BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number-.. 3 19 Nov. 1971
TWO NEW HAIRSTREAKS FROM MEXICO
HARRY K. CLENCH
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Penna., 15213
In 1966, when Dr. Lee D. Miller and I were in eastern Mexico, we spent
several days collecting in the vicinity of Zimapan, Hidalgo, using the Hotel
Posada del Rey there as our base of operations. The manager of the hotel,
Sr. Enrique Calder6n, was interested in our activities and suggested that we
should visit the little town of El Encarnaci6n, in the mountains off the main
highway to the north of Zimapan. Our heavy work schedule had left us with
only one day to spare for this trip, and that day turned out to be cold and
completely overcase. We never got there.
When Dr. and Mrs. Miller returned to ZimapAn in 1969 they were able
to repair that omission, and a spectacular collection was the result. Sr. Calde-
r6n's advice had been good indeed.
Among the material the Millers took at El Encarnaci6n is a series of a
hairstreak that proves to be conspecific with Thecla dignota Draudt, a new
record for Mexico and hitherto known only from Colombia. Not surprisingly
these Mexican specimens represent a new subspecies. Structural examination
of them shows that the species must be referred to the genus Micandra Schatz.
Micandra Schatz 1888, in Staudinger & Schatz, Exot. Schmett., Theil I: 288; Schatz 1892, in
Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett., Theil II (Familien und Gattungen der Tagfalter): 265, pl.
46; Comstock & Huntington 1958, J. New York Ent. Soc. 66: 112.
Micandra Staudinger: Hemming 1967, Bull. British Museum (Nat. Hist.) (Ent.) Suppl. 9:290.
Hemming incorrectly credited the name to Staudinger (it is explicitly cred-
ited to Schatz alone in both the 1888 and 1892 references) but correctly
pointed out that the type species, by effective monotypy, is Pseudolycaena
platyptera Felder  (Reise Ost. Fregatte "Novara," Lep. Rhop. (2): 246,
pl. 28 figs. 6, 7) (=Pseudolycaena cadmus Felder , op. cit: 247, pl. 31
fig. 5 [= 9], NEW SYNONYMY).
Some of the distinctive traits of this genus were mentioned by Schatz
(1892, including figure): the origin of vein M2 much closer to MI than to Ms
on both wings; the distad production of the posterior angle of the hindwing
cell to an acute angle; the origin of forewing vein R, far before the remaining
radials and closely approximating Sc for most of its length; the truncate fore-
wings. The venation of dignota shares all these traits.
The male genitalia of the type species and of dignota are quite similar,
despite the considerable difference in facies, and may be described as follows:
uncus lobes low and transverse, separated by a broad median notch about as
deep as the lobes; tegumen struts slightly arcuate, arising at the lateral corners
of the uncus notch; falces normal, with slightly to moderately constricted tips;
dorsal vinculum much wider than ventral vinculum, with a large posterior
shoulder process; vinculum strut at about right angles to anterior border of
vinculum, stout and conspicuous, ending near the posterodorsal corner of the
shoulder process; saccus elongate-subtriangular, rounded and somewhat digitate
at tip, about three to four times as long as breadth at middle; valvae of normal
length, contiguous to middle (platyptera) or to tips (dignota), broadest at
about the middle (platyptera) or distinctly before (dignota); each valva bears,
at about the level of its greatest breadth, a transverse invaginated "pocket"
ventrally, somewhat larger and more conspicuous in dignota than in platyptera;
penis long (about 1.8 times as long as saccus + valvae in platyptera; 1.6 times
in dignota), slender, straight, the tip flared and upturned, without terminal
ventral keel; a distinct, large, terminal cornutus is present, distally conspicu-
ously and coarsely toothed along its dorsal border; a possible second cornutus
dorsad, indistinct and possibly enveloped in a membrane of sorts.
The major genitalic differences between the two species are as follows:
In platyptera the valvae are broadest at about the middle and their mesial
edges divergent thence to tips; the falces are moderately constricted apically;
the teeth on the larger cornutus of the penis are large and occur on well over
half the length of the expanded part, and the vesica lacks minute spiculae.
In dignota the valvae are broadest at about /3 their length from the base, their
mesial edges more or less contiguous to tips; the falces are little if at all
constricted at the tips; the teeth on the more conspicuous cornutus are smaller
and clustered more apically, and the vesica is minutely spiculate.
I have examined the genitalia of only two species belonging to this genus,
platyptera Felder (- cadmus Felder) (fig. 1) and dignota Draudt (fig. 2),
but several others may well be congeneric also, based only on their facies:
aegides Felder, amplitudo H. H. Druce, furina Godman & Salvin, cyda Godman
& Salvin, comae H. H. Druce, ion H .H. Druce and extrema Draudt. Facies,
however, are apt to be unreliable, and in the absence of genitalic study I can
neither be sure that these are congeneric nor affirm that there are no others
I have not listed. The above species, however, are generally similar in under-
side wing pattern and in wing shape (the most strongly deviating, in both
respects, is platyptera) and a key to them (males only) may be useful.
1. a. Upperside of forewing with androconial patch ..........-..... ....------.. 2
b. No androconial patch .--.... ..-..-..-...-..........--. ---.. 6
2. a. Androconial patch quite small; black borders broad .. -----
.....- ......-......- dignota Draudt (including new subspecies)
b. Androconial patch large, more or less as large as discal cell -.....--..-. 3
3. a. Forewing underside largely blue, more or less completely
obscuring all traces of transverse lines -..- ...-..........-~... -... .-. 4
b. Forewing underside with a small patch of blue or none;
transverse lines present ........ --------- ------- ........ 5
4. a. Wings extremely rounded; no hindwing tails -.... .... platyptera Felder
b. Wings more triangular; hindwing tailed ................ extrema Draudt
5. a. Forewing underside with small blue patch ion H. H. Druce
b. Forewing underside with no blue at all ...... comae H. H. Druce
6. a. Forewing upperside, black border in cubital area less than
an interspace width in breadth -.....-...-........-....-.......-...-.....-.... 7
b. Black border in this area broader than an interspace width ......-..... 8
7. a. Upperside blue purplish; borders very narrow .-- amplitudo H. H. Druce
b. Upperside blue greenish; borders broader ...-.............--- aegides Felder
8. a. Forewing upperside with black border relatively narrow,
its inner edge in median area about half-way between
cell-end and termen ---. --..... ---.... ..-...------ furina G. & S.
b. Black border broader, its inner edge much closer to
cell-end than to termen ........ -................ --........- .. ----..... cyda G. & S.
Micandra dignota tongida, new subspecies
Male. Upperside: Forewing bright blue to about 2/3; basally the blue is greenish, distally
slightly purplish; beyond the blue the wing is black: narrowly on costa, broadly at apex, taper-
ing slightly to the tornus; the division between blue and black is fairly abrupt, passing just beyond
discal cell and intercepting Cuz at about the middle of the vein; cell-end with a small, gray,
quadrate patch within which is the extremely minute scent patch, comprised of long, dark, spe-
cialized scales and located just within the incurved lower discocellular; fringe indian red. Hind-
wing similarly blue, the blue also greenish basad, slightly purplish distad, and the wing distad
of the blue nearly black, except as noted below; the division between the blue and the black
is somewhat less sharp than on the forewing, passes from costa near base to cell-end, follows
M, briefly, then curves down diagonally across median and cubital interspaces to its most distal
extent, on Cu2, which it intercepts at about 3/4 from origin; beyond this blue the wing is black,
save for the costa, where it is gray-tan, shading distally to the black, and the inner margin,
which is somewhat silvery gray from base to about middle, shading to dark gray, then to
red-brown (indian red) at the tornal lobe, the latter shading more or less abruptly to black
costad. From tornus to Cut, at the base of the fringe, runs a pale blue line, inset step-wise (but
continuous) above Cu2; fringe above Cut short, indian red; in Cut-Cuz longer, mostly black; from
Cu2 to tornus longer, indian red, with a thin, pale line externally; a white spot in fringe at
tornus. Tails: that at Cut a mere blunt, short tooth, indian red; at Cu2 long (about twice as
long as terminal width of Cut-Cuz), black, with a large central core of indian red and a white
Underside: both wings indian red, perhaps slightly browner in tint than the fringe. Fore-
wing shading to slightly paler gray-brown along inner margin; wing crossed by three lines, trans-
verse and continuous, the first slightly diagonal, from costa to origin of Cut; the second and
third from costa to vein Cuz. Each line is thin, white, and sharp, and the three, plus the
termen, are about equally spaced; the outermost is tinged with pale blue. Fringe concolorous
with the ground, or perhaps slightly redder. Hindwing also crossed by three whitish transverse
lines, all thin, sharp and continuous. The first (basalmost) crosses straight from Sc near base
diagonally outward across cell to base of Cuz where it abruptly angles (about a right angle)
toward base of inner margin, across the interspaces between cell and 3A; this line is extremely
thin, usually distinctly bluish, especially posteriorly. The second line begins on Sc near costa
at about the middle of the latter, crosses nearly straight to Cuz at about 3/4, there angling back
on itself briefly along Cuz, then curving across to end on inner margin at about 1/3; this
line is white to Cut, thence to its end pale blue with an inner edging of black scales; the
end of this line and that of the first line are conjoined along 3A: hard to see unless specially
looked for and the specimen is fresh. The third line begins on costa at about the end of Sc,
runs convexly (more or less parallel to termen, but gradually approaching it posteriorly) to Cu2,
angles there and crosses to 2A, still parallel to termen, where it angles sharply basad and
follows just within inner margin to end at the greatest convexity of the latter just before
middle of inner margin. This line is blue throughout, edged distally by a thin line of black,
and the segments between the veins are slightly concave outward, producing a small projection
or tooth at each vein. Beyond this line, for its whole length, the ground is slightly paler in a
parallel band. Tornal lobe somewhat darker brown, with a minute white dot basad. A terminal
thin blue line runs from 2A to slightly costad of Cut at base of fringe. Fringe concolorous with
ground, or perhaps slightly redder, with a paler distal line below Cuz and a white dot at tornal
Female. On the upperside differing from the male only in the absence of the scent patch
and its surrounding gray field; on the underside with the ground slightly paler and the hind-
wing lines somewhat less distinct; hindwing tail at Cut is slightly longer (about half as long
as distal width of CuI-Cu2). The wing shape and shade of upperside blue are identical to those
of the male.
Length of fore wing: males, 16.0 19.5 mm., mean (of 10 specimens) 17.6 mm.; females,
15.5 19.0 mm., mean (of 8) 17.3 mm.
Holotype, male, vic. El Encarnaci6n [approximately 20' 53'N, 990 12' W],
2400 2450 m., Hidalgo, Mexico, 15.ii.1969 (leg. L. D. & J. Y. Miller, sta. 36),
oak pine forest. A. C. Allyn Acc. 1969-4.
Paratypes: 9 males, 9 females, all with the same data except as follows:
15 19, sta. 6, 23.i.1969; 15 19, sta. 11, 27.i.1969; 28 49, sta. 36, 15.ii.1969;
5 39, sta. 38, 16.ii.1969.
The Holotype, seven male and seven female Paratypes all in the Allyn
Museum of Entomology. Two male and two female Paratypes in Carnegie
Museum (C. M. Ent. type series no. 669).
Remarks. Thecla dignota Draudt (1919, in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
5: 754, pl. 153 b) was described from a single male from BogotA, Colombia.
The original description, translated from the German, is quoted here in full:
"Th. dignota sp. nov. (153 b) differs from aegides (148 h) in a rather large round gray-
brown scent-spot at the cell-end, very sharp wing apex below which the outer margin appears
almost concave, red-brown fringes and tail; also the anal lobe is completely red-brown, in its
middle with a few silver-green scales, the fringes on it partly white; the blue-white line before
the margin is completely absent. Beneath, the same cross-lines stand out on the cinnamon-red
ground color, but they are narrowly black, sprinkled with silver-gray scales and only costa
on the fore wing somewhat wider and whiter; the third, counting from the base, is regularly
and strongly toothed, with outwardly concave arcs. Described according to one oc from Bogota
As can be seen, the resemblance of the present series to dignota is close.
The most conspicuous difference in tongida is the presence, on the upperside,
of a distinct pale blue line at the base of the fringe on the hindwing near the
tornus. Such a line is present in the species (aegides) with which Draudt
compared dignota and he specifically notes its absence in the latter. Draudt
mentions only one tail, and the illustration shows only one tail, at Cu2, so it
is possible that the slight (male) to moderate (female) tail at Cu' in tongida is
an additional difference. On the underside the outer line appears to be less
dentate than in nominate dignota. Draudt also mentions a few silver-green
scales in the center of the red-brown tornal lobe above, which are completely
absent in tongida. There may be additional points of difference not revealed
by Draudt's rather brief description.
I am indebted to Dr. Miller for the following description of the habitat of
"El Encarnaci6n lies in a high montane valley at about 2300 m., right in
the middle of those dry Hidalgo mountains. The valley, however, faces south
or southeast, and is quite humid, with a small but apparently permanent
stream running through it. Except for cultivated areas the major vegetation in
the valley is an association of huge oaks and "weeping" pines (Pinus patula?)
up to nearly 100 feet tall. The hairstreak was associated with the oaks, as
nearly as I can tell, and it is possible that the larvae feed on them. Our first
specimen was taken early in the morning when it came floating down out of
the trees and settled at a mud puddle. We saw what we were sure were others
playing around the tops of the trees, and probably all of our captures of it
were stray individuals descending to within net reach. A canopy tower might
have yielded a lot of them. The hairstreaks were not found in the village itself,
nor in the drier areas southeast of it, but only west of town where the oaks
Among the other butterfly species associated with M. dignota tongida in
this locality were: Papilio multicaudatus Kirby, Eumaeus debora Hiibner,
Erora quaderna Hewitson, a new species of Callophrys (Mitoura), Adelpha
creton Godman and donysa Hewitson, Polygonia haroldi C. & R. Felder, and
an apparently new Paratrytone. Compare the account under Adelpha donysa
in Miller & Miller (1970, J. Lepid. Soc. 24: 292-297).
Panthiades m-album moctezuma, new subspecies
Thecla m-album: Godman & Salvin 1887, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 40; ibid. 1901, op.
cit.: 716; Hoffmann 1941, An. Inst. Biol. Mex. 11: 708.
Male: Upperside as in nominate m-album; Female with forewing blue somewhat more ex-
tensive, reaching usually to beyond middle of vein Cu2 and often invading the base of M,-Ms.
Underside of both sexes alike, differing from that of the nominate subspecies as follows:
ground color darker brown; base of forewing costa less rufous; "Thecla spot" (subterminally
on hindwing in Cui-Cu2) consisting as usual of a black spot basally capped with orange, but
the black spot is large and wedge-shaped, apex basad (in m-album it is small and transversely
elongate), and the orange extends distad along each side of the wedge (in m-album it is wholly
basad and not orange but red) and is wider than deep. its basal edge in line with the subterminal
line; there is no trace of it in the adjoining Ms-Cui interspace (in nominate m-album the red
is deeper than wide, its basal edge distinctly basad of the level of the subterminal line, and
traces of red appear in the adjoining Ms-CuI interspace); the tornal black is hardly larger than
the black part of the "Thecla spot" and is basally capped by a prominent orange patch which
extends part way into the neighboring Cu2-2A interspace (in the nominate subspecies the tornal
black is fully twice this size, many times the size of the black part of the Thecla spot, and
there is little or no basal orange(; the distal posterior apex of the "W" in the pm line still just
touches the inner edge of the "Thecla soot", but because of the changed shape of that spot
this apex falls at about 2/3 the length of Cu2 instead of at about its midpoint; the quadrate sub-
terminal patch in Cu2-2A is smaller (its dark part only about half as deep as its vein-to-vein
breadth, instead of subequal as in nominate m-album) and with much less blue irroration.
The male genitalia are identical to those of nominate m-album.
Holotype, male, 5 miles north of ZimapAn, HIDALGO, MEXICO, 2140-
2280 m (6950-7400 ft.), 21.i.1966 (leg. H. Clench and L. D. Miller, Carnegie
Museum Catholic University of America Expedition, sta. 29b).
Paratypes: one female, same locality, 12.i.1966 (CM-CUA Exp., sta. 17b);
one female, same locality, 1980-2140 m (6430-6950 ft.), 19.i.1969 (leg. L. D. &
J. Y. Miller, sta. 8).
Holotype and first Paratype in Carnegie Museum (C. M. Ent. type series
no. 670); second Paratype in Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida.
Fig. 1. Micandra platyptera Felder, $ genitalia, slide C-1225. Colombia:
Cauca: Distr. Pereira (leg. R. M. Valencia). CM, exchange from
British Museum (Nat. Hist.).
Fig. 2. Micandra dignota tongida, new subspecies, $ genitalia, slide C-1240,
paratype, Miller & Miller sta. 6 (CM).
Note. The uncus lobes of platyptera were "turned down" in mounting and
apparent differences in this area are spurious or unreliable. The two figures
are not drawn to the same scale.
Remarks. In addition to the type series specimens have been seen from the
Mexico: Sinaloa: 22 mi E of Concordia [ca. 1500 m, = 4875 ft.], 25.x.1961
(leg. Cary-Carnegie Museum Exp.); 26 mi E of Concordia [ca. 2150 m, = 7000
ft.], 25.x. 1961 (leg. Cary-Carnegie Museum Exp.). In all, 12 and 109 (CM).
All of these specimens bear the incorrect locality "19 mi E of Concordia." Much
of the material from this expedition was mounted and labelled incorrectly, by
inexperienced technicians. The above corrected versions are based on my own
recollection and field notes (I helped collect both lots). Specimens from the
two localities cannot now be distinguished.
Mexico: Guerrero: 4 mi E of Chilpancingo, 1680 m (= 5460 ft.), 30.viii.-
1967 (leg. L. D. Miller and R. Pine, sta. 17), 2 9 (Allyn Mus.).
Guatemala: Chimaltenango: Mpio. Acatenango: Quisache, 1750 m (=
5680 ft.), 14.xi.1966, 1 (leg. E. C. Welling) (CM).
Additional localities are given by Godman & Salvin (l.c.). The "Venezuela"
they cite is dubious, as they imply.
In Mexico P. m-album moctezuma appears to be widespread in oak and
oak-pine forest and scrub in the warmer Transition and in most of the Upper
Austral zones. The Holotype and first Paratype were taken at the yellow
flowers of a woody shrub (probably Senecio, cf. oaxacanus) along a roadside
in oak-pine-juniper low forest, in the Transition zone. The second paratype
is from the same locality but at a lower elevation, in the Upper Austral zone.
The two Sinaloa localities were respectively in (a) an open, low oak forest on
a saddle, probably in the Upper Austral zone, the specimens on low herbaceous
flowers along with a number of other hairstreaks typical of lower elevations;
and (b) from an open pine parkland, with nearly bare ground, probably in
the Transition zone, the specimens quite common on low herbaceous white
flowers. The Guerrero specimen was taken in grassy dense scrub.
This subspecies ranges from Durango and Hidalgo southward through
Guatemala, apparently as far as Costa Rica.