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Title: Growing soybeans in a new era
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Title: Growing soybeans in a new era
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Wright, D. L.
Publisher: Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
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Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








UNIVERSITY OF

SFLORIDA

Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Growing Soybeans in a New Era'

D. L. Wright, D. L. Colvin and R. D. Barnett2


This year (1996) looks very favorable for soybean
producers in the U.S. and Florida. Current market
prices are well above the prices in the 1980s and early
1990s, and carryover is the lowest since WWII. The
high demand for soybeans and low carryover should
result in very favorable prices for the next couple of
years. High prices for corn and cotton should keep
the acreage of soybeans from expanding very much in
the U.S. Acreage is expected to be in the 62 million
acre range, which is down from last year. However,
acreage in Florida and the Southeast is expected to
increase substantially. Prices have been in the $6.75
to $7.15 range and are expected to rise some as the
season continues, especially if there is a weather
scare.

The supply of soybean seeds is very limited for
Maturity Group (MG) VII and VIII. The Deep
South is the only place in the U.S. that normally
grows these later maturing soybeans. Some of the
best varieties in maturity group V and VI are also in
short supply. There are some adapted MG IV
varieties that can be planted at an earlier planting
date than normal (April 20 May 15) and will be
ready to harvest by mid-September. The varieties of
MG IV that have performed well in this system are:
Asgrow 4744, DP 3478, HY 478, DP 3456, NKS 48-84
and Pioneer 9481. These varieties must be harvested
at maturity to avoid seed quality problems and
reduced yields.


The biotechnology era in soybean production is
just beginning with varieties that are resistant to
damage by the herbicide glyphosate, or Roundup.
Hence, these varieties are called Roundup Ready by
the developer. The Roundup Ready (RR)
TL hn[li 1Vy from Monsanto was approved for use in
late 1995 and is the first for soybeans. Companies
have spent millions of dollars in bringing this kind of
technology to market. Monsanto has set a technology
fee of about $5.00/bag for use of this technology in
soybeans. Likewise, RR seed from companies will
also be sold for a premium at a price similar to any of
their elite brands. Prices of $25.00/bag have been
quoted for the 1996 season including the technology
fee. Yields from the RR varieties must be
comparable to standard varieties, and data from the
Quincy location shows that to be the case.

This technology will be marketed from the
standpoint that no residual herbicides will be needed
as supplementation. Data from Quincy and Jay shows
that two or at the most three applications of Roundup
at 1 pt/A will be required to control weeds in
soybeans. These applications should be made when
a flush of weeds appear and reach 3 to 5 inches in
height. Wide rows (30 to 36 inches) may require
three applications of 1 pt/A, while narrow or drilled
rows may require only two applications. Most
Midwest growers may find that one Roundup
application will be sufficient for excellent weed


1. This document is SS-AGR-26, a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida. Printed April 1996.
2. D. L. Wright, professor, North Florida Research and Education Center; D. L. Colvin, associate professor, Agronomy Department; R. D.
Barnett, professor, North Florida Research and Education Center, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named, and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national
origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Stephens, Director


SS-AGR-26







Growing Soybeans in a New Era


control. Our studies in strip-tilled soybeans show no
yield increases from addition of residual herbicides
with Roundup. Weed control programs will depend
upon the weeds present, weed size, and crop rotation.

A general rule of thumb for application rates of
Roundup on RR soybeans is shown in Table 1. All
RR soybean varieties developed must tolerate 64 oz/A
of Roundup. Roundup may be applied over the top
of soybeans from cracking until harvest, although
most applications should be made early to control
weeds before competition becomes a problem.

There will be three companies providing RR
soybeans in 1996. Asgrow will have 85% of the RR
soybeans offered for sale in 1996 which will be
available mostly in the Midwest. Jacob Hartz will
have three group V, one group VI, and one group
VII variety available in limited supply for Southeast
growers. Pioneer will have four group III varieties
available. Demand will exceed supply by 5 to 10 fold
in 1996. Public varieties will not be excluded from
this technology and may sign marketing agreements
similar to private companies.

It will be required that seed be purchased each
year. When growers buy RR seed, they will sign an
agreement that they will not save their own seed to
replant nor sell to other farmers. Currently, about
30% of all soybeans grown in the U.S. are from "bin
run" or farm-saved seed.

This technology is very exciting to the soybean
industry. In a few years as this technology is
combined with other transgenic characteristics, farm
practices will change dramatically from what is
currently being done. More no-till and conservation
tillage is expected with RR technology because there
will be no reason to cultivate. Delays in controlling
weeds due to weather will result in using slightly
higher rates of Roundup with no detrimental effects
on the soybeans. Many other transgenic
characteristics are expected to be released for farmer
use in the next 10 years for all crops.

Synchrony STS soybeans also are available. The
STS designation means that soybean varieties contain
a proprietary trait that enhances the soybeans natural
tolerance to DuPont soybean sulfonylurea herbicides.


Page 2

Applying Synchrony to non-"STS" soybeans will
result in severe crop injury. This herbicide is
particularly effective on common lambsquarter and
pigweed species.

General production practices for soybeans should
be followed, including soil testing, proper planting
depth (3/4 to 1 1/2 inches) into moist soil, proper
planting date, insect and weed scouting, timely
applications of all fertilizer and pesticides, timely
harvest, and marketing. Soybeans respond to residual
fertility following a small grain crop or a well-
fertilized crop in rotation with soybeans. Since
soybean acreage has been low for a number of years,
soybeans should be inoculated with nitrogen-fixing
bacteria at planting if soybeans have not been grown
for three years or longer in these fields.

Determinate soybeans (ones currently grown
here) are photoperiod-sensitive. Because of this, the
recommended planting date in Florida is May 15 to
June 15. Planting normal varieties too early or too
late results in shorter plants and a reduction in yield.
It is normally better to plant a little early than late
because summer rains would favor early plantings
while late-planted soybeans still are filling pods in the
normally dry month of October.

Research in Florida has shown a yield advantage
to in-row subsoiling. However, if land is planted
conventionally, deep turning and chiseling results in
similar yields if soil is not recompacted by several
trips over the field with harrows and field cultivators.
Many farmers have switched to strip tillage which is
no-till plus in-row subsoiling. This has been a highly
successful method for planting soybeans with yields
equal to conventional plantings. Herbicide programs
are usually altered in strip tillage to pre-emergence or
over the top, and directed sprays. However, many
growers are using the same herbicide program with
conventional planted soybeans.

Table 2 shows a mid-June and mid-July planting
of soybeans grown in the state variety trial at Quincy.
Table 3 is a summary of yields of two planting dates
of soybeans in the preliminary trial. Roundup Ready
and STS soybeans were tested in this trial along with
other varieties.







Growing Soybeans in a New Era


Page 3


Table 1. Roundup rates on Roundup Ready soybeans.

Weed Size Roundup pt/A

0 6" 1 -1 1/2
6 12" 1 1/2-2
12 -18" 2-3


Table 2. Soybean variety performance for Quincy, FL, planted at two dates in 1995.

Normal Late Average
Brand or planting date' planting date2 across dates
Originating State Entry Yield3 Yield3 Yield4

Bu/A Bu/A Bu/A

MATURITY GROUP IV

Florida F91-3076 38.8 41.3 40.1

MATURITY GROUP V

Florida F91-1419A 49.1 40.4 44.8
Pioneer 9584 46.4 45.8 46.1
Florida F92-1792B 46.2 35.0 40.6
American Cyanamid CB 5691 46.1 42.0 44.1
Hyperformer HY 574 46.0 50.3 48.2
Mississippi Bedford 45.9 39.6 42.8
Pioneer 9593 44.3 35.8 40.1
Mississippi D92-9779 43.9 41.1 42.5
Mississippi D91-9391 43.1 28.9 36.0

MATURITY GROUP VI

South Carolina Dillon 52.8 44.5 48.7
Delta & Pine Land DP 3682 51.8 34.2 43.0
Delta & Pine Land DP 3606 50.6 41.1 45.9
Hyperformer HY 677 49.8 43.0 46.4
Pioneer 9611 49.5 41.6 45.6
Terra International RVS 699 48.8 41.0 44.9
Terra International RVS Cajun 48.7 43.7 46.2
SGA Doles 48.1 40.8 44.5
Mississippi D92-4216 47.9 37.9 42.9
Northrup King S66-90 47.8 41.6 44.7
Mississippi Lyon 46.3 38.3 42.3
Florida F90-5607 45.4 33.4 39.4
Mississippi Vernal 43.2 31.1 37.2
Hyperformer HSC B2J 42.4 44.8 43.6
Mississippi Sharkey 42.1 38.3 40.2







Growing Soybeans in a New Era


Page 4


Table 2. Soybean variety performance for Quincy, FL, planted at two dates in 1995.

Normal Late Average
Brand or planting date1 planting date2 across dates
Originating State Entry Yield3 Yield3 Yield4

Bu/A Bu/A Bu/A

MATURITY GROUP VII

SGA Haskell 54.6 52.3 53.5
Pioneer 9761 50.3 48.1 49.2
Hyperformer HY 798 50.3 45.8 48.1
Northrup King S75-55 47.3 53.4 50.4
South Carolina Hagood 47.2 44.1 45.7
Alabama Carver 46.9 50.6 48.8
Delta & Pine Land DP 3733 46.7 42.4 44.6
Terra International RVS 757 45.9 48.5 47.2
Hyperformer HSC 721 42.5 47.1 44.8
Pioneer 9711 42.3 46.3 44.3
Florida F91-3578 42.2 40.5 41.4
Florida F92-1519 41.5 42.8 42.2
Florida F91-2001 40.1 38.4 39.3
Alabama Stonewall 40.1 54.2 47.2
Florida F90-5099 38.8 42.5 40.7

MATURITY GROUP VIII

Georgia Cook 58.8 49.0 53.9
Pioneer 9831 55.3 49.5 52.4
South Carolina SC89-551 54.7 49.8 52.3
Florida Cobb 52.7 50.7 51.7
Florida F91-2161 51.8 39.0 45.4
Northrup King S83-30 50.5 50.6 50.6
South Carolina Perrin 48.0 44.9 46.5
South Carolina Maxcy 47.7 44.2 46.0
Florida F91-2420 46.7 37.4 42.1
Florida F91-2421 45.9 47.4 46.7

Average 46.6 42.6 44.6
LSDoo05 6.4 7.2
CV (%) 7.2 9.1

1Planted 15 June, 1995.
2Planted 10 July, 1995.
3Average of 4 replications.
4Average of 2 locations, 8 replications.
Conducted by R. D. Barnett, A. R. Soffes Blount and V. A. Shepard.







Growing Soybeans in a New Era


Page 5


Table 3. Preliminary soybean variety performance for Quincy, FL, planted at two dates in 1995.

Normal Late Average
Brand or planting date1 planting date2 across dates
Originating State Entry Yield3 Yield3 Yield4

Bu/A Bu/A Bu/A

MATURITY GROUP IV

Northrup King S48-84 33.6 45.2 39.4

MATURITY GROUP V

Northrup King S59-95 48.3 48.2 48.3
Delta & Pine Land DP 3571 45.7 44.8 45.3
Mississippi Bedford 44.3 42.6 43.5

MATURITY GROUP VI

Hartz H6686 RR5 54.2 44.0 49.1
Delta & Pine Land DPX 3640 52.5 49.7 51.1
Delta & Pine Land DPX 3681 47.4 49.4 48.4
Terra International RVS 93-44 46.8 45.6 46.2
Terra International RVS 93-36 45.5 45.3 45.4
SGA Doles 40.7 50.1 45.4

MATURITY GROUP VII

SGA Haskell 55.4 57.2 56.3
Hartz H 7550 RR5 52.3 50.3 51.3
Hartz H7440 51.9 50.8 51.4
M. Kenty DMK 93-9044 45.4 45.7 45.6
M. Kenty DMK 93-9048 39.2 38.2 38.7
M. Kenty DMK 93-9097 38.0 42.1 40.1
M. Kenty DMK 93-9060 37.7 35.1 36.4
M. Kenty DMK 93-9047 31.2 37.8 34.5

MATURITY GROUP VIII

Florida Cobb 50.8 41.0 45.9
Georgia Cook 50.1 49.9 50.0

Average 45.5 45.6 45.6
LSDoo05 4.6 5.9
CV (%) 7.2 9.1

1Planted 15 June, 1995.
2Planted 10 July, 1995.
3Average of 4 replications.
4Average of 2 locations, 8 replications.
Roundup Ready.
Conducted by R. D. Barnett, A. R. Soffes Blount and V. A. Shepard.




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