75-87.
Freeman, H. A. 1967. Three New Species of Hesperiidae from Mexico. J. Lepid.
Soc. 21: 115-119.
---. 1967. Polythrix octomaculata, not procerus, in Texas (Hesperiidae). J.











Lepid. Soc. 21: 278.
----. 1969. Records, New Species, and a New Genus of Hesperiidae from Mexico.
J. Lepid. Soc. 23 Suppl. 2: 62 pp.
--.---. 1973. A Review of the Amblyscirtes with the Description of a New Species
from Mexico (Hesperiidae). J. Lepid. Soc. 27: 40-57.
Godman, F. D. and 0. Salvin. 1879-1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta.
Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London, 2 vols.
Hoffman, Carlos C. 1940-1941. Catalogo Sistematico y Zoogeografico de los
Lepidopteros Mexicanos. Ann. Inst. Biol. Mexico. 11: 639-739, 12: 237-
294.
Monroe, Rose S. and L. D. Miller, 1967. Report on a Collection of Hesperiidae from
Honduras. J. Lepid. Soc. 21: 243-247.
Muyshondt, Alberto and A. Muyshondt, Jr. 1974. Gregarious Seasonal Roosting
of Smyrna karwinskii Adults in El Salvador (Nymphalidae). J. Lepid. Soc.
28: 224-229.
dos Passos, Cyril F. 1964. A Synonymic List of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem. 1,
Lepid. Soc. 145 pp.
Serrano, F. and M. E. Serrano. 1972. Las Mariposas del El Salvador, Primera
Parte, Papilionidae. Comunicaciones, Univ. de El Salvador, Segunda Epoca
Vol. I No. 1: 48-79 pl. 1-8.
Steinhauser, S. R. 1972. The Genus Zestusa (Hesperiidae) in El Salvador with
Description of a New Species. J. Lepid. Soc. 26: 127-132.
----. 1974. Notes on Neotropical Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae with Descriptions
of New Species and Subspecies and a New Genus. Bull. Allyn Mus. No. 22:
38 pp.



APPENDIX

Hesperiidae species not yet known from El Salvador, but with reasonable
expectation of discovery.
It is obvious that the preceding list of Hesperiidae of El Salvador does not in-
clude all of the species that eventually will be, nor even have been encountered
there but for which I have not found records. Below is a list of species with a rea-
sonable expectation of discovery, divided into three parts. Those with an excellent,
with a good and with a slight chance of occurring there. These categories are
roughly defined as follows: "excellent" signifies in general those species reported to
occur both northwest and southeast of El Salvador; "good" signifies those species
known from Guatemala and north but not southeast or from Honduras and south
but not northwest; "slight" refers to species reported from one side only and from
either Nicaragua, Belice or Chiapas and southern Oaxaca in Mexico. They are not
hard and fast categories in that I have used personal judgement in many cases
to shift a species from one to another or to discard it completely.
All this is perhaps a mere exercise in futility, but it does indicate that in one
man's opinion there is an excellent chance of finding an additional 138 species,
a good chance for 43 more and at least a slight chance for an additional 48,
a possible total of 229.

EXCELLENT CHANCE

Pyrrhopyginae

Pyrrhopyge phidias evansi Bell, 1947
P. phidias zenodorus Godman & Salvin, 1893
P. chalybea chloris Evans, 1951
P. cosyra Druce, 1875











P. maculosa erythrosticta Godman & Salvin, 1879
Jemadia hospital pseudognetus (Mabille, 1878)
Mysoria barcastus ambigua Mabille & Boullet, 1908
Myscelus pegasus perissodora Dyar, 1915

Pyrginae

Phocides thermus thermus Mabille, 1883
Udranomia orcinus (Felder, 1867)
Entheus matho matho Godman & Salvin, 1879
Epargyreus aspina Evans, 1952
E. spina spina Evans, 1952
E. clavicornis tenda Evans, 1952
E. spinosa Evans, 1952
Aguna claxon Evans, 1952
A. coelus (Stoll, 1781)
A. albistria leucogramma (Mabille, 1888)
Typhedanus ampyx (Godman & Salvin, 1893)
Polythrix procerus (Plbtz, 1881)
Codatractus melon (Godman & Salvin, 1893)
C. cyda (Godman, 1901)
Ridens mephitis (Hewitson, 1876)
R. bridgmani (Weeks, 1902)
Astraptes tucuti Williams, 1927
A. talthybius Mabille, 1888
A. phalaecus Godman & Salvin, 1893
A. apastus apastus (Cramer, 1777)
A. granadensis M6schler, 1878
A. colossus colossus Herrich-Schaiffer, 1869
A. hopfferi Plotz, 1882
A. latimargo bifascia Herrich-Schaiffer, 1869
A. chiriquensis chiriquensis Staudinger, 1875
Autochton longipennis (Pl6tz, 1882)
A. bipunctatus (Gmelin, 1790)
Achalarus jalapus Plbtz, 1882
Venada advena (Mabille, 1889)
Bungalotis midas (Cramer, 1775)
Dyscophellus nicephorus (Hewitson, 1876)
D. phraxanor lama Evans, 1952
D. porcius porcius (Felder, 1862)
Nascus phintias Schaus, 1913
N. solon corilla Evans, 1952
Celaenorrhinus monartus Pltz, 1884
C. stallingsi Freeman, 1946
C. similis stola Evans, 1952
Cogia caicus caicus (Herrich-Schiiffer, 1869)
Telemiades delandei Latreille, 1824
7. nicomedes nicomedes Mbschler, 1878
T. sila Evans, 1952
T. avitus (Stoll, 1781)
Mimia phidyle phidyle (Godman & Salvin, 1894)
Mictris crispus caerula (Mabille, 1877)
Polyctor enops (Godman & Salvin, 1894)
Nisoniades laurentina Williams & Bell, 1939
N. macarius Herrich-Schiffer, 1870
N. castolus Hewitson, 1878
Pellicia angra angra Evans, 1953


L -I B












Bolla cylindus (Godman & Salvin, 1896)
B. cyclops cyclops (Mabille, 1876)
Staphylus imperspicua Hayward, 1940
S. vincula (Pltz, 1886)
Diaeus lacaena varna Evans, 1953
Ouleus calavius (Godman & Salvin, 1895)
Zera nolckeni (Mabille, 1891)
Z. tetrastigma tetrastigma (Sepp, 1848)
Quadrus contubernalis (Mabille, 1883)
Pythonides amaryllis Staudinger, 1876
P. jovianus (Stoll, 1782)
P. proxenus Godman & Salvin, 1895
P. limaea pteras Godman & Salvin, 1895
Mylon zephus zephus (Butler, 1870)
M. cajus hera Evans, 1953
Aethilla echina echina Hewitson, 1870
Achlyodes pallida Felder, 1869
Anastrus tolimus Pltz, 1884
A. robigus PlItz, 1884
A. petius peto Evans, 1953
A. meliboea meliboea Godman & Salvin, 1894
Ebrietas osyris (Staudinger, 1876)
E. evanidus (Mabille, 1897)
Camptopleura theramenes Mabille, 1877
Chiomara mithrax (M6schler, 1878)
Heliopetes laviana laviana Hewitson, 1868

Hesperiinae

Dalla lalage lalage (Godman, 1900) or D. l. lathaea Schaus, 1913
D. faula faula (Godman, 1900) or D. f. lysis Schaus, 1913
Falga sciras Godman, 1901
Callimormus radiola radiola Mabille, 1878
Mnasicles geta Godman, 1901
Mnaseas bicolor bicolor (Mabille, 1889)
Vidius perigenes (Godman, 1900)
Nastra leucone leucone (Godman, 1900)
Cymaenes tripunctus theogenis Capronnier, 1874
C. tripunctata alumna Butler, 1877
Papias phaeomelas (Geyer, 1831)
P. nigrans Schaus, 1913
Cobalopsis nero (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Morys geisa lyde Godman, 1900
Tigasis zalates Godman, 1900
Vettius lafresnayei pica (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
V. aurelius (Pltz, 1882)
V. marcus (Fabricius, 1787)
V. conka Evans, 1955
Turesis lucas (Fabricius, 1793)
Justinia phaetusa norda Evans, 1955
Eutychide complana (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
E. subcordata ochus Godman, 1900
Enosis immaculate immaculate (Hewitson, 1868)
Vertica verticalis coatepeca (Schaus, 1902)
Talides sinois cantra Evans, 1955
Carystus phorcus phorcus (Cramer, 1777)
Cobalus virbius fidicula Hewitson, 1877


I












Damas clavus (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Carystoides basoches basoches (Latreille, 1824)
Lychnucoides saptine (Godman & Salvin, 1879)
Orses cynisca (Swainson, 1821)
Cynea anthracinus anthracinus (Mabille, 1877)
C. diluta (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Decinea decinea derisor (Mabille, 1891)
D. lucifer (Hibner, 1831)
Orthos gabina (Godman, 1900)
Pompeius amblyspila (Mabille, 1897)
P. dares (Pl1tz, 1883)
Mellana clavus (Erichson, 1848)
M. helva (M6schler, 1876)
Librita librita (Pl1tz, 1886)
Euphyes peneia Godman, 1900
Atrytonopsis ovinia ovinia (Hewitson, 1866)
Amblyscirtes elissa Godman, 1900
A. prenda Evans, 1955
Panoquina fusina evansi Freeman, 1946
P. pauper pauper (Mabille, 1878)
Zenis minos (Latreille, 1824)
Niconiades viridis vista Evans, 1955
Aides dysoni Godman, 1900
Saliana salius (Cramer, 1775)
S. saladin saladin Evans, 1955
Neoxeniades molion (Godman, 1901)

138 species with an excellent chance of being found, (8 Pyrrhopyginae, 76
Pyrginae and 54 Hesperiinae).


GOOD CHANCE

Pyrrhopyginae

Pyrrhopyge jonas Felder, 1859
P. viriditas Skinner, 1920
Mysoria amra (Hewitson, 1871)
M. affinis (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Oxynetra hopfferi Staudinger, 1888
Pyrginae

Phocides distans licinus M6schler, 1878
Phanus rilma Evans, 1952
Drephalys oriander oria Evans, 1952
Hyalothyrus neleus pemphigargyra Mabille, 1888
Polythrix metallescens (Mabille, 1888)
Astraptes parisi helen Evans, 1952
Achalarus tehuacana (Draudt, 1922)
Bungalotis erythus (Cramer, 1775)
Dyscophellus ramusis ramon Evans, 1952
Cephise cephise cephise (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Pyrdalus corbulo cora Evans, 1953
Bolla subapicatus Schaus, 1902
B. saletas (Godman & Salvin, 1896)
Staphylus mazans (Reakirt, 1866)











Ouleus bubaris (Godman & Salvin, 1895)
Quadrus anicius (Godman & Salvin, 1893)
Pythonides grandis assecla Mabille, 1883
Systasea pulverulenta (Felder, 1896)
Tosta platypterus (Mabille, 1895)

Hesperiinae

Piruna brunnea (Scudder, 1872)
P. cingo sombra Evans, 1955
Virga virginius (Moschler, 1882)
Moeris duena Evans, 1955
Paracarystus hypoargyra (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Eutychide asema (Mabille, 1891)
Enosis angularis infuscata (Pl6tz, 1882)
Dubiella fiscella belpa Evans, 1955
Carystoides hondura Evans, 1955
Decinea zapota Evans, 1955
Pompeius tinga Evans, 1955
Atrytone logan (Edwards, 1863)
Paratrytone niveolimbus (Mabille, 1889)
Mellana field (Bell, 1942)
M. mexicana (Bell, 1942)
Euphyes ampa Evans, 1955
Metron fasciata (Moschler, 1876)
Aides brino (Stoll, 1781)
Neoxeniades seron seron (Godman, 1901)

43 species with a good chance of being found, (5 Pyrrhopyginae, 19 Pyrginae
and 19 Hesperiinae).

SLIGHT CHANCE

Pyrrhopyginae

Pyrrhopyge crida (Hewitson, 1871)
P. a. araxes Hewitson, 1867
Azonax typhaon (Hewitson, 1877)

Pyrginae

Tarsoctenus corytus gaudialis (Hewitson, 1876)
Phanus obscurior obscurior Kaye, 1924
Epargyreus zestos Geyer, 1832
E. clarus (Cramer, 1775)
Polythrix auginus (Hewitson, 1867)
Codatractus arizonensis (Skinner, 1905)
Urbanus carmelita trebia (Mischler, 1878)
Astraptes apastus apastus (Cramer, 1777)
A. cretatus cretatus Hayward, 1939
Salatis salatis (Stoll, 1782)
Cogia mala Evans, 1953
Telemiades antiope antiope Pl6tz, 1882
Mimia chiapensis Freeman, 1969
Spioniades abbreviata abbreviata Mabille, 1888
Morvina fissimacula pelarge (Godman & Salvin, 1893)
Gorgopas chlorocephala chlorocephala (Herrich-Schaffer, 1870)












Staphylus veytius Freeman, 1969
Zera belti (Godman & Salvin, 1894)
Quadrus francesius Freeman, 1969
Gindanes brebissoni panaetius Godman & Salvin, 1895
Sostrata pusilla pusilla Godman & Salvin, 1895
Potamanaxas unifasciata (Felder, 1867)
P. thoria (Hewitson, 1870)
P. latyrea latrea (Hewitson, 1875)
Antigonus funebris Felder, 1869
Tosta gorgus (Bell, 1937)
Cycloglypha enega (Moschler, 1876)

Hesperiinae

Pheraeus odilia epidius (Mabille, 1891)
Sodalia sodalis (Butler, 1877)
Thargella caura caura (Plitz, 1882)
Mnasitheus cephoides Hayward, 1943
Vettius divers maeon (Mabille, 1891)
V. artona (Hewitson, 1868)
Thoon aethus Hayward, 1950
Enosis pruinosa pruinosa (Pltz, 1882)
Orphe gerasa (Hewitson, 1871)
Carystoides sicania orbius Godman, 1901
Cynea corope (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
C. nigricola Freeman, 1969
Euphyes chamuli Freeman, 1969
Tirynthia conflua (Herrich-Schaffer, 1869)
Vacerra egla (Hewitson, 1877)
V. gayra Dyar, 1918
Niconiades comitana Freeman, 1969
Saliana severus (Mabille, 1895)

48 species with a slight chance of being found, (3 Pyrrhopyginae, 27 Pyrginae
and 18 Hesperiinae).




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