BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number... 2 19 Nov. 1971
DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES AND NOTES
ON OTHER HESPERIIDAE OF AFRICA
LEE D. MILLER
Curator. Allyn Museum of Entomology
Over the past several years I have been compiling information on the
Hesperiidae of Africa, and in the six years since my last paper on these butter-
flies from that continent much information has come to light. Accordingly, the
following notes and descriptions are offered to update Evans' (1937) Catalogue
on the skippers of this fascinating region. The order in which the species are
presented is that of Evans, and various comparisons are made with regard to
I wish to acknowledge the help of many people in the preparation of this
paper and for making material available to me for description and comparison.
Father Th. Maessen, a missionary in the Volta region of Ghana, has for many
years sent me Hesperiidae and has been most helpful in regard to the many
questions I have asked him about the area and the butterflies. I am grateful
to Carnegie Museum, and especially Mr. Harry K. Clench, for the loan of
material, and the British Museum (Natural History) has placed many speci-
mens at my disposal, as well as photographs of types and notes on other
specimens, without which this work would have been impossible. At the latter
institution I would like to particularly thank Dr. R. I. Vane-Wright and Mr.
T. G. Howarth. Mr. A. C. Allyn photographed the specimens illustrated
herein, and my wife, Jacqueline, read and commented on the manuscript.
Eagris hereus (H. Druce)
Evans (1937:33) listed Ceratrichia quaterna Mabille as a synonym of
the present species and considered material from the entire range of the
species as belonging to a single form. He had males from no further south
than Cameroun (presumably from the northern or eastern part of the country)
and females from Ghana to Angola, one from the latter country being
the type specimen of hereus. A typical female of E. hereus is figured
by Aurivillius (1925: pl. 761), and a male from the western population is
figured as E. quaterna by the same author on pl. 76h.
Materal from the Carnegie Museum collection from southwestern Camer-
oun is very different from the material of quaterna that Evans considered to
be hereus. Since the Cameroun females are closer to Druce's type of hereus
than are those from further north and west, I must conclude that E. h. hereus
is the subspecies from southwestern Cameroun, probably Gabon and certainly
Angola, whereas material from the remainder of the range to the north and
west must be denoted E. h. quaterna (Mabille). Typical E. h. hereus is figured
in Figs. 1, 2 ( ), 3, 4 (9), and E. h. quaterna is represented by Figs. 5, 6 ( )
7, 8 (9). The male of E. h. hereus is distinguished by the prominent hyaline
forewing spots in Ri-Ra, two in the cell, Ms-Cu' and Cu,-Cus and by the well
developed hindwing extradiscal spots both above and below. The major distin-
guishing characteristic of the female of nominate hereus is the paler costa of
the hindwing below, as well as the more distinct markings of the upper surface.
The male genitalia of the two entities are virtually indistinguishable.
Celaenorrhinus illustroides, new species
Figures 9, 10 ( ), 59 ( genitalia)
Male: Above very much like C. i. illustris (Mabille), but darker with median forewing
band less well developed and basal and discal tawny forewing spots in Cuz-2A not fused, but
with a square fuscous intervening patch wider than either tawny member; basal tawny spot
subrectangular, not rounded. Below differing from C. i. illustris as does upper surface. Length
of forewing of Holotype cf 20.5 mm. Male genitalia similar to those of C. illustris, but differing
in minor respects as shown in figure: uncus stronger and lower prong of valva less finely drawn.
Described from a single male specimen.
Holotype 8: FRENCH CONGO: Etoumbi, no date (ex collection E. Le-
Moult); $ genitalia slide no. M-2184 (Lee D. Miller). This specimen will be
deposited in the Allyn Museum of Entomology.
Some of the specimens listed by Evans (1937: 23) in the collection of
the British Museum (Natural History) as illustris may be referable to the
present species, but I have not examined this material. The present species
is distinct both superficially and genitalically, and I am inclined to believe
that the same will be found true of C. illustris ab. "abbreviata" Aurivillius, a
name that is unavailable by the nature of its description as an infrasubspecific
Celaenorrhinus beni jacquelinae, new subspecies
Figures 11, 12 ( ), 60 ( genitalia)
Male: Resembles the male of C. b. beni Bethune Baker, especially on the forewing, but
differing in the following particulars: ochreous spots in forewing spaces Mz-Ms, Ms-Cu, and
Cuz-2A larger; tawny markings of hindwing above more extensive, including a well developed
extradiscal spot in MI-M3 in addition to the usual submarginal series; and a well developed
set of hindwing submarginal tawny spots below, as well as a large one in the cell. Length
of forewing of Holotype d 21.0 mm. The male genitalia are at least similar to those of C.
b. beni, but I have not had an opportunity to examine that entity and have had to rely entirely
on Evans' (1937: pl. 9) figure. The present skipper may actually be specifically distinct.
Described from a single male specimen.
Holotype 8: FRENCH CONGO: Etoumbi, no date (ex collection E.
LeMoult); 8 genitalia slide no. 2185 (Lee D. Miller). This specimen will be
placed in the collection of the Allyn Museum of Entomology.
I take great pleasure in naming this pretty skipper for my wife and co-
worker at the Allyn Museum, Mrs. Jacqueline Y. Miller.
This subspecies, if that is its correct status, is abundantly distinct super-
fically from C. b. beni, as may be seen by a comparison of my figures with
Evans' (1937: pl. 1, fig. 7). The type-localities of the two entities are about a
thousand miles apart: both seem to be rather rare and local insects.
Abantis lucretia lucretia H. H. Druce
Figures 13, 14 ($)
Father Th. Maessen has taken a number of specimens of this beautiful
skipper at Likpe and Lolobi, Ghana, and has presented the Allyn Museum
with a single male (Lolobi, 14.xii.1967). Evans (1937: 54) recorded three
specimens from Sierra Leone and Cameroun, demonstrating the rarity of the
butterfly, and the Maessen records are apparently the first from Ghana. Evi-
dently this species is rare, but consistent, in the Likpe area during at least
December and January.
A badly rubbed specimen in material from the LeMoult collection taken
at Etoumbi in the former French Congo is referable to lucretia, but represents
a subspecies separate from either the nominate subspecies or A. lucretia lofu
Neave from Northern Rhodesia. I hereby describe this subspecies:
Abantis lucretia etoumbiensis, new subspecies
Figures 15, 16 (8), 61 (8 genitalia)
Male: Though the specimen is badly rubbed, it differs from the male of A. 1. lucretia in
the larger hyaline spots in the forewing cell and spaces M3-CuI and Cui-Cuz and by the con-
siderably broader hindwing blackish-brown distal area, particularly toward tornus, with smaller
submarginal white spots from Cui-Cua to 2A-3A. The present subspecies is considerably smaller
than the nominate subspecies: length of forewing of Holotype d 16 mm. (length of forewing of
the male of A. 1. lucretia before me is 19 mm.). The male genitalia are as figured and like
those of nominate lucretia.
Described from a single male specimen.
Holotype $: FRENCH CONGO: Etoumbi, no date (ex collection Le-
Moult); 8 genitalia slide no. 2169 (Lee D. Miller). This specimen will be
placed in the Allyn Museum of Entomology collection.
The small size and the differences in maculation cited in the description
will characterize the present insect.
the Abantis venosa complex
Evans (1937: 54-55) considers all of the Abantis combining the character-
istics of prominent black forewing veins, a plain hindwing cell below and with
no white around the hindwing tornus to represent a single species with an
array of "forms" and "subspecies". The male genitalia of some of these
entities, while similar and showing definite affinities to one another, are subtly
different, and a variety of rather different patterns are shown by the various
"forms". These genitalic differences, like those in the Melphina tarace group
cited by Lindsey and Miller (1965: 131-134), were not discernable by Evans'
rather gross genitalic methods. I have been unable to examine all of the enti-
ties cited by Evans, but those I have seen (venosa Trimen, vidua Weymer,
elegantula [Mabille], contigua Evans and an apparent new species) show
some definite patterns. A. venosa (Figures 17, 18 3, 62 8 genitalia) is more
or less restricted to the area from the Congo southward and eastward and
apparently encompasses the forms umvalensis (Sharpe), flava Evans and fulva
Evans. A. vidua (Figures 19, 20 8, 63 8 genitalia), a species lacking any
traces of hyaline spots on the forewing, is found from Angola through the
southern Congo to Rhodesia. More or less typical venosa occur with vidua at
Kafakumba, Katanga, Congo, and both species apparently fly together there
in the same months. A third species, A. elegantula (Figures 21, 22 5, 64 $
genitalia), is rare and restricted to Occidental Africa, evidently occurring no
further east than Nigeria. Finally there are a number of species related to
elegantula, but differing genitalically and superficially, especially by the
ochreous-brown median hindwing band of the upper surface, including A.
contigua and the new species described below.
Abantis maesseni, new species
Figures 23, 24 ( ), 65 ( genitalia)
Male-female: Upper surface similar to that of A. elegantula, but differing as follows:
forewing cell spots larger, occasionally contiguous; hindwing dark border much broader and
median pale area restricted (distal part of pale median area just outside cell), this area pale
buff to ochreous-brown, rather than pure white, as in elegantula. Under surface differs from
that of elegantula in the configuration of the forewing cell spot, as mentioned for upper side,
and in the expanded black margins of the hindwing (the median area is white on this surface).
In addition to the figure given here, a colored figure is given by Mabille and Vuillot (1891:
pl. 3, fig. 5) of elegantula. The male genitalia differ from those of other members of the venosa
complex in the rather finely drawn valvae with the long fine dorsal projection curved strongly
ventrad that of elegantula is straighter and the penis is more strongly curved. Length
of forewing of Holotype 6 17 mm., those of the 14 male Paratypes ranging from 16 to 18 mm.,
averaging 17.3 mm.; length of forewing of the single female Paratype 21 mm.
Described from sixteen specimens, 15 males and one female, from Ghana.
Holotype 8: GHANA: Likpe, 14.ii.1970 (Th. Maessen); 8 genitalia
slide no. 2170 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratypes: all GHANA: same locality and collector as Holotype: 1
14.xi.1968, 1 15.ii.1969, 2 1.iv.1969, 2 25.iv.1969, 1 30.iv.1969, 1 26.ix.
1969, 1 20.i.1970, 1 20.ii.1970, 1 21.ii.1970; Kpandu: 1 21.iv.1970, 1
2.vi.1970; Hohoe, 18 13.ix.1967, 19 15.ii.1968 (all Th. Maessen).
The Holotype, six male and one female Paratypes will be deposited in
the Allyn Museum of Entomology collection. One male Paratype will be
placed in Carnegie Museum. Seven male Paratypes will be returned to
It is with great pleasure that I name this species for Father Th. Maessen
in recognition of his long-term work on the Lepidoptera of Ghana.
A. maesseni is by far the most abundant member of the genus in the
Volta Region, and it is sympatric and synchronic with A. elegantula (Hohoe,
September). The genitalic differences between the two species, while rather
minor, are in line with those shown by other members of the venosa complex.
A series of twelve males from southwestern Cameroun (Efulen, Metet,
Lolodorf) from the collection of Carnegie Museum is also referable to A.
maesseni and differs from the type-series in only very minor respects. The
overlapping of characteristics between the two populations makes division into
separate subspecies inadvisable, but the presence of two long series from rather
widely spread localities in West Africa indicates that the present species is
widespread and common throughout the area.
Ceratrichia phocion camerona, new subspecies
Figures 25, 26 ( ), 27, 28 ( )
Male: Differs from the male of nominate phocion on forewing above by presence of a
white dot outside cell in Mi-M2 in virtually all specimens this spot is absent in C. p. phocion.
Hindwing above deeper, more orange-tinged yellow than in nominate subspecies. Forewing below
with much more extensive costal and marginal yellow overscaling and somewhat more prominent
apical, costal and cell silvered spots. The under surface of hindwing with more prominate
discal, cell and basal brown spotting, these spots being more definitely silvered than in nominate
subspecies. Length of forewing of Holotype c 13.5 mm., those of some representative male
Paratypes ranging from 12 to 14.5 mm., most in the 13-14 mm. class. The male genitalia are
as in nominate phocion (Lindsey and Miller, 1965: p. 89, fig. 53).
Female: Above quite like female of C. p. phocion, but generally with more prominent white
discal spots on forewing and with yellow of hindwing more orange-tinged. Under surface of
present subspecies has more prominent forewing yellow overscaling, hindwing with more definite
brown silver-centered dots, but hindwing costa not suffused with brown as in C. p. phocion, in
which entire area of under side of hindwing anteriad of cell strongly tinged with brown. Lengths
of forewings of some representative female Paratypes range from 13.5 to 15 mm.
Described from 232 specimens, 191 males and 41 females, from southwest-
Holotype a: CAMEROUN: Lolodorf, Nov. 3, 1922 (A. I. Good); $ geni-
talia slide no. 1988 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratypes: 190 8 and 41 9 from various localities (Lolodorf, Batanga,
Efulen, Elat, Nyabizimbi, Deng, Alam, Zingi, "Bule country"), various dates
and collectors (chiefly A. C. and A. I. Good and H. L. Weber).
The Holotype, 186 male and 37 female Paratypes are in the collection
of Carnegie Museum. Four male and four female paratypes will be deposited
in the collection of the Allyn Museum of Entomology.
While the type-series is restricted to material from Cameroun, long series
of identical specimens are in Carnegie Museum from Rio Muni and Gabon.
This material differs from specimens from further west (Liberia, Ghana, etc.)
in the characteristics cited in the description; the overall impression being
one of a brighter, more strongly marked butterfly in camerona than in the
T. G. Howarth (in litt.) described the Fabrician type of phocion, or what
is remaining of it (one fore- and one hindwing), and stated that this specimen
was from Sierra Leone. It agreed in the important features with material
from the westernmost part of the range and was definitely not the same as
the Cameroun-Gabon subspecies, thereby tending to confirm the conclusion
that it indeed came from Sierra Leone. The other name available for phoclon,
phocaeus Westwood, is unavailable for the Cameroun population, since it was
proposed as a replacement name for phocion (wrongly thought to be pre-
occupied) and therefore must refer to the nominate subspecies.
Ceratrichia maesseni, new species
Figures 29, 30 ( $ ), 31, 32 ( 9 ), 66 ( 8 genitalia)
Male: Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages as in C. argyrosticta (Plotz), but hairs
clothing body clearer yellow, not ochreous. Forewing above rather like that of C. argyrosticta,
but all light markings more restricted and the ochreyellow scaling basad in argyrosticta is
clearer yellow in the present species. Hindwing above as in C. mabirensis Riley, but ground color
of disc clearer yellow, space Cuz-2A dark only basad, dark margin continued intermittently to
tornus and fringes clear yellow, not orange. Forewing below as in C. argyrosticta with clear
yellow (not ochreous) overscaling somewhat reduced. Under surface of hindwing also as in
C. argyrosticta, but ground color clear yellow with reduced black margin and rings around
extradiscal spots. Length of forewing of Holotype cd 14.5 mm., those of the nine male Paratypes
ranging from 14 to 15 mm. averaging 14.3 mm. The male genitalia somewhat resemble those
of C. argyrosticta (Figure 67), but uncus more finely drawn, gnathos well developed and dorsal
distal process of valva rounded, but with a stiff terminal spine.
Female: Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages as in male, but with yellow overscaling
more restricted. Upper surface as in female of C. argyrosticta, but base of forewing with no
yellow or ochreous overscaling, all forewing hyaline spots smaller, hindwing discal patch yellow
(rather than ochreous) and larger, and the fringes yellow, not orange. Under surface differs
from that of C. argvrosticta in same particulars as does that of male. Lengths of forewings
of the eight female Paratypes range from 13 to 16 mm., averaging 14.6 mm.
Described from 20 specimens, 12 males and 8 females, from the Ashanti
Forest Reserve, Ghana.
Holotype 8: GHANA: Konongo (Ashanti Forest Reserve), 7.i.1970 (Th.
Maessen), a genitalia slide no. 2178 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratypes: same locality and collector as Holotype: 35 19 5.i.1970, 38
19 6.i.1970, 1$ 7.i.1970, 29 8.i.1970, 2 49 9.i.1970, 2 18.viii.1970.
The Holotype, nine male and six female Paratypes will be deposited in
the Allyn Museum of Entomology. Two male and two female Paratypes will
be returned to Father Maessen.
This lovely skipper is named for Father Th. Maessen who collected the
The characteristics of the present species are noted in the description.
It seems to be quite local, no specimens having been seen from outside the
Ashanti, whereas the other species in the group occurring in West Africa, C.
argyrosticta, is rather widespread. In any event, C. maesseni appears to be
more closely related to the Central African C. mabirensis (see Evans, 1937:
pl. 4, fig. 55; pl. 19) than to argyrosticta.
Osmodes adon (Mabille)
In my revision of the genus Osmodes (Miller, 1964: 289) I stated that I
did not know 0. adon noda Evans (1951: 1272), but that it was either a dis-
tinct species or simply an individual variant. I had the opportunity to examine
the unique type of noda and its genitalia when I was in London during 1964
after the submission of the Osmodes paper The genitalia of the type agree in
all respects with those of typical adon, and noda is simply an aberration. My
original synonymization of noda is therefore confirmed.
Osmodes banghaasi Holland
Figure 68 ( genitalia)
This species was unknown to me until I had the opportunity to examine
and dissect a specimen at the British Museum (Natural History) in 1964.
As I surmised, 0. banghaasi is nearest 0. costatus Aurivillius, but differs geni-
talically by the somewhat depressed uncus and the expanded proximal part of
the valva. The position of banghaasi in my phylogenetic chart (Miller, 1964:
288; fig. 20) is substantially correct.
Osmodes adonides, new species
Figures 33, 34 ( ), 69 ($ genitalia)
Male: Superficially varies from all other members of its complex (0. adon Mabille, adonia
Evans and maesseni, n. sp.) by the restriction of the tawny central patch of the forewing, not
reaching the base of the anal cell, no tawny but faint overscaling at the base of the forewing
(in all other species a distinct basal patch, often connected to the central one) and by a longer,
narrower black androconial patch along Cu2 of the hindwing. Beneath this species rather like
0. adonia, but tawny of lorewing reduced and ochreous shading of hindwing even less extensive.
Present species large for group: length of forewing of Holotype c 14 mm., that of Paratype or
13.5 mm. (lengths of forewings of other three species seldom exceed 12.5 mm.). The male
genitalia, as shown, somewhat intermediate between those of 0. adon and adonia (Miller, 1964:
figs. 9 and 10, respectively), showing the distal expansion of valva of adonia and restricted
dorsal valval toothing of adon: uncus relatively shorter than in either species.
Described from two males from Gabon.
Holotype $: GABON: Kangw6, Ogov6 R., no date (A. C. Good); ex
Holland collection; S genitalia slide no. 1970 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratype : GABON: Ogove River, no further data, ex Holland collection.
Holotype and Paratype are in collection of Carnegie Museum.
The large size and the characters enumerated in the description serve
to distinguish the present species within the adon-adonia group.
Osmodes maesseni, new species
Figures 35, 36 ( 3), 37, 38 ( 9 ), 70 ( S genitalia)
Male: Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages as in other members of the group. Upper
surface of forewing rather like that of 0. adon, but tawny central patch brighter, subbasal patch
smaller (more like that of 0. adonia) and dark margin not produced basad in Cuz-2A. Hindwing
above as in adon, but androconial patch is deep reddish-brown, not black as in other members
of group. Beneath as in adon, but with extensive forewing costal and apical ochreous shading,
larger yellow extradiscal hindwing patch and larger white hindwing discal spots. Length of
forewing of Holotype d 12 mm., those of the five male Paratvpes ranging from 11 to 12.5 mm.,
averaging 11.8 mm. Male genitalia are characterized in the adon complex by the straight ventral
margin of the valva; the dorsal toothing of valva somewhat variable.
Female: Differs chiefly from the female of 0. adon by the broader extradiscal shading of
the hindwing below. Length of forewing of the one female Paratype is 13 mm.
Described from seven specimens, six males and a single female, from
Holotype : GHANA: Likpe, 3.xii.1969 (Th. Maessen).
Paratypes: same locality and collector as Holotype: 1 8 21.i.1968, 1 $ 1.xii.
1968, 18 13.iii.1969, 18 31.iii.1969, 1 17.ix.1969, 19 8.viii.1970.
The Holotype and three male Paratypes will be placed in the Allyn Mu-
seum of Entomology. Two male and the female Paratypes will be returned
to Father Maessen.
It is with great pleasure that I name this beautiful skipper for Father
Th. Maessen who collected the type series and whose work has resulted in
so much information about the Hesperiidae of Ghana coming to light.
0. maesseni is distinctive genitalically, and the male can be immediately
identified by the deep reddish-brown, not black, androconial patch on the hind-
Osmodes lindseyi occidentalis, new subspecies
Figures 39, 40 ( 8 ) 41, 42 ( 9 )
Male: Differs from the nominate subspecies on the upper side in the somewhat darker
forewing costa, the larger tawny forewing apical patch (often contiguous with the central patch)
and concomitantly narrower black bar delimiting the apical patch posteriad, as well as a blunter
indentation of hindwing marginal band along Cuz in most specimens. Under surface as in
0. 1. lindseyi Miller, differing chiefly in the larger pale forewing subapical patch and the
somewhat more extensive ochreous shading of the hindwing. Length of forewing of Holotype d
12.5 mm., those of the sixteen male Paratypes ranging from 11 to 13.5 mm., averaging 12.4 mm.
The male genitalia are identical to those of nominate lindseyi (Miller, 1965: fig. 13).
Female: Differs from the female of 0. 1. lindseyi in the larger forewing apical tawny patch
(usually encompassing three, occasionally four, cells from R3-R4 to Mi-Ma), somewhat larger
forewing tawny central patch above and more extensive tawny overscaling on under surface
of hindwing. Lengths of forewings of the 15 female Paratypes ranging from 12.4 to 14.5 mm.,
averaging 13.3 mm.
Described from 37 specimens, 21 males and 16 females, from Ghana and
Holotype : GHANA: Likpe, 22.vii.1969 (Th. Maessen).
Paratypes: same locality and collector as Holotype: 1 14.iv.1969, 1 16.-
iv.1969, 1 19.iv.1969, 19 25.iv.1969, 1 8.vii.1969, 1 22.vii.1969, 19 29.ix.-
1969, 19 2.x.1969, 19 4.x.1969, 18 29.x.1969, 13 21.xi.1969, 13 12.x.1970,
33 22.x.1970, 1.9 31.x.1970; GHANA: Boti Falls: 58 39 19.ii.1968, 13 19.i.-
1969, 18 19.iii.1969 (all Th. Maessen); Ewli Falls: 29 8.i.1969, 19 29.xii.1969
(Th. Maessen); Hohoe: 13 6.ii.1968 (Th. Maessen); Lolobi: 19 28.xi.1967
(Th. Maessen); Koforidua: 19 12.i.1967 (Th. Maessen); Kuburautumi: 19
16.xi.1969 (Th. Maessen); Konongo (Ashanti Forest Reserve): 18 16.iii.1970
(Th. Maessen); LIBERIA: Wanau Forest Reserve: 13 16.iii.1958 (R. M.
Fox); "Liberia": 19, no further data (Good).
The Holotype, 14 male and 11 female Paratypes will be placed in the
Allyn Museum of Entomology. Two male and two female Paratypes are to
be placed in Carnegie Musuem. Four male and three female Paratypes will
be returned to Father Maessen.
The long Maessen series from Ghana ties in with a pair of specimens from
Liberia that were not originally included in the type series of 0. 1. lindseyi and
were mentioned as being aberrant (Miller, 1964: 292; Lindsey and Miller,
1965: 99). These, as suspected, represented an unnamed Occidental African
subspecies, and the series from Ghana has made naming it practicable.
Meza cybeutes volta, new subspecies
Figures 43, 44 ( 3), 45, 46 (9 )
Male-female: On upper side resembles closely the nominate subspecies, but with forewing
cell spots much larger and approximate to contiguous, forewing hyaline spot in Ms-Cui and
especially shining white spot in Cu2-2A much larger and spots in hindwing cell and spaces M3-Cul
and Cut-Cuz likewise enlarged. Forewing below differing from that of M. c. cybeutes (Holland)
in sizes of pale spots as above and by costa not being strongly laved with olive. Hindwing
below with more prominent white and hyaline markings and less strongly overscaled with olive
than in nominate subspecies. Length of forewing of Holotype 16 mm., those of the two male
Paratypes 15 and 15.5 mm., those of the female Paratypes range from 16 to 18 mm. Male
genitalia as in nominate cybeutes.
Described from seven specimens, three males and four females, from Ghana.
Holotype 8: GHANA: Likpe, 4.xii.1969 (Th. Maessen).
Paratypes: same locality and collector as Holotype: 18 13.ii.1969, 19
1.iv.1969, 1 7.iv.1969, 19 25.iv.1969, 19 5.iii.1970; Hohoe: 13 1.ii.1968 (Th.
The Holotype, one male and three female Paratypes will be placed in the
Allyn Museum of Entomology. One male and one female Paratypes will be
returned to Father Maessen.
M. cybeutes volta, herein described from the Volta region of Ghana, is
characterized by the greater extent of the hyaline and white markings on both
surfaces, especially as regards those in forewing space Cu2-2A and the hindwing
cell spot. Though I have not seen the specimens, it is entirely possible that
the four Sierra Leone specimens that Evans (1937: 127) cites may refer to
the present subspecies; if so, volta would be the Occidental African insect with
the nominate subspecies restricted to Cameroun, Gabon and the northern
Congo, from whence I have seen specimens (Lindsey and Miller, 1965: 109),
and the subspecies pallida (Holland) to eastern Congo and Uganda. I figure
the nominate subspecies in Figures 47 and 48 () 71 (3 genitalia) for com-
Gretna balenge zowa Lindsey and Miller
This recently described subspecies (Lindsey and Miller, 1965: 119-121)
was considered a rarity, but Father Maessen has sent several pairs of this
large skipper to us and states that it is not uncommon around the town of An-
foega. They are indistinguishable from Liberian material, but definitely differ-
ent from Nigerian and Cameroun material I have seen. This supports the
supposition made in the original description that the specimen from Ivory
Coast mentioned by Berger (1962: 458) belongs to zowa.
Caenides stoehri (Karsch)
Figures 49, 50 ( ), 72 ( genitalia)
The figured male of this species is the only specimen taken by Father
Maessen in his many years in Ghana (Likpe, 15.xi.1969). It comes from only
a short distance from the type-locality (Karsch, 1893). This specimen agrees
in the main with Karsch's figure (1893: pl. 6, fig. 6) which Holland (1896:
88-89) said was a damaged specimen. The chief differences between the pres-
ent specimen and the figure of the type are a ferruginous shade at the base of
the forewing costa above and a yellow shade at the base of the forewing costa
below, in both instances agreeing with C. volta (Evans, 1937: 156; pl. 6, fig.
92), described from a single Ghanaian female. Evans' type, however, has
the antennae ochreous above and below (they are white in the present
specimen) and more extensive basal yellow markings on the under sur-
face of the hindwing: were it not for these rather fundamental dif-
ferences (and Father Maessen's assurances that volta is a very different in-
sect!), I should be tempted to synonymize C. volta to the present skipper.
Evans' (1937: 154) key characteristic separating C. stoehri and volta, the rela-
tive position of hindwing spots in M'-M3, is not reliable if one considers the
figure of the type and the agreeing Maessen specimen. The genitalic figures
in Evans (1937: pl. 26) and Lindsey and Miller (1965: 130; fig. 108) are com-
parable to one another and quite different from the true stoehri figured here.
It appears, then, that what has masqueraded in collections as "stoehri" is not
that, but C. meloui Riley, the type of which came from Ivory Coast. The
description of "stoehri" in Evans refers to and agrees entirely with Riley's
(1926: 50) meloui in fact, insofar as I can ascertain all specimens in Car-
negie and the British Museum (Natural History) are meloui, not stoehri.
Regrettably, the photographs and the genitalic slide are all that remain of
the Maessen specimen: it was almost totally destroyed in transit by small ants
getting into the box while it was at the post office.
Caenides allyni, new species
Figures 51, 52 ( ), 73 ( genitalia)
Male: Head clothed above with ferruginous hairs; palpi ferruginous above, only slightly
paler below. Thorax, abdomen and appendages as in C. stoehri. Forewing above rather like that
of stoehri, but costa bright ferruginous to level of cell spots; outer half of these spots divided,
rather than fused; three subapical spots, of which the one in Rs-M, is twice length of other two;
tawny hyaline spot in Ms-CuI is larger and brand is shorter and less curved along Cut. Hindwing
above differs from that of stoehri in the long tawny extradiscal spot in MI-M2 set marginad of
a series of smaller ones from M2-Ma to Cuz-2A and in the brighter orange fringes. Under side
of forewing differs from that of stoehri in that the costa is ferruginous throughout its length,
the brighter yellow marginal markings from apex to Cut-Cu2, the larger diffuse ochre median
patch in Cuz-2A and in the macular characters cited for upper surface. Hindwing below differs
from that of stoehri by the more vivid yellow markings, the more diffuse basal marking, the
uneven extradiscal series, produced at Mi-M2, and by the submarginal spots being set well in
from margin from Ms-Cut to Cu2-2A. A considerably larger species, length of forewing of
Holotype cf 24.5 mm.. as compared to 19-20 mm. for specimens of stoehri males. The male
genitalia are rather more like those of meloui (see Lindsey and Miller, 1965: 130; fig. 108, as
stoehri) than those of the latter species figured in this paper (Fig. 70), differing from those
of stoehri in the more elongate spiny gnathos and the longer, free dorsal distal process of the
Described from a single specimen from Katanga.
Holotype 8: BELGIAN CONGO: KATANGA: Kafakumba, ii. 1931
(ex collection E. LeMoult); a genitalia slide no. 2186 (Lee D. Miller). This
specimen will be placed in the collection of the Allyn Museum of Entomology.
I take great pleasure in naming this beautiful skipper for Mr. A. C. Allyn
in recognition of his contributions to lepidopterology.
C. allyni is characterized in the description and is a member of a constel-
lation of species, none of which is common. Apparently the group is basically
West African, but the present species is found south of the normal range for
the group and C. halma (Evans), which may be a subspecies of meloui, is the
eastern representative. A reworking of that part of Evans' (1937: 154) key
dealing with "C. stoehri" and "C. volta" to conform with the ideas expressed
above is as follows:
(a') Forewing above with 4 subapical spots .. ....... halma
(bl) Forewing above with 2 3 subapical spots.
(a2) Hindwing below with yellow discal
spots in spaces 4 5 in line with others.
(a3) Antennae white above ........._ stoehri
(b3) Antennae ochreous above ...........- volta
(b2) Hindwing below with yellow discal spots
irregular, those in spaces 4 5 produced
(a3) Three forewing subapical spots,
valval process long and free --...-.... allyni
(b3) Two or three forewing subapical
spots, valval process not free,
only as high as dorsal margin of
valva. ... ........... ........-- meloui
Fresna maesseni, new species
Figures 53, 54 ( s ), 55, 56 ( 9 ), 74 ( genitalia)
Male: Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages as in F. netopha (Hewitson), but pale
ventral hairs not tinged with yellow in present species and tegulae and patagia duller fulvous.
Forewing longer that that of netopha and differing above in presence of three subapical dots.
larger and coalesced cell spots and a subquadrate (not triangular) median spot in Cuz-2A which
is pure white, not yellowed. Hindwing above with two extradiscal white spots in Ms-CuI and
Cut-Cuz (latter more than twice size of former; these spots subequal in netopha) and a more
pronounced median pale shade from Cuz-2A to near inner margin than in netopha. Forewing
below much as in netopha, but costal and apical shading more restricted and grayish-yellow (not
pure yellow), cell spots approximate and median spot in Cuz-2A larger, but more diffuse. Hind-
wing below cream-colored (clear yellow in netopha) with basal black dots well developed in
Sc+R,-Rs (totally absent in netopha), Rs-Mi, base of cell and Cu2-2A and no black spot at
end of cell (very prominent in netopha and all other described Fresna); extradiscal area strongly
overlaid with black scaling with extradiscal spots from Rs-Mt through Cu2-2A (latter spot largest
in present species, anterior one largest in netopha), spotband not diverted basad anteriorly as in
netopha, and all black spots connected to outer margin by thick interneural gray-black bars;
tornus more strongly gray than in netopha. Length of forewing of Holotype cr 16 mm., that of
the one male Paratype 15.5 mm. Male genitalia near those of netopha, but valva more strongly
toothed distad and on inner face and juxta spinier distad.
Female: Differs from that of netopha in same particulars as does male. All pale markings
of upper side larger than in male, so that forewing cell spots contiguous, a condition never noted
in netopha. Markings of under surface as in male, but forewing cell spots again contiguous.
Length of forewing of the female Paratype 18 mm.
Described from three specimens, two males and a female, from Likpe,
Holotype 3: GHANA: Likpe, 2.iv.1970 (Th. Maessen); 8 genitalia
slide no. 2164 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratypes: same locality and collector as Holotype: 19 17.i.1969, 1
The Holotype will be deposited in the Allyn Museum of Entomology col-
lection. Both Paratypes will be returned to Father Maessen.
This skipper is also named for Father Th. Maessen who discovered it in
his collecting of the Volta region.
F. maesseni was reported by me to be an aberrant specimen of F. netopha
when Father Maessen sent me the female for determination. Later, he told
me that he had taken a couple of identical males, and when I had the oppor-
tunity to examine the genitalia it became apparent that this was a separate
undescribed species. The characteristics separating it from netopha, its nearest
relative, are detailed in the description. One that is immediately apparent is
the difference in size: males of netopha have forewing lengths of less than 15
mm., and those of females are less than 17 mm. Thus far F. maesseni has
been collected only near Likpe, Ghana, and even there it is much less common
than is netopha. Comparative figures of netopha are given in Figures 57, 58
(3) and 75 (3 genitalia).
Aurivillius, C., 1925. Family Hesperiidae. in Seitz, A., 1908-1925. The Macro-
lepidoptera of the world. 13: 505-588; ill.
Berger, L. A., 1962. L6pidoptBres Hesperiidae de Guin6e et Cote d'Ivoire.
Bull. Inst. francais d'Afrique Noire, (A) 24(2): 447-463.
Evans, W. H., 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae . London, Trus-
tees British Mus. (Nat. Hist.): 212 pp.; ill.
..-. .. ....., 1951. Revisional notes on the African Hesperiidae. Ann. Mag.
Nat. Hist., (12)2: 1268-1272; ill.
Holland, W. J., 1896 A preliminary revision and synonymic catalogue of the
Hesperiidae of Africa . new species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1896:
Karsch, F., 1893. Die Inseckten des Berglandschaft Adeli im Hinterlande von
Togo (Westafrika). Berliner Ent. Zeitschr., 38: 167-266; ill.
Lindsey, A. W., and L. D. Miller, 1965. Family Hesperiidae. in Fox, R. M.,
et al., The butterflies of Liberia. Mem. American Ent. Soc., (19): 47-
Mabille, P., and Vuillot, 1890-1893. Novitates Lepidopterologicae. Paris: 161
Miller, L. D., 1964. A review of the genus Osmodes Holland (Lepidoptera:
Hesperiidae). Trans. American Ent. Soc., 89: 277-304; ill.
Riley, N. D., 1926. List of Hesperiidae in the Tring Museum collected on the
Ivory Coast by G. Melou. Novitates Zool., 33: 49-52.
Figures 1-16, African Hesperiidae: Eagris, Celaenorrhinus and Abantis.
Unless otherwise indicated, all specimens are from the Allyn collection. 1-2,
Eagris hereus hereus (H. Druce), a upper (1) and under (2) surfaces; CAM-
EROUN: Batanga (Carnegie Museum). 3-4, E. h. hereus, 9 upper (3) and
under (4) surfaces; "Bule Country" (Carnegie Museum). 5-6, E. hereus qua-
terna (Mabille), 8 upper (5) and under (6) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe. 7-8,
E. h. quaterna, 9 upper (7) and under (8) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe. 9-10,
Celaenorrhinus illustroides, new species, Holotype 8 upper (9) and under (10)
surfaces; FRENCH CONGO: Etoumbi. 11-12, C. beni jacquelinae, new sub-
species, Holotype 8 upper (11) and under (12) surfaces; FRENCH CONGO:
Etoumbi. 13-14, Abantis lucretia lucretia, 3 upper (13) and under (14) sur-
faces; GHANA: Lolobi. 15-16, A. 1. etoumbiensis, new subspecies, Holotype
S upper (15) and under (16) surfaces; FRENCH CONGO: Etoumbi.
Figures 17-32, African Hesperiidae: Abantis and Ceratrichia. Unless other-
wise indicated, all specimens are from the Allyn collection. 17-18, Abantis
venosa Trimen, $ upper (17) and under (18) surfaces; BELGIAN CONGO:
KATANGA: Kafakumba. 19-20, A. vidua Weymer, 3 upper (19) and under
(20) surfaces; BELGIAN CONGO: KATANGA: Kafakumba. 21-22, A. ele-
gantula (Mabille), 5 upper (21) and under (22) surfaces; GHANA: Hohoe
(Th. Maessen collection). 23-24, A. maesseni. new species, Holotype S upper
(23) and under (24) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe. 25-26, Ceratrichia phocion
camerona. new subspecies, Holotype 8 upper (25) and under (26) surfaces;
CAMEROUN: Lolodorf (Carnegie Museum). 27-28, C. p. camerona, Paratype
9 upper (27) and under (28) surfaces; CAMEROUN: Lolodorf. 29-30, C.
naesseni, new species, Holotype a upper (29) and under (30) surfaces;
GHANA: Konongo, Ashanti Forest Reserve. 31-32, C. maesseni, Paratype 9
upper (31) and under (32) surfaces; GHANA: Konongo, Ashanti Forest
\\I / /
45 W '- 46 47 qIPW 'WW 48
Figures 33-48, African Hesperiidae: Osmodes and Meza. Unless otherwise
indicated, all specimens are from the Allyn collection. 33-34, Osmodes adon-
ides, new species, Holotype 8 upper (33) and under (34) surfaces; GABON:
KangwB, Ogov6 R. (Carnegie Museum). 35-36, 0. maesseni. new species, Holo-
type 6 upper (35) and under (36) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe. 37-38, 0.
maesseni, Paratype 9 upper (37) and under (38) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe
(Th. Maessen collection). 39-40, 0. lindseyi occidentalis, new subspecies,
Holotype 8 upper (39) and under (40) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe. 41-42, 0.
1. occidentalis, Paratype 9 upper (41) and under (42) surfaces; GHANA:
Boti Falls. 43-44, Meza cybeutes volta, new subspecies, Holotype 8 upper
(43) and under (44) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe. 45-46, M. c. volta, Paratype
9 upper (45) and under (46) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe (Th. Maessen collec-
tion). 47-48, M. c. cybeutes (Holland), $ upper (47) and under (48) surfaces;
"Bule Country" (Carnegie Museum).
Figures 49-58, African Hesperiidae: Caenides and Fresna. Unless other-
wise indicated, all specimens are from the Allyn collection. 49-50, Caenides
stoehri (Karsch), $ upper (49) and under (50) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe
(Th. Maessen collection). 51-52, C. allyni. new species, Holotype a upper
(51) and under surfaces; BELGIAN CONGO: KATANGA: Kafakumba. 53-54,
Fresna maesseni, new species, Holotype $ upper (53) and under (54) surfaces;
GHANA: Likpe. 55-56, F. maesseni. Paratype 9 upper (55) and under (56)
surfaces; GHANA: Likpe (Th. Maessen collection). 57-58, F. netopha (Hewit-
son), 8 upper (57) and under (58) surfaces; GHANA: Likpe.
Figures 59-64, 8 genitalia of African Hesperiidae. All slides are Lee D.
Miller numbers, and unless otherwise indicated are contained in the Allyn
collection. 59, Celaenorrhinus illustroides, new species, Holotype (Slide 2184).
60, C. beni jacquelinae, new subspecies, Holotype (Slide 2185). 61, Abantis
lucretia etoumbiensis, new subspecies, Holotype (Slide 2169). 62, A. venosa
Trimen (Slide 2167); S. RHODESIA: Umtali. 63, A. vidua Weymer (Slide
2168); BELG. CONGO: KATANGA: Kafakumba. 64, A. elegantula (Mabille)
(Slide 1703); GHANA: Hohoe (Th. Maessen collection).
Figures 65-70, $ genitalia of African Hesperiidae. All slides are Lee D. Mil-
ler numbers and unless otherwise indicated are contained in the Allyn collection.
65, Abantis maesseni, new species, Holotype (Slide 2170). 66, Ceratrichia
maesseni, new species, Holotype (Slide 2178). 67, C. argyrosticta (Pl6tz) (Slide
2179); GHANA: Kuburuatumi. 68, Osmodes banghaasi Holland (Slide 553);
UGANDA: L. Entebbe (British Museum). 69 0. adonides, new species, Holo-
type (Slide 1970, Carnegie Museum). 70, inaesseni, new species, Holotype
Figures 71-75, 8 genitalia of African Hesperiidae. All slides are Lee D.
Miller numbers and unless otherwise indicated are contained in the Allyn
collection. 71, Meza cybeutes cybeutes (Holland) (Slide 1971); "Bule Coun-
try" (Carnegie Museum). 72, Caenides stoehri (Karsch) (Slide 1748);
GHANA: Likpe (Th. Maessen collection). 73, C. allyni, new species, Holotype
(Slide 2186). 74, Fresna maesseni, new species, Holotype (Slide 2164). 75,
Fresna netopha (Hewitson) (Slide 1812); GHANA: Anfoega.