BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number 6 6 November 1972
REVIEW OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN
CASTNIA INCA COMPLEX (CASTNIIDAE)
Jacqueline Y. Miller
Assistant Curator, Allyn Museum of Entomology
The genus Castnia has long been an intriguing group scientifically, and
the rarity of specimens has made them a orize among collectors. The scarcity
of specimens also led early workers such as Walker (1854), Boisduval and
Guenee (1874), Westwood (1875), and others to describe new species from
single specimens or paintings, undoubtedly contributing to the present
confusion in the nomenclature of the group.
Houlbert's monograph on the family Castniinae (1918) is deficient in
many respects as noted by Rothschild (1919) and Talbot (1919). Houlbert divided
the family into 33 genera, 21 of which were described as new. He designated
Papilio licus Drury as the type species of the genus Castnia, but the type
species is C. penelope Schaufuss 1870 (= Papilio icarus Cramer 
preoccupied). For further discussion of the name Castnia, see Hemming, 1967.
Houlbert's genera were based wholly upon wing patterns and small
differences in the shape of the pulvillus and the paryonychium. There is much
additional variation within this family, particularly with regard to venation
and at least the male genitalia. Houlbert did venation drawings for some of the
genera he designated, but drawings do not appear for all of the new genera.
The differences of last tarsal segment appear in some cases to be because of
relative size differences of the insects themselves.
To make his monograph stronger Houlbert should have done comparative
genitalic studies, particularly on the generic level. Houlbert's only genitalic
figures are highly deceptive and quite similar, although preparations of both
species are quite different. The male genitalia of C. cacica and C. penelope
(the type of the genus) are illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. Houlbert's figures
did not show nor did the descriptive text mention anything about the recurved
penis characteristic of the members of this family. Strangely, preliminary
investigations show that genitalically C. penelope is closer to the mimetic
"genus" Gazera than to many more "conventional" Castnia. Hence, the
male genitalia alone will give no final answer to the phylogenetic relationships,
but they must be taken into consideration along with the other characters.
Until further work can be done, I will follow Rothschild (1919) and Talbot (1919)
and refer to the entire genus as Castnia rather than the generic assignments of
Houlbert. Rothschild (1919) mentioned briefly that Jordan was working on
a monograph of Castnia, but regrettably it was never published. Some of the
nomenclatorial confusion in this family might have been averted had he
published his findings.
As stated previously, specimens of this family are rare. As sufficient
material becomes available, further taxonomic work will be published.
Sufficient material has been accumulated in the Central American inca
complex, but there are some South American relatives of inca, few specimens
of which are available, so meaningful work cannot be done at this time on
the entire group.
I would like to thank Dr. Frederick H. Rindge, American Museum of
Natural History (AMNH), Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, National Museum of
Natural History (USNM), Mr. Harry K. Clench, Carnegie Museum (CM), and
Mr. Julian P. Donahue, Los Angleles County Museum of Natural History (LACM)
for making specimens available for study. Particular thanks are due to
Messrs. Alberto Diaz Frances, H. L. King, and Robert G. Wind for collecting
numerous additional specimens on request for the collection of the Allyn
Museum of Entomology (A). Photographs were done by Mr. A. C. Allyn.
Special thanks are also due my husband, Lee, for his comments, many of
which were incorporated into the final draft.
The Central American Castnia inca Complex
This group is characterized above by warm to dark brown forewings
with brown markings and up to three hyaline subapical spots. The ground color
of the hindwings is pale yellow-orange to bright orange marked by a black
extradiscal black spotband. Ground color of the forewing and the hindwing below is
paler than above with markings similar to those of the upper surface.
The venation (Figs. 3, 4) is characteristic of Castnia with additional
closed cells on the forewing and the hindwing. There is variation in placement
of the veins with respect to relative size differences. The small cubital stub off
the hindwing closed cell may be present or absent in members of the
Male genitalia are diagnostic within the group, but the female genitalia (Fig. 5)
are not significantly different.
Key to the Central American Castnia inca Complex
Note: the female of C. inca dincadu, n. ssp., is unknown and the
female of C. flavimaculata, n. sp., is described from a photograph of
specimens in the collection of Alberto Diaz Frances.
1. Ground color of forewing above more or less uniform with
darker markings (males) ............................................. 2.
1'. Ground color of forewing above brown to brownish-black with
highly contrasting grey to tan bar across cell and grey to tan at
end cell and inside transverse line from apex to inner lobe
(fem ales) .............................................................. 6.
2. Ground color of forewing above warm yellow-brown
with brown m arkings ................................................ 3.
2'. Ground color of forewing above reddish-brown to brown with
dark brown or olive brown markings ................................. 5.
3. Hindwing above, bright orange with a yellow extradiscal spotband
outlined in black, and black costal bar present;
Morelos and Guerrero Mexico .................. C. flavimaculata, n. sp.
3'. Hindwing above with completely black extradiscal
spotband and without black costal bar ............................ 4.
4. Hindwing above, pale orange, yellowed in disc,
margin ochreous; subapical spot R5-M, reduced or absent;
Canal Zone ................................... C. inca dincadu, n. ssp.
4'. Hindwing above, golden orange, margin (usually) black;
forewing subapical spot R4-R5 ovoid, three times the size of
other two; Central America.................... C. clitarcha Westwood.
5. Hindwing above, black extradiscal spotband wide, contiguous
to space Rs-MI; small usually light yellow uniform spotband
posteriad to extra-discal spotband; Veracruz, Mexico
S................ ......... .................. C. inca orizabensis Strand.
5'. Hindwing above, black extradiscal band thinner, with uneven
spotband posteriad same color as disc; most of Mexico to at least
Chiriqui ........................................... C. inca inca W alker.
6. Hindwing above, bright orange with a yellow extradiscal
spotband outlined in black, and black costal bar present;
Morelos and Guerrero Mexico .................... C. flavimaculata, n. sp.
6'. Hindwing above, with completely black extradiscal spotband but
without black costal bar ............................................... 7.
7. Prominent extradiscal globular spot on forewing above in
Cu,,-Cu,, (Fig. 12); hindwing above orange with area posteriad
to extradiscal black band lighter yellow;
Central America .............................. C. clitarcha Westwood.
7'. Forewing above, no extradiscal spot in space
Cu, -Cur, (for example, Fig. 20) ................ .................... 8.
8. Hindwing above, ground color duller with black extradiscal
spotband wide, shading into disc and contiguous to space
Rs-MI; small lighter yellow uniform spotband posteriad of
extradiscal band (Fig. 26); Veracruz, Mexico
................................... ...... C. inca orizabensis Strand.
8'. Hindwing above, black extradiscal spotband thinner with
uneven spotband posteriad same color as disc (Fig. 20);
most of Mexico to at least Chiriqui .................. C. inca inca Walker.
Castnia clitarcha Westwood, 1875
Figures 6 ($ genitalia), 11, 12 ($), 13, 14 (9)
Castnia clitarcha Westwood, 1875; 176; pl. 31, fig. 2 (female only, figure of
male is of inca): "Panama, Nicaragua"
Male: Head, thorax, and abdomen brown above, golden tawny below.
Antennae brown, gray under club. Palpi golden tawny. Tibia and inner margins of
femur golden tawny; rest of leg warm brown.
Forewing above warm brown with brown markings: along costa, most
of apex, and margin, two bars across cell. one two-thirds up cell and one
at end cell, a transverse line from apical patch to inner lobe, a small spot in
Mi-M, outside transverse line and two larger spots outside transverse line in
M:-Cut, and Cu,;Cu,,; three hyaline subapical spots in R--R4, R4-R5 (largest),
Hindwing above, orange with black margin grading to yellow-orange
at tornus, with an isolated small black spot in Sc+R,-Rs and a partially coalesced
extradiscal black spotband from Rs-M to 2A-3A; veins between marginal olack band
and spotband outlined in black, weakly connecting the two bands.
Forewing below: warm brown along costa, at apex and along margin; lower
two-thirds of cell to tornus golden orange; rest of wing tawny yellow with
similar markings as above: bars across and at end cell blackish-brown but
sometimes orange; transverse dark brown line terminates at M3.
Hindwing below pale yellow-orange with warm brown along costa
and margin; markings as above except spotband and isolated extradiscal
spot rust to golden brown, with warm brown inside; area posteriad to
spotband paler tawny orange; tawny at tornus and inside extradiscal
spotband in 2A-3A; ovoid warm brown bar from inner margin costad.
Fringes of forewing above and below warm brown. Fringes of hindwing
above and below warm brown with gold at tornus.
Lengths of forewings of the two males examined 51 mm. and 55 mm.
Male genitalia similar to those of inca but considerably reduced in size.
Valvae more rounded; saccus reduced and curved ventrad.
Female: Head, thorax, and abdomen similar to male. Forewing above
gray-brown with darker brown markings which are more prominent
because of intervening tan anterior areas: horizontal bars across cell and
at end cell; row of submarginal blackish-brown spots outside subapical hyaline
spots from R4-R, to Cu,.-Cu,, (not in male); blackish-brown extradiscal spots
outside transverse line in spaces M2-M:1, M:-Cui,, Cu,., Cul,,, and Cu -Cu2. Female
hindwing above as in male with area posteriad to black extradiscal spotband
Forewing below warm brown along costa, around apex, and along
margin; lower two-thirds of cell laterally to tornus golden-orange; rest of
wing tawny-yellow with prominent blackish-brown markings as above
except row of submarginal spots outside subapical hyaline spots from
R4-R, to Cu, -Cub lighter. Hindwing below as in male.
Fringes of forewing as in male. Hindving fringes tan at costal margin
and warm brown along margin.
Length of forewing of the female examined, 65 mm.
Material examined: PANAMA: Chiriqui, 1(3 (W. J. Kaye, A): HONDURAS,
13 19 (USNM).
Of the Central American species considered this appears to the
rarest and largest.
Castnia inca inca Walker, 1854
Figures 7 (( genitalia), 5(9 genitalia), 18, 19, 28-31 (), 20, 21 (9)
Castnia inca Walker, 1854: 24-25. (Figured in Butler, 1877: pl. 1, p. 3, pl. I)
"Mexico, Venezuela, Honduras".
= Castnia clitarcha Westwood (in partim) 1875: 176, pl. 31, fig. 1 (a only).
= Castnia inca hondurana Strand, 1913, p. 11.
Male: Head, thorax, and abdomen above brown, below golden tawny.
Antennae above and below dark brown. Palpi brown above, whitish below. Legs:
tibia clothed with golden-tawny; rest of leg rust to dark brown.
Forewing above rust-brown to brown with dark brown to olive-brown
markings: olive-brown along costal margin with dark brown at apex and along
margin; two brown diagonal bars, one two-thirds up cell and one at end cell,
dark brown transverse line from apex to inner margin lobe; hyaline subapical
spots in spaces R:,-R, R -R,, and R,.-M1 with spots in R:.-R4 and R1-M,
sometimes markedly reduced; brown extradiscal spots outside the transverse line
may occur in spaces M2-M:, M:i-Cu1,, and Cu,,-Cu2; area outside transverse
line from Cu. to tornus brown with interspersed rust and white scales.
Hindwing above golden orange to reddish-orange, costal margin
overscaled with black, blackish-brown or orange-brown; contiguous black
extradiscal spotband from Rs-M to Cu2-2A; margin rust (may be black) with black
along veins interconnecting the extradiscal spotband and margin; isolated
black extradiscal spot in Sc+RpRs (may be reduced or absent); inner margin
to tornus various shades of rusty gold, with interspersed tawny scales
Forewing below warm brown along costa, at apex, and along margin;
a patch of brown with scattered yellow scales at apex in space R.-R4; golden
orange two-thirds up cell extending laterally on lower half of wing; other areas
tawny with same markings as above: markings inside and end of cell and
outside transverse line blackish-brown with gold shading; transverse line
shades from warm brown at apex to golden orange near dark brown scaled
patch in Cu2-2A.
Hindwing below tawny yellow, slightly darker along costa and margin;
markings as above with the extradiscal spotband outlined in rust brown with
tawny scales inside and whitish spots in spaces Cu2-2A and at tornus; darker
ovoid streak from inner margin laterally to costa.
Forewing fringes above and below brown with a few gold scales at tornus.
Hindwing fringes above and below tawny gold.
Lengths of forewings of male specimens examined ranged from 40 mm. to
52 mm., averaging 46.4 mm.
Male genitalia as figured and quite large with a curved saccus and well
developed ventral lobe of the valve.
Female: Head, thorax, and abdomen as in.male. Ground color above usually
blackish-brown with markings as in male; intervening areas separating two
bars across forewing cell, toward subapical hyaline spots, and along
transverse line grayish-tan; shaded area outside transverse line more
extensive than in male, from M, to tornus with shades of golden brown and
rust with interspersed tawny white scales; extradiscal spots outside transverse
line larger than in male. Hindwing above as in male.
Forewing below warm brown to brown along costa, at apex, and along
margin; brown patch at apex in space R:I-R4 with scattered tawny scales;
hyaline subapical spots heavily outlined in blackish-brown; pale areas as
above with golden tawny shading outside transverse line; posterior third of
cell and wing laterally to transverse line golden orange; markings as above,
but darkened with extradiscal spots outside transverse line black or blackish-
brown outlined in golden orange; transverse line shades from blackish-brown
at apex with scattered tawny scales into golden orange and merges into a
brown scaly patch in space Cu2-1A. Hindwing below with markings as in male,
but with ground color more golden orange; extradiscal spot band brown to
warm brown; warm brown along costa and margin with interspersed tan scales;
area posteriad to extradiscal spotband and inside ovoid marking paler; tawny-
white scales present in extradiscal spotband prominent in space 2A-3A and at tornus.
Forewing fringes above and below brown with golden brown at tornus.
Hindwing fringes above and below tawny gold.
Forewing length of females examined ranged from 48.5 mm. to 62 mm.,
averaging 47.9 mm.
Material examined: MEXICO: CHIAPAS: San Carlos, 26 v (R. G. Wind, A);
San Quintin, 243 39 v, vi, vii, x (R. G. Wind, A); Santa Rose, 16 iv (LACM);
"Chiapas", 116 39 (coll. Frank Johnson, AMNH). OAXACA: Tapantepec,
16 vi (A. Diaz Frances, A). GUERRERO: Chilpancingo, 1500 m., 13 (W. J. Kaye
coll., A). "Mexico", 19 (Hoffman, AMNH).
GUATEMALA: Escuintla, 16 (Schaus and Barnes coll., USNM).
BRITISH HONDURAS: no further data, 16 (coll. Frank Johnson, AMNH).
Costa Rica: no further data, 16 (CM).
This appears to be the most common members of the inca complex with
its range extending from southern Mexico to at least Chiriqui (to Costa
Rica in the material examined). There is a great deal of variation in this
species with some markings present, reduced or absent with not apparent
distinguishing difference. The Chiapas population is particularly variable and
for Castnia, a large one (Figs. 28-31).
Castnia inca orizabensis, Strand, 1913
Figures 24, 25 (6), 26, 27 (9)
Castnia clitarcha orizabensis Strand, 1913, p. 11, Orizaba, Mexico.
= Aciloa orizabensis (Strand), Houlbert, 1918, p. 447
= Aciloa inca var. mexicana, Houlbert, 1918, p. 441 (based on figure and
description of C. Hopffer, 1856, p. 6, pl. IV, fig. 2).
Male: Similar to nominate inca Walker but differing in the following
respects: forewing above with subapical hyaline spot in space R,-M, (usually)
reduced; brown extradiscal markings outside transverse line always present
in spaces M:C-Cu,, and Cu,-Cu2; Hindwing above with black extradiscal
spotband wider, a solid contiguous mass from space Rs-M, to Cu2-2A; margin
usually black but may have rust overscaling; black along veins from black extradiscal
spotband to margin, forming a uniform lighter yellow spotband.; isolated
black extradiscal spot in space Sc+RrRs always large and prominent.
Differences on forewing and hindwing below from inca inca are the
same as mentioned above.
Lengths of forewings of males examined ranged from 37 mm. to 49 mm.,
averaging 40.23 mm.
Male genitalia similar to those of typical inca but reduced in size.
Female: Forewing above and below similar to that of C. i. inca with
differences noted under male. Hindwing above and below similar to those of
male inca orizabensis. Overall appearance of female is duller than male.
Lengths of forewings of females examined 51 mm. and 44 mm.
Material examined: MEXICO: VERACRUZ: Cordoba, 48 (Schaus coll.,
USNM); Motzorango, 16 viii (coll. C. C. Hoffman, AMNH); Presidio, 16 19
(USNM); Jalapa, 16 (USNM); Fortin de las Flores, 36 (R. G. Wind, A); 26 19
18 NO DATA (Schaus coll., USNM).
The range of C. inca orizabensis is restricted to the state of Veracruz,
Mexico and more than likely it lives along the lower flanks of the mountains
in the area. This subspecies is smaller than typical inca, but the most prominent
difference between the two is the uniformly lighter yellow spotband
posteriad to the wide black extradiscal spotband. The yellow spotband is
fighter than the yellow-orange ground color of the hindwing disc in orizabensis.
Castnia inca dincadu, new subspecies
Figures 8 (6 genitalia), 22, 23 (a)
Male: Head, thorax, and abdomen above warm brown and below tawny gold.
Antennae above brown, below reddish-brown. Palpi tawny. Legs rust with
tawny along inner margins.
Forewing above ground color golden brown with brown markings
not the rust or olive brown of inca inca; hyaline subapical spots present as in
i. inca in Rj-R4, RR,, but usually absent in R,-M1; markings similar to that
of i. inca with a distinct brown spot always present in space. M:,-Cu.,.
Hindwing above with markings similar to i. inca: ground color yellow-orange
with lighter area in disc; black extradiscal spotband yellowed and usually
distinguishable into separate spots; margin always bright rusty orange with
interspersed black scales and with rusty orange scales along veins posteriad
of extradiscal spotband to margin; basal overscaling reddish-orange unlike
the brownish-black overscaling of inca inca.
Forewing below paler than in nominate inca with similar markings as
above: bars across cell and at end cell orange to orange with dark brown
scales; golden brown along costa, warm brown at apex shading to golden
brown along margin; margin very pale golden brown, rather than warm
brown of typical inca; faint row of submarginal dark brown spots with
tawny scales always present in spaces R4-Rs, R.-M, and M,-M2; these
spots are not as prominent in the other two subspecies, male or female.
Hindwing below with typical markings of the inca complex, but pale
yellow-orange; extradiscal spotband very faint with whitish scales absent
inside spotband in space 2A-3A and at tornus (typical inca and inca orizabensis
both have whitish scales in both areas).
Length of forewing of Holotype S, 47 mm.; lengths of the forewings of
the five Paratypes range from 41 mm. to 51 mm., for an average of 47 mm.
Male genitalia: similar to typical inca; lower process of uncus will
developed with saccus curved ventrad at very tip and valvae relatively
larger and much rounder than in i. inca.
Described from six males from the Canal Zone.
HOLOTYPE 6: CANAL ZONE: Pifia, 23.v.1970 (H. L. King); S genitalia
slide 2227 (Jacqueline Y. Miller).
PARATYPES: 53, same data as Holotype.
The entire type series will be deposited in the Allyn Museum of Entomology.
This new subspecies of C. inca is quite distinct on the upper surface
from the other two with its noticeably paler appearance and conspicuous
lighter yellow disc and yellowed black extradiscal spotband on the hindwing. It
obviously belongs to inca with the characteristic basal shading of the hindwing.
The absence of whitish scales in the extradiscal spotband (space 2A-3A) below as
well as at the tornus also distinguishes it from the other two subspecies.
At present this subspecies is restricted to the Canal Zone, where, according
to H. L. King, it's flight period is only about a week. All of the specimens included
in the type series were taken on one day, a rather remarkable catch in Castnia.
Castnia flavimaculata, new species
Figures 9 (8 genitalia), 15, 16 (6),17(9)
Male: Above, head and thorax brown, abdomen fulvous; head, palpi,
thorax and abdomen below pale yellow on inner margins.
Forewing above, reddish-tan with warm brown markings: two thin brown
bars across cell, one two-thirds up cell and one end cell; three subapical spots
present as in inca in spaces R,.-R4, R4-Rs, and R -Mi; transverse line from near
apex to inner lobe poorly developed comparedto other members of inca complex;
transverse line indicated by a thin line except at inner lobe where it is
overscaled with dark brown; four extradiscal brown spots outside transverse line,
one each in spaces M,-M, M2-M3, M,,-Cu,,, and Cu,,-Cu2.
Hindwing above, bright orange with yellow extradiscal spotband
outlined in black from Rs-M| to Cu2-2A; area posteriad of extradiscal
spotband orange except in spaces Cu,-Cu2 and Cu -2A and at tornus where it
is yellow; a dark brown ovoid line (usually) extends to the costa around base;
a small dark brown isolated spot occurs in space Sc+R1-Rs.
Forewing below: warm brown half way up costa shading to yellow
toward apex, margin reddish-tan; apex tawny in space R,-R4; markings as
above but darkened; lower third of cell and lower two-thirds of wing bright
orange; other areas tawny.
Hindwing below: pale orange with golden orange along anal margin;
reddish-brown halfway along costa shading to tanish-white along the
remainder of costa and margin; extradiscal spotband tawny-white
outlined in reddish-brown toward costa, shading to blackish-brown at tornus;
area posteriad of extradiscal spotband pale orange except tawny-white in spaces
Cup,-Cu, and Cu,-2A; isolated reddish-orange in space Sc+R,-Rs; reddish
ovoid line from inner margin along hindwing cell to costa; fulvous along veins
posteriad to extradiscal spotband and at margin.
Fringes on forewing above and below reddish-brown; hindwing fringes
above and below golden brown with golden orange at tornus.
Length of forewing of Holotype 6, 42 mm.; lengths of forewings of
other 16 6 Paratypes range from 40 mm. to 53 mm., averaging 46 mm.
Male genitalia: smaller than other members of this group; uncus
flat rather than curved ventrad as in some other members of the inca complex;
lower processes of uncus not as well as developed; saccus short and curved,
gnathos simple; valvae smoothly curved ventrad.
Female (Described from photo, upper surface only): Head, thorax, and
abdomen slightly darker than male; ground color yellowish-tan with dark brown
markings as in male, but darker and more extensive; basal shading at inner
margin below the cell, from Cu,L-A, not shown in 3.
Hindwing above as in male.
Length of female forewings: 56 mm. and 65 mm.
Described from 19 specimens, 17 males and two females, from Morelos
and Guerrero, Mexico.
HOLOTYPE 6: MEXICO: MORELOS: Tepozitlan 1600 m., vi. 1972
(A. Diaz Frances)
PARATYPES 15 6 2 9, same locality as Holotype, various dates;
GUERRERO: Acahuizotla, 16 v. 1960 (all A. Diaz Frances).
The Holotype and six male Paratypes will be deposited in the Allyn
Museum of Entomology. The remainder of the specimens are in the
collection of Alberto Diaz Frances.
Sr. Diaz Frances has taken a number of these specimens since 1960
mostly from northern Morelos, between Mexico City and Cuernavaca.
Apparently this species lives along the escarpment in this area.
The key as well as descriptions of each member considered in the Central
American inca complex should help eliminate the confusion in identifying
members of this group. Single characters such as Westwood's (1875) "richly
coloured and marked margin" of clitarcha (which is usually black) and
Strand's (1913) isolated black spot on the costal margin of the hindwing in
inca (which also occurs in clitarcha) should not be employed by themselves.
Even Rothschild (1919) had some difficulty in determining true inca since
the Tring collection had no specimens from any of the original type localities,
but there were a number of specimens of "clitarcha", including some
specimens from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and the Vulcan de Chiriqui. The
range of both inca and clitarcha somewhat overlap (Fig. 10) perhaps in
Guatemala and definitely in Honduras and Costa Rica. Rothschild was rather
unsure about both species and thought the clitarcha and inca might be one
species, inca. The darker coloration of the forewing in inca as well as the
markings, the basal overscaling of the hindwing in inca, and the genitalia
separate both into perfectly good species.
Perhaps the most perplexing taxon in the entire group is nominate inca. Walker
(1854) even in his original description mentioned that the Mexican specimen
varied from his other two. His description of the Mexican specimen could easily
fit inca orizabensis. The material examined in this group was primarily from
the southern states of Mexico: Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas. The material
particularly from San Quintin, Chiapas, shows a wide array of morphological forms
and intergrades, none nameable. The forewing ground color in all of these specimens
is the same rust brown to dark brown with darker brown to olive-brown
markings, but the number of extradiscal spots outside the transverse line
vary, some specimens have three while other have only one. The hindwing
configurations are extremely variable with the width of the black extradiscal
spotband either large and contiguous or thin and reduced almost into separate
spots (Figs. 28-31). The basal overscaling of the hindwing may be black,
brown or various shades of orange-brown. Consequently with all of these
patterns in the same population, there are gradation from typical
inca inca toward inca orizabensis and some specimens which approach
inca dincadu of the Canal Zone. The latter, of course, is considerable paler and
the spotband yellowed. Genitalically all of these morphs fall well within the
range of nominate inca. Perhaps these species have only recently been
separated, or possibly the isthmus of Tehuantepec is not a potent barrier
between the Veracruz and Chiapas populations. Further filed work as well
as morphological studies must be done to clarify the situation.
Houlbert (1917, 1918) figured and described Castnia (Aciloa) briareus (1918:
445, 3 fig. 3816, 9 3817). The name briareus was an unpublished Guenee name
and the specimens figured in Houlbert's monograph were a male and female
from "1' ancienne collections" of Boisduval and Guenee. The specimens
were reputed to be from "1' Amerique meridionale" and are obviously inca
relatives with the characteristic hindwing basal shading. The specimens are
duller and closely resemble inca orizabensis but have yellow inside the
black extradiscal spotband. They are obviously not C. flavimaculata as
comparison of the figures will show. Inasmuch as C. briareus has not turned up in
recent Central American collections, I suspect that it may be South American
and as such beyond the scope of this paper.
Boisduval, J. A. and A. Guinee, 1874. Histoire naturelle des insectes-species
general des Lepidopteres Heteroceres, 1: 495-548.
Butler, A. G., 1877. Illustrations of typical specimens of Lepidoptera
Heterocera in the collection of the British Museum, no. 1. London,
Hemming, Francis. 1967. The generic names of the butterflies and their
type-species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Bull. British Museum (Natural History),
Entomology, Supplement 9:98.
Houlbert, C., 1917. Diagnoses de Castnies nouvelles et rectification quelques
noms indument employes. Et. Lepid. Comp., 13: 49-85.
Houlbert, C., 1918. Revision monographique de la sous-familie des Castniinae.
Et. Lepid. Comp., 15: 730pp.
Rothschild, W., 1919. Supplementary notes to the review of Houlbert and
Oberthur's monograph of Castniinae by Talbot and Prout, Novit. Zool., 26: 1-27.
Strand, E., 1913 in Seitz, A., Macrolepidoptera of the World, 6: 7-17.
Talbot, G., 1919. Review of monograph of the Castniinae, Novit. Zool., 16: 28-34.
Walker, Francis, 1854. List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in
the collection of the British Museum, Part I, Lepidoptera Heterocera,
Westwood, J. 0., 1875. A monograph of the lepidopterous genus Castnia and
some allied groups. Trans. Linn. Soc., London, 2nd ser.: 155-207.
Figs. 1-5, Castnia. 1, C. cacica, 6 genitalia (Slide M-2351). 2, C penelope, 3
genitalia (Slide M-2352). 3, C. inca inca, forewing venation. 4, Same, hindwing
venation. 5, Same, 9 genitalia (Slide M-2344).
Figs. 6-9: Castnia 6 genitalia. 6, C. clitarcha (Slide M-1772). 7, C. inca inca
(Slide M-2226). 8, C. inca dincadu Holotype (Slide M-2227). 9, C. flavimaculata,
Paratype (Slide M-2341).
Fig. 10: Distribution of material examined in the Castnia inca complex;
because of possible confusion, no literature records are shown. Solid
circles = C. i. inca; open circles = C. inca orizabensis; open star = C. inca
dincadu; solid stars = C. flavimaculata; solid triangles = C. clitarcha.
Fig. 11-21: Castnia. 11-12, C. clitarcha, 8 upper (11) and under (12)
surfaces; HONDURAS (USNM). 13-14, Same, 9 upper (13) and under (14)
surfaces; HONDURAS (USNM) 15-16, C. flavimaculata. / upper (15) and under (16)
surfaces; MEXICO: MORELOS: Tepozitland (A). 17, Same, 9 upper surface (photo
by A. Diaz Frances). 18-19, C. inca inca, 6 upper (18) and under (19) surfaces;
MEXICO: CHIAPAS: San Quintin (A): compares favorably with the type;
see Figs. 28-31 for variability in this population. 10-21, Same, 9 upper (20) and
under (21) surfaces; MEXICO: CHIAPAS: San Quintin (A)
Fig. 22-31: Castnia. 22-23, C. inca dincadu, Holotype 3 upper (22) and (23)
surfaces; CANAL ZONE: Pifia (A). 24-25, C. inca orizabensis, 3 upper
(24) and under (25) surfaces; No data (USNM). 26-27, Same, 9 upper (26) and under
(27) surfaces; MEXICO: Orizaba (USNM). 28-31, C. inca inca, a upper
(28, 30) and under (29, 31) surfaces; both MEXICO: CHIAPAS: San Quintin
(A); see Figs. 18-19 for additional variability in this population.