Title: Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
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Title: Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
Series Title: Bulletin of the Allyn Museum.
Abbreviated Title: Bull. Allyn Mus.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. News Bureau.
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Florida State Museum
Florida Museum of Natural History
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Place of Publication: Sarasota Fla
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Subject: Entomology   ( lcsh )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1971.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1985>- issued by the Florida State Museum; <1988>- by the Florida Museum of Natural History.
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General Note: Description based on: No. 4, published in 1972; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 123, published in 1988.
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BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM

Published by
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Sarasota, Florida

Number -- 17 12 APRIL 1974





A NEW SANDY-DESERT SUBSPECIES OF
MEGATHYMUS COLORADENSIS
(MEGATHYMIDAE) FROM EXTREME
NORTHERN ARIZONA


Ronald S.1 and Dale Wielgus

3434 West Augusta Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85021

Recent descriptions in the genus Cercyonis (Satyridae) by Emmel & Emmel
(1969; 1971) and Emmel & Mattoon (1972) have shown the existence of distinctive
whitish races adapted to arid alkaline flats of the western deserts of the United
States. Such environmental adaptation appears to extend to a population of
Megathymus coloradensis Riley inhabiting a sandy-desert area of extreme
northern Arizona. The discovery of the subspecies described herein was a result
of our initial investigations into the biology of Megathymus streckeri (Skinner).
The purpose of this paper is to describe the new population and to note its life
history. This study considered the following subspecies: Megathymus coloradensis
navajo Skinner, Megathymus coloradensis arizonae Tinkham, Megathymus
coloradensis reubeni Stallings, Turner & Stallings, Megathymus coloradensis
coloradensis Riley and Megathymus coloradensis brown Stallings & Turner.
Megathymus coloradensis albasuffusa Ronald S. and Dale Wielgus,
new subspecies.
Female. Head: vertex grey, Palpus: white, with some black-tipped scales.
Antenna: shaft white distad, ringed with black basad; club black. Thorax: grey
dorsally with long greenish-brown hairs caudad, blackish ventrally. Abdomen:
black dorsally, grey ventrally.
Upper surface of primaries: black, with heavy amount of light yellowish-
brown hairs at base of wing; heavy line of white to yellowish-white overscaling
just inside fringe along outer margin, from apex to inner margin and extending
inwardly to spots 5 and 6; spot 1 (cell spot) deep yellow, squarish, with prominent
'Museum Associate in Entomology, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County










white to light yellow spot distad on costal margin; spots 2, 3 and 4 (subapical spots)
white, nearly three times as wide as high, with spots 3 and 4 equal in size and spot
2 smaller; spots 5 and 6 broad, light yellow, sharply toothed outwardly; spot 6
extending inwardly along vein M3 almost to inner edge of spot 7 in some
specimens; spots 7, 8 and 9 broad, light to deep yellow; spot 7 rectangular, twice
as wide as high, extending inwardly almost to cell spot and outwardly half way
under spot 6; spot 8 rectangular, wider than spot 7, both spots with outer
edge in straight line; spot 9 sharply toothed inwardly and projecting slightly
beyond spot 8, outer edge angled inwardly; fringes white with vein tips thinly
black, appearing lightly checkered.
Upper surface of secondaries: black, with medium amount of light yellowish-
brown hairs at base of wing; light to deep yellow spots of discal band, a phantom
spot followed by well-defined spot below, then followed by two fused, squarish
spots (spots 10 and 11) and large, fused squarish spots (spots 12 and 13), and
V-shaped phantom spot pointing inwardly (spot 14, in most specimens); spot
11 inward of spots 10, 12, and 13; marginal border broad, light yellow, with
diffuse black scaling basad, and thin black scaling along veins (in some specimens);
fringes white to very light yellow.
Under surface of primaries: black; outer margin heavily overscaled with white;
all spots of upper surface reappearing; spots 2, 3 and 4 white; spot 5 concave out-
wardly, very light yellow; spot 6 slightly smaller than on upper surface, very
light yellow; spots 7, 8 and 9 same size and shape as on upper surface, light
yellow; white portion of checkered fringe with thin line of black scales connecting
vein tips in most specimens.
Under surface of secondaries: black, with costal margin grey and crossed by
fine black lines; outer margin heavily overscaled with white in most specimens;
two white spots in costal area, inner one triangular, outer one crescentic; bold
discal band indicated by whitish overscaling; spot 10 reappearing as small,
white prominent spot.
Male. Head: vertex grey. Palpus: white, with some black-tipped scales.
Antenna: shaft white distad, ringed with black basad; club black. Thorax: very
light grey dorsally with long light yellowish hairs caudad, brownish ventrally.
Upper surface of primaries: dark, greyish-black, with heavy amount of light
yellowish hairs at base of wing; heavy line of white to yellowish-white overscaling
just inside fringe along outer margin, from apex to inner margin and extending
inwardly to spots 5 and 6; spot 1 (cell spot) very light yellow, somewhat triangular,
with prominent white to light yellow spot distad on costal margin; spots 2, 3 and
4 (subapical spots) white, spot 2 nearly three times as wide as high, spot 3 two-
thirds width of spot 2 and twice as wide as spot 4; spots 5 and 6 broad, pale
yellow, sharply toothed (concave) outwardly; spot 6 angled inwardly and extending
along vein M3 to inner edge of spot 7 in most specimens; spots 7, 8 and 9 broad,
very light yellow; spot 7 rectangular, convex inwardly, extending well under
and almost to outer edge of spot 6; spot 8 same shape and size as spot 7, both
spots with outer edge in straight line; spot 9 sharply toothed inwardly and pro-
jecting slightly beyond spot 8, outer edge angled inwardly; fringes white
to yellowish-white with vein tips thinly black, indistinctly checkered.
Upper surface of secondaries: black, with medium amount of light yellowish
hairs at base of wing; marginal border broad, very light yellow, usually no black
scaling along veins Cu' Cu2 and 2A; fringes very light yellow.
Under surface of primaries: black; outer margin very heavily overscaled with
white just inside fringe from apex to inner margin and extending inwardly to
outer edges of spots 2 through 9; all spots of upper surface reappearing; spots 2,
3 and 4 white; spots 5 and 6 same shape as on upper surface, smaller, very light
yellow (almost white); spots 7, 8 and 9 same size and shape as on upper surface,
light yellow; inner edge of fringe a continuous black line with yellowish-white
portion exhibiting thin line of black scales connecting vein tips in most specimens.
Under surface of secondaries: grey, with costal margin very light grey and










crossed by fine black lines; outer margin very heavily overscaled with white,
creating whitish effect in most specimens; two white spots in costal area, inner
one triangular, outer one crescentic; discal band indicated faintly by whitish
overscaling contrasting with grey ground; spot 10 reappearing as minute white
or black spot in some specimens; fringes very light yellow (almost white) with vein
tips black.
Holotype female, 24 IV 1973, and allotype male, 29 I 1973: Wahweap Camp-
ground, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, 5 miles northwest of Glen Canyon
Dam, 3700' elevation, Coconino County, Arizona. Described from 20 specimens
(12 males and 8 females) all reared from ova and larvae (except holotype female
from pupa) collected by Ronald S. and Dale Wielgus in 1972 and 1973. The
preserved larvae, larval skins and pupal cases are hereby made a part of the type
series. The type locality is unique in that the majority of ova and larvae were found
in a Yucca colony destined to be inundated by the rising waters of Lake
Powell (Figs. 1 and 36). Of eleven larvae collected from the locality in June 1972,
five died during a difficult rearing process (one, of parasitism, in February 1973).
Foodplant: Yucca bailey Wooton and Standley.
Larval parasite: Apanteles megathymi Riley (determined by Dr. Paul M.
Marsh, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.).

COMPARISON

Tables 1 and 2 give detailed keys furnishing distinguishing characteristics
whereby albasuffusa adults may be readily separated from the other subspecies
considered in this study. The following general comparisons supplement
the tables.
Males of albasuffusa are distinguishable from those of navajo, arizonae,
reubeni, coloradensis and brown by having a heavy white overscaling on the
dorsal surface of the thorax and along the margin of the upper surface of the
primaries, from apex to outer angle, and in the limbal area of the lower surface of
secondaries, from anal angle to outer angle, creating a pale, whitish effect in
those areas.
Females of albasuffusa are distinguishable from those of navajo, arizonae,
reubeni, coloradensis and brown in the following respects:
1. From navajo, by having the discal spots of the upper surface of the primaries
broader, deeper yellow, a heavy suffusion of yellowish hairs at bases of fore-
wings dorsad, and the marginal border of the upper surface of the secondaries
broader.
2. From arizonae and reubeni, by having the upper surface of the primaries
and secondaries blacker, the discal spots deeper yellow, and the marginal border
of the upper surface of the secondaries yellower.
3. From coloradensis, by having the upper surface of the primaries and
secondaries blacker, thorax lighter, and marginal border of the upper surface of
the secondaries broader, with a heavy suffusion of black scales along inner edge.
4. From brown, by having the upper surface of the primaries and secondaries
blacker, the discal spots of the primaries broader and spot 9 not prolonged basad,
a heavy suffusion of yellowish-brown hairs at bases of wings, and the marginal
border of the upper surface of the secondaries broader, yellower.
Adults of both sexes of albasuffusa are smaller than those of navajo, arizonae
and reubeni.

LARVAL MORPHOLOGY

Our observations on the larvae of albasuffusa have established as many as
six larval stadia. Evidence also indicates that the larvae of Megathymus ursus
ursus Poling and Megathymus ursus desert Wielgus, Wielgus & Wielgus undergo
as many as six stadia. It is difficult to ascertain positively the moment of ecdysis









in Megathymus larvae due to their burrowing habits. However, cessation of
feeding for a period of several consecutive days is a good indicator (Wielgus
et al., 1972), and we were able to confirm ecdysis to within an hour in some cases.
This was done either by dilating the tent openings and observing the larvae with
the aid of a flashlight, or by retrieving the cast skins.



S;'
i..:. : '.. :


Figs. 1 3. Megathymus coloradensis albasuffusa Wielgus and Wielgus, new
subspecies. 1. Habitat, type locality, 13 April 1973. The larval foodplant, Yucca
bailey Wooton & Standley, grows abundantly in the foreground area. 2. & 3. In situ
larval tents, type locality, 13 April 1973.











We did not attempt to make measurements of the larvae and limited our
observations to changes in coloration, relative increases in size and feeding
habits. It may have been possible to make direct measurements of the larvae
during the transfer process but we ruled this out as the larvae proved to be irascible
when handled. If provoked, the larvae would expell a foul-smelling brownish
fluid from their mouths, defecate heavily and withdraw their heads under their
prothoracic shields.
First and Second Instar: Head intense reddish-orange; trunk reddish-orange;
prothoracic shield and suranal plate dark reddish-brown.
Third Instar: Head intense reddish-orange; trunk creamy-white; prothoracic
shield and suranal plate shiny blackish-brown.
Fourth Instar: Head intense reddish-orange; trunk buff-cream, with inter-
segmental areas grey; prothoracic shield shiny (piceous) black, well-defined,
continuous, no mid-break dorsally; suranal plate shiny blackish-brown (Fig. 34).
Fifth Instar: Head deep reddish-brown, midcranial inflection and latero-
facial sutures creamy-white; trunk buff-cream, intersegmental areas grey;
prothoracic shield shiny (piceous) black, discontinuous, with mid-break dorsally;
suranal plate brownish.
Sixth Instar (1972 rearing only): Head dark reddish-brown, becoming dark
brown in fully-mature larvae, midcranial inflection and laterofacial sutures creamy-
white and appearing trident-form; trunk warm buff-cream with pinkish over-
tones, intersegmental areas grey; prothoracic shield dark brown or blackish, light
brown in some individuals, discontinuous, with mid-break dorsally; suranal
plate brownish to light brownish.
Fully mature larvae of albasuffusa appear to differ from those of navajo
and arizonae in the following respects: head of albasuffusa narrower, some-
what heart-shaped in some individuals, not as blocky or squarish; trunk longer,
more slender, not as heavy and massive as in navajo and arizonae.

LARVAL BEHAVIOR

During our June 1972 search for the ova of streckeri, we found still attached
to Yucca leaves many eggshells which we presumed to be those of streckeri.
It was not unusual to find three or more eggshells attached to a single plant and
sometimes two were affixed to a single leaf. In no case, however, did we find more
than one larva inhabiting a Yucca plant. As a matter of fact, about one-half of
the plants exhibiting more than one eggshell failed to yield a single larva, even
after a careful search during which the plant was literally torn apart. In light of
our experience with the behavior of first instar larvae of streckeri, this would not
be unusual (Wielgus & Stallings, ms. in prep.). However, it is extremely difficult
to discriminate between the eggshells of streckeri and albasuffusa in the field;
thus, we could draw no conclusions. We did find evidence (intact, desiccated
remains) of first and second instar larvae which indicated high early-stage mortality
and which could be referable to albasuffusa by their particular positions on
the plants.
The first instar larva of albasuffusa, in the field, feeds first upon the leaf,
constructing on the blade a silken shelter which may be at any point from the tip
to the middle portion. It may move to another leaf and construct a similar shelter
in which it feeds until, in late second instar, it finally migrates to the
center of the leaf rosette. It then proceeds to feed upon the base of the central growing
portion, or heart, into which it slowly burrows and constructs the first tangible
evidence of the tent so characteristic of most members of the genus. Plants selected
for oviposition by the females ranged from extremely small offshoots to medium-
sized individuals. In fact, we found living larvae boring in foot-long caudices hardly
3/16 inch in diameter! We concluded that, in these cases, the larvae must ultimately
work their way downward into the central rhizomatous systems to continue
their development. Our laboratory hearings appear to support this conclusion.











All of the larvae collected in 1972 (as well as those of 1973) were reared indoors
at temperatures varying from 24.4 to 27.4 degrees C. Except for two larvae maturing
earlier, the 1972 larvae remained indoors until the first week of October 1972,
a time span of approximately four months. The larvae were then placed outdoors,
in shade, to complete their development. Several of the larvae matured during the
latter part of October but two continued to feed until the third week of November.
On 16 December 1972, after four weeks duration outdoors during which time
temperatures at night dropped to around -4 degrees C., the larvae were brought
back indoors. Prior to that date, a slight daytime warming trend outdoors appeared
to have provided the necessary stimulus for termination of diapause and we felt
that no harm would result from the introduction of higher indoor temperatures.
Within four hours after being brought indoors, the larvae began to open the
tent closures. However, heavy powdering up and pupation of the first larva did not
occur until January 1973.
A most unusual aspect of the 1972 and 1973 hearings was the acceleration
of several larvae to maturity, pupation and eclosion of adults in the same year in
which they hatched from ova. It is tantalizing to speculate on the possibility
of a discrete brood maturing within the same year of hatching from ova but,
laboratory conditions appear to have provided the stimulus responsible for this
facet of behavior.
A return trip to the type locality on 13 April 1973 indicated that the flight
period was already in progress. Ten newly-deposited ova were found on Y. bailey
leaves. We also found five empty pupal cases with waste fluids still inside and one
uneclosed pupa.
The ova, when first found (Fig. 32), were an apple green color turning to
various shades of reddish-pink twenty-four hours later. Darkening of the chorion
was noted to occur daily. The color changes were similar to those noted for
Agathymus ova by Roever (1964) but there was no pronounced marbling. All of
the ova were maintained indoors at a room temperature of approximately 24.4
degrees C.
The first two larvae hatched on the morning of the 25th of April and the
remaining eight during the succeeding three days. Each newly-hatched larva
immediately proceeded to a leaf axil in the center of the plant. There it constructed
a miniature tent and began feeding on the leaf tissues. This behavior was in marked
contrast to that of field-inspected larvae.
After three weeks, an inspection of the laboratory larvae revealed that each
had already burrowed well into the central growing portion of the plant. Curiously,
however, one larva vacated its burrow on 11 May 1973 in favor of feeding on the
middle portion of one of the leaves. It subsequently returned to the center of the
rosette on 13 May 1973.
An additional fifteen larvae were collected at the type locality on 8 and 9
June 1973. On the morning of 9 June, at approximately 0935 hours, we witnessed
burrow abandonment by one larva in the field. It simply crawled out of the burrow
entrance and proceeded to the base of the plant, whereupon it was collected.
Its actions were similar to those noted on the one laboratory larval burrow
abandonment.
Again, as in 1972, we found indications of high, early-stage field mortality.
Predation by other arthropods, especially ants, is strongly suspected but evidence
Figs. 4 11. Megathymus coloradensis albasuffusa Wielgus and Wielgus, new
subspecies. 4. Holotype, female, ex pupa fnd. in Yucca bailey at Wahweap Camp-
ground, Glen Canyon Nat. Rec. Area, 5 mi. N. W. Glen Canyon Dam, 3700' El.,
Coconino Co., Arizona. Found on 13 IV 1973. Emerged on 24 IV 1973. R. Wielgus,
Collector. Pupa #6-73Wp., upperside. 5. Same as 4., underside. 6. Paratype, female,
ex larva, same locality as 4., 9 II 1973, Wp#3-73, upperside. 7. Same as 6., underside.
8. Allotype, male, ex larva r. f. Yucca bailey, same locality as 4., 29 I 1973,
Wp#1-73, upperside. 9. Same as 8., underside. 10. Paratype, male, ex larva, same
locality as 4., 25 IX 1972, Wp#2-72, upperside. 11. Same as 10., underside.










here is circumstantial. Certainly, a habit of burrow abandonment would not favor
larval survival in a hostile desert environment.
In 1972, the larvae of albasuffusa differed markedly in behavior from those of
the 1973 rearing, as well as from those of navajo and arizonae. The most remark-
able feature of their larval biology was that the larvae were continuous borers, i.e.,

















4_ 5





6;.

.I



















-- ---
10 1












they excavated burrows only of sufficient diameter to accommodate their bodies
and had either bored out through the bottoms of the Yucca caudices or had
bored in circuitous fashion within. This boring behavior became noticeable during
the early instars and was maintained by the larvae throughout their development.
Therefore, it was necessary to transfer the larvae to fresh sections of caudices
on four separate occasions. The total estimated length of each larval burrow
(combining each larva's four separate burrows end to end) was in excess of 122
centimeters! This may have been a result of certain laboratory conditions in 1972
or improper preservation of the bailey caudices. Our subsequent 1973 rearing,
however, in which whole plants were kept viable by encasement in native sand
and polyethylene plastic, did not elicit such larval behavior; one plant was
sufficient for each larva's total feeding requirements. Our rearing experience
with the larvae of navajo and arizonae has shown that, utilizing Yucca baccata
Torrey and Yucca thornberi McKelvey, respectively, sections of caudices 30 to
38 centimeters in length are sufficient for the larvae of these taxa.
On those occasions when we witnessed ecdysis but were unable to retrieve
the larval skin, continued observations revealed that the larva will consume the
exuvium on about the third day thereafter. Once the exuvium has been consumed,
the larva resumes feeding on the caudex.
In the 1972 laboratory hearings, the tent structures of albasuffusa remained
relatively puny in comparison to those produced in 1973 and also to those of
navajo and arizonae. These may have been a consequence of the artificial conditions
then prevailing. For the most part, the tents persisted as small nipple-like
constructions over the burrow entrances and were significantly enlarged only at
the time larval development neared completion. However, tents found in situ
at the type locality (Figs. 2 and 3), as well as those laboratory-produced in 1973,
differed little from those of navajo and arizonae.
The larvae began to powder up discretely several weeks in advance of
maturation but in no case did this initiate until they had entered the last stadium.
Those larvae producing adults in the summers of 1972 and 1973, and fall of
1973, powdered up in the usual fashion prior to pupation.
An interesting sidelight of our observations is that we witnessed larvae
reversing themselves in their burrows many times; the amazing thing is that
they were able to accomplish this feat within the narrow diameter of the burrow,
bending themselves like hairpins in the process! When we examined empty
burrows by sectioning the caudices, we were unable to find any evidence of a
KEY TO DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS: Table 1.
Males, upperside
Subspecies Thorax Upperside of Primaries Cell Spot Spots 2, 3 & 4 Spots 5 & 6
& Secondaries, ground
color
albasuffusa very light grey with some dark, greyish-black medium; white broad; sharply
light yellowish hairs above very light toothed along
yellow veins; pale yellow
navao dark grey, with some deep black small to white narrow; concave
brownish hairs above medium: outwardly; 5
light yellow whitish to pale
yellow: 6 light
yellow
arizonae light grey, with some dark, brownish-black small; very white medium; sharply
brownish hairs above light yellow toothed along
veins; whitish to
pale yellow
reubeni light grey, with some dark, brownish-black small to white broad; sharply
light brownish hairs above medium; toothed along
white veins; white
coloradensis medium grey, with some light, brownish-black broadly white medium; sharply
yellowish-brown hairs squarish; toothed along
above dark yellow veins; yellow
brown dark brownish-grey, black to browblack to r lack broadly white narrow; sharply
with some brown hairs squarish; toothed along
above light yellow veins; creamy-
white












turn-around enlargement.

DISTRIBUTION

At the time that we were considering describing this new subspecies, we were
also rearing six Megathymus larvae which had been collected in Y. bailey
(our determination) found 5 miles west of the Mexican Water turnoff. This
locality is about 100 miles east of Wahweap. The larvae were indistinguishable
from those of albasuffusa and larval behavior, in 1972, was virtually the same.
However, when the Mexican Water adults emerged in late January and early
February of 1973, it was immediately apparent that the two populations were
not quite the same. A partial barrier between the two populations is suggested,
beginning at the north end of Monument Valley and extending southwestward
through Klethla Valley, in which Y. bailey is either exceedingly sparse or absent
over many miles.
Although the most favorable Yucca colony at the type locality is destined to
perish, we found albasuffusa larvae in scattered plants occupying higher ground,
especially near the airstrip. Throughout the immediate area Y. bailey is distributed
diffusely and the continued existence of albasuffusa seems assured. We expect
to find albasuffusa in adjacent desert areas along the Arizona-Utah border,
northward and westward, in similar habitats.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are indebted to Mr. Don B. Stallings, Caldwell, Kansas, for
suggesting certain localities for Yucca bailey and for detailed information re-
garding the early stages of Megathymus streckeri; his valuable assistance in
this regard made our task easier.
Dr. Frederick H. Rindge of The American Museum of Natural History kindly
loaned specimens of Megathymus to us for comparative studies and we expressly
wish to thank him for his assistance.
We would also like to thank Mr. Joe L. Kennedy, Acting Superintendent, Mr.
William Atterholt and Mr. Norman Salisbury, Naturalist, of the Glen Canyon
National Recreation Area, for the granting of a permit to collect Yucca plants and
for all of the courtesies extended to us during our visits. We also thank Mr. R. A.
Countryman, Chief, Division of Compliance, Arizona Commission of Agri-
culture and Horticulture, for the granting of a permit for the removal of Arizona's
protected native plants. The Yucca species at the type locality was identified by
Dr. N. Duane Atwood, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah; however,
positive determination of this Yucca as the larval foodplant of albasuffusa is
solely our responsibility.
We are again grateful to Dr. Frank F. Hasbrouck, Associate Professor of
Zoology and Curator of Insects, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, for
KEY TO DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS: Table 1.
Males, upperside continuedd)
Subspecies Spots 7. 8 & 9 Marginal Border of Secondaries Fringes of Primaries
albaauffusa broad; very light yellow; apot 7 broad; very light yellow; usually no vein tips thinly black; indistinctly
well under spot 6 black scaling along veins Cul, Cu2 checkered
and 2A
avaio narrow to medium; light yellow medium; creamy-yellow; black vein tips heavily black; medium
spot 7 extending to spot 6 scaling along veins Cu, Cu2 and checkered
_____ 2A
arizonae medium; whitish-yellow; spot 7 broad; very light yellow; some vein tips heavily black; very lightly
half way under spot 6 black scaling along veins Cul, checkered
Cul and 2A
renbeni broad; spots 7 & 8 white: spot 9 very broad; creamy-white; some vein p tip thinly black: very lightly
whitish-yelow to no black scaling along veins checkered
Cal. C2 and 2A
coloradenais broad; yellow broad; yellow: usually no black vein tips heavily brownish-black;
calling along veins Cul. CuZ and strongly checkered
ZA
browai broad; yellow; spot 9 prolonged narrow to medium; greyish-yellow; vein tips heavily dark. brownish-
inwardly some black scaling along veins black; medium checkered
Cu._ Cu2 and ZA






10



critically reviewing the manuscript.
The continued generosity of Mr. Arthur C. Allyn and Dr. Lee D. Miller, of
the Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida, made the publication of
this paper possible and to them we wish to express our deepest appreciation.

LITERATURE CITED

dos Passos, C.F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Lepid.
Soc. Mem., No. 1, New Haven Conn., v + 145 pp.
Emmel, T. C. and J. F. Emmel, 1969. A new subspecies in the Cercyonis meadi
group (Satyridae). J. Lepid. Soc., 23: 161-164, 10 figs.
-, 1971. An extraordinary new subspecies of Cercyonis oetus from central
Nevada (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Pan-Pacific Entomol., 47: 155-157.
Emmel, Thomas C. and Sterling O. Mattoon, 1972. Cercyonis pegala blanca,
a "missing type" in the evolution of the genus Cercyonis (Satyridae).














J. Lepid. Soc., 26(3): 140-149, 11 figs.
Freeman, H.A., 1969. Systematic review of the Megathymidae. J. Lepid. Soc.,
23, Supplement 1, 58 pp., 1 pl.
Riley, C. V., 1877. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 3: 568.
Roever, K., 1964. Bionomics of Agathymus (Megathymidae). J. Res. Lepid.,
3(2): 103-120, 5 pls.
Skinner, H., 1911. Ent. News, 22: 300.
Stallings, D. B. and J. R. Turner, 1960. A new species of Agathymus and a new
subspecies of Megathymus (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera, Megathymidae).
J. Lepid. Soc., 71: 109-115, 2 pls.

KEY TO DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS:
Females, upperside
Subspecies Thorax Scales at tip of Upperside of Primaries Cell Spot Spots 2. 3 & 4 Spots 5 & 6
Abdomen & Secondaries, ground
color

albasuffusa light grey, sordid yellow black large; deep nearly equal medium; sharply
with some yellow in size; white toothed outwardly;
greenish- light yellow
brown hairs
above
nav.o dark grey, dark grey deep black small to white narrow to medium;
with some medium; sharply toothed
brownish yellow outwardly; light
hairs yellow
above
ari-onse medium dark grey deep, brownish-black medium: white medium; sharply
brownish- light yellow toothed outwardly:
grey with light yellow
some
greenish-
brown hairs
above
reubeni light grey, yellowish- deep, brownish-black large: wide; white wide; sharply
with some brown creamy- toothed outwardly;
brownish yellow creamy-white
hairs above
coloradensis light grey, light brown light, brownish-black large; wide; white medium; sharply
with some light yellow toothed outwardly;
brownish creamy-white
hairs above
brown dark, light brown dark, blackish-brown medium; white medium; slightly
brownish- yellow toothed outwardly.
grey, with pale yellow
some dark
brownish
hairs above

Figs. 12 31. Subspecies of Megathymus coloradensis considered in this study.
12. Navajo Skinner: Ex larva r. f. Y. schidigera fnd. 2-3 mi. S.E. Kingman on
Hualapai Mtn. Rd., Mohave Co., Ariz. fnd. 30-31 XII 1971, pup. 18 I 1972, em.
8 II 1972, R. Wielgus, Coll., Larva #1, female, upperside. 13. Same as 12., underside.
14. Navajo Skinner: Same data as 12., Larva #3, male, upperside. 15. Same as 14.,
underside. 16. Arizonae Tinkham: Ex larva r. f. Y. thornberi fnd. S. Mountain
View, Pima Co., Ariz., fnd. 16 I 1971, em. 24 II 1971, R. & D. Wielgus, Collectors,
female, upperside. 17. Same as 16., underside. 18. Arizonae Tinkham: Same locality
as 16., fnd. 16 I 1971, em. 11 II 1971, R. & D. Wielgus, Collectors, male, upperside.
19. Same as 18., underside. 20. Reubeni Stallings & Turner: Hueco Mts. Texas, Mar.
31, 1962, Viola Stallings, No. M 2008, female, upperside. 21. Same as 20., underside.
22. Reubeni Stallings & Turner: Hueco Mts. Texas, April 1, 1962, Viola Stallings,
No. M 2010, male, upperside. 23. Same as 22., underside. 24. Coloradensis Riley:
Springfield Colo(rado), 4-14 1956, El 4400, Stallings & Turner, female, upperside.
25. Same as 24., underside. 26. Coloradensis Riley: Springfield, Colo(rado), 4-2
1953, El 4400, Stallings & Turner, No. M 854, male, upperside. 27. Same as 26.,
underside. 28. Browni Stallings & Turner: Black Mesa, Colo.(rado), Near Black
Canyon, June 7, 1951, El 7800 Ft., Specimen No. 82, Slide No. 182, Stallings &
Turner, female, upperside. 29. Same as 28., underside. 30. Browni Stallings &
Turner: Black Mesa, Colo.(rado), Near Black Canyon, June 8, 1951, El 7800 Ft.,
No. M 840, male, upperside. 31. Same as 30., underside.








12





KEY TO DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS: Table 2.

Females, upperside (continued)

Subspecies Spots 7, 8 & 9 Marginal Border of Secondaries Fringes of Primaries

albasuffusa broad; deep yellow: spot 7 half broad; light yellow; diffuse black vein tips thinly black; lightly
way under spot 6 & extending scaling basad; thin black scaling checkered
almost to cell apot along veins
navjo narrow to medium; light yellow; medium; light yellow; heavy black vein tips heavily black; strongly
spot 7 extending to spot 6 scaling alone veins checkered
arisonae broad; light yellow; spot 7 half broad; very light, creamy-yellow; vein tips heavily black; lightly
way under spot 6 thin black scaling along veins checkered
reubeni very broad; creamy-yellow; spot very broad; creamy-white; thin vein tips heavily brownish-black;
7 well under spot 6 black scaling along veins lightly checkered
coloradensis very broad; light yellow: spot 7 broad; yellow; thin black scaling vein tips thinly, dark-brownish;
well under spot 6 along veins lightly checkered
brown broad; yellow; spot 7 half way narrow; greyish-yellow; heavy vein tips heavily blackish; medium
under spot 6; spot 9 prolonged black scaling along veins checkered
inwardly


Stallings, D. B., J. R. Turner and V. N. Stallings, 1963. Two new species and one
new subspecies of Megathymidae from Mexico and Texas. J. Lepid. Soc.,
17: 81-88, 3 pls.
Tinkham. E. R., 1954. The biology and description of a new giant skipper from
Arizona. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 53: 75-87, 2 pls.
Wielgus, Ronald S., Joseph R. Wielgus and Dale Wielgus, 1970 (1971). Additional
notes on the distribution and foodplant preferences of Megathymus
coloradensis navajo Skinner. J. Res. Lepid., 9(3): 169-174, 1 pl.
Wielgus, Ronald S. and Dale Wielgus 1972(1973). Some techniques for the rearing
of Megathymus larvae. J. Res. Lepid., 11(4): 245-250, 2 figs.




PUPAL MEASUREMENTS Table 3.

Megathymus coloradensia albasuffusa Ronald S. and Dale Wielgus, new subspecies.


Rearing Number Sex Length Width Remarks

Wp#l-72 Male Not measured.
Wpg2-72 Male Not measured.
Wpll-73 Male 34 mm 8.0 mm Ex larva; pupated 7 I 1973; emerged 29 I1973.
Wp#2-73 Male 29 mm 7.0 mm Ex larva; pupated 12 11973; emerged 1 II 1973.
Wp#3-73 Female 38 mm 8.5 mm Ex larva; pupated 20 11973; emerged 9 U 1973.
Wp#4-73 Male 28 mm 6.0 mm Ex larva; pupated 21 11973; emerged 15 111973.
Wp#5-73 ? Died as larva II1973.
Wp#6-73 Female 35 mm 8.0 mm Field-collected IV 1973.
Wp#7-73 Female 37 mm 8.0 mm Ex ovum pupated I VIIl 1973; emerged 15 VIII 1973.
Wp#8-73 Female 42 mm 8.5 mm Ex ovum; pupated 29 VIII 1973; emerged 12 IX 1973.
Wp#9-73 Female 40 mm 8.5 mm Ex larva; pupated 7 IX 1973; emerged 23 IX 1973.
Wp#10-73 Male 39 mm 8.0 mm Ex larva: pupated 11 IX 1973; emerged 26 IX 1973.
Wp#ll-73 Male 41mm 8.5 mm Ex ovum; pupated 17 IX 1973; emerged 1 X 1973.
Wpl12-73 Female 45 mm 9.0 mm Ex ovum; pupated 3 X 1973; emerged 21 X 1973.
Wp#13-73 Female 38 mm 7.5 mm Ex larva; pupated 3 X 1973; emerged 19 X 1973.
Wpl14-73 Male 34 mm 7.0mm Ex larva; pupated 4 X 1973; emerged 19 X 1973.
Wp#15-73 Male 40 mm 8.0 mm Ex ovum; pupated 15 X 1973; emerged I XI 1973.
Wp#16-73 Female 35 mm 8.0 mm Ex ovum; pupated 16 X 1973; emerged 2 XI 1973.
Wp#17-73 Male 33 mm 6.8 mm Ex larva; pupated 26 X 1973; emerged 13 XI1973.
Wp#18-73 Male 40 mm 8.5 mm Ex larva; pupated 6 XI11973; emerged 26 XI 1973.
Wp#19-73 Male 42 mm 8.8 mm Ex larva; pupated 12 XI 1973; emerged 3 XII 1973.
Wp#20-73 Male 35 mm 7. 5 mm Ex larva; pupated 21 XI 1973; emerged 11 XI 1973.
Wp#21-73 Male 36 mm 7.0 mm Ex ovum; pupated 29 XII 1973; emerged 19 I 1974.
Wp#22-73 1 36 mm 7.0 mm Ex larva; pupated 29 XII 1973; died 17 I 1974.





Figs. 32 35. Megathymus coloradensis albasuffusa Wielgus and Wielgus,
new subspecies. 32. Ova on leaf of Yucca bailey, type locality, 14 April 1973.
33. Second instar larval tent, with frass, in Y. bailey in situ at type locality, 9
June 1973. 34. Fourth instar larva r. f. Y. bailey in laboratory, June 1973. 35. Pupa,
Wp#1-73. Scale graduation 1/16 inch.















Table 4.


WING MEASUREMENTS

Megathyon coloradensis albasuffusa Ronald S. and Dale Wielgus, new subspecies.


Rearing Numobero Sex Forewing Hindwrng Expanse

Apex to Base Apex to Outer Angle Outer Angle to Base Base to End of Vein Cul

Wpl#-72 Male Misfit
Wp#2-7Z Male 25 mm 16 mm 17 mm 15 mm 49.5 mm
Wp#1-73 Male 25 mm 16 mm 17 mm 15 mm 50. 5 mm
Wp#2-73 Male 2Z mm 14 mm 15 mm 14 mm 45, mm
Wp#3-73 Female 28 mm 18 mm 19 mm 20 mm 53.0 mm
Wp#4-73 Male Misfit
Wp#5-73 ? Died as larvaII 1973 -
Wp#6-73 Female 28 mm 18 mm 19 mm 19.5 mm 54.0 mm
Wp#7-73 Female 25 -mm 16 mm i7 m 17 mma 47. 0 mm
Wp#8-73 Female 29 mm 18 mm 21 mm 20 m 55.0 mm
Wpf9-73 Female 28 mm 18.5 mm 20 m 19. 5 mm 53. 5 mm
Wp#10-73 Male 26 mm 17 mm 18.5mm 15 mm 52.0mm
Wp#1-73 Male 27 mm 17.5 mm 18.5 mm 16 mm 52. 0mm
Wp#12-73 Female 30 mm 21 mm 21 mm 22 mm 60.0 mm
Wp#13-73 Female 28.5 mm 19mm 19 mm 20 mm 50. 0 mm
Wp#14-73 Male 21 mm 13. 5 mm 14 mm 13 mm 42. 5 mm
Wpll5-73 Male 25 mm 16 mm 16 mm 14 m 48.0 mm
Wpl16-73 Female 26.5 mm 17 mm 17 mm 19 mm 49. 0 mm
Wp#17-73 Male ZZmm 14, 5 mm 14 mm 15 mm 44.0 mm
Wp#18-73 Male 26 mm 1 mm 17 mm 15 mm 52. 0 mm
Wp#19-73 Male 26 mm 17 mm 17 mm 16 mm 50.0 nm
Wp#20-73 Male 23 mm 15 mm 16 mm 15 mm 47.0 rrmm
Wp#21-73 Male 22 mm 14 mm 15 mm 14 mm 45.0 mm
Wp#l2-73 Died as pupa 17 I 1974

Average Expane: Male: 48.125 mm Female: 52.625 mm


8 / j Mt' i

0*~ ~~ El 5


71E al

IN*111"""""














DISPOSITION OF TYPE SERIES


Table 5.


Megathymus coloradensis albasuffusa Ronald S. and Dale Wielgus, new subspecies.


Rearing Number Sex Where Deposited


Wp#Z-73
Wp#1-73 (Allotype)
Wp#Z-73
Wp#3-73
Wp#6-73 (Holotype)
Wp#7-73
Wp#8-73
Wp#9-73
Wp#10-73
Wp#11-73
Wp#lZ-73
Wp#13-73
Wp#14-73
Wp#15-73
Wp#16-73
Wp#17-73
Wp#18-73
Wp#19-73
Wp#20-73
Wp#21-73


'Male
Male
Male
Female
Female
Female
Female
Female
Male
Male
Female
Female
Male
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male


Allyn Museum of Entomology
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Allyn Museum of Entomology
American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History
United States National Museum
United States National Museum
United States National Museum
Allyn Museum of Entomology
Don B. Stallings
Arizona State University







[WEAX
AREA


Fig. 36. Locality Map: Wahweap Area.
















































TYPE LOCALITY
MEGATHYMUS C. COLORADENSIS

NAVAJO

S"* ARIZONAE

S "' REUBENI


"' BROWN

37. > M. C. ALBASUFFUSA


COLORADO


A



N E W M E ~ICO0



APOPIJ.ATIO~TI~!


ES TIM ATE6
RANGE.t5iYTC


SCALE IN MILES
60 0 so 100 ISO 200


Fig. 37. Distribution Map.




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