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BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number I 19 Nov. 1971
TWO NEW CHARAXINAE FROM PANAMA AND THE
CANAL ZONE NYMPHALIDAEE)
LEE D. MILLER
Curator, Allyn Museum of Entomology
S. S. NICOLAY
1500 Wakefield Drive, Virginia Beach, Virginia, and
Research Associate, Allyn Museum of Entomology
The Canal Zone and nearby parts of Panama are among the best coll-
ected areas of Central America, so it is very surprising to find new species
and/or subspecies there in such well-known genera as Agrias and Anaea.
Nevertheless, the recent collecting activities of Messrs. Gordon B. Small and
H. L. King have uncovered a new subspecies of the former genus that has
escaped detection for many years within the confines of the Canal Zone and a
new species of Anaea from the provinces of Panama and Chiriqui (one speci-
men also from the Canal Zone). Both insects are striking members of their
respective genera, and both are represented in sufficient series to warrant
Agrias zenodorus small, new subspecies
Plate I, top figures ( Holotype), bottom figures (9 Paratype)
Figure 1 ($ genitalia)
Male: Head blackish-brown above with white dots before and behind antennal sockets;
blackish-brown below, white posteriad of eyes. Antenna and palpus both black above, white
below. Thorax blackish-brown above, laterally with diagonal stripes of blackish-brown and white,
cream-colored below. Legs black, striped along entire length with white. Abdomen blackish-brown
above and below, intersegmental areas paler below.
Forewing above blackish-brown with a broad median yellow-orange diagonal band extending
from near costa above cell toward tornus and terminating in Cu2-2A, this band being more
tapered posteriad than in other zenodorus subspecies and never occupying as much as half of
fiscal cell, entering cell at origin of R1 from anterior end and nearer origin of Cui than that
of CU2 from posterior side; apical spots diffuse and whitish, curving around apex from R4-R5
to M2-M3, these spots not so obscured as in other zenodorus subspecies. Hindwing above
blackish-brown, white along costa, with a shining blue patch outside discal cell from just into
Mi-M2 to Cu2-2A, this patch being restricted distally in its anterior part, resembling in this
regard Peruvian and Bolivian material more than Colombian and Ecuadorian specimens:
androconial hair tuft along 2A yellow in freshly caught specimens, aging to ochreous; fringes of
both wings black, slightly whitened between veins, especially on hindwing.
Forewing below blackish-brown with central area of upper surface repeated, but duller and
continued to base of discal cell enclosing two large black (lots in mid-cell; apical cream-yellow
bar better developed than in other zenodorus and extending from near costa to outer margin in
M3-Cul, this band ending before margin in M2-M3 in most other populations; blackish-brown
area between pale central patch and apical band with veins more extensively yellow than in
other subspecies. Hindwing below, as shown on the plate, blackish with cream yellow bands and
a series of blue-white centered black spots halfway between discal cell and margin from
Sc+Ri-Rs to a double one in Cuz-zA, those from Sc.R-i-Rs to MI-M2 being coalesced,
those from Ma-M3 posteriad well separated as in the aberration "amaryllis" Bang-Haas, but
not in other zenodorous; pale band basad of ocelli broader than in most subspecies and
ochreous in fresh specimens, not yellow as in other zenodorus; fringes of both wings black,
only narrowly whitened between veins on forewing.
Length of forewing of Holotype d 37.0 mm., those of the nine d Paratypes ranging
from 34.0 to 39.0 mm., averaging 37.2 mm.
d genitalia similar to those of other zenodorus, but the penis is straighter, suggesting
specific differences, though material at hand is insufficient to make such determination with
Female: Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages as in c". Upper surface of wings as in 6,
but yellow-orange patch of forewing somewhat enlarged distad, forewing whitish apical spots
more prominent and of course no hindwing androconial hair tuft. Under surface as in ', but
forewing pale central patch extended distad, veinal markings between that patch and alical
bar more developed, hindwing extradiscal ocelli more approximate and band proximad of these
ocelli paler ochreous.
Length of forewings of the 139 Paratypes range from 40.0 to 44.5 mm., averaging 43.1 mm.
Described from 23 specimens, ten males and 13 females, from the Canal
Zone and nearby areas in Panama.
Holotype 8: CANAL ZONE: Piia (also listed as "Gatun" on some of
specimens: see note below), 30.vii.1970 (H. L. King); 8 genitalia slide
M-2205 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratypes: Same locality and collector as Holotype, 19 23.v.1970, 19
1.vii.1971, 1 20.vii.1970, 1 28. vii.1970, 1 29.vii.1970, 1 9 30.vii.1970, 1 19
3.viii.1970, 19 15.iv.1971, 19 25.iv.1971, 1 27.iv.1971, 1 6.v.1971; Madden
Forest Preserve, 19 5.viii.1969, 18 19 19.viii.1969, 1 15.vii.1970 (all G. B.
Small); Gatun (see note above), 19 13.viii.1970, 18 22.vi.1971 (both G. B.
Small); PANAMA: PANAMA: Cerro Campana, ca. 2500 ft., 19 15.viii.1970
(H. L. King), 18 6.ix.1970 (G. B. Small); Cerro Jefe, 2500 ft., 19 6.iv.1971,
19 22.v.1971 (both G. B. Small).
The type-locality appears to be somewhat confused since specimens from
the same place are labelled two ways in collections. The specific locality lies
very near the town of Piffa, Panama, but it is in the Canal Zone: there is no
such actual locality as Piia, Canal Zone. The locality is quite distant from
Gatun, the nearest town in the Canal Zone, so really no present designation
of this type locality is entirely satisfactory. Perhaps the best designation would
be "CANAL ZONE: near town of PiiTa, PANAMA", but this, too, is awkward
and could ultimately cause confusion.
The Holotype, two male and three female Paratypes will be deposited
in the Allyn Museum of Entomology; one male and one female Paratypes
will be placed in the collection of S. S. Nicolay, four male and five female
Paratypes will be placed in the collection of H. L. King and two male and
four female Paratypes will be place in the collection of G. B. Small.
We take great pleasure in naming this distinctive element of the Pana-
manian fauna for Gordon B. Small in recognition of his work on the butter-
flies of that area. Ironically Mr. Small took the first specimen of this species
very near the spot where he earlier was bitten by a bushmaster, one of the
most dreaded snakes in the world. Indeed, things and events tend to com-
pensate themselves, though seldom with such rapidity!
This subspecies is distinguished from others within zenodorus by the
combination of the restricted orange-yellow forewing patch, the obsolescent
forewing apical spots, the restricted blue hindwing patch above (this patch
where reduced in other zenodorus is not restricted basad, but is more uni-
formly reduced) and the separate hindwing ocelli bordered distad with
ochreous, rather than yellow, on the under surface. In view of the rather
remarkable variability of these butterflies from South American localities, it
is surprising that the type-series of small should be so constant.
According to both Small and King this butterfly is fairly widespread
throughout forested areas of the Canal Zone and nearby Panama province.
In view of the intense collecting in at least the Canal Zone, we are unable to
explain how small could have escaped detection for so long. There is no way
to confuse the present Agrias with the only other one known from the area.
A. aedon Hewitson, a red-banded species on the upper surface and very dif-
ferent on the under side. Mr. King (in litt.) states that aedon is quite a rare
insect in the same area in which small flies, he having taken but two speci-
mens in as many years, yet aedon was known to Godman and Salvin (1884
[1879-1901]: 328; pl. 31, figs. 5, 6) before the turn of the century. Most of
the specimens taken to date have been found in bait traps, so little can be
said concerning the habits of this butterfly. The dates of capture suggest two
broods, one in April and May, the other from late July through mid-August,
Mr. King (in litt.) states that while he and his wife were collecting near
Turrialba, Costa Rica, both independently saw what they felt certain were
specimens of small. but could not capture them. Both have had experience
with this butterfly, and their observations must be considered to strongly
suggest that the present insect is found in at least Costa Rica, as well as
Figures 1 and 2, 8 genitalia of new Charaxinae. 1. Agrias zenodorus
small, new subspecies, genitalia of Holotype S. 2. Anaea kingi, new species,
genitalia of Holotype S.
Plate II. Anaea kingi, new species. Top figures, Holotype 8, upper
side (left) and under side (right); PANAMA: PANAMA: Cerro Campana,
19.viii.1970 (H. L. King). Bottom figures, Paratype 9, upper side (left)
and under side (right): CANAL ZONE: Pilfa, 15.iii.1970 (H. L. King).
Plate I. Agrias zenodorus small, new subspecies. Top figures, Holotype
8 upper side (left) and under side (right); CANAL ZONE: Pina, 30.vii.1970
(H. L. King). Bottom figures, Paratype 9, upper side (left) and under side
(right; CANAL ZONE: Piffa, 30.vii.1970 (H. L. King).
Anaea kingi, new species
Plate II, top figures ( Holotype), bottom figures (9 Paratype)
Figure 2 ( genitalia)
Mal': Head and palpus black above, black dusted with white scales below, giving a
grizzled appearance. Antenna black, eyes brown. Thorax black with blue-black hairs above and
brownish-red below. Legs black powdered with while. Abdomen black clothed with blue-black
scales above, dark gray ones below.
Forewing above black, basal third strongly iridescent blue, outer quarter less well pro-
nounced iridescent blue-black, always with three large steel-blue apical spots in Rs-MI. MI-M2
and MZ-M3 (occasionally less well-defined submarginal spots in M3-Cui. Cui-Cua and Cu2-2A).
Hindwing above black with blue-black iridescence throughout, with steel-blue poorly defined
marginal area and submarginal spots from M1-M2 to (Cu2-2A (occasionally coalesced with
marginal area into a rather broad marginal patch). Fringes black. Upper surface rather closely
resembles that of the Mexican A. proserpina .Salvinm, but apical spots larger and more
prominent, thereby resembling more the Costa Rican A. elara Godman and Salvin, from which
the present insect may be distinguished by the broader hindwing marginal band. As in both of
the other species, the o" of kingi is tailless.
Under surface deep rich reddish-brown with some violet shading and strongly scrawled
with white as shown in figure. Fringes brown. On the under surface this species resembles
clara. but is redder, and it is much more heavily scrawled with white than is the d of proserpina.
Length of forewing of Holotype d 34.0 mm., those of the 30 C Paralypes ranging from
310.0 to 37.0 mm., averaging 34.7 mm.
K( genitalia as figured, differing from those of proserpina chiefly in the longer valvae
without prominent terminal projection, as well as the straighter uncus. The genitalia are also
similar to those of elara. but differing in minor respects.
Female: Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages as in o, but dorsal hairs of thorax
and abdomen of a paler blue.
Upper surface of forewing black, basal two-fifths with bright turquoise iridesence, with
the same three apical spots as in present and turquoise, as well occasionally one to three
poorly developed submarginal turquoise spots in spaces M2-M3 to Cu--Cu2. Hindwing above
black, dark grayish-brown in anal cells, basal half brightly iridescent turquoise, with marginal
turquoise dusting and a series of poorly-developed marginal spots of the same color. The 9
of the present species bears little resemblance to that of elara (Comstock, 196 : pi. 21, fig. 7).
but is quite similar to the 9 of proserpina (Comstock. 1961: pl. 21, fig. 3), differing in the
blue areas being turquoise, not violaceous. As in the two species above, the 9 of king is tailed.
Under surface rich reddish-brown, not as intense as in cK, with violet shading and
while scrawling as in e, but heavier at base than in c, and with grayish patch at base of
tail extending out onto tail and enclosing large black spot at base of tail in M3-CuI. The
under surface bears no close resemblance to that of proserpina. the black markings of that
species being obsolescent in the present one, but kingi is rather like elara below, though lacking
the black markings in the cells of both wings which characterize the latter species.
Lengths of forewings of the 27 9 Paratypes range from 33.0 (only one specimen with a
forewing length of less than 40.0 mm.) to 43.0 mm., averaging 41.3 mm.
Described from 58 specimens, 31 males and 26 females from Panama
and Chiriqui provinces. Panama. and one female from the Canal Zone.
Holotype 8: PANAMA: PANAMA: Cerro Campana, ca. 2500 ft., 19.viii.
1970 (H. L. King); 8 genitalia slide M-2201 (Lee D. Miller).
Paratypes: Same locality and collector as Holotypes: 1 9 14.viii.1970; 28
19 15.viii.1970; 58 39 16.viii.1970; 28 69 18.viii.1970, 68 29 19.viii.1970,
39 20.v.1971; same locality as Holotype: 18 30.vii.1963, 29 4.viii.1963, 19 5.
viii.1963, 1 7.viii.1963, 1$ 10.viii.1963, 1 22.viii.1963, 1 23.viii.1963, 1
26.viii.1963, 19 29.viii.1963, 28 29 30.viii.1963, 1 5.ix.1966, 2 11l.ix.1966,
19 16.ix.1966, 15 19 17.ix.1966, 1L 16.ix.1967. 1 9.viii.1970, 18 19 5.ix.1970
(all G. B. Small); CHIRIQUI: La Mesa, El Valle, 19 28.viii.1970 (H. L.
King); CANAL ZONE: Piia, 19 15.iii.1970 (H. L. King).
The Holotype, 12 male and 13 female Paratypes will be placed in the
Allyn Museum of Entomology, four male and three female Paratypes will
be placed in the collection of S. S. Nicolay, ten male and seven female
Paratypes will be placed in the collection of G. B. Small and five male and
four female Paratypes will be placed in the collection of H. L. King.
It is our pleasure to name this beautiful Anaea for our friend and
colleague Mr. H. L. (Verne) King, a Research Associate of this Museum,
as well as with the Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida, who
collected a large part of the type-series and has generally added greatly
to work on Paramanian butterflies.
Anaea kingi is a member of the polycarmes group of the subgenus
Memphis. as defined by Comstock (1961), and is particularly closely related
to A. proserpina and elara. but differing as stated in the description. The
present species has been confused most frequently with proserpina, and judg-
ing by its apparent abundance, probably is masquerading in collections as
that species. Comstock (1961: 119) places A. schausiana Godman and Salvin
from Veracruz, Mexico, between proserpina and elara, but it appears that the
latter two species are more closely related to one another than to schausiana.
and kingi appears to fall into the intermediate position between elara and
proserpina. The genitalic differences cited in the description seem to place kingi
as a full species separate from proserpina, with which kingi would seem con-
specific on superficial grounds alone.
This species is another one of the forest, and most of the specimens have
been taken in bait traps. Little else can he said concerning its habitat and
ecological requirements. The butterfly appears to be very common where it is
found, and most of the records are from August and September, though
Small (in litt.) tells us that they are found throughout the year.
We would like to take this opportunity to thank Messrs. King and Small
for the material on which the descriptions are based and for field notes on
the occurrence of these fine butterflies. We al3o thank A. C. Allyn for the
photographs of the types.
Comstock, W. P., 1961. Butterflies of the American Tropics. The genus
Anaea. Lepidoptera Nymphalidae. New York. American Mus. Natl. Hist.:
v-xiii + 214 pp.; ill.
Godman, F. D., and O. Salvin, 1879-1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. In-
secta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London, 3 vols.